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1

Attenuation of colitis injury in rats using Garcinia cambogia extract.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic enteropathies that probably result from a dysregulated mucosal immune response. These pathologies are characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leukocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory substances. Current IBD treatment presents limitations in both efficacy and safety that stimulated the search for new active compounds. Garcinia cambogia extract has attracted interest due to its pharmacological properties, including gastroprotective effects. In this study, the antiinflammatory activity of a garcinia extract was assessed in TNBS-induced colitis rats. The results obtained revealed that garcinia administration to colitic rats significantly improved the macroscopic damage and caused substantial reductions in increases in MPO activity, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In addition, garcinia extract treatment was able to reduce PGE(2) and IL-1beta colonic levels. These antiinflammatory actions could be related to a reduction in DNA damage in isolated colonocytes, observed with the comet assay. Finally, garcinia extract caused neither mortality nor toxicity signals after oral administration. As such, the antiinflammatory effects provided by the Garcinia cambogia extract result in an improvement of several parameters analysed in experimental colitis and could provide a source for the search for new antiinflammatory compounds useful in IBD treatment. PMID:18979524

dos Reis, Samara Bonesso; de Oliveira, Caroline Candida; Acedo, Simone Coghetto; Miranda, Daniel Duarte da Conceição; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Pedrazzoli, José; Gambero, Alessandra

2009-03-01

2

DETERMINATION OF (?) HYDROXYCITRIC ACID IN COMMERCIAL SAMPLES OF GARCINIA CAMBOGIA EXTRACT BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ULTRAVIOLET DETECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of organic acids in commercial samples of Garcinia cambogia extracts. The major organic acid in commercially available extracts of Garcinia cambogia has been found to be (-) hydroxycitric acid present to the extent of 51–55%. Tartaric, citric, and malic acids are present in small quantities and have been detected

G. K. Jayaprakasha; K. K. Sakariah

2000-01-01

3

The antiulcer activity of Garcinia cambogia extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.  

PubMed

Garcinia cambogia extract is a herbal preparation that has been suggested as useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study this drug was tested for its antiulcerogenic effect. Oral pretreatment with Garcinia cambogia fruit extract (1 g/kg body wt/day) for 5, 10 or 15 days protected the gastric mucosa against the damage induced by indomethacin (20 mg/kg body wt). The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in the pretreated rats. The glycoprotein levels of the gastric contents which were decreased in the untreated rats, maintained near normal levels in the pretreated rats. Protein which was elevated in the gastric juice of untreated rats, showed near normal levels in the pretreated rats. Garcinia cambogia was able to decrease the acidity and to increase the mucosal defence in the gastric areas, thereby justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. PMID:11807973

Mahendran, P; Vanisree, A J; Shyamala Devi, C S

2002-02-01

4

EVALUATION OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF HYDROXYCITRIC ACID OR GARCINIA CAMBOGIA EXTRACTS IN HUMANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (?)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyses the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA.Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight and

Márquez Fabiola; Babio Nancy; Bulló Mònica; J. Salas-Salvadó

2011-01-01

5

Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Hydroxycitric Acid or Garcinia cambogia Extracts in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight

Fabiola Márquez; Nancy Babio; Mònica Bulló; J. Salas-Salvadó

2012-01-01

6

Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum leptin and insulin in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the effects of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on 10% sucrose loading in mice for 4 weeks. Treatment was found to have no effect on body weight, fat pad weight or serum glucose level. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA were observed. Levels of serum insulin and leptin, as well as the leptin\\/WAT

K Hayamizu; H Hirakawa; D Oikawa; T Nakanishi; T Takagi; T Tachibana; M Furuse

2003-01-01

7

Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

(?) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants

Kohsuke Hayamizu; Hironori Tomi; Izuru Kaneko; Manzhen Shen; Madhu G. Soni; Gen Yoshino

2008-01-01

8

Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum leptin and insulin in mice.  

PubMed

In this study we examined the effects of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on 10% sucrose loading in mice for 4 weeks. Treatment was found to have no effect on body weight, fat pad weight or serum glucose level. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA were observed. Levels of serum insulin and leptin, as well as the leptin/WAT ratio, were lower in the treated mice than in the control. These findings suggested that G. cambogia extract efficiently improved glucose metabolism and displayed leptin-like activity. PMID:12727492

Hayamizu, K; Hirakawa, H; Oikawa, D; Nakanishi, T; Takagi, T; Tachibana, T; Furuse, M

2003-04-01

9

Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects.  

PubMed

(-) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants received either G. cambogia extract (1667.3 mg/day equivalent to 1000 mg HCA/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Compared to the placebo group, administration of the extract did not significantly alter the serum testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Similarly, hematology, serum triacylglycerol and serum clinical pathology parameters did not reveal any significant adverse effects. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that ingestion of G. cambogia extract at dose levels commonly recommended for human use does not affect serum sex hormone levels and blood parameters. PMID:18316163

Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Tomi, Hironori; Kaneko, Izuru; Shen, Manzhen; Soni, Madhu G; Yoshino, Gen

2008-02-09

10

Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on lipids and lipoprotein composition in dexamethasone administered rats.  

PubMed

Dexamethasone (10 mg/kg body weight/day, s.c.) administered rats were treated with or without Garcinia cambogia fruit extract (1 g/kg body weight/day, orally) for 8 days. The administration of dexamethasone resulted in marked increase in the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and free acids in both plasma and liver. The level of phospholipids increased in the plasma but decreased significantly in liver tissue after dexamethasone administration as compared to those in normal rats. The activities of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and hepatic lipoprotein lipase were lowered significantly after dexamethasone per se administration. The levels of HDL-triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol remained unchanged, while the LDL and VLDL increased significantly in dexamethasone administered rats. The lipid levels were maintained at near normalcy when co-treated with Garcinia cambogia extract in dexamethasone administered rats. This study reveals the undesirable changes in lipid profile on dexamethasone administration and the hypolipidemic property of Garcinia cambogia extract. PMID:11881574

Mahendran, P; Devi, C S

2001-07-01

11

A xanthone from Garcinia cambogia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a chemical constituent of Garcinia cambogia, a new xanthone, garbogiol, was isolated from the root; a known xanthone (rheediaxanthone A) and two known benzophenones (garcinol and isogarcinol) were obtained from the bark. The structures were established by spectral analysis.

Munekazu Iinuma; Tetsuro Ito; Ryoko Miyake; Hideki Tosa; Toshiyuki Tanaka; Veliah Chelladurai

1998-01-01

12

Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of hydroxycitric acid or Garcinia cambogia extracts in humans.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight and fat loss in both experimental animals and humans, we should be cautious when interpreting the results as other randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have not reported the same outcomes. Furthermore, most studies in humans have been conducted on small samples and mainly in the short term. None of them have shown whether these effects persist beyond 12 weeks of intervention. Therefore, there is still little evidence to support the potential effectiveness and long-term benefits of G. cambogia extracts. With regard to toxicity and safety, it is important to note that except in rare cases, studies conducted in experimental animals have not reported increased mortality or significant toxicity. Furthermore, at the doses usually administered, no differences have been reported in terms of side effects or adverse events (those studied) in humans between individuals treated with G. cambogia and controls. PMID:22530711

Márquez, Fabiola; Babio, Nancy; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, J

2012-01-01

13

Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorates visceral adiposity in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

The aim of present study is to evaluate the effects of Garcinia cambogia on the mRNA levels of the various genes involved in adipogenesis, as well as on body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and other biochemical markers of obesity in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Consumption of the Garcinia cambogia extract effectively lowered the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, blood and hepatic lipid concentrations, and plasma insulin and leptin levels in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. The Garcinia cambogia extract reversed the HFD-induced changes in the expression pattern of such epididymal adipose tissue genes as adipocyte protein aP2 (aP2), sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1c (SREBP1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). These findings suggest that the Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, probably by modulating multiple genes associated with adipogenesis, such as aP2, SREBP1c, PPARgamma2, and C/EBPalpha in the visceral fat tissue of mice. PMID:18603810

Kim, Keun-Young; Lee, Hye Nam; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Taesun

2008-07-07

14

Diuretic activity of leaves of garcinia cambogia in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. PMID:22303069

Mathew, Githa E; Mathew, B; Shaneeb, M M; Nyanthara, B

2011-03-01

15

Dietary Garcinia cambogia does not modify skin properties of mice with or without excessive sucrose intake.  

PubMed

The influence of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on the properties of mouse skin with or without 10% sucrose water loading was investigated. Mice (7-week-old) were given free access to a control diet or a diet containing Garcinia cambogia extract. They were also given water alone or both water and sucrose water. Their skin was compared by both biochemical and histological methods. The collagen and triacylglycerol contents were not significantly different among the four groups. Similarly, electron microscopy revealed no differences in the thickness of the dermis layer or the subcutaneous tissue layer. Mice given the diet containing Garcinia cambogia tended to have a reduced total number of adipocytes, but not significantly. These results suggest that Garcinia cambogia supplementation for at least 4 weeks does not induce a negative effect on skin properties in mice irrespective of excessive sucrose intake. PMID:16041770

Oikawa, Daichi; Hirakawa, Hachidai; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Shiba, Nobuya; Nakanishi, Tomonori; Iwamoto, Hisao; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

2005-04-01

16

Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests.  

PubMed

The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 +/- 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 +/- 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (-12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as "tired eyes," "blurry eyes," "muscle pain/stiffness," "early satiety," "epigastralgia," "dizziness," "arthralgia" and "easily breaking into a sweat." The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for "dizziness." On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy. PMID:18385825

Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

2008-03-01

17

Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests  

PubMed Central

The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 ± 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 ± 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (?12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as “tired eyes,” “blurry eyes,” “muscle pain/stiffness,” “early satiety,” “epigastralgia,” “dizziness,” “arthralgia” and “easily breaking into a sweat.” The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for “dizziness.” On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy.

Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

2008-01-01

18

Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were p<0.05. Serum Ca levels were not significantly different between all groups on days 45 and 75. Serum P level was significantly higher in the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of phytate P in diet. It was hoped that with further evidence-based study this product will enter to mainstream medicines. PMID:22419377

Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ate?, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ay?en

2012-03-15

19

Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is an active ingredient extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit Garcinia cambogia. It inhibits adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase and has been used in the treatment of obesity.

Kohsuke Hayamizu; Yuri Ishii; Izuru Kaneko; Manzhen Shen; Yasuhide Okuhara; Norihiro Shigematsu; Hironori Tomi; Mitsuhiro Furuse; Gen Yoshino; Hiroyuki Shimasaki

2003-01-01

20

Flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia lower lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia, at a dose of 1 mg 100 g?1 body weight day?1, significantly lowered lipid levels in rats fed normal and cholesterol-containing diets. ?-Hydroxy ?-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase showed significant reduction in normocholesterolemic rats. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were reduced significantly. Highly stimulated activities of the enzymes lipoprotein lipase and plasma

Asha Sarah Koshy; L Anila; N. R Vijayalakshmi

2001-01-01

21

Collection and Characterisation of Malabar Tamarind [ Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative crop specific exploration and collection mission to collect the germplasm and to study the population size\\u000a of male and female\\/hermaphrodite trees of Malabar tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] in the area of its diversity was undertaken during July 2002 in Kerala and Karnataka. A total of 56 accessions\\u000a of Malabar tamarind were collected. Two collections of Malabar tamarind

Z. Abraham; S. K. Malik; Gangadhar Eashwar Rao; S. Lakshmi Narayanan; S. Biju

2006-01-01

22

Prevention of HCl-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats by Garcinia cambogia extract and its possible mechanism of action.  

PubMed

Oral pretreatment of rats with G. cambogia fruit extract (1 g/kg body weight/day at interval of 7 and 15 days) protected gastric mucosa against HCl-ethanol induced damage by decreasing the volume and acidity of gastric juice. Increased lipid peroxidation, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, altered levels of protein and glycoproteins in the ulcerated mucosa, and gastric juice were maintained at near normal levels in G. cambogia pretreated rats. The results suggest the anti-ulcer activity of G. cambogia by virtue of its ability to decrease acidity and increase mucosal defense. PMID:12561970

Mahendran, P; Sabitha, K E; Devi, C S Shyamala

2002-01-01

23

Impact of certain flavonoids on lipid profiles--potential action of Garcinia cambogia flavonoids.  

PubMed

Flavonoids from Cocos nucifera, Myristica fragrance, Saraka asoka and Garcinia cambogia exerted hypolipidaemic activity in rats. Lipid lowering activity was maximum in rats administered flavonoids (10 mg/kg BW/day) from Garcinia cambogia. A dose response study revealed biphasic activity. Higher doses were less effective in reducing lipid levels in serum and tissues, although devoid of toxic effects. PMID:11507730

Koshy, A S; Vijayalakshmi, N R

2001-08-01

24

A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia , soy peptide and l -carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of a mixture composed of Garcinia cambogia extract, soypeptide, and l-carnitine (1.2:0.3:0.02, w\\/w\\/w) in rats rendered obese by a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either the\\u000a high-fat control diet (CD) or the 0.38% mixture-supplemented HFD (CD + M) for 9 weeks. The mixture significantly reduced body\\u000a weight gain and

Yun Jung Kim; Keun-Young Kim; Min Sun Kim; Jin Hee Lee; Kang Pyo Lee; Taesun Park

2008-01-01

25

A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia, soy peptide and l-carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of a mixture composed of Garcinia cambogia extract, soypeptide, and l-carnitine (1.2:0.3:0.02, w/w/w) in rats rendered obese by a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either the high-fat control diet (CD) or the 0.38% mixture-supplemented HFD (CD + M) for 9 weeks. The mixture significantly reduced body weight gain and the accumulation of visceral fat mass in a rat model of HFD-induced obesity. Moreover, the mixture effectively lowered blood and hepatic lipid concentrations and serum glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and leptin levels in rats with HFD-induced obesity. Results from real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the expression levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) genes in the epididymal fat tissue of rats fed the CD + M diet were 0.4-, 0.6-, and 0.48-fold, respectively, of those found in the CD rats (P  < 0.05), while expression of the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene in epididymal adipose tissue was 1.25-fold (P  < 0.05) of that found in CD rats. In conclusion, a mixture composed of G. cambogia extract, soy peptide, and l-carnitine attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved dyslipidemia in a rat model with HFD-induced obesity.

Kim, Yun Jung; Kim, Keun-Young; Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Kang Pyo

2007-01-01

26

A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia, soy peptide and L: -carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of a mixture composed of Garcinia cambogia extract, soypeptide, and L: -carnitine (1.2:0.3:0.02, w/w/w) in rats rendered obese by a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either the high-fat control diet (CD) or the 0.38% mixture-supplemented HFD (CD + M) for 9 weeks. The mixture significantly reduced body weight gain and the accumulation of visceral fat mass in a rat model of HFD-induced obesity. Moreover, the mixture effectively lowered blood and hepatic lipid concentrations and serum glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and leptin levels in rats with HFD-induced obesity. Results from real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the expression levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) genes in the epididymal fat tissue of rats fed the CD + M diet were 0.4-, 0.6-, and 0.48-fold, respectively, of those found in the CD rats (P < 0.05), while expression of the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene in epididymal adipose tissue was 1.25-fold (P < 0.05) of that found in CD rats. In conclusion, a mixture composed of G. cambogia extract, soy peptide, and L: -carnitine attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved dyslipidemia in a rat model with HFD-induced obesity. PMID:18850230

Kim, Yun Jung; Kim, Keun-Young; Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Kang Pyo; Park, Taesun

2008-02-01

27

Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity.  

PubMed

Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the main compound of Garcinia cambogia extract, is a competitive blocker of ATP-citrate-lyase, presenting a potential inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis. Glucomannan fibers, abundant in Amorphophallus konjac, seem to reduce the absorption kinetics of dietary fat. Therefore, the aim of this double-blind randomized study was to evaluate the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of standardized extracts of G. cambogia (52.4% HCA) plus A. konjac (94.9% glucomannan) in the treatment of obesity. Fifty-eight obese subjects (BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to the placebo group (n = 26) or the treatment group (n = 32); no dietary restrictions were applied. Over a 12-week period, subjects were given daily doses of either Garcinia (2.4 g) plus Konjac (1.5 g) or placebo prior to their main meals (3 times/day). Before the start of treatment, and every 4 weeks thereafter, the following were recorded: height, weight, circumferences and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), lipid profile and glucose levels. The treatment had no significant effect on anthropometric parameters, REE, triglycerides or glucose levels. However, a significant reduction was observed in total cholesterol (-32.0 +/- 35.1 mg/dL) and LDL-c levels (-28.7 +/- 32.7 mg/dL) in the treated group, the final levels being significantly lower than those of the placebo group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.020, respectively). The results obtained suggest that the treatment had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect, without influencing the anthropometric or calorimetric parameters tested. PMID:18729243

Vasques, Carlos A R; Rossetto, Simone; Halmenschlager, Graziele; Linden, Rafael; Heckler, Eliane; Fernandez, Maria S Poblador; Alonso, José L Lancho

2008-09-01

28

Determination of organic acids in Garcinia cambogia (Desr.) by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major organic acid in Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind) has been found to be (?)-hydroxycitric acid, present in concentrations of 16–18%, using high-performance liquid chromatography with 10 mM sulfuric acid as eluent. Citric and malic acids are present in Malabar tamarind in minor quantities.

G. K Jayaprakasha; K. K Sakariah

1998-01-01

29

Erythropoietic and anti-obesity effects of Garcinia cambogia (bitter kola) in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The anti-obesity and erythropoietic effects of crude ethanolic extracts of Garcinia cambogia (bitter kola) seeds on Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were investigated. The rats were divided into three dosage groups: A (0 mg/kg of body weight), B (200 mg/kg) and C (400 mg/kg). Weight changes, plasma lipoprotein levels and the lipid profile of the liver, gastrointestinal system and adipose tissue were monitored as indices for anti-obesity, while the RBC (red blood cell) count (assessed by using a haemocytometer) was monitored as a measure of erythropoiesis. The extract was administered by gavage for 5 weeks. The results for each test group was compared statistically with those for the control (P<0.05). Analysis of the results showed a significant increase in RBC counts in both test groups and a decrease in weights of experimental animals. There was a dose-dependent decrease in the plasma level of very-low-density lipoprotein and a dose-dependent increase in the level of chylomicrons. There was a slight, but significant, decrease in the level of high-density lipoprotein and a significant increase in the level of LDL (low-density lipoprotein). There was significant dose-dependent decrease in the TAG (triacylglycerol) pool of adipose tissue and the liver of the test groups, but a significant increase in the TAG pool of the gastrointestinal system. The increase in the TAG pool of the gastrointestinal system is possibly compensatory. The results therefore confirm that ethanolic extracts of G. cambogia seeds have both haematologically enhancing and anti-obesity effects. The decrease in the high-density-lipoprotein level and an increase in the LDL level may play an important role in cardiovascular disease. PMID:16984227

Oluyemi, Kayode Alaba; Omotuyi, Idowu O; Jimoh, Olusegun R; Adesanya, Olamide A; Saalu, Chia L; Josiah, Sunday J

2007-01-01

30

High dose of Garcinia cambogia is effective in suppressing fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, but highly toxic to the testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ability of Garcinia cambogia extract containing (?)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) to suppress body fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese (fa\\/fa) rats. We also examined histopathologically the safety of its high doses. Diets containing different levels of HCA (0, 10, 51, 102 and 154mmol\\/kg diet) were fed to 6-week-old rats for 92 or 93 days. Each diet group

M. Saito; M. Ueno; S. Ogino; K. Kubo; J. Nagata; M. Takeuchi

2005-01-01

31

Garcinia extract inhibits lipid droplet accumulation without affecting adipose conversion in 3T3-L1 cells.  

PubMed

Garcinia extract was isolated from the fruit of the Garcinia cambogia and was used as a potential antiobesity agent. In week 3 of culture with insulin, the fat cells exhibited more numerous and larger intracytoplasmic lipid droplets (i.e. 30-40 microm(2)). When Garcinia extract and insulin were added simultaneously, the accumulation of lipid droplets was inhibited and the peak droplet area shifted to become smaller (10-20 microm(2)). The activities of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, a marker of adipose differentiation, were not significantly inhibited by the Garcinia extract. These findings suggest that the Garcinia extract inhibits lipid droplet accumulation in fat cells without affecting adipose conversion. PMID:11268123

Hasegawa, N

2001-03-01

32

[In vitro chromosome aberration test and in vivo micronucleus test of Ca-type Garcinia extract].  

PubMed

The induction of chromosome aberration of Ca-type Garcinia cambogia extract containing about 65% (-)-hydroxycitric acid was investigated by use of the chromosome aberration test in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU) and the micronucleus test in mice. In the chromosome aberration test, Ca-type Garcinia cambogia extract did not increase the number of cells with structural aberration and/or numerical aberrations. The micronucleus test was carried out with bone marrow cells of Slc : ddY male mice after single oral administration of up to 2,000 microg/kg. There was no significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. These results indicate that Ca-type Garcinia cambogia extract does not induce chromosome aberration. PMID:16729669

Ono, Hiromi; Tamura, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Kouichi; Iwakura, Keiko

2006-04-01

33

Effect of exogenous histidine and Garcinia cambogia on histamine formation in skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) homogenates.  

PubMed

Histamine consumed with food gives rise to allergic reactions. Dark muscle fish, for example skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) has been shown to contain histamine. Studies using TLC (acetone: NH4OH, 80:20.5) on silica gel G60 plates and densitometry after spraying with ninhydrin, using a computerized densitometer, showed that freshly harvested skipjack has no detectable histamine (detection limit, 50 micrograms.g-1 fish). However, with time histamine (Rf 0.84) is formed > 1.5 mg.g-1 probably through microbial action. Skipjack contains high levels of free histidine at levels of > 10 mg.g-1 (Rf 0.41) but fish like seer (Scomberamous spp.), which are not reported to be allergenic, contain < 4 mg.g-1 histidine. Addition of exogenous histidine (50 mg.g-1) results in histamine formation in seer 2.2-fold that of skipjack under the same conditions. A type of herring (Amblygaster spp., sinhala-hurulla) is not a histamine former, but had been shown to cause allergenic reactions, resulting in a ninhydrin positive spot (Rf 0.79) on incubating for 24 hours. Addition of arginine and lysine to blended skipjack results in their loss probably by decarboxylation. Addition of the spice Garcinia cambogia (extracts 0.2 g ml-1) known as 'goraka' in Sri Lanka (sinhala) and 'kukum' in India (hindhi), to fresh skipjack incubates prevents histamine formation as a results of lowering pH to 3.2-3.6 whereas Avverhoea bilimbi (bilin) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) extracts did not prevent histamine formation. PMID:11820094

Thadhani, Vinita M; Jansz, E R; Peiris, Hemantha

2002-01-01

34

Polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivatives from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia and their absolute configuration by quantum chemical circular dichroism calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new tetracyclic polyisoprenylated xanthones, named oxy-guttiferones M, K2, and I, along with oxy-guttiferone K and guttiferone M, have been isolated from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR spectroscopic experiments. The absolute configurations of oxy-guttiferone K, taken as a model of tetracyclic xanthones, and guttiferone M, as a model of polyisoprenylated benzophenones, have

Milena Masullo; Carla Bassarello; Giuseppe Bifulco; Sonia Piacente

2010-01-01

35

High dose of Garcinia cambogia is effective in suppressing fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, but highly toxic to the testis.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability of Garcinia cambogia extract containing (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) to suppress body fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats. We also examined histopathologically the safety of its high doses. Diets containing different levels of HCA (0, 10, 51, 102 and 154 mmol/kg diet) were fed to 6-week-old rats for 92 or 93 days. Each diet group was pair-fed to the 154 mmol HCA/kg diet group. Epididymal fat accumulation and histopathological changes in tissues were observed. The highest dose of HCA-containing Garcinia cambogia (154 mmol HCA/kg diet) showed significant suppression of epididymal fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, compared with the other groups. However, the diets containing 102 mmol HCA/kg diet and higher (778 and 1244 mg HCA/kg BW/d, respectively) caused potent testicular atrophy and toxicity, whereas diets containing 51 mmol HCA/kg diet (389 mg HCA/kg BW/d) or less did not. Accordingly, 51 mmol HCA/kg diet (389 mg HCA/kg BW/d) was deemed to be the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). PMID:15680676

Saito, M; Ueno, M; Ogino, S; Kubo, K; Nagata, J; Takeuchi, M

2005-03-01

36

Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML) or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 < 29) were randomly assigned to three groups and administered tablets containing EGML (2 g/day), GCE (2 g/day) or placebo (starch, 2 g/day) for 10 weeks. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition, plasma cholesterol and diet were assessed. Blood analysis was also conducted to examine plasma lipoproteins, triglycerides, adipocytokines and antioxidants. Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). EGML and GCE had no effect on triglycerides, non-HDL-C, adipocytokines or antioxidants when compared to placebo supplementation. However, HDL-C was higher in the EGML group (p < 0.001) after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group. Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

2011-01-01

37

Identification and quantification of two biologically active polyisoprenylated benzophenones xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in Garcinia species using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive liquid chromatography\\/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometrical (LC\\/ESI–MS\\/MS) method was developed for the identification and quantification of two polyisoprenylated benzophenones xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in the extracts of the fruit rinds, stem bark, seed pericarps and leaves of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia. The separation of xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol was achieved on a RP-18 column

Sunil K. Chattopadhyay; Satyanshu Kumar

2006-01-01

38

Anti-adipogenic effects of Garcinia extract on the lipid droplet accumulation and the expression of transcription factor.  

PubMed

Garcinia extract was used as a potential anti-obesity agent. In this study, we found that Garcinia extract inhibits the cytoplasmic lipid accumulation as well as adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes. The mechanisms that regulate the inhibition of insulin-induced differentiation by Garcinia extracts include the inhibition of expression of the early adipogenic transcription factor, CCAAT element binding protein (C/EBP)alpha that regulate adipogenesis. These results suggest that the specific targets of Garcinia extract on differentiation process of 3T3-L1 cells could be, at least, early adipogenic differentiation factor. PMID:15630282

Kim, Myung-Sunny; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Kwon, Dae-Young; Park, Raekil

2004-01-01

39

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Activities of the Extracts from the Fruit Rinds of Garcinia cowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have reported the biological activities of the crude extracts\\/purified compounds from various parts of Garcinia cowa. In the present study, the dried fruit rinds of G. cowa were extracted with hexane and chloroform and the extracts were used to evaluate their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. Using ?-carotene-linoleate-model system, at 200 ppm concentration, hexane, chloroform extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole

P. S. Negi; G. K. Jayaprakasha; B. S. Jena

2010-01-01

40

Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Activities of Extracts from the Fruit Hull of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of various extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn., GM). Materials and Methods: Four extracts: water, 50% ethanol, 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate, were used. The antioxidative activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging assay at extract concentrations of 1, 10, 50 and

Wanlop Weecharangsan; Praneet Opanasopit; Monrudee Sukma; Tanasait Ngawhirunpat; Uthai Sotanaphun; Pongpan Siripong

2006-01-01

41

Chemistry and Biochemistry of (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid from Garcinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid ((-)-HCA) is the principal acid of fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia indica, and Garcinia atroviridis. (-)-HCA was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA: citrate + ATP + CoA f acetyl-CoA + ADP + Pi + oxaloacetate. The inhibition of this

B. S. JENA; G. K. J AYAPRAKASHA; R. P. S INGH; K. K. SAKARIAH

42

Diffusion Properties of Garcinia Fruit Acids (Garcinia atroviridis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion properties of garcinia fruit acids (Garcinia atroviridis) were investigated in a batch reactor. The influences of two variables were studied: material thickness and extraction temperature. Stirring was continuous to assure turbulent flow inside the vessel. Garcinia fruits were sliced into infinite slabs of two different thicknesses, 2.5 and 4.0 mm. Each group of a given thickness was then

Chairat SIRIPATANA

2007-01-01

43

Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence demonstrates the efficacy of Garcinia cambogia-derived natural (–)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) in weight management by curbing appetite and inhibiting body fat biosynthesis. However, the exact mechanism of action of this novel phytopharmaceutical has yet to be fully understood. In a previous study, we showed that in the rat brain cortex a novel HCA extract (HCA-SX, Super

Sunny E. Ohia; Catherine A. Opere; Angela M. LeDay; Manashi Bagchi; Debasis Bagchi; Sidney J. Stohs

2002-01-01

44

Dose and time-dependent effects of a novel (?)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days  

Microsoft Academic Search

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60%

Michael Shara; Sunney E. Ohia; Taharat Yasmin; Andrea Zardetto-Smith; Anthony Kincaid; Manashi Bagchi; Archana Chatterjee; Debasis Bagchi; Sidney J. Stohs

2003-01-01

45

The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice.

Ajayi, Sunday A; Ofusori, David A; Ojo, Gideon B; Ayoka, Oladele A; Abayomi, Taiwo A; Tijani, Adekilekun A

2011-01-01

46

Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% ?-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of ?-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. PMID:23680732

Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

2013-05-13

47

Combating Helicobacter pylori infections with mucoadhesive nanoparticles loaded with Garcinia mangostana extract.  

PubMed

Aim: To combat the resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics through the use of Garcinia mangostana extract (GME) in the form that can be localized at stomach mucosa. Materials & methods: GME and its major active component, ?-mangostin, are encapsulated into the moderately acid stable mucoadhesive nanocarriers, and tested for anti-H. pylori and antiadhesion activities in vitro and their ability to eradicate H. pylori in infected mice. Results: The two in vitro activities are observed and are enhanced when the materials are encapsulated into nanocarriers. Preliminary in vivo tests revealed the ability to combat H. pylori in mice following oral administration of the encapsulated GME, but not the unencapsulated GME. Conclusion: Nanoencapsulated GME is a potential anti-H. pylori agent. Original submitted 10 August 2012; Revised submitted 9 December 2012. PMID:23731457

Pan-In, Porntip; Tachapruetinun, Amornset; Chaichanawongsaroj, Nuntaree; Banlunara, Wijit; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Wanichwech-Arungruang, Supason

2013-06-01

48

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of xanthones with antioxidant activity from Garcinia mangostana: Characterization by HPLC\\/LC–ESI-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The xanthones from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp was extracted with and without alcohol as entrainer at 30MPa and 50°C in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). It was found that entrainer increases the rate of extraction and yield substantially. SC-CO2+ethanol (4%) at 20MPa, 40°C was investigated by HPLC\\/LC–ESI-MS for characterization of the xanthones. From liquid chromatography electron spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS)

A. S. Zarena; K. Udaya Sankar

2009-01-01

49

Leishmanicidal activity of benzophenones and extracts from Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. fruits.  

PubMed

Infections by protozoans of the genus Leishmania are the major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. The drugs of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimonials, which exert renal and cardiac toxicity. Thus, there is a strong need for safer and more effective treatments against leishmaniasis. The present study was designated to evaluate, by a bioguided assay, the leishmanicidal activity of extracts (hexane, ethyl-acetate and ethanolic) and molecules both obtained by means of extraction from pericarps of Garcinia brasiliensis fruits. The hexane extract presented the best activity on the extracellular (promastigotes) and intracellular (amastigotes) forms of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, when compared to the other extracts. Based on these findings, this extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, affording nine fractions then resulting in three purified prenylated benzophenones - 7-epi-clusianone (1), garciniaphenone (2) and guttiferone-a (3). They showed significant activity on Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, and little toxicity for mammalian cells. Structure-activity relationships were evaluated showing that the IC(50) value displayed is dependent of prenyl groups and phenolic hydroxyls number, and inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity. Our results are promising, showing that these compounds are biologically active on Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. PMID:19762221

Pereira, I O; Marques, M J; Pavan, A L R; Codonho, B S; Barbiéri, C L; Beijo, L A; Doriguetto, A C; D'Martin, E C; dos Santos, M H

2009-09-16

50

Identification and quantification of two biologically active polyisoprenylated benzophenones xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in Garcinia species using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometrical (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the identification and quantification of two polyisoprenylated benzophenones xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in the extracts of the fruit rinds, stem bark, seed pericarps and leaves of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia. The separation of xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol was achieved on a RP-18 column using the solvent system consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile-water (9:1) and methanol-acetic acid (99.5:0.5) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. A multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was developed for quantification of xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in the above extracts of Garcinia species. On the basis of signal to noise ratio of 3, the limits of detection in MRM mode for xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol were 1.0ng/ml and 0.5ng/ml, respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision for 6 days. The method developed was found to be useful for identification and quantification of xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in the extracts of the fruit rinds, stem bark, seed pericarps and leaves of G. indica and in the fruit rinds of G. cambogia. PMID:16920410

Chattopadhyay, Sunil K; Kumar, Satyanshu

2006-08-22

51

Effects of ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola seeds on growth and haematology of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) broodstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56 day study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus broodstock on growth performance and basic haematological indices. Catfish broodstock (mean weight, 245.20 - 255.00 g) were randomly distributed into concrete tanks (2 x 2 x 1.2 m) at 10 fish\\/tank in triplicate treatments. 5 diets

A. A. Dada; M. Ikuerowo

52

Phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of combined effect of extracts of the leaves of Garcinia kola, Vernonia amygdalina and honey on some medically important microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm water extracts of the leaves of Garcinia kola and Vernonia amygdalina suspended in honey traditionally employed for the treatment of post circumcision wounds, fresh wounds and chronic skin ulcers was prepared and evaluated for its phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical analysis of the preparation revealed the presence of polyphenol, reducing sugars, tannins, glycoside, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and

C. I. Mboto; M. E. Eja; A. A Adegoke; G. D. Iwatt; B. E. Asikong; I. Takon; S. M. Udo; M. Akeh

53

Gastroprotective effects of extracts and guttiferone A isolated from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) against experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of seed, leaf, and branch methanolic extracts and guttiferone A obtained from Garcinia achachairu (Clusiaceae). Mice were used in all the models, and treatments were administered orally only in pylorus-ligated model of the extracts, and drugs were administered intraduodenally. Treatment with different extracts (500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the ethanol/HCl-induced model; however, the seed extract was most active. When tested in different doses (50, 250, or 500 mg/kg), the seed extract of G. achaicharu showed a dose-dependent effect with a percentage of inhibition of gastric lesions of 41, 49, and 85 %, respectively. The seed extract also significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the indomethacin/bethanechol-induced ulcer. In this model, the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 24, 58, and 90 %, respectively. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction of gastric juice volume and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. Considering that the seed extract was the most active, it was subjected to silica gel column chromatography, leading to the isolation of guttiferone A. The isolated compound and omeprazole were evaluated in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model. In this assay, both compounds at a dose of 30 mg/kg reduced the ulcerative lesions by about 75 %. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that extracts obtained from G. achachairu and guttiferone A produce gastroprotective effects, corroborating ethnomedicinal use of this plant. PMID:22926730

Niero, Rivaldo; Dal Molin, Marlova Manhabosco; Silva, Suellen; Damian, Natália Santos; Maia, Láis Orlof; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

2012-08-29

54

Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered

Kamal A Amin; Hamdy H Kamel; Mohamed A Abd Eltawab

2011-01-01

55

Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots).  

PubMed

Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5% to approximately 100% and 70% to approximately 100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively, from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais. PMID:18257127

Ogunleye, R F; Adefemi, S O

2007-12-01

56

The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

The aim of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of Garcinia extract, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as a weight reduction agent, using data from randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in language or time. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified and twelve were included. Nine trials provided data suitable for statistical pooling. The meta-analysis revealed a small, statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring HCA over placebo (MD: ?0.88?kg; 95% CI: ?1.75, ?0.00). Gastrointestinal adverse events were twice as common in the HCA group compared with placebo in one included study. It is concluded that the RCTs suggest that Garcinia extracts/HCA can cause short-term weight loss. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should be more rigorous and better reported.

Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

2011-01-01

57

The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials.  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of Garcinia extract, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as a weight reduction agent, using data from randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in language or time. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified and twelve were included. Nine trials provided data suitable for statistical pooling. The meta-analysis revealed a small, statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring HCA over placebo (MD: -0.88?kg; 95% CI: -1.75, -0.00). Gastrointestinal adverse events were twice as common in the HCA group compared with placebo in one included study. It is concluded that the RCTs suggest that Garcinia extracts/HCA can cause short-term weight loss. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should be more rigorous and better reported. PMID:21197150

Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

2010-12-14

58

In vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer effects of Garcinia mangostana xanthones extract  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthones are a group of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds with remarkable pharmacological effects such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Methods A xanthones extract (81% ?-mangostin and 16% ?-mangostin), was prepared by crystallization of a toluene extract of G. mangostana fruit rinds and was analyzed by LC-MS. Anti-colon cancer effect was investigated on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-tumorigenicity, and effect on cell signalling pathways. The in vivo anti-colon cancer activity was also investigated on subcutaneous tumors established in nude mice. Results The extract showed potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration 6.5?±?1.0??g/ml), due to induction of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Three key steps in tumor metastasis including the cell migration, cell invasion and clonogenicity, were also inhibited. The extract and ?-mangostin up-regulate the MAPK/ERK, c-Myc/Max, and p53 cell signalling pathways. The xanthones extract, when fed to nude mice, caused significant growth inhibition of the subcutaneous tumor of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Conclusions Our data suggest new mechanisms of action of ?-mangostin and the G. mangostana xanthones, and suggest the xanthones extract of as a potential anti-colon cancer candidate.

2012-01-01

59

Chemistry and biochemistry of (-)-hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia.  

PubMed

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid [(-)-HCA] is the principal acid of fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia indica, and Garcinia atroviridis. (-)-HCA was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA: citrate + ATP + CoA --> acetyl-CoA + ADP + P(i) + oxaloacetate. The inhibition of this reaction limits the availability of acetyl-CoA units required for fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis during a lipogenic diet, that is, a diet high in carbohydrates. Extensive animal studies indicated that (-)-HCA suppresses the fatty acid synthesis, lipogenesis, food intake, and induced weight loss. In vitro studies revealed the inhibitions of fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis from various precursors. However, a few clinical studies have shown controversial findings. This review explores the literature on a number of topics: the source of (-)-HCA; the discovery of (-)-HCA; the isolation, stereochemistry, properties, methods of estimation, and derivatives of (-)-HCA; and its biochemistry, which includes inhibition of the citrate cleavage enzyme, effects on fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis, effects on ketogenesis, other biological effects, possible modes of action on the reduction of food intake, promotion of glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and lipid oxidation, (-)-HCA as weight-controlling agent, and some possible concerns about (-)-HCA, which provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on (-)-HCA and its plausible mechanism of action and is provocative of further research. PMID:11754536

Jena, B S; Jayaprakasha, G K; Singh, R P; Sakariah, K K

2002-01-01

60

Prenylated xanthones and tocotrienols from Garcinia virgata.  

PubMed

Two xanthones, namely virgataxanthone A and B, have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia virgata, together with two formylated tocotrienols and the known delta-tocotrienol, griffipavixanthone and 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (cotoin). Their structures were mainly established using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectroscopies. When sufficient material was available, the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts as well as the isolated compounds were evaluated. PMID:15501261

Merza, Joumaa; Aumond, Marie-Christine; Rondeau, David; Dumontet, Vincent; Le Ray, Anne-Marie; Séraphin, Denis; Richomme, Pascal

2004-11-01

61

NOV 30 2009  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... submission notifies FDAofyourintenttomarket aproduct named "CoolwaterTrim" thatcontains "Extract of Garcinia Cambogia, (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

62

Garcina cambogia leaf and seawater for tannase production by marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032 under slurry state fermentation.  

PubMed

Garcinia gummi-gutta (syn. G. cambogia, G. quaesita), known to have medicinal properties, was evaluated as a substrate and inducer for tannase production by a marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032, under slurry state fermentation using Czapekdox-minimal medium and sea water as the cultivation medium. Among the various natural tannin substrates evaluated, Garcinia leaf supported maximal tannase production. The cultivation conditions and components of the cultivation medium were optimized employing response surface methodology. The experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model at a 92.2% level of significance (p < 0.0001). The maximal tannase activity was obtained in a slurry state medium containing 26.6%, w/v, Garcinia leaf, supplemented with 0.1% tannic acid as inducer. The optimum values of pH, temperature and inoculum concentration obtained were 5.0, 40 degrees C and 3%, respectively. A Box-Behnken model study of the fermentation conditions was carried out, and the best production of tannase was registered at 40 degrees C without agitation. Optimization strategy employing response surface methodology led to nearly 3-fold increase in the enzyme production from 26.2 U/mL obtained in unoptimized medium to 75.2 Units/mL in Box Behnken design, within 18 h of fermentation. It was observed that sea water could support maximal tannase production by A. awamori compared with other media suggesting that the sea water salts could have played an inducer role in expression of tannase encoding genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on production of tannase, an industrially important enzyme, utilizing Garcinia leaf as substrate under slurry state fermentation by marine A. awamori and sea water as the cultivation medium. PMID:22312743

Beena, S P; Basheer, Soorej M; Bhat, Sarita G; Chandrasekaran, M

2011-12-01

63

Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the activity of Thai medicinal plants on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes in terms of free radical scavenging and cytokine reducing properties. P. acnes have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH scavenging and NBT reduction assay. The result showed that Garcinia mangostana possessed the most significant antioxidant activity and reduced reactive oxygen species production. Houttuynia cordata, Eupatorium odoratum, and Senna alata had a moderate antioxidant effect. In addition, Garcinia mangostana extracts could reduce the TNF-alpha production as determined by ELISA. Garcinia mangostana was highly effective in scavenging free radicals and was able to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study has identified the promising source of anti-inflammatory agent which could be useful in treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:17644272

Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Surassmo, Suvimol; Nukoolkarn, Veena S; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2007-06-02

64

Hoodia Gordonii Plus  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... “Garcinia Cambogia Extract [an ingredient in Hoodia Gordonii Plus] Also known ... has made Garcinia a very effective herbal medicine for controlling ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

65

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) isolated from Garcinia cambogia.  

PubMed

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is widely used as an ingredient for nutritional supplements aimed at reducing food intake, appetite, and body weight. In this study, the genotoxicity of HCA was evaluated using three tests: a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), an in vitro chromosomal aberration (CA) test, and an in vivo micronucleus (MN) test. HCA was negative by the Ames test in the presence or absence of a microsomal metabolizing system. HCA did not induce mutagenic activity in the Ames test, and no significant mutagenic potency was indicated by CA tests. However, HCA significantly and dose-dependently increased the number of MNPCEs (micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes/1000 polychromatic erythrocytes) and PCE/(PCE + NCE) ratios according to the MN test. These results suggest that HCA preferentially induce micronuclei. PMID:17454564

Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Byung Mu

2007-03-01

66

Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of (?)-Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA-SX) Isolated from Garcinia cambogia  

Microsoft Academic Search

(?)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is widely used as an ingredient for nutritional supplements aimed at reducing food intake, appetite, and body weight. In this study, the genotoxicity of HCA was evaluated using three tests: a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), an in vitro chromosomal aberration (CA) test, and an in vivo micronucleus (MN) test. HCA was negative by the Ames

Kyung Hwan Lee; Byung Mu Lee

2007-01-01

67

Garcinia cambogia - uma espécie vegetal como recurso terapêutico contra a obesidade?6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Atualmente, a obesidade é um problema de saúde pública mundial, tanto nos países desenvolvidos como nos em desenvolvimento, apresentando elevação de sua prevalência. A transição nutricional é um processo de modificações seqüenciais no padrão de nutrição e consumo que acompanha mudanças econômicas, sociais e demográficas, e mudanças do perfil de saúde das populações. Este trabalho objetiva abordar a comprovação

Ana C S Santos; Michelle S Alvarez; Priscila B Brandão; Ary G Silva

68

In vitro and in vivo toxicity of garcinia or hydroxycitric Acid: a review.  

PubMed

Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown "no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)" at levels up to 2800?mg/day, suggesting its safety for use. PMID:22924054

Chuah, Li Oon; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

2012-08-09

69

In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Garcinia or Hydroxycitric Acid: A Review  

PubMed Central

Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown “no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)” at levels up to 2800?mg/day, suggesting its safety for use.

Chuah, Li Oon; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

2012-01-01

70

Antioxidative and chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid.  

PubMed

Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as "bitter kola", plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

Farombi, Ebenezer O; Owoeye, Olatunde

2011-06-23

71

Antileishmanial polyphenols from Garcinia vieillardii.  

PubMed

Seven xanthones, the new vieillardiixanthones B and C (1) and (7), pancixanthones A (2), B (3), 1,6-dihydroxyxanthone (6), pyranojacareubin and 5,6-O-dimethyl-2-deprenylrheediaxanthone together with two benzophenones, clusiachromene (4) and 3-geranyl-2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone (5) were isolated from the stem bark of the neocaledonian Garcinia vieillardii. 2, 5 and 6 showed a significant antileishmanial activity against the promastigote forms of Leishmania mexicana and L. infantum and against the amastigote forms of L. infantum. PMID:17826924

Hay, Anne-Emmanuelle; Merza, Joumaa; Landreau, Anne; Litaudon, Marc; Pagniez, Fabrice; Le Pape, Patrice; Richomme, Pascal

2007-08-09

72

Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana).  

PubMed

Many tropical plants have interesting biological activities with potential therapeutic applications. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (GML) belongs to the family of Guttiferae and is named "the queen of fruits". It is cultivated in the tropical rainforest of some Southeast Asian nations like Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Philippines, and Thailand. People in these countries have used the pericarp (peel, rind, hull or ripe) of GML as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysentery, infected wound, suppuration, and chronic ulcer. Experimental studies have demonstrated that extracts of GML have antioxidant, antitumoral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. The pericarp of GML is a source of xanthones and other bioactive substances. Prenylated xanthones isolated from GML have been extensively studied; some members of these compounds possess antioxidant, antitumoral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. Xanthones have been isolated from pericarp, whole fruit, heartwood, and leaves. The most studied xanthones are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-mangostins, garcinone E, 8-deoxygartanin, and gartanin. The aim of this review is to summarize findings of beneficial properties of GML's extracts and xanthones isolated from this plant so far. PMID:18725264

Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Pérez-Rojas, Jazmin M

2008-08-06

73

New cytotoxic guttiferone analogues from Garcinia virgata from New Caledonia.  

PubMed

There are thirteen endemic species belonging to the genus Garcinia in New Caledonia. Among them, G. virgata is an evergreen tree mainly growing in the rain forests of this island. Fractionation of the cyclohexane extract of the stem bark of this plant produced the known benzophenones guttiferone E and xanthochymol, together with two new guttiferone analogues, namely guttiferones I and J. The structures of these benzophenones were mainly elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Compounds and were weakly cytotoxic on the KB cell line with IC50 values of 4.70 and 5.0 microg/mL respectively. PMID:16450306

Merza, Joumaa; Mallet, Sabine; Litaudon, Marc; Dumontet, Vincent; Séraphin, Denis; Richomme, Pascal

2006-01-01

74

Benzophenone and xanthone derivatives from the inflorescences of Garcinia cowa.  

PubMed

The purification of the acetone extract from the inflorescences of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of a new benzophenone derivative, cowanone (1), together with seven known xanthones, ?-mangostin (2), ?-mangostin (3), cowanin (4), fuscaxanthone A (5), 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (6), garcinianone A (7) and cowanol (8). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR data. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). PMID:23139123

Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

2012-11-09

75

Antioxidant Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of ongoing research on cancer chemopreventive agents from botanical dietary supplements, Garcinia mangostana L. (commonly known as mangosteen) was selected for detailed study. Repeated chromatography of a CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the pericarp led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated prenylated xanthones, 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G (1) and mangostingone (7-methoxy- 2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-3-butenyl)-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone, 2), together with 12 known xanthones, cudraxanthone G

Hyun-Ah Jung; Bao-Ning Su; William J. Keller; Rajendra G. Mehta; A. Douglas Kinghorn

2006-01-01

76

Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered renal function Methods Rats were fed a standard control diet for 12 week (wk) or a diet containing 65% high sucrose (HSD) or 35% fat (HFD) for 8 wk and then HFD group divided into two groups for the following 4 wks. One group was given Garcinia+HFD, the second only high fat, Also the HSD divided into two groups, 1st HSD+Garcinia and 2nd HSD. Blood and renal, mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues were collected for biochemical assays. Results HFD and HSD groups of rats showed a significant increase in feed intake, Body weight (BW) and body mass index (BMI). Also there were significant increases in weights of mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues in HFD and HSD groups. HFD and HSD affect the kidney by increasing serum urea and creatinine levels and decreased level of nitric oxide (NO) and increased blood glucose, low density lipoproteins (LDL), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities were significantly decreased in HFD while there were significant increases in HSD and HSD+G groups p ? 0.05 compared with control. Moreover, renal catalase activities and MDA levels were significantly increased while NO level was lowered. These changes improved by Garcinia that decreased the oxidative stress biomarkers and increased NO level. There were significant positive correlations among BMI, kidney functions (Creatinine and urea), TG and Oxidative markers (renal MDA and catalase). Conclusions Rats fed a diet with HFD or HSD showed, hypertriglyceridemia, increased LDL production, increased oxidative stress and renal alteration. Moreover, suggesting association between lipid peroxidation, obesity and nephropathy, while Garcinia ameliorated the damaging effects of the HFD or HSD and decreased feed intake, MDA level and decreased oxidative stress in renal tissues.

2011-01-01

77

Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

78

Medicinal properties of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many tropical plants have interesting biological activities with potential therapeutic applications. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (GML) belongs to the family of Guttiferae and is named “the queen of fruits”. It is cultivated in the tropical rainforest of some Southeast Asian nations like Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Philippines, and Thailand. People in these countries have used the pericarp (peel, rind, hull or

José Pedraza-Chaverri; Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Marisol Orozco-Ibarra; Jazmin M. Pérez-Rojas

2008-01-01

79

Effects of Centella Asiatica Linn. Leaves and Garcinia Mangostana Linn. hull on the Healing of Dermal Wounds in Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diabetes is a condition which is known to be associated with a variety of connective tissue abnormalities which contribute to impaired wound healing, leading to the chronic ulcer formation. Centella asiatica Linn. and Garcinia mangostana Linn. are widely used as Thai traditional medicine including wound treatment. However, the effects of both plant extracts in diabetic condition had not been

Jirat Nganlasom; Tunda Suttitum; Dusit Jirakulsomchok; Anucha Puapairoj

2008-01-01

80

Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Kola (Bitter Kola) on Some Selected Pathogens from University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital Ilorin, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of Garcinia kola of small and large seeds varieties were extracted in ethanol and water (cold and hot) and tested against some selected clinical bacterial and fungal isolates; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations of 10, 20, and 30 mg\\/ml. The same concentrations were used against the fungi

AREKEMASE M. O; ALIYU Muhammed Babandoko; KAYODE Rowland Monday Ojo; AJIBOYE Adeyinka Elizabeth; AJIJOLAKEWU Abiodun Kamoldeen

2012-01-01

81

The bronchodilator effect of Garcinia Kola.  

PubMed

This work investigated the bronchodilator effect of Garcinia Kola (Bitter Kola) in normal Nigerians. Nineteen undergraduate male students (17-25 years) were used for the study which involved the consumption of Garcinia Kola (15 grammes per subject) and the measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at intervals of 30 minutes up to a maximum of 90 minutes. Each subject served as his own control. There was time-dependent increases in the measured parameters. However, only the PEFR showed significant (p < 0.05) increase and this was observed at the 60th minute. This probably shows a mild bronchodilator effect of this Kola. PMID:8261939

Orie, N N; Ekon, E U

1993-03-01

82

Physicochemical properties of a novel (—)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinia cambogia-derived (—)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a popular and natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in

Michael Shara; Sunny E. Ohia; Robert E. Schmidt; Taharat Yasmin; Andrea Zardetto-Smith; Anthony Kincaid; Manashi Bagchi; Archana Chatterjee; Debasis Bagchi; Sidney J. Stohs

2004-01-01

83

Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days.  

PubMed

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a % of body weight and brain weight, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX as feed intake and the animals were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The feed and water intake were assessed and correlated with the reduction in body weight. HCA-SX supplementation demonstrated a reduction in body weight in both male and female rats over a period of 90 days as compared to the corresponding control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats as compared to the corresponding control animals. However, no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was observed. Furthermore, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a percentage of body weight and brain weight, at 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment, exhibited no significant difference between the four groups. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment of HCA-SX over a period of 90 days results in a reduction in body weight, but did not cause any changes in hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, or histopathological changes. PMID:14674714

Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

2003-12-01

84

Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Composition of Garcinia lancifolia.  

PubMed

Garcinia lancifolia (Clusiaceae) is an unexplored medicinal plant used as stomachic, diuretic and its fruit is used to cure dysentery and diarrhoea. The acidic fruits are used to prepare juice, pickle and curries. The phytochemical analysis of different extracts of G. lancifolia leaf, stem and fruit revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. The high phenolic content was observed in the methanol extract of leaf followed by methanol extract of stem and dichloromethane extract of leaf. The G. lancifolia fruit juice exhibited high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus subtilis. The methanol extract of fruit pulp was also very effective against Gram-positive bacteria when compared with Gram-negative bacteria. The radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was highest in fruit juice followed by methanol extract of leaf and stem. All extracts showed concentration-dependent increase in the antioxidant activity. PMID:23439879

Policegoudra, R S; Saikia, S; Das, J; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L; Veer, V

2012-05-01

85

Physico-chemical properties of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days.  

PubMed

Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a popular and natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in the synthesis of acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax) in weight management. Results have shown that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, enhances serotonin release and availability in the brain cortex, normalizes lipid profiles, and lowers serum leptin levels in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation studies and mouse lymphoma tests have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no detailed long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other HCA extract has been previously assessed. We evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry over a period of 90 days. Furthermore, a 90-day histopathological evaluation was conducted. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX of feed intake and were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The body weight and selected organ weights were assessed and correlated as a % of body weight and brain weight at 90 days of treatment. A significant reduction in body weight was observed in treated rats as compared to control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats, while no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation was observed as compared to the control animals. Furthermore, selected organ weights individually and as a % of body weight and brain weight at 90 days of treatment exhibited no significant difference between the groups. No difference was observed in hematology and clinical chemistry or the histopathological evaluation. Taken together, these results show that 90 day treatment of HCA-SX results in a reduction in body weight, and does not cause any changes in major organs or in hematology, clinical chemistry, and histopathology. PMID:15228099

Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Schmidt, Robert E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

2004-05-01

86

Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (-)-HCA  

PubMed Central

Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (?)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid.

Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

2013-01-01

87

Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (-)-HCA.  

PubMed

Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (-)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. PMID:23990846

Chuah, Li Oon; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

2013-08-06

88

An overview on genus garcinia : phytochemical and therapeutical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Garcinia belongs to the family Clusiaceae and has been involved in ayurvedic preparations to medicate various pathophysiological disorders. The bioactive molecules\\u000a like hydroxycitric acid (HCA), flavonoids, terpenes, polysaccharides, procyanidines and polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivatives\\u000a like garcinol, xanthochymol and guttiferone isoforms have been isolated from the genus Garcinia. The genus has received the attention of pharmaceutical industries due to their

M. Hemshekhar; K. Sunitha; M. Sebastin Santhosh; S. Devaraja; K. Kemparaju; B. S. Vishwanath; S. R. Niranjana; K. S. Girish

2011-01-01

89

Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidative properties of crude methanolic extract (CME) from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (family Guttiferae) using human breast cancer (SKBR3) cell line as a model system. SKBR3 cells were cultured in the presence of CME at various concentrations (0–50?g\\/ml) for 48h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by

Primchanien Moongkarndi; Nuttavut Kosem; Sineenart Kaslungka; Omboon Luanratana; Narongchai Pongpan; Neelobol Neungton

2004-01-01

90

A new antioxidant xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 85% ethanol. Furthermore, a new xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,5-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6?,6?-dimethyl-4?,5?-dihydropyrano[2?,3??:?7,8]xanthone, along with five known xanthones related to their antioxidant activity was purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified using spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capability. An activity-guided isolation and

Yan Zhao; Jin-Ping Liu; Dan Lu; Ping-Ya Li; Lian-Xue Zhang

2010-01-01

91

Xanthones with quinone reductase-inducing activity from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a dichloromethane-soluble extract of Garcinia mangostana fruits has led to the isolation and identification of five compounds, including two xanthones, 1,2-dihydro-1,8,10-trihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-9-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3,2-a]xanthen-11-one (1) and 6-deoxy-7-demethylmangostanin (2), along with three known compounds, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (3), mangostanin (4), and ?-mangostin (5). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined from analysis of their spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds in the

Young-Won Chin; Hyun-Ah Jung; Heebyung Chai; William J. Keller; A. Douglas Kinghorn

2008-01-01

92

Phloroglucinols with prooxidant activity from Garcinia subelliptica.  

PubMed

A new phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone HF ( 1), possessing an unprecedented skeleton, and the tautomeric pair of garcinielliptone FC ( 2/ 2a) were isolated from the heartwood and pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica, respectively. Their structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods. The ability of compounds 1 and 2/ 2a to induce DNA-cleavage activity was examined using supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA. In the presence of Cu(II), compounds 1 and 2/ 2a caused significant breakage of pBR322 DNA. The involvement of H2O2 and O2 (*-), and H2O2, O2 (*-), and OH (*) in 1- and 2/ 2a-mediated scission, respectively, was established by inhibition or no protection of DNA breakage by various oxygen radical scavengers. Thus, in the presence Cu(II), 1 and 2/ 2a may show a prooxidant effect on DNA and induce cell death. PMID:18166016

Wu, Chien-Chang; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wei, Bai-Luh; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Won, Shen-Jen; Lin, Chun-Nan

2008-01-01

93

Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from Garcinia subelliptica.  

PubMed

Two new triterpenoids, garcinielliptones Q (1) and S (3), and a new phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone R (2), were isolated from the seed of Garcinia subelliptica. Their structures were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone FC (4) from this plant exhibited a significant increase of antiproliferative effect, while 4 combined with cisplatin significantly caused decrease of cell inhibition induced by cisplatin in NTUB1. Exposure of NTUB1 cells to 4 cotreated with cisplatin for significantly decreased the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than that of the total amount generated by 4 and cisplatin. These results suggested that 4 could protect the cisplatin toxicity through reduction of ROS in NTUB1. Phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones, A (5) and F (7), and garsubelline A (6), from this plant, revealed ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and 5 displayed an inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase. These finding showed that 5-7 may be used as antioxidants. PMID:22868169

Lin, Kai-Wei; Huang, A-Mei; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Weng, Jing-Ru; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Chun-Nan

2012-05-02

94

Garcinia xanthones as orally active antitumor agents.  

PubMed

Using a newly developed strategy whose key step is the regioselective propargylation of hydroxyxanthone substrates, 99 structurally diverse Garcinia natural-product-like xanthones based on gambogic acid were designed and synthesized and their in vitro antitumor activity was evaluated. A set of 40 related compounds was chosen for determination of their physicochemical properties including polar surface area, log D?.?, aqueous solubility, and permeability at pH 7.4. In the light of the in vitro antitumor activity and the physicochemical properties, two compounds were advanced into in vivo efficacy experiments. The antitumor activity of compound 112, administered po, showed more potent in vivo oral antitumor activity than gambogic acid. PMID:23167526

Zhang, Xiaojin; Li, Xiang; Sun, Haopeng; Wang, Xiaojian; Zhao, Li; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shenglie; Wang, Yanyan; Yang, Yingrui; Zeng, Su; Guo, Qinglong; You, Qidong

2012-12-31

95

Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).  

PubMed

As part of ongoing research on cancer chemopreventive agents from botanical dietary supplements, Garcinia mangostana L. (commonly known as mangosteen) was selected for detailed study. Repeated chromatography of a CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the pericarp led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated prenylated xanthones, 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G (1) and mangostingone [7-methoxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-3-butenyl)-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone, 2], together with 12 known xanthones, cudraxanthone G (3), 8-deoxygartanin (4), garcimangosone B (5), garcinone D (6), garcinone E (7), gartanin (8), 1-isomangostin (9), alpha-mangostin (10), gamma-mangostin (11), mangostinone (12), smeathxanthone A (13), and tovophyllin A (14). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Except for compound 2, which was isolated as a minor component, the antioxidant activities of all isolates were determined using authentic and morpholinosydnonimine-derived peroxynitrite methods, and compounds 1, 8, 10, 11, and 13 were the most active. Alpha-mangostin (10) inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene-induced preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary organ culture assay with an IC50 of 1.0 microg/mL (2.44 microM). PMID:16536578

Jung, Hyun-Ah; Su, Bao-Ning; Keller, William J; Mehta, Rajendra G; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2006-03-22

96

Potential use of Garcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave

G. N. Aniche; G. U. Uwakwe

1990-01-01

97

A new antioxidant xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn.  

PubMed

The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 85% ethanol. Furthermore, a new xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,5-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':7,8]xanthone, along with five known xanthones related to their antioxidant activity was purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified using spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capability. An activity-guided isolation and purification process were used to identify the components, showing the strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity of G. mangostana. PMID:20954095

Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jin-Ping; Lu, Dan; Li, Ping-Ya; Zhang, Lian-Xue

2010-10-01

98

Polyphenols from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit for breast and prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia and has long been reported to contain multiple health promoting properties. This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity. Herein we describe the anti-cancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic xanthones including ?-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the reported findings there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23805102

Li, Gongbo; Thomas, Stacey; Johnson, Jeremy J

2013-06-26

99

Polyphenols from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit for breast and prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia and has long been reported to contain multiple health promoting properties. This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity. Herein we describe the anti-cancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic xanthones including ?-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the reported findings there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention.

Li, Gongbo; Thomas, Stacey; Johnson, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01

100

Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. Patients and methods Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. All KOA patients presenting at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex were recruited into the study. The patients were grouped into four (A = Placebo, B = Naproxen, C = Garcinia kola, D = Celebrex). The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of 200 mg of G. kola, Naproxen (500 mg), Celebrex (200 mg) and Ascorbic acid (100 mg). The primary outcome measure over six weeks study period was the change in mean WOMAC pain visual analogue scales (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in joint stiffness and physical function (mobility/walking). Results 143 patients were recruited, 84 (58.7%, males – 24, females – 60) satisfied the selection criteria and completed the study. The effect of knee osteoarthritis bilateralism among the subjects was not significant on their outcome (p > 0.05). The change in the mean WOMAC pain VAS after six weeks of G. kola was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (p < 0.001). Multiple comparisons of the mean VAS pain change of G. kola group was not lowered significantly against the naproxen and celebrex groups (p > 0.05). The onset of G. kola symptomatic pain relief was faster than the placebo (p < 0.001). However, it was slower than the active comparators (p > 0.05). The duration of therapeutic effect of Garcinia kola was longer than the placebo (p > 0.001). G. kola period of effect was less than naproxen and celebrex (p < 0.001). G. kola subjects had improved mean change mobility/walking after six weeks better than the control group(p < 0.001). The mean change in mobility of the G. kola group when compared to the active comparators was not significantly better (p < 0.05). The mean change of knee joint stiffness (p < 0.001) and the change of mean WOMAC score (p < 0.001) were improved on Garcinia kola as compared to the placebo. The mid term outcome of eleven Garcinia kola subjects after cessation of use had a mean pain relief period of 17.27 +/- 5.15 days (range: 9–26 days). There was no significant cardiovascular, renal or drug induced adverse reaction to Garcinia kola. Conclusion Garcinia kola appeared to have clinically significant analgesic/anti-inflammatory effects in knee osteoarthritis patients. Garcinia kola is a potential osteoarthritis disease activity modifier with good mid term outcome. Further studies are required for standardization of dosages and to determine long-term effects.

Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O; Adesanya, Saburi A; Idowu, Thomas O; Okimi, Oluwakemi C; Oyelami, Oyesiku A; Iwalewa, Ezekiel O

2008-01-01

101

Evaluation of the pharmacophoric motif of the caged Garcinia xanthones†  

PubMed Central

The combination of unique structure and potent bioactivity exhibited by several family members of the caged Garcinia xanthones, led us to evaluate their pharmacophore. We have developed a Pd(0)-catalyzed method for the reverse prenylation of catechols that, together with a Claisen/Diels–Alder reaction cascade, provides rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues. Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activity of these compounds leads to the conclusion that the intact ABC ring system containing the C-ring caged structure is essential to the bioactivity. Studies with cluvenone (7) also showed that these compounds induce apoptosis and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant leukemia cells. As such, the caged Garcinia xanthone motif represents a new and potent pharmacophore.

Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Cho, Woo Cheal; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Moore, Curtis; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

2010-01-01

102

Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical

Olayinka O Adegbehingbe; Saburi A Adesanya; Thomas O Idowu; Oluwakemi C Okimi; Oyesiku A Oyelami; Ezekiel O Iwalewa

2008-01-01

103

Phenolic acid profiles of mangosteen fruits ( Garcinia mangostana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of phenolic acids in various parts of mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) was determined by GC and MS. The total content of phenolic acids, identified by GC-FID ranged from 265.7±12.7 (aril) to 5027.7±188.0 (peel) mg per kg of dry matter of sample. Ten phenolic acids were identified in mangosteen fruit. Of these, protocatechuic acid was the major phenolic acid

Ryszard Zadernowski; Sylwester Czaplicki; Marian Naczk

2009-01-01

104

Opaciniols A-C, new terpenoids from Garcinia opaca.  

PubMed

Three new terpenoids, opaciniols A-C (1-3), were isolated from the barks of Garcinia opaca, together with malabarica-17,21-dien-3?,14-diol (4) and 13?H-malabarica-14,17,21-trien-3?-ol (5). Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. 3 and 4 showed moderate cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells. PMID:23536319

Mori, Reika; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Wong, Chin Piow; Kaneda, Toshio; Shirota, Osamu; Hadi, A Hamid A; Morita, Hiroshi

2013-03-28

105

Cytotoxic alkoxylated xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.  

PubMed

Three new xanthones, garcinolic acid (1), 10?-ethoxy-9,10-dihydromorellic acid (2), and 10?-ethoxy-9,10-dihydrogambogenic acid (3), along with six known compounds were isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. These compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3 and HepG2, and showed high inhibitory effects on the cell lines. PMID:22981505

Deng, Yun-Xia; Pan, Sheng-Li; Zhao, Sheng-Yin; Wu, Meng-Qiang; Sun, Zhong-Qiang; Chen, Xiu-Hua; Shao, Zhi-Yu

2012-09-06

106

Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal evaluation of Garcinia mangostana pericarp and ?-mangostin, its major xanthone derivative.  

PubMed

Five xanthone derivatives and one flavanol were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Garcinia mangostana. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and the major xanthone (?-mangostin) were evaluated in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. The major constituent ?-mangostin was also checked for antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. cheleneoi, M. xenopi and M. intracellulare. Activity against P. falciparum (IC?? 2.7 ?g/mL) and T. brucei (IC?? 0.5 ?g/mL) were observed for the dichloromethane extract, however, with only moderate selectivity was seen based on a parallel cytotoxicity evaluation on MRC-5 cells (IC?? 9.4 ?g/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was inactive (IC?? > 30 µg/mL). The major constituent ?-mangostin showed rather high cytotoxicity (IC?? 7.5 µM) and a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity profile. This in vitro study endorses that the antiprotozoal and antimicrobial potential of prenylated xanthones is non-conclusive in view of the low level of selectivity. PMID:24002136

Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Basudan, Omer A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Farag, Mohamed; Assaf, Mahmoud H; El Tahir, Kamaleldin H; Maes, Louis

2013-09-02

107

Damnacanthal from the Congolese medicinal plant Garcinia huillensis has a potent preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.  

PubMed

Screening of eight Congolese medicinal plants showed that the CHCl(3) and MeOH extracts of Aframomum melegueta (PC(50) ?=?47.8?µg/mL and 13.8?µg/mL, respectively) and CHCl(3) extracts of Garcinia huillensis (PC(50) ?=?17.8?µg/mL) and Securidaca longepedunculata (PC(50) ?=?23.4?µg/mL) had preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells under nutrient-deprived conditions. The active constituents of the CHCl(3) extract of G. huillensis were examined and 12 known anthraquinones were identified. Among them, damnacanthal (1) caused preferential necrotic cell death of PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells under nutrient-deprived and serum-sensitive conditions (PC(50) ?=?4.46?µm and 3.77?µm, respectively). PMID:22447631

Dibwe, Dya Fita; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

2012-03-23

108

Two new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

Two new xanthones, 3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-5'-isopropyl-4',5'-dihydrofuro[2',3'?:?7, 8]-6?,6?-dimethyl-4?,5?-dihydropyrano[2?,3??:?1,2]xanthone (1) and 1,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-8-(3-methylbut-3-enyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2'3'?:?3,2]xanthone (2), were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were elucidated by spectral means (1-D and 2-D NMR, MS). PMID:21809952

Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jin-Ping; Lu, Dan; Li, Ping-Ya; Zhang, Lian-Xue

2011-08-02

109

Friedolanostanes and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia hombroniana.  

PubMed

The twigs of Garcinia hombroniana yielded six compounds: two 17,14-friedolanostanes (garcihombronanes K-L, 1-2) and four xanthones (garcihombronones A-D, 3-6) together with 14 known compounds including four friedolanostanes, one lanostane, six xanthones, two benzoic acid derivatives and one biflavonoid. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those reported previously. Their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and S. aureus was evaluated. PMID:23022020

Klaiklay, Saranyoo; Sukpondma, Yaowapa; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak

2012-09-27

110

Three new xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.  

PubMed

Three new xanthones, 22,23-dihydroxydihydrogambogenic acid (1), 12-hydroxygambogefic acid A (2), and hanburixanthone (3), along with thirteen known compounds were isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and by comparison with related model compounds. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against A549, HCT116, and MDA-MB-231, and most of them showed significant effects on the cell lines. PMID:23670620

Deng, Yun-Xia; Guo, Tao; Shao, Zhi-Yu; Xie, Hui; Pan, Sheng-Li

2013-05-13

111

Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii.

Sosef, Marc S.M.; Dauby, Gilles

2012-01-01

112

Thermogenic Effect from Nutritionally Enriched Coffee Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionally enriched JavaFit™ (JF) coffee (450 mg of caffeine, 1200 mg of garcinia cambogia, 360 mg of citrus aurantium extract, and 225 mcg of chromium polynicotinate) on resting oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) in healthy and physically active individuals.

Jay R. Hoffman; Jie Kang; Nicholas A. Ratamess; Peter F. Jennings; Gerald Mangine; Avery D Faigenbaum

2006-01-01

113

Separation of Hydroxycitric Acid Lactone from Fruit Pectins and Polyhydroxyphenols on Poly(4-Vinylpyridine) Weak-Base Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) has been used for the separation of hydroxycitric acid lactone (HCAL) from polyhydroxyphenols and fruit pectins, as the study has relevance to the problem of extraction of the antiobesity substance hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia cambogia fruits, a rich source of the acid. PVP has been used both in free-base form and in protonated or salt form as a

M. CHANDA; G. L. REMPEL

2000-01-01

114

Antileptospiral activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and synergy of gamma-mangostin with penicillin G  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis, one of the most widespread zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide, is caused by spirochetes bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The present study examined inhibitory activity of purified xanthones and crude extracts from Garcinia mangostana against both non-pathogenic and pathogenic leptospira. Synergy between ?-mangostin and penicillin G against leptospires was also determined. Methods Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of crude extracts and purified xanthones from G. mangostana and penicillin G for a non-pathogenic (L. biflexa serovar Patoc) and pathogenic (L. interrogans serovar Bataviae, Autumnalis, Javanica and Saigon) leptospires were determined by using broth microdilution method and alamar blue. The synergy was evaluated by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. Results The results of broth microdilution test demonstrated that the crude extract and purified xanthones from mangosteen possessed antileptospiral activities. The crude extracts were active against all five serovars of test leptospira with MICs ranging from 200 to???800 ?g/ml. Among the crude extracts and purified xanthones, garcinone C was the most active compound against both of pathogenic (MIC =100 ?g/ml) and non-pathogenic leptospira (MIC?=?200 ?g/ml). However, these MIC values were higher than those of traditional antibiotics. Combinations of ?-mangostin with penicillin G generated synergistic effect against L. interrogans serovars Bataviae, Autumnalis and Javanica (FIC?=?0.52, 0.50, and 0.04, respectively) and no interaction against L. biflexa serovar Patoc (FIC =0.75). However, antagonistic activity (FIC?=?4.03) was observed in L. interrogans serovar Saigon. Conclusions Crude extracts and purified xanthones from fruit pericarp of G. mangostana with significant antibacterial activity may be used to control leptospirosis. The combination of xanthone with antibiotic enhances the antileptospiral efficacy.

2013-01-01

115

?-Glucosidase inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity of prenylated xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

An ethanol extract of the fruit case of Garcinia mangostan, whose most abundant chemical species are xanthones, showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC(50)=3.2 ?g/ml). A series of isolated xanthones (1-16) demonstrated modest to high inhibition of ?-glucosidase with IC(50) values of 1.5-63.5 ?M. In particular, one hitherto unknown xanthone 16 has a very rare 2-oxoethyl group on C-8. Kinetic enzymatic assays with a p-nitrophenyl glucopyranoside indicated that one of them, compound (9) exhibited the highest activity (K(i)=1.4 ?M) and mixed inhibition. Using, a physiologically relevant substrate, maltose, as substrate, many compounds (6, 9, 14, and 15) also showed potent inhibition which ranged between 17.5 and 53.5 ?M and thus compared favorably with deoxynojirimycin (IC(50)=68.8 ?M). Finally, the actual pharmacological potential of the ethanol extract was demonstrated by showing that it could elicit reduction of postprandial blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the most active ?-glucosidase inhibitors (6, 9, and 14) were proven to be present in high quantities in the native seedcase by a HPLC chromatogram. PMID:21872893

Ryu, Hyung Won; Cho, Jung Keun; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Yuk, Heung Joo; Kim, Young Soo; Jung, Sunin; Kim, Young Suk; Lee, Byong Won; Park, Ki Hun

2011-08-27

116

Assay-guided fractionation study of alpha-amylase inhibitors from Garcinia mangostana pericarp.  

PubMed

Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) activity of Garcinia mangostana, commonly known as mangosteen, pericarp extracts was studied by assay guided fractionations from lipophilic to hydrophilic using combined solvent extraction and Amberlite XAD2 adsorption chromatography. Neither the lipophilic, xanthone containing fraction, nor the highly polar fraction, which has no affinity on Amberlite XAD2, showed any alpha-AI. The fraction that shows very high inhibitory activity contains primarily polyphenols and can be adsorbed on Amberlite XAD2. The IC50 of 5.4 microg/mL of this fraction is comparable to that of acarbose, a prescribed alpha-AI used in the control of type II diabetes, at 5.2 microg/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC) of each fraction was measured and the TPC has no correlation with the alpha-AI activity. The lipophilic fraction contains mainly xanthones as revealed by HPLC-MS analysis. Colorimetric analysis coupled with UV-vis and IR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that the fractions with high alpha-AI activity are primarily oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) with little gallate moiety. There is also evidence to show that the alpha-AI by these OPCs is not purely by nonspecific protein complexation. Both tannic acid and G. mangostana OPCs precipitate BSA equally well but G. mangostana OPCs are 56 times more effective in inhibiting alpha-amylase. PMID:17960880

Loo, Alvin Eng Kiat; Huang, Dejian

2007-10-26

117

Effect of Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonols on protein synthesis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) known as Aki-ilu (meaning bitter kola) is a large economic tree indigenous to the southern part of Nigeria. Its seeds have been of interest\\u000a to researchers because of its use in the treatment of various disease conditions in Nigerian traditional medicine. The effect\\u000a of the Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonols GB1 and GB2 on the rate of protein synthesis

Ifeanyi I. Madubunyi

118

Phytochemical analysis and antinociceptive properties of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu.  

PubMed

In a search for new and effective analgesic substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present study evaluates the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the methanol extract and a pure compound obtained from the seeds of Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae). The methanolic seed extract was directly subjected to purification by column chromatography and the purification was monitored by thin-layer chromatography. The main isolated compound was identified as Guttiferone A by comparison of conventional spectroscopic data (IR, NMR-(1)H and (13)C) to the literature data which was isolated for the first time from this plant. When evaluated in the acetic acid-induced nociception model in mice, the methanolic seed extract had an ID(50) (Inhibitory dose) of 13.1 (11.23-14.91) mg/kg and a maximal inhibition of 72 ± 4%. In the same model, Guttiferone A had an ID(50) of 4.54 (3.29-6.24) mg/kg and a maximal inhibition of 73 ± 5%. The methanolic seed extract and Guttiferone A were also active in pain models induced by formalin, capsaicin, glutamate and carrageenan. These data suggest that the antinociceptive effect of Guttiferone A partly depends on its interference with the synthesis or activity of the cytokine TNF-?, the keratinocyte-derived chemokine KC, and/or PGE(2). These data support, at least in part, the use of G. achachairu in folk medicine and suggest that this plant is an important source of compounds with a suitable profile for development as new and effective medicinal agents to treat pain processes. PMID:22553054

Dal Molin, Marlova Manhabosco; Silva, Suellen; Alves, Douglas Rafael; Quintão, Nara Lins Meira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo

2012-05-03

119

Antibacterial dihydrobenzopyran and xanthone derivatives from Garcinia cowa stem barks.  

PubMed

Two new compounds, garciniacowol (1) and garciniacowone (2) along with 15 knowncompounds were isolated from the stem barks of Garcinia cowa. Their structures weredetermined by intensive spectroscopic methods. The structure of 1 was a symmetrical dimericdihydrobenzopyran derivative, whereas the framework of 2 was a triprenyl caged-xanthoneprecursor. The antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Salmonellatyphimurium TISTR 292, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) SK1 of the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Compounds 2 and 9 exhibitedgood antibacterial activity against MRSA SK1 with the same minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) value of 2 ?g/mL. Moreover, compound 2 also showed good antibacterial activityagainst S. aureus with an MIC value of 2 ?g/mL. PMID:23339255

Siridechakorn, Ittipon; Phakhodee, Wong; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Promgool, Trinop; Deachathai, Suwanna; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Prawat, Uma; Laphookhieo, Surat

2012-12-01

120

Xanthones with quinone reductase-inducing activity from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).  

PubMed

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a dichloromethane-soluble extract of Garcinia mangostana fruits has led to the isolation and identification of five compounds, including two xanthones, 1,2-dihydro-1,8,10-trihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-9-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3,2-a]xanthen-11-one (1) and 6-deoxy-7-demethylmangostanin (2), along with three known compounds, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (3), mangostanin (4), and alpha-mangostin (5). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined from analysis of their spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds in the present study together with eleven other compounds previously isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen, were tested in an in vitro quinone reductase-induction assay using murine hepatoma cells (Hepa 1c1c7) and an in vitro hydroxyl radical antioxidant assay. Of these, compounds 1-4 induced quinone reductase (concentration to double enzyme induction, 0.68-2.2microg/mL) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells and gamma-mangostin (6) exhibited hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (IC50, 0.20microg/mL). PMID:17991497

Chin, Young-Won; Jung, Hyun-Ah; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2007-11-07

121

Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis  

PubMed Central

Background Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 ?g/ml?M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 ?g/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 ?g/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). Conclusions The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude extract from G. nobilis, O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis as well as some of their compounds, and mostly compound 2 (isolated from G. nobilis,) could be considered as interesting natural antibacterial products.

2013-01-01

122

Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX).  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence demonstrates the efficacy of Garcinia cambogia-derived natural (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) in weight management by curbing appetite and inhibiting body fat biosynthesis. However, the exact mechanism of action of this novel phytopharmaceutical has yet to be fully understood. In a previous study, we showed that in the rat brain cortex a novel HCA extract (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax) increases the release/availability of radiolabeled 5-hydroxytryptamine or serotonin ([3H]-5-HT), a neurotransmitter implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and appetite control. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: (a) to determine the effect of HCA-SX on 5-HT uptake in rat brain cortex in vitro; and (b) to evaluate the safety of HCA-SX in vivo. Isolated rat brain cortex slices were incubated in oxygenated Krebs solution for 20 min and transferred to buffer solutions containing [3H]-5-HT for different time intervals. In some experiments, tissues were exposed to HCA-SX (10 microM - 1 mM) and the serotonin receptor reuptake inhibitors (SRRI) fluoxetine (100 microM) plus clomipramine (10 microM). Uptake of [3H]-5-HT was expressed as d.p.m./mg wet weight. A time-dependent uptake of [3H]-5-HT occurred in cortical slices reaching a maximum at 60 min. HCA-SX, and fluoxetine plus clomipramine inhibited the time-dependent uptake of [3H]-5-HT. At 90 min, HCA-SX (300 microM) caused a 20% decrease, whereas fluoxetine plus clomipramine inhibited [3H]-5-HT uptake by 30%. In safety studies, acute oral toxicity, acute dermal toxicity, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation, were conducted in animals using various doses of HCA-SX. Results indicate that the LD50 of HCA-SX is greater than 5,000 mg/kg when administered once orally via gastric intubation to fasted male and female Albino rats. No gross toxicological findings were observed under the experimental conditions. Taken together, these in vivo toxicological studies demonstrate that HCA-SX is a safe, natural supplement under the conditions it was tested. Furthermore, HCA-SX can inhibit [3H]-5-HT uptake (and also increase 5-HT availability) in isolated rat brain cortical slices in a manner similar to that of SRRIs, and thus may prove beneficial in controlling appetite, as well as treatment of depression, insomnia, migraine headaches and other serotonin-deficient conditions. PMID:12349913

Ohia, Sunny E; Opere, Catherine A; LeDay, Angela M; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

2002-09-01

123

Antimalarial xanthones from Calophyllum caledonicum and Garcinia vieillardii.  

PubMed

The antimalarial activity of 22 xanthones against chloroquino-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated. Natural caloxanthone C (1), demethylcalabaxanthone (2), calothwaitesixanthone (3), calozeyloxanthone (4), dombakinaxanthone (5), macluraxanthone (6), and 6-deoxy-gamma-mangostin (7) were isolated from Calophyllum caledonicum. 1,6-dihydroxyxanthone (8), pancixanthone A (9), isocudraniaxanthone B (10), isocudraniaxanthone A (11), 2-deprenylrheediaxanthone B (12) and 1,4,5-trihydroxyxanthone (13) were isolated from Garcinia vieillardii. Moreover, synthetic compounds (14-22) are analogues or intermediates of xanthones purified from Calophyllum caledonicum (Oger J.M., Morel C., Helesbeux J.J., Litaudon M., Seraphin D., Dartiguelongue C., Larcher G., Richomme P., Duval O. 2003. First 2-Hydroxy-3-Methylbut-3-Enyl substituted xanthones isolated from Plants: structure elucidation, synthesis and antifungal activity. Natural Product Research 17(3), 195-199; Helesbeux J.J., Duval O., Dartiguelongue C., Seraphin D., Oger J.M., Richomme P., 2004. Synthesis of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl substituted coumarins and xanthones as natural products. Application of the Schenck ene reaction of singlet oxygen with ortho-prenylphenol precursors. Tetrahedron 60(10), 2293-2300). The relationship between antimalarial activity and molecular structure of xanthones has also been explored. The most potent xanthones (2), (3) and (7) (IC50 = c.a. 1.0 microg/mL) are 1,3,7 trioxygenated and prenylated on the positions 2 and 8. PMID:15474559

Hay, Anne-Emmanuelle; Hélesbeux, Jean-Jacques; Duval, Olivier; Labaïed, Medhi; Grellier, Philippe; Richomme, Pascal

2004-11-01

124

Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as

Subhash Padhye; Aamir Ahmad; Nikhil Oswal; Fazlul H Sarkar

2009-01-01

125

Postharvest Storage Characteristics of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola Heckel.) in Imo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) as carried out by peasant farmers cum traders in Imo State, Nigeria, was studied to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. Five storage material namely: Polyethylene Bags (PB), Cement Bag Paper (CBP), Dry Plantain Leaves (DPL), Fresh Plantain Leaves FPL) and Sawdust were utilized in a

M. O. Ofor; M. I. Nwufo; I. J. Ogoke; A. A. Ngwuta; I. I Ibeawuchi; C. I. Duruigbo

2010-01-01

126

Colour development and quality of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening and after harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit changes from green to purple black after harvest as the fruit ripens, and is used as a quality guide for growers and consumers. We determined the relationship between anthocyanin composition and content during fruit colour development in relation to fruit maturity and postharvest quality. Fruit at different stages of maturity (light greenish

Y. Palapol; S. Ketsa; D. Stevenson; J. M. Cooney; A. C. Allan; I. B. Ferguson

2009-01-01

127

The potential health benefit of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia and related genera: ethnobotanical and therapeutic importance.  

PubMed

The diversity present in biological activities and the medicinal significance of natural products provide a renewed interest in the use of natural compounds and, more importantly, their role as a basis for drug development. Advancements in the field of natural product chemistry provide valuable information on Garcinia fruits which revealed the presence of biologically important secondary metabolites named as polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PIBs). They are mainly present in the genus Garcinia (Guttiferae) which occupies a prominent position in the history of natural products. Compared to the long history of medicinal uses and widespread research on Garcinia, the study of polyisoprenylated benzophenones was relatively limited. During recent years, these PIBs have been recognized as interesting and valuable biologically active secondary metabolites as many of the isolated polyisoprenylated benzophenones exhibited significant cytotoxic activity in in vitro and in vivo assay. During past decades, some promising advances had been achieved in understanding the chemistry and pharmacology of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. However, there has been not any systematic review on the ethnobotanical importance, chemistry, isolation techniques, structure activity relationships and the biological activities of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. In this review, the biological activity of different structures of polyisoprenylated benzophenones isolated from genus Clusia, Garcinia, Vismia, Allanblackia, Moronobea, Symphonia, Hypericum, Tovomita, Tovomiptosis and Ochrocarpus have been described. Therefore, the goal of this review article would be a valuable reference for the natural product chemists and biologists working on these PIBs. Furthermore, the review article on polyisoprenylated benzophenones would also be useful from the drug discovery point of view as cytotoxic agents in near future. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of Garcinia fruits, which may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses, potential drug or food interactions and may benefit people where the fruits are prevalent and healthcare resources are scarce. PMID:23685044

Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar

2013-05-17

128

Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells.

Primchanien Moongkarndi; Nuttavut Kosem; Omboon Luanratana; Suna Jongsomboonkusol; Narongchai Pongpan

2004-01-01

129

Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Primchanien Moongkarndi; Nuttavut Kosem; Omboon Luanratana; Suna Jongsomboonkusol; Narongchai Pongpanb

2004-01-01

130

Influence of Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonols on RNA synthesis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes and in purified liver cell nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) known as “Aki-ilu” (meaning bitter kola) in Igbo language is a large economic tree indigenous to the\\u000a southern part of Nigeria. The seeds from this tree have been of interest to researchers because of its use in the treatment\\u000a of various disease conditions in Nigerian traditional medicine. The influence of the Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonols, GB1 and GB2,

Ifeanyi Innocent Madubunyi

131

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents  

PubMed Central

The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver.

Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

2012-01-01

132

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents.  

PubMed

The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol-elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

Panda, Vandana; Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

2012-12-01

133

Leishmanicidal, antiproteolytic and antioxidant evaluation of natural biflavonoids isolated from Garcinia brasiliensis and their semisynthetic derivatives.  

PubMed

The natural biflavonoids morelloflavone-4?-O-?-D-glycosyl (1), (±)-fukugiside (2) and morelloflavone (3) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (EAEE) of dried and powdered fruit epicarps of Garcinia brasiliensis and derivatives of morelloflavone were semi-synthesised. Morelloflavone-7,4',7?,3?,4?-penta-O-acetyl (4), morelloflavone-7,4',7?,3?,4?-penta-O-methyl (5) and morelloflavone-7,4',7?,3?,4?-penta-O-butanoyl (6) were prepared by acylation and alkylation reactions. All compounds showed leishmanicidal, antiproteolytic and antioxidant activities in addition to exhibiting low cytotoxicity. Compounds 4, 5 and 6 were highly active against Leishmania amazonensis promastigote forms compared to natural compounds of low lipophilicity, exhibiting IC(50) values of 0.0147, 0.0403 and 0.0189 ?M, respectively. Compounds 4, 5 and 6 were also highly active against amastigote forms with IC(50) values of 0.042, 0.0603 and 0.059 ?M, respectively. In addition, highly inhibitory activity against r-CPB2.8 and r-CPB3 isoforms was observed with these compounds. Notably, compounds 3 and 4 were the most active against r-CPB2.8 with IC(50) values of 0.4200 and 0.6744 ?M, respectively. Compounds 5 and 6 also showed significant inhibitory activities with very similar IC(50) values of 1.2663 and 1.0122, respectively. However, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited the lowest inhibitory activity against r-CPB2.8, almost 6 and 11-fold less active than the natural compound 3. In L. (L.) amazonensis lysates, and compounds 3 and 6 were the most active inhibitors of amastigote lysates at pH 5, which is near the pH environment of the parasitophorous vacuole within the macrophage. Finally, compounds 1, 2 and 3 exhibited effective antioxidant activity compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. However, the activity was lower than that of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), which may be related to the reduced number of phenolic hydroxyl groups that were replaced by more lipophilic substituents in derivatives 4-6. Compounds 4-6 exhibited reduced antioxidant activity as evidenced by their higher EC(50) values. These results provide new perspectives on drug development for the treatment of leishmaniasis and inhibitory enzyme activity on Leishmania (L.) mexicana cysteine proteases and other isoforms. PMID:23178961

Gontijo, Vanessa Silva; Judice, Wagner A S; Codonho, Barbara; Pereira, Ivan Oliveira; Assis, Diego Magno; Januário, Jaqueline Pereira; Caroselli, Elide E; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; de Carvalho Dosatti, Amanda; Marques, Marcos José; Viegas Junior, Claudio; Henrique dos Santos, Marcelo

2012-06-28

134

In vitro antimicrobial activity of less-utilized spice and herb extracts against selected food-borne bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compared the antimicrobial activities of extracts from four under-utilized spices and herbs including goraka (Garcinia quaesita), galangal (Alpinia galanga), lemon iron bark (Eucalyptus staigerana) and mountain pepper (Tasmannia lanceolata) to the three common spices and herbs pepper (Piper nigrum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and oregano (Oreganum vulgare). Different extraction solvents were used (water, ethanol and hexane) and

Nimsha S. Weerakkody; Nola Caffin; Mark S. Turner; Gary A. Dykes

2010-01-01

135

Two new prenylated xanthones and a new prenylated tetrahydroxanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

Two new prenylated xanthones and a new prenylated tetrahydroxanthone, garcimangosxanthone A-C (1-3), along with fourteen known xanthones were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against A549, LAC and A375 cell lines with IC(50) values of 5.7-24.9 microM, which were comparable to those of doxorubicin. PMID:20176087

Zhang, Yaozheng; Song, Zhijun; Hao, Jing; Qiu, Shengxiang; Xu, Zhifang

2010-02-20

136

1-MCP extends the storage and shelf life of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit were harvested when the peel (pericarp) was light greenish yellow with scattered pinkish spots. Fruit were exposed to 1?LL?1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 6h at 25°C and were then stored at 25°C (control) or 15°C. The 1-MCP treatment only temporarily delayed softening of the fruit flesh, during storage. Storage life, defined as the time until the

Phatchara Piriyavinit; Saichol Ketsa; Wouter G. van Doorn

2011-01-01

137

A MYB transcription factor regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit undergo rapid red colour development, both on the tree and after harvest, resulting in high anthocyanin production\\u000a in the pericarp. Here, we report the isolation of three full-length mangosteen MYB transcription factors (GmMYB1, GmMYB7 and GmMYB10) and all the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (GmPal to GmUFGT). Phylogenetic analysis at the protein level of the R2R3-MYB

Yossapol Palapol; Saichol Ketsa; Kui Lin-Wang; Ian B. Ferguson; Andrew C. Allan

2009-01-01

138

Xanthone and Sesquiterpene Derivatives from the Fruits of Garcinia s cortechinii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruits of Garcinia scortechinii afforded 10 new compounds: four caged-tetraprenylated xanthones (scortechinones Q-T, 1-4), four rearranged xanthones (scortechinones U-X, 5-8), and two sesquiterpene derivatives (scortechterpenes A, B, 9, 10), together with 14 known compounds: one sesquiterpene, two biflavonoids, and 11 caged-polyprenylated xanthones. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those

Yaowapa Sukpondma; Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul; Souwalak Phongpaichit

2005-01-01

139

Investigations on possible serotonergic involvement in effects of OB200G (polyherbal preparation) on food intake in female mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background OB-200G is a polyherbal preparation containing aqueous extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Gymnema sylvestre, Zingiber officinale, Piper longum and resin from Commiphora mukul, all possessing thermogenic properties. Our previous studies reveal OB-200G to exert antiobesity effects in dietary animal\\u000a models of obesity. Aim of the study The present study investigated the possible involvement of serotonergic system in the effect

Gurpreet Kaur; Shrinivas Krishnarao Kulkarni

2001-01-01

140

Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium\\/potassium salt of (?)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of\\u000a the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation,\\u000a oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated

Mohammad Asghar; Emmanuel Monjok; Ghislaine Kouamou; Sunny E. Ohia; Debasis Bagchi; Mustafa F. Lokhandwala

2007-01-01

141

Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional coffee beverage containing additional caffeine, green tea extracts, niacin and garcinia cambogia to regular coffee to determine the effects on resting energy expenditure (REE) and hemodynamic variables. METHODS: Subjects included five male (26 ± 2.1 y, 97.16 ± 10.05 kg, 183.89 ± 6.60 cm) and five

Lemuel W Taylor; Colin D Wilborn; Travis Harvey; Jennifer Wismann; Darryn S Willoughby

2007-01-01

142

Potency of extract contents from selected tropical chewing sticks against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus auricularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of enteropathogenic Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus auricularis, NIAH 11484 and Staphylococcus aureus, IFO 12732) were tested in vitro for their resistance to extracts from tropical chewing stick species, namely, Garcinia mannii Heck, Masularia accuminata (G. Don) Benth, Zanthoxylum gilletii (DeWild) Waterman, Terminalia glaucescens Plauch ex Benth, Azadiracta indica A. Juss, Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill & Perr and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.).

J. A. Akande; Y. Hayashi

1998-01-01

143

New "hyphenated" CPC-HPLC-DAD-MS strategy for simultaneous isolation, analysis and identification of phytochemicals: application to xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) coupled online with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) is presented in this work. This strategy offers the possibility to obtain simultaneously CPC fractionation of natural extracts, the HPLC fingerprint of separated fractions and structural information on molecules contained in each fraction. This new approach was applied to the fractionation and purification of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (Clusiaceae) pericarp. A biphasic solvent system of heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:1:2:1, v/v) was used for the CPC separation of 175 mg crude ethanolic extract. The HPLC analysis was conducted with a reversed-phase monolithic column allowing fast and repeatable separation. This combined CPC-HPLC-DAD-MS method led to isolation of 33 mg ?-mangostin and 6 mg ?-mangostin at 98% and 98.5% purity, respectively, in 140 min. Furthermore, in the same time a total of 16 other xanthones were detected in the extract, and ten of them were identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra. PMID:23052874

Michel, Thomas; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Elfakir, Claire

2012-10-09

144

A new biphenyl and other constituents from the wood of Garcinia schomburgkiana.  

PubMed

A new biphenyl, named schomburgbiphenyl (1), and 14 known compounds were isolated from the wood of Garcinia schomburgkiana. The known constituents were identified as follows: three xanthones (2, 8 and 9), two benzophenones (3 and 4), three biphenyls (5-7), three biflavonoids (10-12) and three steroids. Compounds 3 and 4 were highly cytotoxic to SW620 cell line (100 times more than the positive control, doxorubicin) and were also strongly active against KATO-III, HepG2 and CHAGO cell lines. Compound 6 was specifically cytotoxic towards SW620 cells, whereas compound 8 displayed strong cytotoxicity against all five cell lines tested. PMID:23672215

Mungmee, Chutichot; Sitthigool, Supotchana; Buakeaw, Anumart; Suttisri, Rutt

2013-05-14

145

Three novel xanthones from Garcinia paucinervis and their anti-TMV activity.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis resulted in the isolation of three new xanthones 1-3 and five known analogues 4-8. Structural elucidations of 1-3 were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D (HMQC, HMBC, and ROESY) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-3 showed anti-TMV activities, with inhibition rates above 20%, especially for 1, which had a lower IC?? value of 21.4 µM. PMID:23945641

Wu, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Zhen-Yuan; Kong, Guang-Hui; Lu, Xiu-Ping; Hu, Qiu-Fen; Gao, Xue-Mei

2013-08-13

146

Effects of bagging and storage temperature on anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia- lyase (PAL) activity in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit pericarp during maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ratanamarno, S.1, Uthaibutra, J.2 and Saengnil, K.3 Effects of bagging and storage temperature on anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit pericarp during maturation

Sujitra Ratanamarno; Jamnong Uthaibutra

147

Xanthones from the Botanical Dietary Supplement Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) with Aromatase Inhibitory Activity  

PubMed Central

Twelve xanthone constituents of the botanical dietary supplement, mangosteen (the pericarp of Garcinia mangostina) were screened using a non-cellular, enzyme-based microsomal aromatase inhibition assay. Of these compounds, garcinone D (3), garcinone E (5)?-mangostin (8), and ?-mangostin (9) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity. In a follow-up cell-based assay using SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells that express high levels of aromatase, the most potent of these four xanthones was ?-mangostin (9). Because xanthones may be consumed in substantial amounts from commercially available mangosteen products, the consequences of frequent intake of mangosteen botanical dietary supplements requires further investigation to determine their possible role in breast cancer chemoprevention.

Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

2008-01-01

148

Xanthones from the botanical dietary supplement mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) with aromatase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Twelve xanthone constituents of the botanical dietary supplement mangosteen (the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana) were screened using a noncellular, enzyme-based microsomal aromatase inhibition assay. Of these compounds, garcinone D (3), garcinone E (5), alpha-mangostin (8), and gamma-mangostin (9) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity. In a follow-up cell-based assay using SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells that express high levels of aromatase, the most potent of these four xanthones was gamma-mangostin (9). Because xanthones may be consumed in substantial amounts from commercially available mangosteen products, the consequences of frequent intake of mangosteen botanical dietary supplements require further investigation to determine their possible role in breast cancer chemoprevention. PMID:18558747

Balunas, Marcy J; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2008-06-18

149

Antibacterial activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (L.) and their structure-activity relationship studies.  

PubMed

Antibacterial activities of prenylated xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and their synthetic analogues were investigated, and their structure-activity relationships have been studied. ?-Mangostin has shown antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE) strains at MICs 3.13, 6.25, 6.25 and 6.25 µg mL(-1), respectively. In these experiments, gentamicin was used as the positive control. Further, some analogues of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin were synthesised and their activity was tested against MRSA and VRE strains. The analysis of the bioassay results above indicated that, the combination of C-6 and C-3 hydroxyl groups along with the prenyl side chain at C-2 in the 1,3,6,7-tetraoxygenated xanthones from G. mangostana is essential to have a high antibacterial activity. PMID:22494050

Dharmaratne, H R W; Sakagami, Yoshikazu; Piyasena, K G P; Thevanesam, Vasanthi

2012-04-11

150

A-ring oxygenation modulates the chemistry and bioactivity of caged Garcinia xanthones.  

PubMed

Natural products of the caged Garcinia xanthones (CGX) family are characterized by a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities and promising pharmacological profiles. We have developed a Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction cascade that, in combination with a Pd(0)-catalyzed reverse prenylation, provides rapid and efficient access to the CGX pharmacophore, represented by the structure of cluvenone. To further explore this pharmacophore, we have synthesized various A-ring oxygenated analogues of cluvenone and have evaluated their bioactivities in terms of growth inhibition, mitochondrial fragmentation, induction of mitochondrial-dependent cell death and Hsp90 client inhibition. We found that installation of an oxygen functionality at various positions of the A-ring influences significantly both the site-selectivity of the Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction and the bioactivity of these compounds, due to remote electronic effects. PMID:23563530

Elbel, Kristyna M; Guizzunti, Gianni; Theodoraki, Maria A; Xu, Jing; Batova, Ayse; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

2013-05-28

151

Morphological and biochemical investigation into the possible neuroprotective effects of kolaviron (Garcinia kola bioflavonoid) on the brains of rats exposed to vanadium.  

PubMed

In this study, the morphological and biochemical susceptibility of the rat brain to vanadium, in the form of sodium metavanadate, and the comparative ameliorative effect of Garcinia kola and kolaviron (G. kola extract), was examined. Brain regions examined were the cerebrum, cerebellum, hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. We showed that vanadium administration caused cellular vacuolation, congestion, and Purkinje cell degeneration and a marked reduction in myelin tracts. Biochemical tests revealed increased lipid peroxidation induced by vanadium, which was ameliorated with the administration of G. kola and kolaviron. Vanadium administration caused an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the cerebrum and hippocampus, whereas the administration of kolaviron resulted in a reduction of the TBARS level by 65.7 and 80%, respectively, in the regions aforementioned. Also, the administration of kolaviron resulted in an increased activity of superoxide dismutase (61.24%) in all brain regions assessed, when compared with the group administered vanadium alone. Results obtained from this study led to the conclusion that kolaviron reduces vanadium-induced oxidative stress in the brain. PMID:22288905

Igado, Olumayowa O; Olopade, James O; Adesida, Adebukola; Aina, Oluwasanmi O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

2012-01-31

152

Inhibitory activities of compounds from the twigs of Garcinia hombroniana Pierre on human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and platelet aggregation.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the twigs of Garcinia hombroniana, which showed strong LDL antioxidation and antiplatelet aggregation activities, was subjected to column chromatography to obtain 3,5,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone and eight triterpenoids, garcihombronane B, D, E and F, friedelin, glutin-5-en-3?-ol, stigmasterol and lupeol. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit copper-mediated LDL oxidation and arachidonic acid (AA)-, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Among the compounds tested, 3,5,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone showed strong inhibitory activity on LDL oxidation with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 6.6 and 1.7?µM, respectively. 3,5,3',5'-Tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone exhibited strong activity on AA-, ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 53.6, 125.7 and 178.6?µM, respectively, while 1,7 dihydroxyxanthone showed significant and selective inhibitory activity against ADP-induced aggregation with IC(50) value of 5.7?µM. Of the triterpenoids tested, garcihombronane B showed moderate activity against LDL oxidation and garcihombronane D and F showed selective inhibition on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. PMID:22422639

Saputri, Fadlina Chany; Jantan, Ibrahim

2012-03-15

153

An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX) for weight management.  

PubMed

Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a safe, natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, a key enzyme which facilitates the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides. Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated the superior bioavailability of a novel calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax). Greater bioavailability of HCA-SX was observed when taken on an empty stomach. HCA-SX was also shown to exhibit concentration-dependent release of serotonin in isolated rat brain cortex, which may explain its appetite suppressive action. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, primary eye irritation and 90-day chronic toxicity studies, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation and mouse lymphoma tests, were assessed to determine the safety of HCA-SX. In the 90-day toxicity study, dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX were assessed on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathology in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. No remarkable toxicity results were detected, demonstrating the safety of HCA-SX. Furthermore, clinical studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HCA-SX over a period of eight weeks were conducted in 60 human volunteers. Subjects were given a 2,000 kcal diet/day, participated in a 30 min walking exercise program 5 days/week and given an oral dose of placebo or 4666.7 mg HCA-SX (providing 2,800 mg HCA) in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals, Body weight, BMI, lipid profiles, serum leptin, serotonin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites were determined at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Food intake, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced, while HDL and serotonin levels, and excretion of urinary fat metabolites (a biomarker of fat oxidation) significantly increased. No significant adverse effects were reported. These results demonstrate the safety, bioavailability and efficacy of HCA-SX in weight management. PMID:18084863

Preuss, H G; Rao, C V S; Garis, R; Bramble, J D; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

2004-01-01

154

Isolation of six isoprenylated biflavonoids from the leaves of Garcinia subelliptica.  

PubMed

The acetone-soluble parts of Garcinia subelliptica leaves were analyzed and six new biflavonoids were isolated, i.e., garciniaflavones A-F (1-6), as well as the five known biflavonoids amentoflavone (7), podocarpusflavone A (8), (+)-morelloflavone (9), (+)-morelloflavone-7"-O-?-glucopyranoside (10), and (+)-4'''-O-methylmorelloflavone (11) and the three triterpenoids oleanan-3-one, ?-amyrin, and cycloartenol. The structures of the isolates were established based on spectroscopic analyses, including a detailed NMR spectroscopic investigation. The new biflavonoids are rare mono-isoprenylated derivatives that have a flavone-(3'-8")-flavone core (1-4: amentoflavone type) and a flavanone-(3-8")-flavone core (5, 6: morelloflavone type). The absolute configurations of the morelloflavone-type biflavonoids (5, 6) were confirmed by circular dichroism to be 2R,3S. The biflavonoids with an isoprenyloxy group (1) and a 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl group (2), and the morelloflavone-type biflavonoids with a C(5) unit are the first examples in nature. We found that 7, one of the major biflavonoids, strongly inhibited hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells under hypoxic conditions. PMID:23649198

Ito, Tetsuro; Yokota, Renpei; Watarai, Tatsuya; Mori, Koki; Oyama, Masayoshi; Nagasawa, Hideko; Matsuda, Hideaki; Iinuma, Munekazu

2013-01-01

155

Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus  

PubMed Central

Objective To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity.

Sunkar, Swetha; Nachiyar, C Valli

2012-01-01

156

Antimicrobial effects of three tropical plant extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of Cymbopogon citatrus (lemongrass) and Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and the seed extracts of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) were carried out. G. kola had effect only on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with no inhibition on Candida albicans. Ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Cymbopogon citratus showed inhibition on the three organism but G. kola ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts only inhibited S. aureus and E. coli with no inhibition on Candida albicans. The organism's susceptibility varied with more inhibition to S. aureus and least to Candida albicans. PMID:20161941

Okigbo, R N; Mmeka, E C

2008-04-10

157

Unified synthesis of caged Garcinia natural products based on a site-selective Claisen/Diels-Alder/Claisen rearrangement  

PubMed Central

A unified synthetic strategy toward caged Garcinia natural products has been designed and implemented. Central to the strategy is a tandem Claisen/Diels–Alder/Claisen rearrangement of a suitably substituted xanthone precursor to form forbesione (1a). Serving as a template, forbesione is then used to deliver representative members of this family, including desoxygaudichaudione A (4), desoxymorellin (5), and gambogin (10). Studies on the timing of this reaction cascade suggest that the C-ring Claisen/Diels–Alder rearrangement proceeds initially and is followed by the A-ring Claisen reaction. The electronic and steric effects that govern the outcome of this cascade are presented.

Tisdale, Eric J.; Slobodov, Irina; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

2004-01-01

158

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50 < 3 microg/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant. Their respective petroleum ether soluble fractions also exhibited an antiplasmodial activity with IC50 < 3 microg/ml. EtOH extracts from Vernonia amygdalina leaves (5 < IC50 < 10 microg/ml), Tetracera poggei leaves (10 < IC50 < 50 microg/ml) and Morinda morindoides leaves (50 < IC50 < 100 microg/ml) were less active, but their petroleum ether fractions exhibited a pronounced antiplasmodial activity (IC50 < 3 microg/ml). The same observation could also be made for the petroleum ether fraction from Cassia occidentalis, Euphorbia hirta, Garcinia kola and Phyllanthus niruri. Isoamyl alcohol fractions from Euphorbia hirta, Phyllanthus niruri and Vernonia amygdalina showed IC50) values less than 3 microg/ml, and from Cassia occidentalis, Garcinia kola, Morinda morindoides and Tetracera poggei between 10 and 50 microg/ml. The observed antiplasmodial activity may be related to the presence of terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones and anthraquinones. PMID:15182900

Tona, L; Cimanga, R K; Mesia, K; Musuamba, C T; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Hernans, N; Van Miert, S; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

2004-07-01

159

The synthetic caged garcinia xanthone cluvenone induces cell stress and apoptosis and has immune modulatory activity.  

PubMed

Several caged Garcinia xanthone natural products have potent bioactivity and a documented value in traditional Eastern medicine. Previous synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of these natural products resulted in the identification of the pharmacophore represented by the structure of cluvenone. In the current study, we examined the anticancer activity of cluvenone and conducted gene expression profiling and pathway analyses. Cluvenone was found to induce apoptosis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells (EC?? = 0.25 ?mol/L) and had potent growth-inhibitory activity against the NCI60 cell panel, including those that are multidrug-resistant, with a GI?? range of 0.1 to 2.7 ?mol/L. Importantly, cluvenone was approximately 5-fold more potent against a primary B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal donors, suggesting that it has significant tumor selectivity. Comparison of cluvenone's growth-inhibitory profile to those in the National Cancer Institute database revealed that compounds with a similar profile to cluvenone were mechanistically unlike known agents, but were associated with cell stress and survival signaling. Gene expression profiling studies determined that cluvenone induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NrF2 stress response pathways. Furthermore, cluvenone was found to induce intracellular reactive oxygen species formation. Lastly, the modulation in the expression of several genes associated with T cell and natural killer cell activation and function by cluvenone suggests a role as an immune-modulator. The current work highlights the potential of cluvenone as a chemotherapeutic agent and provides support for further investigation of these intriguing molecules with regard to mechanism and targets. PMID:20881270

Batova, Ayse; Altomare, Diego; Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Ohlsen, Kari L; Creek, Kim E; Lin, You-Chin; Messersmith, Amy; Yu, Alice L; Yu, John; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

2010-09-29

160

A MYB transcription factor regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening.  

PubMed

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit undergo rapid red colour development, both on the tree and after harvest, resulting in high anthocyanin production in the pericarp. Here, we report the isolation of three full-length mangosteen MYB transcription factors (GmMYB1, GmMYB7 and GmMYB10) and all the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (GmPal to GmUFGT). Phylogenetic analysis at the protein level of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family showed GmMYB10 had a high degree of similarity with production of anthocyanin pigment1 in Arabidopsis and as well as sequences from other plant species related to the elevation of anthocyanin pigmentation. In transient transactivation assays, GmMYB10, co-expressed with AtbHLH2, strongly activated the GmDFR and AtDFR promoters. Transcripts of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT were highly abundant with onset of pigmentation and subsequently during red colouration. Our results suggest that GmMYB10 plays an important role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis both on the tree and after harvest, while GmUFGT may be a key biosynthetic gene in mangosteen pigmentation. The expression patterns of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT correlated with ethylene production that increased linearly until stage 5 (dark purple) and decreased thereafter. 1-Methycyclopropene (1-MCP) clearly delayed red colouration with resulting down-regulation of GmMYB10. These results suggest that the effect of ethylene on anthocyanin biosynthesis may be via the regulation of GmMYB10 expression. PMID:19306102

Palapol, Yossapol; Ketsa, Saichol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Ferguson, Ian B; Allan, Andrew C

2009-03-22

161

Apoptotic activity of caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the growth inhibitory mechanism of four caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) KKU-100 and KKU-M156 cells. METHODS: Four caged xanthones, selected on the basis of their anticancer potency and chemical structure diversities (i.e. isomorellin, isomorellinol, forbesione and gambogic acid) were used in this study. Growth inhibition of these caged xanthones was determined using the sulforhodamine B assay. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by observing cell morphology, ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation assay. Levels of apoptotic-related gene and protein expressions were determined by a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis, respectively. RESULTS: The compounds were found to inhibit growth of both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and also showed selective cytotoxicity against the cancer cells when compared with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Growth suppression by these compounds was due to apoptosis, as evidenced by the cell morphological changes, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and DNA ladder formation. At the molecular level, these compounds induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and survivin proteins with up-regulation of Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor proteins, leading to the activation of caspase-9 and -3 and DNA fragmentation. The functional group variations did not appear to affect the anticancer activity with regard to the two CCA cell lines; however, at a mechanistic level, isomorellinol exhibited the highest potency in increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio (120 and 41.4 for KKU-100 and KKU-M156, respectively) and in decreasing survivin protein expression (0.01 fold as compared to control cells in both cell lines). Other activities at the molecular level indicate that functional groups on the prenyl side chain may be important. CONCLUSION: Our findings for the first time demonstrate that four caged xanthones induce apoptosis in CCA cells which is mediated through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway.

Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Nasomyon, Tapanawan; Loilome, Watcharin; Namwat, Nisana; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra; Sripa, Banchob; Namwat, Wises; Reutrakul, Vichai

2010-01-01

162

Nevirapine induces testicular toxicity in Wistar rats: reversal effect of kolaviron (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds).  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the treatment of HIV infections and has been reported to be toxic to the male reproductive system. This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effects of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola, on NVP-induced testicular toxicity. Methods: The adult male Wistar rats were given two and four times therapeutic doses of NVP (NVP-2T and NVP-4T; 18 and 36 mg/kg NVP) alone or in combination with KV (200 mg/kg). NVP was given daily, whereas KV was administered five times in a week by oral gavage. Results: Treatment with NVP did not alter the body weight gain and relative weight of testis of the rats. NVP-4T significantly (p<0.05) decreased the sperm motility, protein content, and live-dead ratio and also increased the percentage sperm abnormalities of the rats. Although NVP-4T significantly increased sperm abnormalities, it has no effect on epididymal sperm count. Also, NVP-4T caused a significant (p<0.05) elevation of serum aminotransferases and ?-glutamyl transferase activities. In addition, NVP-4T significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione with marked elevation of malondialdehyde (index of lipid peroxidation) in the rats. In contrast, NVP-2T did not produce an adverse effect on the biochemical indices studied in testes and sperm of rats. Supplementation with KV significantly ameliorated the biochemical changes caused by NVP-4T. Conclusions: Taken together, KV reversed the adverse effects of NVP-4T on testicular antioxidant enzymes and markers of oxidative stress in the rats. PMID:23751390

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Akanni, Olubukola O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

2013-06-01

163

The use of bitter kola Garcinia kola dry seed powder as a natural growth-promoting agent for African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary Garcinia kola seed meal on growth and body composition was investigated in catfish Clarias gariepinus. Fingerlings of about 50 g were fed diets supplemented with four concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 g kg) of G. kola seed powder for eight weeks. Fish fed supplemented diets showed significantly improved growth performance and feed utilisation over the

A A Dada; N E Oviawe

2011-01-01

164

Inhibitory effect of xanthones isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. on rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cell degranulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangostin, Garcinia mangostana L. is used as a traditional medicine in southeast Asia for inflammatory and septic ailments. Hitherto we indicated the anticancer activity induced by xanthones such as ?-, ?-, and ?-mangostin which were major constituents of the pericarp of mangosteen fruits. In this study, we examined the effect of xanthones on cell degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3

Tomohiro Itoh; Kenji Ohguchi; Munekazu Iinuma; Yoshinori Nozawa; Yukihiro Akao

2008-01-01

165

Importance of Solvation in Understanding the Chiroptical Spectra of Natural Products in Solution Phase: Garcinia Acid Dimethyl Ester  

PubMed Central

The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (+)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed by comparison with the corresponding spectra predicted by quantum chemical methods for (2S,3S)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester. For solution-phase calculations the recently developed continuous surface charge polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used. It is found that gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level yield nearly mirror-image ECD spectra in the 190–250 nm region for the same absolute configuration and that gas-phase ECD predictions lead to incorrect absolute configuration. At the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, however, gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions of ECD in the 190–250 nm region are not so different, but PCM predictions provide better agreement with the experimental observations. For carbonyl stretching vibrations, the vibrational band positions predicted at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in gas-phase calculations differ significantly from the corresponding experimentally observed band positions, and this discrepancy has also been corrected by the use of PCM. In addition, the solution-phase VCD predictions provided better agreement (with experimental VCD observations) than gas-phase VCD predictions. These observations underscore the importance of including solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopic properties.

Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Jeirath, Neha; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Habel, Deenamma; Nair, Divya Sadasivan; Haleema, Simimole

2013-01-01

166

Removal of arsenic(III) from aqueous solutions using fresh and immobilized plant biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Garcinia cambogia, an indigenous plant found in many parts of India, to remove trivalent arsenic from solution was assessed. Batch experiments were carried out to characterize the As(III) removal capability of fresh and immobilized biomass of G. cambogia. It was found that the kinetic property and uptake capacity of fresh biomass were significantly enhanced by the immobilization

C. T. Kamala; K. H. Chu; N. S. Chary; P. K. Pandey; S. L. Ramesh; A. R. K. Sastry; K. Chandra Sekhar

2005-01-01

167

Effects of Central Kalimantan plant extracts on intraerythrocytic Babesia gibsoni in culture.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of 45 plant extracts selected from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia on Babesia gibsoni in vitro and their acute toxicity to mice were evaluated. Of these plant extracts studied, Arcangelisia flava, Curcuma zedoaria, Garcinia benthamiana, Lansium domesticum and Peronema canescens were found to have appreciable antibabesial activity with IC50 values from 5.3 to 49.3 microg/ml without acute toxicity in mice at the intraperitoneal dose of 0.7 g/kg of body weight. PMID:15297762

Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Trimurningsih; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

2004-07-01

168

Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement  

PubMed Central

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, some of the xanthones from mangosteen have been found to influence specific enzyme activities, such as aromatase, HIV-1 protease, inhibitor ?B kinase, quinone reductase, sphingomyelinase, topoisomerase and several protein kinases, and they also modulate histamine H1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding. Several synthetic procedures for active xanthones and their analogs have been conducted to obtain a better insight into structure-activity relationships for this compound class. This short review deals with progress made in the structural characterization of the chemical constituents of mangosteen, as well as the biological activity of pure constituents of this species and synthetic methods for the mangosteen xanthones.

Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

2011-01-01

169

Anti-ulcerogenic and proton pump (H+, K+ ATPase) inhibitory activity of Kolaviron from Garcinia kola Heckel in rodents.  

PubMed

Anti-ulcer potential and proton pump inhibitory activity of kolaviron (KV) isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel has been evaluated using different ulcer models. Cold-restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP), alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models were used to assess anti-ulcerogenic activity of KV in rats. Effects of KV on gastric juice for free and total acidity, peptic activity and mucin secretion were also evaluated. The H+, K+-ATPase activity was assayed in gastric microsomes, spectrophotometrically. Results of this study showed that KV (200 mg/kg) reduced the incidence of ulcers in CRU (69.0%), PL (67.6%), ASP (68.6%) and AL (51.5%). Reductions were also observed in free acidity (32.6%), total acidity (56.2%) and peptic activity (35.4%) with increase in mucin secretion by 40.1%. KV inhibited the H+,K+-ATPase activity with IC50 of 43.8 microg/ml compared with omeprazole with IC50 of 32.3 microg/ml. KV showed both cytoprotective and anti-secretory potentials against peptic ulcer models, and a proton pump inhibitory activity. KV may emerge as a potent anti-ulcer compound. PMID:21702226

Onasanwo, Samuel A; Singh, Neetu; Olaleye, Samuel B; Palit, Gautam

2011-06-01

170

Friedelin and lanosterol from Garcinia prainiana stimulated glucose uptake and adipocytes differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Friedelin and lanosterol have been isolated from twigs of Garcinia prainiana. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were examined for their effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the MTT assay, it was found that the compounds had no cytotoxic effects up to 25?µM. Adipocyte differentiation analysis was carried out by Oil Red O staining method. In the presence of adipogenic cocktail (MDI), it was found that friedelin and lanosterol enhanced intracellular fat accumulation by 2.02 and 2.18-fold, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Deoxyglucose uptake assay was used to examine the insulin sensitivity of adipocytes in the presence of the compounds. It was found that friedelin was able to stimulate glucose uptake up to 1.8-fold compared with insulin-treated cells. It was suggested that friedelin and lanosterol may be beneficial to mimic insulin action that would be useful in the treatment of diabetes type 2 patients. PMID:22988818

Susanti, Deny; Amiroudine, Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed; Rezali, Mohamad Fazlin; Taher, Muhammad

2012-09-19

171

Identification and antibacterial evaluation of bioactive compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.  

PubMed

We assessed the bioactivity of G. kola seeds on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Salmonella typhimurium. The crude ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion method and their activities were further determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. The extracts were fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Bioautography was used to assess the activity of the possible classes of compounds present in the more active extracts. Column chromatography was used to purify the active compounds from the mixture, while GC-MS was used to identify the phytocomponents of the fractions. The inhibition zone diameters of the extracts ranged from 0-24 ± 1.1 mm, while MIC and MBC values ranged between 0.04-1.25 mg/mL and 0.081-2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) solvent system separated more active compounds. The MIC of the fractions ranged between 0.0006-2.5 mg/mL. CEF 3 (F3), CEF 11 (F11) and CEF 12 (F12) revealed the presence of high levels of linoleic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl ester, respectively. The results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and provide leads which could be further exploited for the development of new and potent antimicrobials. PMID:22728354

Seanego, Christinah T; Ndip, Roland N

2012-05-31

172

Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, ameliorates ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male wistar rats.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we established that kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) elicited anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol. The present study investigates the possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals each; Group 1 (control) was administered corn oil, group 2 was given 45%v/v ethanol at 3g/kg body weight, group 3 received ethanol and KV (200mg/kg) simultaneously and group 4 received KV alone. All drugs were given daily by oral gavage for 21 consecutive days. Ethanol treatment resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in relative weight of testis of the animals. In the spermatozoa, ethanol intoxication resulted in 54%, 21% and 38% decreases in testicular protein content, sperm motility and count, respectively. In addition, ethanol administration enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) process assessed by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the testis. Precisely, MDA level was increased by 121% in the testis of ethanol-treated rats relative to the control. Furthermore, levels of testicular glutathione and activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in ethanol-treated rats. Histopathology showed extensive degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes in testis of ethanol-treated rats. Interestingly, co-administration of KV with ethanol led to almost complete inhibition of testicular LPO thereby enhancing antioxidant status of the testis. Overall, KV ameliorates ethanol-induced toxic assault on testis and improves seminal qualities of the rats. PMID:23955400

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Arisekola, Muritala

2013-06-30

173

Reduction of adipose tissue and body weight: effect of water soluble calcium hydroxycitrate in Garcinia atroviridis on the short term treatment of obese women in Thailand.  

PubMed

Fifty obese women with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m(2) were randomly allocated into two groups, 25 in each. Group 1, with a mean (+/-SEM) age of 40.0+/-2 years, received water soluble calcium hydroxycitrate (HCA) as Garcinia atroviridis. Group 2, with a mean age of 35.6+/-1.8 years, received placebo. All subjects were recommended a similar diet with 1000 Kcal/day. The trial lasted for 2 months. At baseline the means BMI of Group 1 and Group 2 were 27.5+/-0.2 kg/m(2) and 26.7+/-0.5 kg/m(2), respectively. Group 1 lost significantly more weight (2.8 vs. 1.4 kg, p<0.05) and at a greater rate than Group 2 throughout the study. The decrease in their body weight was due to a loss of fat storage as evidenced by a significant decrease in the triceps skin fold thickness. On a short-term basis, HCA in Garcinia atroviridis was an effective for weight management. PMID:17215177

Roongpisuthipong, Chulaporn; Kantawan, Rungthiwa; Roongpisuthipong, Wanjarus

2007-01-01

174

Endothelium-independent vasodilation induced by kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, in rat superior mesenteric arteries.  

PubMed

Previous studies have established the hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects of KV in isolated superior mesenteric arteries from normotensive rats. KV (1, 10, 30, 100, 300, 500 and 1,000 microg/ml) concentration-dependently inhibited the contractions induced by phenylephrine (PHE) (10 microM) and KCl (80 mM) in both endothelium-intact (E(max) = 58.3 +/- 1.7% and 51.4 +/- 1.3%, respectively) and -denuded rings (E(max) = 59.3 +/- 5.5% and 64.3 +/- 2.4%, respectively). Furthermore, KV reduced CaCl(2)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free medium containing KCl 60 mM, thus acting as a Ca(2+)-antagonist. In addition, KV inhibited the transient contraction by PHE in Ca(2+)-free medium containing EGTA, suggesting a possible action on the release of intracellular Ca(2+) via the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)) pathway. KV is not a specific alpha-adrenoceptor blocker, since it also caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of contractile responses to KCl, suggesting that KV also blocks the L-type Ca(2+)-channel. As a Ca(2+) antagonist, KV (100 microg/ml) potentiates the relaxant effects of nifedipine in denuded rings (E(max) = 97.6 +/- 1.2%; control = 75.1 +/- 3.0%, P<0.05). Also, the vasorelaxation induced by KV was significantly inhibited after pre-treatment of the denuded rings with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) 1 mM, a selective blocker of voltage-dependent K(+) (K(v)) channels and, tetraethylammonium (TEA) 1 mM or charybdotoxin (ChTX) 0.1 microM, non-selective blockers of large and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels. In contrast, neither glibenclamide (10 microM), BaCl2 (1 mM) nor apamin (0.1 microM), blockers of K(ATP), K(IR) and SK(Ca) channels, respectively affected the KV-induced vasorelaxation. In conclusion, our results provide functional evidence that the vasorelaxant effects by KV involve extracellular Ca(2+) influx blockade, inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) release and the opening of K(+) channels sensitive to 4-AP and ChTX with a resultant membrane hyperpolarization/ repolarization. PMID:19377272

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Medeiros, Isac A

2009-02-01

175

Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.  

PubMed

Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

1999-12-15

176

Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage. PMID:19826463

Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

177

A Single Chiroptical Spectroscopic Method May Not Be Able To Establish the Absolute Configurations of Diastereomers: Dimethylesters of Hibiscus and Garcinia Acids  

PubMed Central

Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis.

Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Donahue, Emily A.; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

2013-01-01

178

Efficacy of Slim339 in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects.  

PubMed

A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on body weight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in body weight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559

Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander

2007-12-01

179

Anti-babesial activity of some central kalimantan plant extracts and active oligostilbenoids from Shorea balangeran.  

PubMed

Bark extracts from a total of 22 species of Central Kalimantan plants were evaluated for their anti-babesial activity against Babesia gibsoni in vitro. Of these plant species, extracts of Calophyllum tetrapterum, Garcinia rigida, Lithocarpus sp., Sandoricum emarginatum, and Shorea balangeran showed more than 90% inhibition of the parasite growth at a test concentration of 1000 microg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation of the bark of S. balangeran (Dipterocarpaceae) led to the reisolation of oligostilbenoids, vaticanol A(1), B(2), and G(3). The structures were determined on the basis of spectral evidence. Compounds 1 and 3 showed complete inhibition on the growth of Babesia gibsoni in vitro at a concentration of 25 microg/mL, and compound 2 at concentration of 50 microg/mL. PMID:15931579

Subeki; Nomura, Shinkichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Trimurningsih; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

2005-05-01

180

Natural products: a safest approach for obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize adverse reactions associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The use of natural products as medicine has been documented for hundreds of years in various traditional systems of medicines throughout the world. This review focuses on the medicinal plants such as Achyranthus aspera, Camellia sinensis, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, etc., being used traditionally in Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Chinese, etc., systems of medicine. The review also highlights recent reported phytochemicals such as escins, perennisosides, dioscin, gracillin, etc., and the various extracts of the plants like Nelumbo nucifera, Panax japonicas, Cichorium intybus, Cyperus rotundus, Paeonia suffruticosa, etc., which have been successfully identified for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22821661

Vasudeva, Neeru; Yadav, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

2012-07-22

181

Effect of hydroxycitric acid on serotonin release from isolated rat brain cortex.  

PubMed

There is evidence that hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an extract of dried fruit rind of South Asian trees of the genus Garcinia cambogia, can reduce food intake in experimental animals. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA on basal and potassium-depolarization evoked increase in radiolabeled serotonin ([3H]-5-HT) release from rat brain cortex slices in vitro. HCA (10 microM-1 mM) altered the baseline of spontaneous tritium efflux but had no significant effect on potassium-evoked release of [3H]-5-HT. When applied on its own, HCA (10 microM-1 mM) elicited a concentration-dependent increase in efflux of [3H]-5-HT reaching a maximum at 300 microM. We conclude that HCA can increase the release of radiolabeled 5-HT from the isolated rat brain cortex. PMID:11758650

Ohia, S E; Awe, S O; LeDay, A M; Opere, C A; Bagchi, D

182

Cryopreservation of Garcinia cowa shoot tips by vitrification: the effects of sucrose preculture and loading treatment on ultrastructural changes in meristematic cells.  

PubMed

The effects of sucrose preculture duration and loading treatment on tolerance of Garcinia cowa shoot tips to cryopreservation using the PVS2 vitrification solution were investigated. Ultrastructural changes in meristematic cells at the end of the preculture and loading steps were followed in an attempt to understand the effects of these treatments on structural changes in cell membranes and organelles. Increasing preculture duration on 0.3 M sucrose medium from 0 to 3 days enhanced tolerance to PVS2 solution from 5.6 percent (no preculture) to 49.2 percent (3-day preculture). However, no survival was observed after cryopreservation. Examination of meristematic cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the progressive accumulation of an electron-dense substance in line with increasing exposure durations to 0.3 M sucrose preculture. Treatment with a loading solution (2 M glycerol + 0.4 M sucrose) decreased tolerance of shoot tips to PVS2 vitrification solution and had a deleterious effect on the ultrastructure of G. cowa meristematic cells. This study suggests that G. cowa meristematic cells may lose their structural integrity due to exposure to glycerol present in the loading solution at a 2 M concentration, either due to its high osmotic potential, or due to its cytotoxicity. PMID:21766148

Yap, Lip Vun; Noor, Normah Mohd; Clyde, Mahani Mansor; Chin, Hoong Fong

183

Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.  

PubMed

Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril. PMID:23649258

Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

2013-05-07

184

A botanical approach to managing obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

metabolic syndrome in check like obesity. There are few drugs in the market to ameliorate or prevent obesity but there are the costs, efficacy and side effects to consider. For centuries people across the countries have been using natural products and plant based dietary supplements for weight control. The current review will consists of one South Asian herb, Garcinia cambogia

Dilip Ghosh

2009-01-01

185

Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: A case for better post-marketing surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia . These case reports may substantially undercount the true magnitude of harm. Based on the past experience with harmful dietary supplements, US regulators should assume the more precautionary approach favored by Canada and Europe. Lacking effective

Ano Lobb

2009-01-01

186

DESTRUCTION OF HISTAMINE BY COOKING INGREDIENTS- AN ARTIFACT OF ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

recent article reported that histamine can be destroyed by cooking ingredients such as Garcinia cambogia (gorakal, Tamarindus indica isiyambala) and Averrhoa bilimbi (bilini. It was further reported that the same effects are observed with some pure common organic acids normaily present in food. In this paper we provide evidence that the results previously obtained was an artifact of analysis, specifically

TJINITA M. THADHANI; E. R. JANSZ; HEMANTHA PEIRIS

187

Safety assessment of (?)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax ®, a novel calcium\\/potassium salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

(?)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10–30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake. The objective of this review is

M. G. Soni; G. A. Burdock; H. G. Preuss; S. J. Stohs; S. E. Ohia; D. Bagchi

2004-01-01

188

Inhibitory effect of xanthones isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. on rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cell degranulation.  

PubMed

Mangostin, Garcinia mangostana L. is used as a traditional medicine in southeast Asia for inflammatory and septic ailments. Hitherto we indicated the anticancer activity induced by xanthones such as alpha-, beta-, and gamma-mangostin which were major constituents of the pericarp of mangosteen fruits. In this study, we examined the effect of xanthones on cell degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Antigen (Ag)-mediated stimulation of high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) activates intracellular signal transductions resulting in the release of biologically active mediators such as histamine. The release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cell or basophils is the primary event in several allergic responses. These xanthones suppressed the release of histamine from IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. In order to reveal the inhibitory mechanism of degranulation by xanthones, we examined the activation of intracellular signaling molecules such as Lyn, Syk, and PLCgammas. All the xanthones tested significantly suppressed the signaling involving Syk and PLCgammas. In Ag-mediated activation of FcepsilonRI on mast cells, three major subfamilies of mitogen-activated protein kinases were activated. The xanthones decreased the level of phospho-ERKs. Furthermore, the levels of phospho-ERKs were observed to be regulated by Syk/LAT/Ras/ERK pathway rather than PKC/Raf/ERK pathway, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism of xanthones was mainly due to suppression of the Syk/PLCgammas/PKC pathway. Although intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was elevated by FcepsilonRI activation, it was found that alpha- or gamma-mangostin treatment was reduced the [Ca(2+)](i) elevation by suppressed Ca(2+) influx. PMID:18328716

Itoh, Tomohiro; Ohguchi, Kenji; Iinuma, Munekazu; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Akao, Yukihiro

2008-02-21

189

Comparative effects of vitamin E and kolaviron (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) on carbon tetrachloride-induced renal oxidative damage in mice.  

PubMed

It became evident in this study that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), can induce renal oxidative damage. The hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E (Vit. E) and kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from the seeds of Garcinia kola are well documented. The present study was designed to investigate and compare the renal protective effects of Vit. E and KV in mice given CCl4 (1.2 g kg(-1)) intra-peritoneally thrice a week for two weeks. CCl4 caused a marked increase in serum and renal lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 106 and 225%, respectively. Treatment with KV at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) and Vit. E at 100 mg kg(-1) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the CCl4-mediated increase in LPO. Furthermore, CCl4-intoxication decreased the levels of renal reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) by 44, 56 and 43%, respectively. Treatment with KV and Vit. E significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated the GSH and SOD levels. Specifically, KV at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) increased GSH by 32 and 27% and SOD levels by 50 and 53%, respectively. Likewise, treatment with Vit. E increased GSH and SOD levels by 31 and 53%, respectively. Effects on markers of renal functions showed that CCl4-intoxication significantly (p < 0.05) elevated serum urea and creatinine by 287 and 186%, respectively. While treatment with Vit. E decreased serum urea and creatinine by 60 and 55%, respectively, KV produced insignificant (p > 0.05) effect on these parameters. This study found KV unable to protect against CCl4-induced renal damage but confirmed the potency of Vit. E to enhance recovery from renal oxidative damage. PMID:19899326

Adaramoye, O A

2009-08-15

190

Investigations of botanicals on food intake, satiety, weight loss, and oxidative stress: a study protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study  

PubMed Central

Background Botanicals represent an important and underexplored source of potential new therapies that may facilitate caloric restriction and thereby produce long-term weight loss. In particular, one promising botanical that may reduce food intake and body weight by affecting neuroendocrine pathways related to satiety is Garcinia cambogia (Garcinia cambogia Desr.)-derived (?)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA). Methods and Design The objective of this article is to describe the protocol of a clinical trial designed to directly test the effect that Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA has on food intake, satiety, weight loss, and oxidative stress levels, and to serve as a model for similar trials. A total of 48 healthy, overweight and obese individuals (body mass index; BMI range = 25.0 – 39.9) between the ages of 50 to 70 will participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study designed to examine the effects of two doses of Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA on food intake, satiety, weight loss, and oxidative stress levels. This trial will take place at the University of Florida (UF)’s Aging and Rehabilitation Research Center (ARRC) and UF Clinical Research Center (CRC). Food intake represents the primary outcome measure and is calculated based on the total calories consumed at breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals during each test meal day at the CRC. This study can be completed with far fewer subjects than a parallel design. Discussion Of the numerous botanical compounds, the compound Garcinia cambogia-derived HCA was selected for testing in the present study because of its potential to safely reduce food intake, body weight, and oxidative stress levels. We will review potential mechanisms of action and safety parameters throughout this clinical trial, which is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT01238887. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01238887).

Anton, Stephen D.; Shuster, Jonathan; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

2013-01-01

191

Fruit pod extracts as a source of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components. PMID:23052712

Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina

2012-10-10

192

Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures. Our results suggest that the main photosensitisers from terrestrial plants are likely based on the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure and photosensitisers with other structures, if present, are present in minor amounts or are not as active as those with the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure. PMID:19647445

Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

2009-07-01

193

Extraction faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the term “extraction fault” for a planar structure that forms at the trailing edge of a discrete block when it is forced or extracted out of the surrounding material. This process results in the merging of two block-bounding faults with opposite senses of displacement. An extraction fault differs fundamentally from other faults in that its two sides have approached each other substantially in the direction perpendicular to the fault. The fault-parallel displacement may be either zero (pure extraction faults) or not (mixed extraction faults). Pure small-scale extraction faults can result from boudinage. A large-scale example may be the S-reflector of the Galicia passive continental margin which is related to rifting and continental breakup. When the strong portion of the lithosphere, i.e. the upper mantle and the lower crust, underwent necking, thermally weak mantle from below and upper crust from above collapsed into the opening gap in the rift centre and an extraction fault formed at the trailing edge of the strong lithosphere. Extraction faults are also potentially important in the exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens. We propose that the Combin fault on top of the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas ophiolites in the Penninic Alps, earlier interpreted either as a normal fault or as a thrust, is in fact an extraction fault.

Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Pleuger, Jan; Nagel, Thorsten J.

2006-08-01

194

In vivo toxicity and antitumor activity of mangosteen extract.  

PubMed

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) has been widely used in the traditional medicine of Thailand to treat various ailments, especially diseases of the digestive system and infections. Many reports show antiproliferation of crude extracts and active constituents from mangosteen against many cancer cell lines. Therefore, the current study is proposed to demonstrate in vivo evidence on the antitumor activity of mangosteen. Crude methanolic extract (CME) from mangosteen pericarp including 25.19 % ?-mangostin as an active xanthone was used in this study. The inhibition on tumor cell proliferation of CME was preliminarily evaluated against the murine colon cancer cell line NL-17 with an IC50 value of 17 and 84 ?g/ml based on WST-1 and LDH assays, respectively. The safety dose for animal application was assessed by in vivo toxicity studies using female BALB/c mice. Acute toxicity showed an LD50 value and approximate lethal dose at 1,000 mg/kg, whereas the suitable dose for short-term study should be ?200 mg/kg. The effective dose for antitumor activity of CME was found to be between 100 and 200 mg/kg, with a tumor size reduction of 50-70 %. Histological staining clearly illustrated a decrease of tumor cell density in the footpad in a dose-dependent manner. The median survival time and life span significantly increased in tumor-bearing mice with CME treatment. This study suggests that CME possesses a powerful antitumor activity. Therefore, it is worth undertaking further investigation to identify active compounds and obtain a deeper understanding of their mechanism, in order to acquire novel effective anticancer drugs. PMID:22622784

Kosem, Nuttavut; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Utsumi, Hideo; Moongkarndi, Primchanien

2012-05-24

195

Bevalac extraction  

SciTech Connect

This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

1992-02-01

196

Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet(R) preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet  

PubMed Central

The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes.

Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul

2012-01-01

197

Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

2012-12-26

198

Pharmacokinetic properties of pure xanthones in comparison to a mangosteen fruit extract in rats.  

PubMed

The xanthones ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin are the major bioactive compounds in Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) fruit extracts. Previously, we reported the pharmacokinetic properties of ?-mangostin in rats. The purpose of this follow-up study was to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in rats if administered as either a pure compound or as a component of a mangosteen fruit extract. The absolute bioavailability of ?-mangostin when administered as a pure compound was determined by giving male Sprague Dawley rats 2 mg/kg ?-mangostin intravenously or 20 mg/kg orally. A 160 mg/kg aliquot of mangosteen fruit extract was administered, containing ?- and ?-mangostin doses equal to 20 mg/kg and 4.5 mg/kg of each pure compound, respectively. Plasma samples were collected for both pharmacokinetic studies, and compound concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic of ?-mangostin after intravenous administration followed a two-compartment body model. The half-life of the distribution phase was 2.40 min, and that of the elimination phase was 1.52 h. After oral administration, both ?- and ?-mangostin underwent intensive first-pass metabolism, and both compounds were conjugated rapidly after oral administration. When given as an extract, the total absorption of ?- and ?-mangostin was not increased, but the conjugation was slower, resulting in increased free (unconjugated) compound exposure when compared to pure compound administration. Since reported beneficial biological activities of mangosteen xanthones are based on the free, unconjugated compounds, food supplements containing mangosteen fruit extracts should be preferred over the administration of pure xanthones. PMID:23673465

Li, Li; Han, Ah-Reum; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Frye, Reginald F; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

2013-05-14

199

Extractant composition  

DOEpatents

An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

200

Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions. PMID:16055158

Downs, Bernard W; Bagchi, Manashi; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V; Shara, Michael A; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

2005-08-01

201

Chemistry, physiological properties, and microbial production of hydroxycitric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical plants Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa produce hydroxycitric acid (HCA), of which the absolute configurations are (2S,3S) and (2S,3R), respectively. (2S,3S)-HCA is an inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase, which is involved in fatty acid synthesis. (2S,3R)-HCA inhibits pancreatic ?-amylase and intestinal ?-glucosidase, leading to a reduction in carbohydrate metabolism. In this\\u000a study, we review current knowledge on the structure,

Takashi Yamada; Hiroyuki Hida; Yasuhiro Yamada

2007-01-01

202

Effects of (?)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

(?)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) reportedly promotes weight loss, in part, through suppression of hunger. However, this mechanism has never been evaluated in humans in a controlled study. Eighty-nine mildly overweight females were prescribed 5020-kJ diets for 12 weeks as part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Forty-two participants ingested 400-mg caplets of Garcinia cambogia 30–60 min prior to meals for

Richard D. Mattes; Leslie Bormann

2000-01-01

203

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive, adapted from the University of Nebraska's Plant and Soil Science eLibrary, with reading material and animations to help students learn the basics of DNA extraction. The lesson is divided into and introduction and the four processes involved: cell lysis, dismantling the cell membrane, removing unwanted cell parts, and precipitating the DNA. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-07

204

URANIUM EXTRACTION  

DOEpatents

The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

1958-07-01

205

Free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations.  

PubMed

Numerous studies were carried out about aminoacidic composition of vegetable proteins, but information about the free amino acid pool and the role of these substances is very incomplete. The aim of this paper was to contribute to the scarce knowledge concerning the composition of free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations widely used as food, in dietary supplements, and in pharmaceutical products. This work studied the composition of free amino acids, identified the major components of 19 species of plants, and evaluated the influence of different types of extraction on the amino acid profile. Amino acids were determined using an automatic precolumn derivatization with fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. The amounts of total free amino acids varied widely between plants, from approximately 12 g in 100 g of Echinacea pallida extract to less than 60 mg in the same amount of Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia, and Glycine max. In 13 plants arginine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the free amino acids found in preponderant quantities. The levels of free amino acids above the quantification limit in 36 assayed samples of botanicals, extracts, and supplements are shown. PMID:18576976

Carratù, B; Boniglia, C; Giammarioli, S; Mosca, M; Sanzini, E

2008-06-01

206

Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

2011-01-01

207

?-Mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn) reduces tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in an immunocompetent xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer carrying a p53 mutation  

PubMed Central

Background The mangosteen fruit has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Recently, the compound ?-mangostin, which is isolated from the pericarp of the fruit, was shown to induce cell death in various types of cancer cells in in vitro studies. This led us to investigate the antitumor growth and antimetastatic activities of ?-mangostin in an immunocompetent xenograft model of mouse metastatic mammary cancer having a p53 mutation that induces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancers. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of BALB/c mice syngeneic with metastatic BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with ?-mangostin at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps and histopathologically examined. To investigate the mechanisms of antitumor ability by ?-mangostin, in vitro studies were also conducted. Results Not only were in vivo survival rates significantly higher in the 20 mg/kg/day ?-mangostin group versus controls, but both tumor volume and the multiplicity of lymph node metastases were significantly suppressed. Apoptotic levels were significantly increased in the mammary tumors of mice receiving 20 mg/kg/day and were associated with increased expression of active caspase-3 and -9. Other significant effects noted at this dose level were decreased microvessel density and lower numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells in mammary carcinoma tissues. In vitro, ?-mangostin induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and G1-phase arrest and S-phase suppression in the cell cycle. Since activation by Akt phosphorylation plays a central role in a variety of oncogenic processes, including cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic cell death, angiogenesis and metastasis, we also investigated alterations in Akt phosphorylation induced by ?-mangostin treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that ?-mangostin significantly decreased the levels of phospho-Akt-threonine 308 (Thr308), but not serine 473 (Ser473), in both mammary carcinoma cell cultures and mammary carcinoma tissues in vivo. Conclusions Since lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer patients, the antimetastatic activity of ?-mangostin as detected in mammary cancers carrying a p53 mutation in the present study may have specific clinical applications. In addition, ?-mangostin may have chemopreventive benefits and/or prove useful as an adjuvant therapy, or as a complementary alternative medicine in the treatment of breast cancer.

2011-01-01

208

?-Mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana Linn) reduces tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in an immunocompetent xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer carrying a p53 mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The mangosteen fruit has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Recently, the compound ?-mangostin,\\u000a which is isolated from the pericarp of the fruit, was shown to induce cell death in various types of cancer cells in in vitro studies. This led us to investigate the antitumor growth and antimetastatic activities of ?-mangostin in an immunocompetent

Masa-Aki Shibata; Munekazu Iinuma; Junji Morimoto; Hitomi Kurose; Kanako Akamatsu; Yasushi Okuno; Yukihiro Akao; Yoshinori Otsuki

2011-01-01

209

A review on botanical species and chemical compounds with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control.  

PubMed

As obesity has reached epidemic proportions, the management of this global disease is of clinical importance. The availability and popularity of natural dietary supplements for the treatment of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this paper was to review the effect of commonly available over the counter plant-derived supplements used to suppress appetite for obesity control and management. The data were obtained from the electronic databases PubMed, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE with full text (via EBSCOHost) and the databases were accessed during late 2012 - early January 2013. The botanical species discussed in this review include Camellia sinensis, Caralluma fimbriata, Citrus aurantium, Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia and Phaseolus vulgaris. This review found that many botanical species including crude extracts and isolated compounds from plants have been shown to provide potentially promising therapeutic effects including appetite control and weight loss. However, many of these crude extracts and compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms of action, long term safety, and potential side effects. PMID:23666454

Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q

2013-09-01

210

Chronic (-)-hydroxycitrate administration spares carbohydrate utilization and promotes lipid oxidation during exercise in mice.  

PubMed

(-)-Hydroxycitrate (HCA) is an active ingredient that is extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit, Garcinia cambogia, which is available as an herbal supplement and is used to lose weight. In this study, the acute and chronic effects of HCA on energy metabolism were examined in male Std ddY mice. Mice were placed into metabolic chambers and administered 10 mg HCA or water (control) orally. Serum free fatty acid levels were significantly higher 100 min after administration in the HCA group, but the respiratory exchange ratio was not different from that in the control group. The concentration of glycogen in the gastrocnemius muscle was higher in the HCA group 16 h after administration, and in a separate study, the maximum swimming time until fatigue was slightly longer (P: = 0. 21) than that in the control group on d 1. The difference was significant on d 3 after 3 d of HCA or water administration. Other mice were administered 10 mg HCA or water orally twice a day for 25 d. On d 26, they were placed into metabolic chambers after administration and allowed to rest for 1 h, followed by 1 h of running at 15 m/min. Respiratory gas was monitored. The respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in the HCA group during both resting and exercising conditions. These results suggest that chronic administration of HCA promotes lipid oxidation and spares carbohydrate utilization in mice at rest and during running. PMID:11110858

Ishihara, K; Oyaizu, S; Onuki, K; Lim, K; Fushiki, T

2000-12-01

211

PITFALLS OF SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of researchers are using sequential extraction to determine the speciation of trace elements in sediments. nfortunately, sequential extraction methods have not been successfully validated. he results are simply taken as providing "operational definitions" of ...

212

Tevatron Extraction Microcomputer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' m...

L. Chapman D. A. Finley M. Harrison W. Merz

1985-01-01

213

Endovascular extraction techniques  

PubMed Central

The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

2001-01-01

214

Processed anthocyanin pigment extracts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The stability of anthocyanin pigment extracts and food products containing anthocyanin extracts is enhanced by removal from the anthocyanin pigment extracts of nutrients which support yeast growth, constituents which react to produce off-flavor, and constituents which catalyze oxidation. These undesirable materials contained in anthocyanin extracts are removed by subjecting the extracts to ultrafiltration or dialysis to remove low molecular weight components from the extracts. The extracts are also subjected to ion exchange to remove additional of these undesirable constituents. Sufficient of these undesirable constituents can be removed from anthocyanin extracts so that, e.g., carbonated beverages containing the extracts may not support sufficient growth of yeasts to cause the beverages to become hazy and/or have an off-flavor, and so that when the extracts are used to prepare dry beverage powder mixtures after prolonged shelf storage, the mixtures may not obtain an off-flavor. Moreover, the oxidative stability and photostability of the anthocyanin pigment extracts may be enhanced by the process of this invention. Such processed anthocyanin extracts may have higher tinctoral powers, e.g., more brilliant red colors, and are less hygroscopic, and thus they may be suitable for coloring various solid food products including liquid and powder concentrates.

Hilton; Barney W. (Dallas, TX); Lin; Robert I. (Irving, TX); Topor; Michael G. (Farmer's Branch, TX)

1982-03-16

215

Content Extraction Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by emerging needs in online interactions, we dene a new type of digital signature called a 'Content Extraction Signature' (CES). A CES allows the owner, Bob, of a document signed by Alice, to produce an 'extracted signature' on selected extracted portions of the original document, which can be veried to originate from Alice by any third party Cathy, while

Ron Steinfeld; Laurence Bull; Yuliang Zheng

2001-01-01

216

Extractive Distillation: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractive distillation is more and more commonly applied in industry, and becomes an important separation method in chemical engineering. This paper provides an in?depth review for extractive distillation. Separation sequence of the columns, combination with other separation processes, tray configuration and operation policy are included in process of extractive distillation. Since the solvent plays an important role in the design

Zhigang Lei; Chengyue Li; Biaohua Chen

2003-01-01

217

Impact damage in mangosteens (Garcinia Mangostana L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangosteen pericarp is very susceptible to mechanical force. The damaged pericarp releases latex which causes pericarp hardening, spoils the flesh and shortens the shelf life. In order to maintain good quality, the mangosteens require careful handling in every step from the orchards to the consumer. It is essential to establish the limit of mechanical force or energy allowed in the

S. Prasertsan; C. Peeraprasompong; P. Thamaratwasik

1998-01-01

218

METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

1957-11-01

219

Supercritical extraction of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical extraction of Wyodak coal was studied by passing various solvents upwards through a 15 gram sample of 12-20 mesh coal. For the high temperature experiments, the coal was heated to 375°C and 425°C in a hot fluidized sand bath. The main solvent used was toluene, while extractions with n-pentane, xylene, methanol, and water were also done. The extract was

Sunol

1982-01-01

220

Glomalin extraction and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated extraction from soil of glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and we examined its measurement. The most commonly used protocols for extracting glomalin require autoclaving of soil in citrate solution, followed by centrifugation to separate the supernatant, and then measurement by either Bradford protein assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that lengthening the time

David P. Janos; Sara Garamszegi; Bray Beltran

2008-01-01

221

Feature Extraction Assessment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the feature extraction assessment study (FEAS) is to assess the degree to which the DMA feature extraction process can be automated by 1985. The major conclusion of the study is that given the state-of-the-art in image understanding and pat...

M. J. Carlotto V. T. Tom G. K. Wallace

1984-01-01

222

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

223

Extractive Metallurgy of Beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the extractive metallurgy of beryllium is presented. Due to the strategic importance and element of secrecy surrounding the metal, any open literature on beryllium is rather limited. However, this review has been made to cover all important aspects of beryllium extraction technology namely, resources of the metal; processing of ores; reduction of fluoride and oxide to

C. K. GUPTA; S. SAHA

2002-01-01

224

Extractive Metallurgy of Beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the extractive metallurgy of beryllium is presented. Due to the strategic importance and element of secrecy surrounding the metal, any open literature on beryllium is rather limited. However, this review has been made to cover all important aspects of beryllium extraction technology namely, resources of the metal; processing of ores; reduction of fluoride and oxide to

C. K. GUPTA; S. SAHA

2001-01-01

225

Weed extraction system, method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system and method for providing weed extraction so Industrial, Commercial and Home users (ICAHUs) can assure that unwanted weeds can be easily and effectively extracted. The system and method allows ICAHUs to work safely and efficiently and to extract weeds by using a hand-held device that can easily penetrate the ground around weeds, secure the unwanted weed, and aid the user in extracting the weed from the ground. ICAHUs can easily operate the levers of the device which operate jaws to secure to weeds. Specialized debris passages in the jaws of the device allow for debris to be passed through the jaws of the device which allow to for continued use and a greatly reduced need to clean the device during use. The method comprises a system in which unwanted weeds may be easily secured and extracted by the user without an increased risk of accidents or without unnecessary steps or procedures for cleaning.

Carter; Larry (Makawao, HI)

2013-06-25

226

Distribution behavior of astatine: Solvent extraction and back extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution behavior of astatine was studied at tracer concentrations and over a wide range of carrier iodide concentration in both solvent extraction and back extraction processes. Astatine compounds were extracted instantly into the organic solvent, CS2 from the carrier free and carrier iodide containing solutions. Back extraction of astatine with various NaOH solutions followed by solvent extraction caused the

M. S. Sultana; A. Toyoshima; N. Takahashi; H. Baba

2001-01-01

227

Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: a case for better post-marketing surveillance.  

PubMed

There is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia. These case reports may substantially undercount the true magnitude of harm. Based on the past experience with harmful dietary supplements, US regulators should assume the more precautionary approach favored by Canada and Europe. Lacking effective adverse event surveillance for supplements, or the requirements to prove safety prior to coming to the market, case reports such as those summarized here assume added importance. PMID:19360927

Lobb, Ano

2009-04-14

228

Extracting the Max From a DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of all ages get a thrill out of actually seeing clumps or strands of DNA. The Biotechnology/Bioinformatics Discovery! Project, a professional development workshop offered to science teachers, has always included a DNA-extraction activity. Over the course of four years, as the authors conducted these workshops for scores of teachers, they extended and refined the DNA-extraction activity to make it relevant to middle school students. Although the protocol for this exercise is on their project website along with teaching tips, they describe here the use of oral directions to give teachers many opportunities to interact with their students, and to assess how well students can follow directions and stay focused on the task.

Mulvihill, Charlotte; Bell, Don; Marek, Edmund

2009-01-01

229

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

Jonke, A.A.

1957-10-01

230

Oscillatory extraction of uranium  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of U and Ce extraction by tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and the redox potential behavior in the aqueous phase have been investigated in an oscillatory extraction system. The extraction has been followed continuously by UV-visible spectroscopy, potentiometry, and radioactive counting methods. Data collected showed the changes of Ce{sup 4+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} concentrations in organic and aqueous phases with time. Uranium actively responded to the redox potential fluctuations. The uranium distribution coefficient changed repeatedly and was out-of-phase with Ce(IV) fluctuations.

Afonin, M.A.; Romanovski, V.V. [Saint Petersburg Inst. of Tech. (Russian Federation); Scherbakov, V.A. [Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1998-08-01

231

Extraction of Seismic Waveforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers the effects on detectability and measurability resulting from attempts to extract seismic waveforms by application of cascaded processors and polarization filters. Previous work has shown that bandpass or Wiener filters (when cascade...

A. C. Strauss

1978-01-01

232

Automatic Feature Extraction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AFES (Automatic Feature Extraction System) is designed to be a testbed for evaluation of semi-automatic and computer-assisted techniques for automated production flow processes. Its intended input sources included National Sensors and LANDSAT imagery,...

J. L. Cambier

1982-01-01

233

Automated Metadata Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metadata is data that describes data. There are many computer forensic uses of metadata and being able to extract metadata automatically provides positive forensic implications. This thesis presents a new technique for batch processing disk images and aut...

J. Migletz

2008-01-01

234

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01

235

Fruitful DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

Kalamuck, Karen; Exploratorium

2000-01-01

236

Tevatron extraction microcomputer  

SciTech Connect

Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

1985-06-01

237

Tevatron extraction microcomputer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction in the fErmilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad extraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the bucker and pulse magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the QXR magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

Chapman, L.; Finley, D. A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

1985-06-01

238

EXTRACTION OF URANIUM  

DOEpatents

A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

1961-04-11

239

Phytoplasma plasmid DNA extraction.  

PubMed

Phytoplasma plasmids have generally been detected from DNA extracted from plants and insects using methods designed for the purification of total phytoplasma DNA. Methods include extraction from tissues that are high in phytoplasma titre, such as the phloem of plants, with the use of CsCl-bisbenzimide gradients that exploit the low G+C content of phytoplasma DNA. Many of the methods employed for phytoplasma purification have been described elsewhere in this book. Here we describe in detail two methods that are specifically aimed at isolating plasmid DNA. PMID:22987431

Andersen, Mark T; Liefting, Lia W

2013-01-01

240

URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

Harrington, C.D.

1959-09-01

241

Nutrigenomic Analysis of Diet-Gene Interactions on Functional Supplements for Weight Management  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in molecular biology combined with the wealth of information generated by the Human Genome Project have fostered the emergence of nutrigenomics, a new discipline in the field of nutritional research. Nutrigenomics may provide the strategies for the development of safe and effective dietary interventions against the obesity epidemic. According to the World Health Organization, more than 60% of the global disease burden will be attributed to chronic disorders associated with obesity by 2020. Meanwhile in the US, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in adults and tripled in children during the past three decades. In this regard, a number of natural dietary supplements and micronutrients have been studied for their potential in weight management. Among these supplements, (–)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract isolated from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, and the micronutrient niacin-bound chromium(III) (NBC) have been shown to be safe and efficacious for weight loss. Utilizing cDNA microarrays, we demonstrated for the first time that HCA-supplementation altered the expression of genes involved in lipolytic and adipogenic pathways in adipocytes from obese women and up-regulated the expression of serotonin receptor gene in the abdominal fat of rats. Similarly, we showed that NBC-supplementation up-regulated the expression of myogenic genes while suppressed the expression of genes that are highly expressed in brown adipose tissue in diabetic obese mice. The potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed beneficial effects of these supplements as elucidated by the state-of-the-art nutrigenomic technologies will be systematically discussed in this review.

Lau, Francis C; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan; Roy, Sashwati; Bagchi, Debasis

2008-01-01

242

Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats.  

PubMed

Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Male Zucker rats (5-week old) were supplemented with vehicle (control) and HCA-SX in drinking water for 7 weeks. Oxidative stress markers, including malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (DNPH), and protein tyrosine nitration (tyr-NO(2)) were measured in the liver and kidney tissues using biochemical and immunoblotting techniques. Compared to controls, the levels of MDA, DNPH and tyr-NO(2) were lower in the liver and kidney of HCA-SX-treated animals. Furthermore, the levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, markers of inflammation measured by ELISA, were lower in the plasma of HCA-SX-supplemented animals compared to controls, as were levels of fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides. Interestingly, insulin resistance did not develop in HCA-SX-supplemented rats. Food-intake and body weight gain was also lower in rats supplemented with HCA-SX compared to their control counterparts. These results suggest that HCA-SX supplementation in obese Zucker rats reduces food-intake, body weight gain, and also attenuates the increases in inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance observed in untreated animals. Therefore, HCA-SX may be used as an intervention to overcome obesity-related complications, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. PMID:17503004

Asghar, Mohammad; Monjok, Emmanuel; Kouamou, Ghislaine; Ohia, Sunny E; Bagchi, Debasis; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

2007-05-15

243

Nutrigenomic analysis of diet-gene interactions on functional supplements for weight management.  

PubMed

Recent advances in molecular biology combined with the wealth of information generated by the Human Genome Project have fostered the emergence of nutrigenomics, a new discipline in the field of nutritional research. Nutrigenomics may provide the strategies for the development of safe and effective dietary interventions against the obesity epidemic. According to the World Health Organization, more than 60% of the global disease burden will be attributed to chronic disorders associated with obesity by 2020. Meanwhile in the US, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in adults and tripled in children during the past three decades. In this regard, a number of natural dietary supplements and micronutrients have been studied for their potential in weight management. Among these supplements, (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract isolated from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, and the micronutrient niacin-bound chromium(III) (NBC) have been shown to be safe and efficacious for weight loss. Utilizing cDNA microarrays, we demonstrated for the first time that HCA-supplementation altered the expression of genes involved in lipolytic and adipogenic pathways in adipocytes from obese women and up-regulated the expression of serotonin receptor gene in the abdominal fat of rats. Similarly, we showed that NBC-supplementation up-regulated the expression of myogenic genes while suppressed the expression of genes that are highly expressed in brown adipose tissue in diabetic obese mice. The potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed beneficial effects of these supplements as elucidated by the state-of-the-art nutrigenomic technologies will be systematically discussed in this review. PMID:19452041

Lau, Francis C; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan; Roy, Sashwati; Bagchi, Debasis

2008-06-01

244

Automatic Event Type Extraction in Chinese Event Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event Extraction is a new research point in the area of Information Extraction. In this paper, we carried out a series of experiments on event detection and classification based on the standard and training corpus of ACE05 (Automatic Content Extraction 2005), which is a research task organized by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). In the experiment, a table

Yanyan Zhao; Xiaoyin Wang; Bing Qin; Wanxiang Che; Ting Liu

245

LIPID EXTRACTION FROM WHEAT FLOUR USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental concerns, the disposal cost of hazardous waste, and the time required for extraction encouraged us to look for a method to extract lipids from wheat flour that would be faster, less costly, and more environmentally acceptable. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (...

246

after Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six monoterpenes (?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, phellandrene, camphene, and limonene) were determined in the needles of Picea abies, P. omorica ,a ndP. pungens spruces by gas chromatogra- phy after supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide at the pressure 20 MPa and at the temperature 80 ?C. Significant differences among the monoterpene content of individual spruce cultivars were found. Limonene (34.3

J. SEDLÁKOVÁ; L. LOJKOVÁ; V. KUBÁ?

247

Semantics Extraction from Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An overview of the state-of-the-art on semantics extraction from images is presented. In this survey, we present the relevant\\u000a approaches in terms of content representation as well as in terms of knowledge representation. Knowledge can be represented\\u000a in either implicit or explicit fashion while the image is represented in different levels, namely, low-level, intermediate\\u000a and semantic level. For each combination

Ioannis Pratikakis; Anastasia Bolovinou; Bassilios Gatos; Stavros J. Perantonis

2011-01-01

248

Solid phase extraction membrane  

DOEpatents

A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

2002-11-05

249

URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

1958-12-16

250

Neural Network Knowledge Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of ANNs in "safety-critical" domains, which include theeconomic and financial applications, is hindered by their "black box"- type approach,which makes it difficult to verify and debug software that includes ANNcomponents. Significant advantages can be gained by combining the symbolic knowledgeof a domain theory (DT), with the empirical sub-symbolic knowledge stored in an ANNtrained on examples. Rule extraction adds

Alexandra I. Cristea; Paul D. Cristea; Toshio Okamoto

1997-01-01

251

Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.  

PubMed

Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation. PMID:15836459

Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

2005-05-01

252

Extraction of Iron with Methylethylketone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extraction of iron (III) with methylethylketone as solvent from hydrochloric acid solution is described, and the maximum range of acid concentration for quantitative extraction was determined. Most of the elements of the third analytical group were in...

E. Gagliardi H. P. Woess

1974-01-01

253

Learning for Collective Information Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Information Extraction (IE) system analyses a set of documents with the aim of identifying certain types of entities and relations between them. Most IE systems treat separate potential extractions as independent. However, in many cases, considering influence s between different candidate extractions could improve overall accuracy. For example, phrase repetitions inside a document are usually associated with the same

Razvan C. Bunescu

2004-01-01

254

Automatic thesaurus extraction for Icelandic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thesauri are becoming a common resource used in various Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval related tasks. Methods for automatic extraction of thesauri have just recently begun performing well enough for practical use. A method to automatically extract a thesaurus for Icelandic from a tagged and parsed corpus was implemented and evaluated. The method is based on extracting relational trigrams

Frank Arthur; Blöndahl Cassata

255

Challenges in Managing Information Extraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

Shen, Warren H.

2009-01-01

256

Application of ultrasound in extractive metallurgy: Sonochemical extraction of nickel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of ultrasound in solvent extraction was examined by studying solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70 extractants. The studied parameters were ultrasonic energy and frequency, pH, temperature, and organic and aqueous solution composition. The stability of extractants under the influence of ultrasound was also examined. It was found that ultrasound had a significant importance, because it increased the extraction rates four- to sevenfold. The effect of ultrasound was physical, i.e., to increase the surface area. Ultrasonic energy consumption was also evaluated. The consumption was high, but it can be significantly reduced by the appropriate method of application. A novel solvent extraction method, extraction-in-pipe, was also proposed.

Pesic, Batric; Zhou, Taili

1992-01-01

257

Coal extraction - environmental prediction  

SciTech Connect

To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

2002-08-01

258

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Henna Extracts  

PubMed Central

Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000. Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050). When comparing the extracts’ MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050.

Al-Rubiay, Kathem K.; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K.

2008-01-01

259

Antimicrobial efficacy of henna extracts.  

PubMed

Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000.Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050).When comparing the extracts' MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050. PMID:22334837

Al-Rubiay, Kathem K; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K

2008-10-01

260

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30...FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared from...

2009-04-01

261

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30...FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared from...

2010-04-01

262

Microaesthetics of The Smile: Extraction vs. Non-extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare microaesthetics in pre- and post-orthodontic cases, treated with non-extraction and extraction treatment and assessed whether the achieved microaesthetic parameters are comparable to the proposed norms.STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study.PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Orthodontic Clinic, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2009.METHODOLOGY: Orthodontic records of 31 cases treated with non-extraction therapy and 26

Sanam Tauheed; Attiya Shaikh; Mubassar Fida

2012-01-01

263

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction... OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the...

2013-07-01

264

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cottonseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide is a popular technique for oil extraction due to its high extraction efficiency, short extracting time, lower refining requirement and absence of chemical residues or contamination in the extracted oils. In this work, an attempt has been made to extract oil from a local variety of cottonseed using this technique. The effects of

Paramita Bhattacharjee; Rekha S. Singhal; Sudha R. Tiwari

2007-01-01

265

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

M. Minier; G. Goma

1982-01-01

266

Aqueous acetone extraction of cottonseed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of cottonseed flakes with acetone containing 25-30% water removes essentially all of the gossypol, most of the\\u000a free fatty acids, about half the raffinose, and negligible quanti-ties of neutral oil and protein. After drying and re-flaking\\u000a of the aqueous acetone extracted marc, the oil may be removed either by hexane extrac-tion or pressing to produce light-colored\\u000a meals exceptionally low

Walter A. Pons; Paul H. Eaves

1967-01-01

267

Rapid extraction of canola oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous size reduction and solvent extraction of canola seeds were studied using a laboratory blender and a small,\\u000a pilot-scale Szego mill. The laboratory tests established that over 95% of the oil may be removed from the seed in a single\\u000a contact stage. The effects of contact time and solvent-to-seed ratio were investigated. The extraction equilibrium favored\\u000a the extraction of

L. L. Diosady; L. J. Rubin; N. Ting; O. Trass

1983-01-01

268

Crystal extraction at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

2005-06-01

269

Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1997-10-01

270

Value off vapor extraction  

SciTech Connect

The remediation of a major gasoline spill affecting groundwater in a sole source aquifer required the use of various interrelated technologies. Estimate of the spill were as much as 4,000 m[sup 3] (1 mil gal) of gasoline from a single leaking pipe. Traditional and innovative technologies were investigated, piloted, designed, constructed, and operated for control and recovery of both pure and dissolved product, and contaminant vapors. Pure product recovery initially required an extensive static recovery system of pneumatic ejector pumps, supplemented with water table depression and product removal at one well. Dissolved product recovery and treatment also has been achieved by pumping this well to a temporary treatment facility prior to recharge to groundwater. Recovery and destruction of vapors emanating from the pure product into the vadose zone (the area above the permanent groundwater level) and the acceleration of product volatilization has been accomplished through the use of a vapor extraction and treatment facility using two bottom-burning flare units. Groundwater modeling results have been used to identify the scope of remedial efforts and to develop remedial alternatives. Implementation of the site remedial activities and operation of constructed facilities continues. 4 figs.

Gerbasi, P.J. (Roux Associates, Islandia, NY (United States)); Memoli, M.A. (Camp Dresser McKee, Woodbury, NY (United States))

1994-03-01

271

Information Extraction: Beyond Document Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information extraction (IE) is the extraction and recording of information about a prespecified set of entities, relations, or events from natural language texts in structured representations called templates. This article provides an overview of IE from the 1960s to the present, discusses techniques, describes applications, and highlights future…

Gaizauskas, Robert; Wilks, Yorick

1998-01-01

272

Information extraction: beyond document retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a pre-specified set of entities, relations or events from natural language texts and to record this information in structured representations called templates. Here we describe the nature of the IE task, review the

Robert Gaizauskas; Yorick Wilks

1998-01-01

273

Extracting Synonyms from Dictionary Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the problem of extracting synonyms from dictionary definitions. Our premise for using def- inition texts in dictionaries is that, in contrast to free- texts, their composition usually exhibits more regular- ities in terms of syntax and style and thus, will pro- vide a better controlled environment for synonym ex- traction. We propose three extraction methods: two rule-based ones

Tong Wang; Graeme Hirst

2009-01-01

274

Improvements in Automatic Thesaurus Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of semantic resources is com- mon in modern NLP systems, but methods to extract lexical semantics have only re- cently begun to perform well enough for practical use. We evaluate existing and new similarity metrics for thesaurus ex- traction, and experiment with the trade- off between extraction performance and efcienc y. We propose an approximation algorithm, based on

James R. Curran; Marc Moens

2002-01-01

275

Protein extraction for 2DE.  

PubMed

Our protein extraction protocol for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was updated to meet current needs in the field of proteomics. This protocol summarizes our experience using this method since its introduction over 30 years ago. We provide a total as well as fractionated extraction protocol. The former is easy and fast to use, suitable for most standard 2DE applications, whereas the latter is used for special applications such as the extraction of membrane or nuclear proteins.Both extraction protocols stress the need that protease inhibitors are added early to still deep frozen tissue to preclude an activation of proteases which destroy proteins and make them inaccessible to analysis. We also emphasize that, to remain soluble, proteins need to stay in an environment resembling a living cell as closely as possible. Sample dilution is therefore kept to a minimum and the pH of the extract is close to in vivo conditions at pH 7.1. In addition there are no precipitation/resolubilization steps which could irreversibly remove proteins from the extract. Furthermore, the total extraction does not even require centrifugation. Our extraction protocol is compatible with recent advances in 2DE-staining techniques such as differential in gel electrophoresis and fluorescence staining as well as mass spectrometry. PMID:19381583

Zabel, Claus; Klose, Joachim

2009-01-01

276

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

1960-02-01

277

Information Extraction: Techniques and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paperwe shall use a narrower definition: the identification of instances of a particularclass of events or relationships in a natural language text, and the extraction ofthe relevant arguments of the event or relationship. Information extraction thereforeinvolves the creation of a structured representation (such as a data base) ofselected information drawn from the text.The idea of reducing the information in

Ralph Grishman

1997-01-01

278

Passive vapor extraction feasibility study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diamete...

V. J. Rohay

1994-01-01

279

Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)|

Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

1990-01-01

280

Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

1990-01-01

281

Materials for geopressure energy extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of efforts in methane and energy extraction from the geopressured aquifer sources of the North Gulf of Mexico region is outlined. Three different schemes for energy extraction are considered, and the anticipated materials and corrosion problems are defined. Suitable materials are suggested for use in the production well and surface equipment. J-55 steel can be used for production

1982-01-01

282

Bactericidal activity of herbal extracts.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of total herbal extracts has been investigated. The MIC of extracts of Evodia rutaecarpa and grape kernel ranged between 0.25 and 1 mg/ml against gram-positive cocci and P. aeruginosa. Cocci were killed after 30-90 min of incubation in grape kernel extract (0.5-1.5 mg/ml), and after 8 h in evodia extract (0.5-1 mg/ml), respectively. C. albicans was only susceptible to evodia (MIC 0.5 mg/ml). The organic solvents of the preparations contributed to the antibacterial effect of herbal extracts with MICs of ethanol between 4 and 10 vol% and those of methanol between 6 and 10 vol%. Taking this into consideration, mastic and thyme extracts exerted hardly any microbicidal activity, while grape kernel extract and evodia were still effective at 2- to 6-fold dilutions below the MIC of the solvent. Because of the weak antimicrobial activity of total herbal extracts we recommend to give preference to preparations of single or more purified compounds. PMID:12872531

Thuille, Nikolaus; Fille, Manfred; Nagl, Markus

2003-06-01

283

Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.  

PubMed

Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases. PMID:24005950

Lawson, Robert B

2013-09-01

284

Extraction of DNA from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increased interest in the extraction of nucleic acids from various environmental samples, since molecular techniques allow less biased access to a greater portion of uncultivable microorganisms. Two strategies have been developed to improve DNA recovery in terms of yield, purity and unbiased representation of the microbial diversity. The first approach consists of the direct extraction of nucleic

Patrick Robe; Renaud Nalin; Carmela Capellano; Timothy M. Vogel; Pascal Simonet

2003-01-01

285

Sub-acute effect of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices in rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L  

PubMed Central

Background: Kolaviron (KV) (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) and extract of Curcuma longa (CL) are frequently used in folk medicine for treatment of hypertension. One of their mechanisms of action is to enhance antioxidant properties in animals. NG- nitro- l- arginine methyl- ester (L- NAME) is L- arginine analogue, which by binding to Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) may induce hypertension partly due to increase in tissues oxidative stress. Objectives: To investigate the effect of L- NAME on some biochemical indices and the possible protective effect of KV or CL. Materials and Methods: Four groups consisting of 6 rats each were used. One group served as control, second group received L- NAME (40 mg/kg/day). Third and fourth groups were treated with KV and CL, respectively and also received L- NAME. KV and CL were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Results: L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) increase in the levels of serum urea, creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase relative to controls. L- NAME treated rats had markedly decreased hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione- S- transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Precisely, L- NAME decreased CAT, SOD, GST and GSH by 48, 52, 76 and 40%, respectively. L- NAME intoxication significantly decreased (P <0.05) renal GSH and SOD levels. Also, L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the animals. Administration of KV or CL with L- NAME caused significant (P <0.05) inhibition of LPO and augments tissue antioxidant indices. Conclusion: These results confirm the adverse effect of L- NAME on biochemical indices and, the ability of kolaviron or Curcuma longa to ameliorate the alterations.

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A.; Nwosu, Ifeanyi O.; Farombi, Ebenezer O.

2012-01-01

286

Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, 26.2%) were removed by optimized snare techniques using the femoral vein approach. Median extraction time was 20 min (range 2–68 min) per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). Median follow-up was 14.5 months (range 1–58 months), no infection, or procedure-related death occurred in our series. Conclusions Our optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

Chu, Xian-Ming; Li, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Ping; An, Yi; Duan, Jiang-Bo; Wang, Long; Li, Ding; Li, Bing; Guo, Ji-Hong

2013-01-01

287

Event extraction for DNA methylation  

PubMed Central

Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts including a representative sample of all PubMed citations relevant to DNA methylation, and introduce manual annotation for this corpus marking nearly 3000 gene/protein mentions and 1500 DNA methylation and demethylation events. We retrain a state-of-the-art event extraction system on the corpus and find that automatic extraction of DNA methylation events, the methylated genes, and their methylation sites can be performed at 78% precision and 76% recall. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that reliable extraction methods for DNA methylation events can be created through corpus annotation and straightforward retraining of a general event extraction system. The introduced resources are freely available for use in research from the GENIA project homepage http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GENIA.

2011-01-01

288

Nonvolatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea  

SciTech Connect

In pulping it is important to know how lipophilic extractives will behave and so avoid pitch problems. Experiments on Gmelina wood delivered from Brazil in 1978 are described, using dichloromethane extractives to give sufficient information about the lipophilic extractives. The behavior of Gmelina extracts in kraft pulping was compared to that of birch extracts and was found to be similar. (Refs. 10).

Ukkonen, K.

1982-02-01

289

Extractive condensation: A new separation process  

SciTech Connect

A new highly selective vapor-phase extraction process is described. Hydrogen bonding between a scavenging extractant and the substance to be extracted results in a high-boiling complex forming fog droplets readily separable from the remaining vapor. The process is exemplified by the extraction of acetic acid from the predominantly aqueous vapor stream of furfural reactors. Triethylamine is used as the extractant.

Zeitsch, K.J.

1999-10-01

290

Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

1999-01-01

291

Air-assisted solvent extraction: towards a novel extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-assisted solvent extraction (AASX) concept uses a solvent-coated bubble to contact the organic and aqueous phases. Compared to conventional solvent extraction, a high contact area can be created using less solvent and the natural buoyancy provided by the air core promotes phase separation. A method of producing coated bubbles exploiting foaming properties of kerosene-based solvent is introduced. Coating thickness

H. M. Tarkan; J. A. Finch

2005-01-01

292

Solid Phase Extraction of Solanesol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the concentration and clean-up of tobacco extract samples during solanesol\\u000a analysis was proposed in this work. A column (200 mm  4 mm i.d.) packed with 0.10 g silica gel (with particle size of 70 ?m,\\u000a porosity of 0.5 and surface area of 400 m2 g?1) was used as SPE cartridge. Several extraction parameters, such as sample loading flow (0.3–7 mL min?1), sample

De-Song Tang; Hui-Ling Liang; Lin Zhang; Huan-Lin Chen

2007-01-01

293

COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.  

SciTech Connect

A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

VOGELSANG, W.

2005-09-07

294

Coal Extraction and Preparation Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolving extraction, preparation, and transportation techniques receiving Department of Energy (DOE) support do not create new or substantially different environmental impacts from those of both previous and contemporaroy techniques. As the coal minin...

1979-01-01

295

21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in...

2010-04-01

296

21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in...

2009-04-01

297

Probabilistic Model of Redundancy in Information Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unsupervised Information Extraction (UIE) is the task of extracting knowledge from text without using hand-tagged training examples. A fundamental problem for both UIE and supervised IE is assessing the probability that extracted information is correct. I...

D. Downey O. Etzioni S. Soderland

2006-01-01

298

Panel on Review of Allergenic Extracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains safety and effectiveness evaluations of allergenic extracts and poison ivy and poison oak extracts. Written by the Panel on Review of Allergenic Extracts, an advisory committee to the Bureau of Biologics, Food and Drug Administration, ...

1981-01-01

299

Antioxidant properties of marigold extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of methanolic and water extracts of growing wild marigold, Calendula arvensis L. (GWM) and cultivated marigold, Calendula officinalis L. (CM), in a concentration range of 0.10–0.90 mg\\/ml, was evaluated on three different free-radical species: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxyl radical using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. These extracts of CM and GWM, scavenged all

Gordana S ?etkovi?; Sonja M Djilas; Jasna M ?anadanovi?-Brunet; Vesna T Tumbas

2004-01-01

300

Extraction of hydrocarbon contamination from soils using accelerated solvent extraction.  

PubMed

Accelerated solvent extraction was studied as a method for the extraction of hydrocarbon contamination from wet and dry soils. Temperatures from 125 to 200 degrees C and six different solvents were investigated. Nonpolar solvents could not achieve complete recovery from wet soils at the temperatures studied. Optimum conditions were found to be 175 degrees C with dichloromethane-acetone (1:1, v/v) with 8 min heat-up time and 5 min static time. Quantitative recoveries for diesel range organics (DROs) and waste oil organics (WOOs) were obtained using the optimized conditions. The recovery of DROs and WOOs from three matrices at two concentrations (5 and 2000 mg/kg) averaged 115%. These results show that accelerated solvent extraction can generate results comparable to those obtained using Soxhlet or sonication. PMID:10817360

Richter, B E

2000-04-01

301

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

SciTech Connect

In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that are regulated as food supplements but are intended to treat disease or maintain health. Antioxidants and beneficial lipid products are major examples in this category. The final major category consists of environmental applications, both as an extraction technique for environmental analysis, and as a possible remediation strategy for removing contaminants that would otherwise be too expensive to recover. Most of the work in this area has focused on non-polar compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), where non-polar supercritical (SC) CO2 offers high extraction efficiencies. Co-solvent systems combining CO2 with one or more modifiers extend the utility of SC CO2 to polar and even ionic compounds. Supercritical water can extract polar compounds, and it has the additional advantage of combining extraction and destruction of contaminants via the supercritical water oxidation (SUWOX) process. Supercritical fluids are also useful in various niche applications. Fuel extraction, conversion, and analysis is one such application. Extraction of metals from various matrixes is also an area of continuing interest. The application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to production of nano-structured materials is a new area likely to see rapid growth in the next few years.

Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

2006-06-15

302

AGS slow extracted beam improvement  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

1997-07-01

303

Phenolic compounds from the fruit of Garcinia dulcis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dulcinoside (1), dulcisisoflavone (2), dulcisxanthone A (3) and sphaerobioside acetate (6) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the green fruit of G. dulcis. Dulcisflavan (4), dulcisxanthone B (5) and isonormangostin (7) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the ripe fruit. Compounds 6 and 7 were synthetic known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The

S. Deachathai; W. Mahabusarakam; S. Phongpaichit

2005-01-01

304

Extraction of silicones from soil  

SciTech Connect

Silicone polymer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), was extracted from soil incubated at 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1] for 0,1,3,7,14, and 28 d with mean recovery of 95.4% ([sigma] = 2.1%). From four agricultural soils incubated for one week at 1, 10, and 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1], mean extraction recovery was 95.6% ([sigma] = 3.2%). The method is now being used in [sup 14]C studies on the fate of silicones in the soil environment and will later be used for extraction of silicones from field samples. Silicone polymers have a variety of uses, including lubricants, electrical insulators, and texturizers in personal care products. They can enter the environment through wastewater treatment systems in which they adsorb to the solids, and are then applied to the soil during disposal of the sludge.

Lehmann, R.G. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States). Health and Environmental Sciences)

1993-10-01

305

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

306

Cinnamon extracts’ inhibitory effect on Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol and methylene chloride extracts of cinnamon were compared for their effect on Helicobacter pylori growth and urease activity. Methylene chloride extract was found to inhibit growth of H. pylori, while ethanol extract counteracted its urease activity. Cinnamon extract (from methylene chloride) inhibited H. pylori at concentration range of common antibiotics. Complete inhibition in vitro was achieved by 50 ?g\\/ml

Mina Tabak; Robert Armon; Ishak Neeman

1999-01-01

307

Automatic facial feature extraction by genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic facial feature extraction algorithm is presented. The algorithm is composed of two main stages: the face region estimation stage and the feature extraction stage. In the face region estimation stage, a second-chance region growing method is adopted to estimate the face region of a target image. In the feature extraction stage, genetic search algorithms are applied to extract

Chun-Hung Lin; Ja-Ling Wu

1999-01-01

308

The Use of Extracts in Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is the purpose of this paper to explore the use of extracts by reporting the results of a survey of the current acceptability and use of extracts, by a literature review and by suggesting guidelines for selecting extract material. The survey shows that extracts are currently being used in information services, especially for current awareness.…

Helmuth, Nancy A.

309

Aqueous extraction of gibberellins from pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous buffers were used to extract gibberellin-like substances from pea tissue. The method possesses several distinct advantages when compared with extraction methods using organic solvents. Aqueous buffer extracts can be prepared more rapidly and produce extracts which are free of pigments and other alcohol soluble materials.

R. L. Jones

1968-01-01

310

The Use of Extracts in Information Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the purpose of this paper to explore the use of extracts by reporting the results of a survey of the current acceptability and use of extracts, by a literature review and by suggesting guidelines for selecting extract material. The survey shows that extracts are currently being used in information services, especially for current awareness.…

Helmuth, Nancy A.

311

Extraction of anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia by pressurized hot water: Antioxidant activity of extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of anthraquinones from Morinda citrifolia was evaluated by determining the capability of the extracts to scavenge the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro, as compared with the extracts obtained by other conventional extraction methods such as ethanol extraction in stirred vessel, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that PHWE

Boonchai Pongnaravane; Motonobu Goto; Mitsuru Sasaki; Thitiporn Anekpankul; Prasert Pavasant; Artiwan Shotipruk

2006-01-01

312

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

313

Extracting light out of LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

`External quantum efficiency', that is, the number of photons generated per electron passing through the p-n junction of an LED is probably the most important number to quantify the performance of an LED chip. Although advances in epitaxy have increased the fraction of radiative recombination to extremely high values, the extraction of the precious photons that are trapped in a high refractive index crystal is still tricky. In this brief tutorial, we look at the physics of light extraction both from a geometrical optics/thermodynamic and a wave optics point of view, discussing both random and deterministic surface structures.

Muschaweck, Julius; Wiesmann, Christopher

2013-08-01

314

Protein extraction from woody plants.  

PubMed

In this chapter we present a protocol for total protein extraction optimized for wood-forming tissue (differentiating secondary xylem). The protocol is then used for a series of other organs (root, leaf, pollen, bud, flower, cambium, and phloem) in broadleaf (oak and poplar) and conifer (pine) species. Proteins are first extracted from tissue powdered in liquid nitrogen using the TCA-acetone method and then solubilized in an optimized buffer. The resulting 2D gels can be viewed at http://cbi.labri.fr/outils/protic/index.php. PMID:17093300

Plomion, Christophe; Lalanne, Céline

2007-01-01

315

Supercritical extraction of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chromatographic methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extracts (essential oil obtained by steam distillation and extracts obtained by carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction\\u000a and methylene chloride) are described. The composition of extracts obtained at different pressures (from 80 bar to 400 bar)\\u000a and constant temperature (40°C) is discussed. The extraction system thyme— supercritical carbon

Z. Zekovi?; Ž. Lepojeviíc; Dj. Vuji?

2000-01-01

316

Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

317

Comparison of extracts prepared from plant by-products using different solvents and extraction time  

Microsoft Academic Search

By-products obtained after red fruit processing still contain large amounts of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins which act as antioxidants. The effect of solvent and extraction time on the yield of extracted antioxidants from grape, black and red currant by-products (marc) was investigated. Ethanol and methanol extracts of red and black currant contain twice more anthocyanins and polyphenols than water extracts, extracts

Brigita Lapornik; Mirko Prošek; Alenka Golc Wondra

2005-01-01

318

EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION BY SALT EFFECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractive distillation employing a dissolved salt instead of a liquid third component as the separating agent is a promising but relatively neglected technique for achieving azeotropic and other difficult separations. In systems for which a soluble and effective salt can be found, major savings in both capital and energy costs are possible. The technical aspects of such processing are described

WILLIAM F. FURTER

1992-01-01

319

Influence of temperature on extraction  

SciTech Connect

The literature data related to the influence of temperature on extraction are very often controversial. It appeared advisable to undertake an investigation of such an influence in systems containing diisopropyl ether (IPE), because of their ability to form three coexisting liquid phases. In the extraction system H/sub 2/O-HCl-FeCl/sub 3/-IPE, the volume changes and the metal distribution depending on temperature (ranging from 13 to 40/sup 0/C) and the initial concentration of hydrochloric acid (5 to 11 M) were examined. The formation of the third phase (heavy organic phase) is of special interest in the separation processes because a very high concentration of metal can be expected. The complexity of such a multi-component and multiphase system makes a phenomenological approach more appropriate than a thermodynamic one. In the three-phase system an increase in temperature increases the distribution ratio of iron(III) whereas in the two-phase system, the distribution ratio decreases. The extraction factors based on phase volume and distribution ratio were calculated. Phase transformations occur in a narrow temperature range. A decrease of the initial acid concentration and an increase in temperature contribute to an increase in the number of equilibrated phases. Choice of the appropriate temperature in similar systems offers new possibilities in the application of extraction in separation procedures.

Maljkovic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Maljkovic, D.; Branica, M.

1980-05-01

320

Body sculpturing by liposuction extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical open surgical contouring and sculpturing of the body has required significant scarring with long incisions and wide depressed scars. During the last decade, a small number of European surgeons have pioneered techniques for suction lipectomy. Illouz introduced the concept of lipolysis and blunt cannula extraction. The method described herein, which is termed lipo-suction, is a dry technique. No lipolytic

Richard L. Dolsky

1984-01-01

321

Extracting DNA from a Banana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners extract DNA from a banana. The procedure requires only basic lab equipment (i.e. beaker, test tube) and chemicals (i.e. liquid soap, meat tenderizer, ethanol). This activity is most appropriate for learners in grades 5-8. With slight modifications, this activity is appropriate for younger learners as well.

Gallo, Mark; Ventresca, Shannon; Cordts, Marcia

2012-01-01

322

New methods of pitch extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new methods will be described for the extraction of the fundamental pitch from a speech signal. These are: 1) spectrum flattening followed by a minimum phase correction to synchronize harmonics 2) spectrum flattening followed by auto-correlation, and 3) nonlinear distortion followed by autocorrelation. The last two methods will be shown to be exceptionally rugged, in that they can tolerate

MAX MOHAN SONDHI

1968-01-01

323

Scenario Customization for Information Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information Extraction (IE) is an emerging NLP technology, whose function is to process unstructured, natural language text, to locate specific pieces of information, or facts, in the text, and to use these facts to fill a database. IE systems today are c...

R. Yangarber

2001-01-01

324

Extracting Schema from Semistructured Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of late, especially with the advent of the world-wide web, there has been an increasing interest in semistructured data in the database community. Semistructured data is characterized by the lack of any fixed and rigid schema, although typically the data has some implicit structure. While the lack of fixed schema makes extracting semistructured data fairly easy and an attractive goal,

Svetlozar Nestorov; Serge Abiteboul; Rajeev Motwani

1998-01-01

325

Therapeutic composition from plant extracts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Therapeutic compositions are composed of four plant extracts: ginsenoside, tetramethyl pyrazine, astragalan and atractylol. Pharmaceutical dosage units are prepared by conventional means with specific weight ranges and proportions of each of the four ingredients. The pharmaceutical dosage units are highly effective in treating cerebral vascular disease and the sequelae thereof. The dosage units are also useful for bolstering immunofunction in healthy and diseased patients.

1987-11-24

326

Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

Greene, Richard

1981-01-01

327

Information Extraction Supported Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of our information extraction (IE) system, Textract, in the question- answering (QA) track of the recently held TREC-8 tests. One of our major objectives is to examine how IE can help IR (Information Retrieval) in applications like QA. Our study shows: (i) IE can provide solid support for QA; (ii) low-level IE like Named Entity

Rohini K. Srihari; Wei Li

1999-01-01

328

Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

Malmary, G.; And Others

1984-01-01

329

Morphological processing for features extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a morphological features extraction algorithm referred to as a morphological scanning edge detector (MSED) is presented. MSED consists of three cascaded processes which are filtering, detecting and scanning. First, a robust morphological filtering process is used to reduce noise in the image without disrupting the edge structures. Then, in the detecting process, two intermediate images are derived

Ke-Kang Chin; Jafar Saniie

1993-01-01

330

Lesson 10: Extraction of Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces quadratic equations and graphs. Equations of the form ax^2 + c = 0 are solved via extraction of roots. Later application problems involving volume and surface area and compound interest (problems of the form a(x - p)^2 = q ) are presented.

2011-01-01

331

Geometric Methods for Vortex Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two vortex detection methods which are based on the geometric properties of streamlines. Unlike traditional vortex detection meth- ods, which are based on point-samples of physical quantities, one of our methods is also effective in detecting weak vortices. In addition, it allows for quantitative feature extraction by calculating numerical attributes of vortices. Results are pre- sented of

I. Ari Sadarjoen; Frits H. Post

332

Extracting information from trading volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a method to extract information about the true value of a traded asset using the market price and the equilibrium trading volume when the joint distribution of the traders' demands, the market price, and the asset value is known and the market clears. The paper applies the method to a chosen noisy rational-expectations model. We first condition

Dominique Y. Dupont

2002-01-01

333

Geospatial route extraction from texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to collect vast amounts of geospatial data is driven by the emergence of geo-enabled Web applications and the suitability of geospatial data in general to organize information. Given that geospatial data collection and aggregation is a resource intensive task typically left to professionals, we, in this work, advocate the use of information extraction (IE) techniques to derive meaningful

Euthymios Drymonas; Dieter Pfoser

2010-01-01

334

Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)|

Greene, Richard

1981-01-01

335

IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

336

Practical extraction techniques for Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing application size is important for software that is distributed via the internet, in order to keep download times manageable, and in the domain of embedded systems, where applications are often stored in (Read-Only or Flash) memory. This paper explores extraction techniques such as the removal of unreachable methods and redundant fields, inlining of method calls, and transformation of the

Frank Tip; Peter F. Sweeney; Chris Laffra; Aldo Eisma; David Streeter

2002-01-01

337

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2013-07-01

338

Antioxidant capacity of bioactives extracted from canola meal by subcritical water, ethanolic and hot water extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant compounds were extracted from canola meal by subcritical water extraction (SWE) at 110 and 160°C, hot water extraction (80°C) and ethanolic (95%, v\\/v) extraction. The highest extract yields were obtained with SWE at 160°C. The total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by the total phenolics assay (using Folin–Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent), the 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging

Majid Hassas-Roudsari; Peter R. Chang; Ronald B. Pegg; Robert T. Tyler

2009-01-01

339

Materials for geopressure energy extraction  

SciTech Connect

The status of efforts in methane and energy extraction from the geopressured aquifer sources of the North Gulf of Mexico region is outlined. Three different schemes for energy extraction are considered, and the anticipated materials and corrosion problems are defined. Suitable materials are suggested for use in the production well and surface equipment. J-55 steel can be used for production well casing. Monel clad carbon steel or high chromium ferritic stainless steels, such as E-Brite or AL 29-4 can be used in the cyclone gas separator. Polymer-concrete coated steel pipings are suitable for brine piping. The hydraulic turbine as well as the power turbine in the thermal energy converter can be made of a titanium alloy such as Ticode-12. Monel or Hastelloy-C276 clad steel is recommended for steam processing areas and monel piping is recommended for the heat exchangers. 20 references.

Raman, A.

1982-01-01

340

Extracting messages masked by chaos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands.

Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H. A.

1995-01-01

341

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.

2002-11-01

342

Rediscovery of an Extraction Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique consists of putting a few milliliters of the aqueous sample in a mortar and adding enough anhydrous sodium sulfate to react with all of the water. The thick paste is then ground up several times with a pestle and the appropriate solvent. The liquid water phase has been remove by formation of the hydrated salt; this results in rapid and quantitative extraction. The Soxhlet apparatus may be used instead if heat and time are of no concern.

Behrman, Edward J.

1998-01-01

343

DNA Extraction from Activated Sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To optimize the cell lysis step for DNA extraction from activated sludge samples, two floc dispersion methods (sonication\\u000a versus stirring with a cation exchange resin), and three cell lysis treatments (lysozyme?+?SDS, sonication in a water bath,\\u000a and thermal shock) were tested. For dispersion, stirring with cation exchange resin was more efficient than sonication. The\\u000a cell lysis procedures were applied

Muriel Bourrain; Wafa Achouak; Vincent Urbain; Thierry Heulin

1999-01-01

344

Numi Proton Kicker Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This system extracts up to 9.6 µ s of 120 GeV beam every 1.87 seconds for the NuMI beamline neutrino experiments. A pulse forming network consisting of two continuous wound coils and 68 capacitors was designed and built to drive three kicker magnets. The field stability requirement is better than ± 1% with a field rise time of 1.52 ?s.

C. C. Jensen; G. E. Krafczyk

2005-01-01

345

Extraction of sucrose from molasses  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose is extracted from molasses by passing an aqueous molasses solution over an adsorbent, e.g., calcined Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported pyrolyzed C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Thus, 10 mL molasses (approximately 46% solids) was run through a column containing 70 cubic centimetres above adsorbent with sucrose retention volume 21.4 and selectivity for sucrose - betaine 23.8.

Landis, A.M.

1982-01-26

346

Towards Extracting Emotions from Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, there has been a tremendous need for the ability to query and process vast quantities of musical data. Automatic\\u000a content extraction is clearly needed here, relating to various aspects of music. One of desirable options is the ability of\\u000a identifying musical pieces representing different types of emotions, which music clearly evokes. This paper focuses on scrupulous\\u000a planning

Alicja A. Wieczorkowska

2004-01-01

347

PSR extraction kicker system improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to improve the reliability of the hardware required to operate the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) is under way. The extraction kicker system for the PSR was identified as one candidate for improvement. Pulse modulators produce 50-kV pulses 360 ns in length at up to a 24-Hz pulse repetition rate and drive two 4-m-long stripline electrodes. Sources

T. W. Hardek

1991-01-01

348

Titanium metal: extraction to application  

SciTech Connect

In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2002-09-01

349

Verifiable visualization for isosurface extraction.  

PubMed

Visual representations of isosurfaces are ubiquitous in the scientific and engineering literature. In this paper, we present techniques to assess the behavior of isosurface extraction codes. Where applicable, these techniques allow us to distinguish whether anomalies in isosurface features can be attributed to the underlying physical process or to artifacts from the extraction process. Such scientific scrutiny is at the heart of verifiable visualization--subjecting visualization algorithms to the same verification process that is used in other components of the scientific pipeline. More concretely, we derive formulas for the expected order of accuracy (or convergence rate) of several isosurface features, and compare them to experimentally observed results in the selected codes. This technique is practical: in two cases, it exposed actual problems in implementations. We provide the reader with the range of responses they can expect to encounter with isosurface techniques, both under "normal operating conditions" and also under adverse conditions. Armed with this information--the results of the verification process--practitioners can judiciously select the isosurface extraction technique appropriate for their problem of interest, and have confidence in its behavior. PMID:19834193

Etiene, Tiago; Scheidegger, Carlos; Nonato, L Gustavo; Kirby, Robert M; Silva, Cláudio T

350

Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

1989-06-01

351

Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems  

SciTech Connect

Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

Neuman, R.D.

1992-01-01

352

Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.  

PubMed

Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

2012-01-01

353

Supercritical fluid extraction of dandelion leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amyrin and ?-sitosterol were extracted from dandelion in preparative scale using supercritical carbon dioxide. A 32 full-factorial design was carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure and temperature (over the ranges 150–450 bar and 35–65°C, respectively) on the yields and recoveries of the active components. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared to Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane and

B. Simándi; Sz. T. Kristo; Á. Kéry; L. K. Selmeczi; I. Kmecz; S. Kemény

2002-01-01

354

Potential applications for alternative medicine to treat obesity in an aging population.  

PubMed

Obesity is a growing problem causing significant morbidity and mortality. The efficacy of conventional therapies is limited. Numerous alternative therapies are advocated for weight loss, including dietary modifications, hypnotherapy, and acupuncture. Many herbal medications and dietary supplements such as conjugated linoleic acids, chitosan, Garcinia cambogia, and Citrus aurantium, are also being used. Most have been tested in very limited trials. None have been evaluated to the extent they can be definitively recommended, nor have they been studied to ascertain the extent of potential hazards. Given the scope of the problem, and the potential risk to a vulnerable population, further research should be conducted to define the efficacy of these treatments, particularly for the elderly. PMID:18377101

Cherniack, E Paul

2008-03-01

355

An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products  

PubMed Central

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

2011-01-01

356

An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.  

PubMed

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

2010-08-10

357

Extractive distillation of binary azeotropic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions have been determined under which an azeotropic binary mixture can be separated by extractive distillation and\\u000a under which separation into almost pure components is impossible at any amount of the extracting agent. A general algorithm\\u000a is suggested for analysis of special manifolds in order to see whether extractive distillation is efficient.

L. A. Serafimov; A. K. Frolkova; D. I. Bushina

2008-01-01

358

Extraction, Fixed Costs and the Hotelling Rule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Starting from the matter of fact that in the extracting industry large-scale investments and fixed costs play an important role the influence of fixed extraction costs and a convex curve on the time path of extraction is investigated. Moreover the time pa...

H. Siebert

1981-01-01

359

PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

Grinstead, R.R.

1958-11-11

360

CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds,

James Boltz

2005-01-01

361

COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)  

EPA Science Inventory

Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

362

Biomolecular event extraction using Support Vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP) is to capture biomedical phenomena from textual data by extracting relevant entities, information and relations between biomedical entities (i.e. proteins and genes). In general, in most of the published papers, only binary relations were extracted. In a recent past, the focus is shifted towards extracting more complex relations in the form

Sriparna Saha; Amit Majumder; Asif Ekbal

2011-01-01

363

Plant extract compositions for affecting sleep  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A composition for affecting physiological sleep disorders comprising a therapeutically effective amount of Baiziren extract or any of its derivatives, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The composition may additionally comprise a therapeutically effective amount of at least one of a Suanzaoren extract and a Yuanzhi extract, or mixtures thereof.

Xie; Xueji (Richmond, CA); Ko; Yu-Lung (Richmond, CA); Ko; Chien-Kuang (Richmond, CA); Ko; Jason Jiang-Chung (Richmond, CA); Gafney; Richard William (Richmond, CA)

2011-06-28

364

Chart image understanding and numerical data extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chart images in digital documents are an important source of valuable information that is largely under-utilized for data indexing and information extraction purposes. We developed a framework to automatically extract data carried by charts and convert them to XML format. The proposed algorithm classifies image by chart type, detects graphical and textual components, extracts semantic relations between graphics and text.

Ales Mishchenko; Natalia Vassilieva

2011-01-01

365

Extraction Studies at the Khlopin Radium Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on actinide extraction were initiated at the Khlopin Radium Institute in 1946 with the aim to recover weapons-grade plutonium using diethyl ether. However, only since 1976 the extraction procedures came into industrial use for reprocessing of irradiated uranium using solutions of TBP in chlorinated hydrocarbon diluents. Subsequently, the extraction processes were modified for reprocessing of NPP spent fuel, with

B. Ya. Zilberman; V. N. Romanovskii

2003-01-01

366

Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-01

367

Digital Surface Models for Building Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to building extraction using Digital Surface Models (DSM) as input data. The approach consists of building detection and reconstruction using parametric and prismatic building models. The main focus is on the extraction of roof structures, an extension of the previously published work, as first step towards the extraction of polyhedral building descrip- tions in order

Uwe Weidner

1997-01-01

368

Resonant beam extraction scheme with constant separatrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new scheme for resonant extraction with a constant separatrix is presented to realize small emittance, constant position and size of the extracted beam. In this scheme, the amplitude of the betatron oscillations inside the constant separatrix is increased by electromagnetic transverse or longitudinal perturbations, or scattering by other particles. Particles outside the separatrix are extracted through nonlinear resonance. The

Kazuo Hiramoto; Masatugu Nishi

1992-01-01

369

Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin A deficiency is a health problem in Southeast Asia that can be corrected by feeding orange fruits and vegetables such as mango. Pumpkin is a traditional Korean food that is easy to store and is already believed to have health benefits. We extracted carotenoids from pumpkin by liquid–liquid extraction and by supercritical fluid extraction. We measured carotenoids by reversed-phase

Jung Sook Seo; Betty Jane Burri; Zhejiu Quan; Terry R. Neidlinger

2005-01-01

370

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food...Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl...

2009-04-01

371

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food...Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl...

2010-04-01

372

Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cynara scolymus L. leaves, heads and stems were tested for their antifungal activity using the agar-well diffusion assay technique. The leaves extracts and the ethanol fractions were found to be the most effective extract against all the tested organisms.

X. F. Zhu; H. X. Zhang; R. Lo

2005-01-01

373

A Real World Implementation of Answer Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe ExtrAns, an answer extraction system. Answer extraction (AE) aims at retrieving those ex- act passages of a document that directly answer a given user question. AE is more ambitious than information re- trieval and information extraction in that the retrieval re - sults are phrases, not entire documents, and in that the queries may be

Diego Mollá Aliod; Jawad Berri; Michael Hess

1998-01-01

374

Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view

A. Y. El-Etre

2003-01-01

375

Analgesic activity of Justicia beddomei leaf extract  

PubMed Central

The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.

Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.

2007-01-01

376

Prevention of enzymatic browning of pear by onion extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onion extract was prepared by extracting onion with water, and the effects of the extract on pear polyphenol oxidase and browning of pear were investigated. The polyphenol oxidase of pear was inhibited by onion extract, and the inhibitory effect of onion extract toward pear polyphenol oxidase was increased with the heated extract. The inhibitory effect of the extract was increased

Mi-Jeong Kim; Choon Young Kim

2005-01-01

377

Extraction parameters significantly influence the quantity and the profile of PLFAs extracted from soils.  

PubMed

Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis is a robust method for characterizing soil microbial communities. We determined the effects of extraction solvent (chloroform vs dichloromethane) and buffer (phosphate vs citrate) on the yield and the profile of PLFAs extracted from an acidic (pH 5.5) and an alkaline (pH 8.6) soil following two 2-h sequential extractions. The yield and the profile of the PLFAs obtained separately by the first and the second 2-h extraction were compared to identify the impact of sequential extractions on the PLFA extraction efficiency. Chloroform-citrate and a 2?×?2-h extraction maximized PLFA yields in both soils. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the choice of the extraction mixture did not significantly influence the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the first 2-h extraction, whereas it had a profound effect on the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the second 2-h extraction. Most PLFAs were extracted during the first extraction except 18:2?6,9 and 22:0 which were almost equally extracted by the two sequential extractions. The choice of organic solvent significantly influenced the profile of the PLFAs extracted; their yield increased with chloroform with the exception of 18:2?6,9 and 22:0 which were favored by dichloromethane. Overall, a 2?×?2-h extraction with chloroform/methanol/citrate is expected to provide maximum PLFA yields. PMID:21556882

Papadopoulou, Evagelia S; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

2011-05-10

378

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic

PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY; AWANG BONO

379

Effects of Extraction Conditions on the Content of Anthocyanins and Bioelements in Berry Fruit Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for extracting anthocyanins and bioelements [calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe)] from black chokeberry, black currant, strawberry, and bilberry fruits were compared in this study. Correlations between the content of anthocyanins and bioelements in fruit extracts were determined using method A [extraction with hydrochloric acid (HCl)] and method B [extraction with water (H2O)]. Relationships between the

Barbara Pliszka; Elwira Wierzbicka

2008-01-01

380

Extraction of zirconium and hafnium from nitric acid solutions by solid extractant based on tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of extraction equilibrium and kinetics and the influence of temperature and aqueous phase acidity on the extraction of zirconium and hafnium from nitric acid solutions by a solid extractant based on tributyl phosphate. Results are presented from pilot-plant experiments on Zr and Hf extraction from acidic pulps with high silicon contents, using pulsed columns.

Korovin, V.Yu.; Yagodin, G.A.; Savel`eva, V.I. [Dnieper Scientific Center, Dneprodzerzhinsk (Ukraine)

1994-10-20

381

Supercritical fluid extraction of chamomile flower heads: Comparison with conventional extraction, kinetics and scale-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction of chamomile flower heads was performed on semi continuous extraction apparatus in the lab scale using carbon dioxide as solvent. The results of high pressure experiments were compared with those obtained with Soxhlet extraction, steam distillation and maceration. The obtained extracts were analysed by HPLC on ?-bisabolol, matricine and chamazulene content and by gravimetrical method on essential

Petra Kotnik; Mojca Škerget; Željko Knez

2007-01-01

382

Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction of twenty-two organochlorine pesticides from eggs.  

PubMed

The recoveries of twenty-two organochlorine pesticides spiked in egg samples were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide and solvent extraction using acetonitrile were compared. The extracts were cleaned up with C18 and Florisil SPE columns. At 0.1 ppm spike level, the recoveries were 52 - 100% by SFE and 53 - 93% by solvent extraction. The limits of detection calculated at 0.01 ppm spike level were 0.072 - 0.006 ppm for SFE and 0.06 - 0.006 ppm for solvent extraction. Both methods show improvement in sample preparation time and solvent consumption from the existing Soxhlet extraction method. PMID:8867140

Wigfield, Y Y; Selwyn, J; Khan, S; McDowell, R

1996-03-01

383

Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

Koumpis, Konstantinos; Renals, Steve

384

Burried broken extraction instrument fragment.  

PubMed

Despite adequate effort to perform tooth removal carefully, some accidents may happen when defective instruments are unknowingly used. This article reports of a non-symptomatic case of a retained fractured dental elevator tip during an uneventful extraction a decade earlier. Patient was not aware till routine radiographic examination revealed its presence. Use of three dimensional imaging techniques in this case is highlighted. Rarely, instruments breakage may occur during surgical procedures. It is duty of the dentists to check the surgical instrument for signs of breakage and be prepared to solve a possible emergency. Retained fragments should be carefully studied prior to attempt of removal. PMID:23662269

Balaji, S M

2013-01-01

385

The extractive metallurgy of gold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

1998-12-01

386

New AGS fast extraction system  

SciTech Connect

Both the high energy physics program and ISA injection require an improved fast extraction system from the AGS. The proposed new system consists of a fast kicker at H5 and an ejector magnet at H10. The H5 kicker is capable of producing 1.2 mrad deflection and rising up to 99% strength in 150 nsec with flat top ripple within +- 1%. It is found that the focusing strengths and positions of UQ3-UQ7 have to be modified to achieve an achromatic condition at the end of 8/sup 0/-bend. Also, the conceptual design of the H5 magnet and the pulser system are discussed.

Weng, W.T.

1980-09-01

387

Extraction and bioactivity of polygonatum polysaccharides.  

PubMed

The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters and liver protective effect of the polygonatum polysaccharides in vivo. The order of factor effects on polysaccharides production was found to be extraction time (min, A)>ratio of solvent to solid (C)>extraction temperature (°C, B)>extraction number (D). The results show that the effects of extraction time (min, A) and ratio of solvent to solid (C) were more significant than those of the other factors. Optimal extraction parameters were as followings: extraction time 120 min, extraction temperature 100 °C, ratio of solvent to solid 5, and extraction number 4. Polygonatum polysaccharides was administered orally at doses of 150, 300 and 450 mg/(kg day) to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated rats. Results showed that administration of polygonatum polysaccharides could increase rats' final body weight, liver antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR)), decrease serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The liver sections obtained from animals supplemented with polygonatum polysaccharides extract demonstrated reduced pathological damages, supporting that polygonatum polysaccharides extract could effectively decrease the toxicity of CCl(4). It can be concluded that polygonatum polysaccharides treatment may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative injury in experimental rats. PMID:23246900

Jiang, Qunguang; Lv, Yunxia; Dai, Weidong; Miao, Xiongying; Zhong, Dewu

2012-12-13

388

Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens.  

PubMed

An updated review on the biological activity of Tridax procumbens is presented. A detailed biological screening comprised of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi using crude extracts of this plant was undertaken. The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. The same extract of the whole aerial parts was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. The ethyl-acetate extract of the flowers was active against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella sp. The aerial parts extract also showed activity only against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus, while the aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Trichophyton rubrum. PMID:11185735

Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

2000-06-01

389

Guava leaf extract and topical haemostasis.  

PubMed

The effects of guava leaf extract on the bleeding time and the three main mechanisms of haemostasis: vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and blood coagulation, were investigated. The water extract of guava leaves did not shorten bleeding times in rats. Guava leaf extract potentiated the vascular muscle contraction induced in rabbits by phenylephrine, and when given alone it stimulated human platelet aggregation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, it significantly prolonged blood coagulation; activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test (p < 0.05). The higher the concentration of the extract, the longer APTT was observed. Thus, a water extract of guava leaves showed ambiguous effects on the haemostatic system. Guava leaf extract did not affect bleeding times, it stimulated vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation but it inhibited blood coagulation. Therefore, guava leaf extract is not recommended as a haemostatic agent. PMID:10925412

Jaiarj, P; Wongkrajang, Y; Thongpraditchote, S; Peungvicha, P; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Opartkiattikul, N

2000-08-01

390

Bioactive extracts from Senecio samnitum Huet.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from Senecio samnitum Huet are reported. Extracts from S. samnitum were able to inhibit the in vitro proliferation of four human tumor cell lines. The dichloromethane extract demonstrated effective cytotoxic activity with IC50 of 22.89 microg mL(-1) on the Caco-2 cell line and the EtOAc extract had IC50 value of 11.91 microg mL(-1) against the COR-L23 cell line. The n-hexane extract displayed the best antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal activity of all extracts was also seen, particularly against the dermatophytes Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum gypseum for the methanol and n-hexane extracts. PMID:16401558

Loizzo, M R; Tundis, R; Statti, G A; Miljkovic-Brake, Ana; Menichini, F; Houghton, P J

2006-03-01

391

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cedarwood oil: a study of extraction parameters and oil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of cedarwood oil (CWO) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-COZ) has been investigated with respect to the effects of extraction temperature and pressure, length of extraction, and age of cedarwood chips. Steam distilled and SC-CO2 derived CWOs were compared by gas chromatography and sensory evaluation. The extraction of CWO increased with extraction temperature, except at the lowest pressure utilised.

Fred J. Eller; Jerry W. King

2000-01-01

392

Valuable compounds in macroalgae extracts.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds present in ethanolic extracts from 18 macroalgae of the Portuguese coast were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the characterization of 14 compounds: proline, phloroglucinol, mannitol, 8 fatty acids and 3 sterols. A dose-dependent response against enzymes with biological significance (?-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) and free radicals (DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl) was found, Phaeophyta being the most promising group. A PCA analysis was performed and allowed the establishment of a correlation between the algae chemical composition and the biological activity. Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus are among the most active species, which is in accordance with their higher contents in phloroglucinol, mannitol, oleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, and fucosterol. The results point to the potential interest of the use of Phaeophyta species as food additives, due to their potent antiradical activities, and especially highlights the importance of F. spiralis in the food chain of Mediterranean countries. Moreover, the incorporation of the extracts of these species in food products, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations for human health should also be instigated, since they can suppress hyperglycemia and inhibit cholinesterases. PMID:23411314

Andrade, Paula B; Barbosa, Mariana; Matos, Rui Pedro; Lopes, Graciliana; Vinholes, Juliana; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

2012-11-28

393

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

2008-12-01

394

Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE. PMID:23666412

Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; González, Mónica

2013-06-01

395

Diagnostic value of three different latex extracts.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of latex allergy is made on clinical history, but a confirmatory skin prick test (SPT) or a serological assay based on a commercial latex extract is always recommendable. Different raw materials can be used in the preparation of commercial latex extracts. Such extracts can consequently show both different qualitative profiles and a different diagnostic potential. Therefore, the selection of a proper latex extract is essential for in vitro and in vivo diagnosis of latex allergy. In the present study three different latex extracts, prepared from different raw materials (ammoniated -AL-, serum -SL-, or rubber particles -RPE- latex), are compared by in vitro techniques using sera from twenty patients with latex allergy. SDS-PAGE technique was used to compare the antigenic profile of the three latex extracts. Subsequently, their allergenic profiles were evaluated by immunoblotting technique using the individual sera from the twenty latex allergic patients. The diagnostic potential of the three latex extracts was also evaluated using direct Radio-Allergo-Sorbent Test (RAST) as well as skin prick tests (SPTs). In order to establish the more appropriate latex extract in a perspective of in vivo diagnosis of latex sensitization, the same latex extracts were subsequently compared by an in vivo SPT involving ten of the above subjects. The SDS-PAGE profiles of the three latex extracts examined were quite different. SL extract showed numerous bands comprised between 10-100 kDa. RPE extract was characterized by two intense bands at 14 and 20 kDa while AL extract showed the poorer antigenic composition. Analogously, immunoblotting analysis evidenced a different profile in relation to both different patients and extracts. For only two out of the twenty sera, direct RAST results showed a same positive class in relation to the different latex extracts used. SPT with SL extract showed, in respect to the other extracts (AL, RPE), a significantly higher wheal. This study showed that SL extract is able to express the best in vitro and in vivo diagnostic potential. Thus, its use should be preferred for the diagnosis of patients affected by latex allergy. PMID:17624253

Bernardini, R; Mistrello, G; Pucci, N; Roncarolo, D; Lombardi, E; Zanoni, E; Mori, F; De Martino, M; Novembre, E; Massai, C; Azzari, C; Vierucci, A

396

Production of hydroxycitric acid by microorganisms.  

PubMed

Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a major acid component of the tropical plants Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa. (2S,3S)-HCA from G. cambogia was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (EC4.1.3.8), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. (2S,3R)-HCA from H. subdariffa inhibits alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, leading to reduction of carbohydrate metabolism. The availability of HCA is limited by the restricted habitat of the plants as well as the difficulty of stereoselective organic synthesis. Hence, we screened microorganisms producing HCA to find an alternative source of optically pure bulk HCA. Two strains, Streptomyces sp. U121 and Bacillus megaterium G45C, were screened by HPLC analysis. Particular metabolites were purified from their culture broths and compared with authentic HCA from plants. NMR studies indicated that the products are identical to Hibiscus-type HCA. This is the first report showing isolation of microorganisms producing HCA. PMID:16116285

Hida, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuhiro

2005-08-01

397

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

PubMed

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

2011-08-03

398

Safety of a Novel Calcium/Potassium Salt of Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA-SX): I. Two-Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to inhibit fat synthesis and reduce food intake. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) on the reproductive systems of male and female rats, the postnatal maturation and reproductive capacity of their offspring, and possible cumulative effects through multiple generations. Sprague-Dawley rats (30/sex/group) were maintained on feed containing HCA-SX at dose levels of 0, 1000, 3000, or 10,000 ppm for 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and, for females, through gestation and lactation, across two generations. During the period of study, animals were examined daily for signs of clinical toxicity and their body weight and feed consumption were recorded twice a week. For the parents (F(0) and F(1)) and the offspring (F(1) and F(2a)), reproductive parameters such as fertility and mating, gestation, parturition, litters, lactation, sexual maturity, and development of offspring were assessed. At termination, necropsy and histopathological examinations were performed on all animals. Dietary exposure of HCA-SX to parental male and female rats of both (F(0) and F(1)) the generations during the premating and mating periods, for both sexes, and during gestation and lactation in case of female rats, did not reveal any remarkable incidence of mortality or abnormal clinical signs. Compared to respective controls, HCA-SX exposure did not affect feed consumption or body weight at any of the exposure levels. HCA-SX exposure did not affect reproductive performance as evaluated by sexual maturity, fertility and mating, gestation, parturition, litter properties, lactation, and development of the offspring. Based on the results of this study, the parental as well as the offspring no-observed-adverse-effect level for HCA-SX was determined to be greater than 10,000 ppm in diet or equivalent to 1018 and 1524 mg/kg body weight/day in male and female rats, respectively. PMID:20020868

Deshmukh, N S; Bagchi, M; Yasmin, T; Bagchi, D

2008-01-01

399

Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt.  

PubMed

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10-30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake. The objective of this review is to systematically review the available safety/toxicity literature on HCA to determine its safety in-use. The primary mechanism of action of HCA appears to be related to its ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), primary building blocks of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium-HCA extract (HCA-SX), is considerably more soluble and bioavailable than calcium-based HCA ingredients. Acute oral toxicity studies in animals demonstrate that CitriMax (50% HCA as calcium salt) has a low acute oral toxicity. In a subchronic study in rats, the gavage administration of HCA-SX at doses up to 2500 mg/kg/day for a period of 90 days caused a significant decrease in body weight and reduction in feed consumption without any adverse effects. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of use of HCA and other toxicity studies indicate that HCA-SX is unlikely to cause reproductive or developmental effects. HCA-SX was not mutagenic in the presence or absence of metabolic activation in Ames genotoxicity assays in strains TA98 and TA102. HCA-SX-induced increases in number of revertants in other strains (TA100 and TA1535 in the absence of metabolic activation and in strain TA1537 in the presence of metabolic activation) but these were not considered as biologically indicative of a mutagenic effect. In several, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials employing up to 2800 mg/day HCA, no treatment-related adverse effects were reported. There is sufficient qualitative and quantitative scientific evidence, including animal and human data suggesting that intake of HCA at levels up to 2800 mg/day is safe for human consumption. PMID:15234082

Soni, M G; Burdock, G A; Preuss, H G; Stohs, S J; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, D

2004-09-01

400

Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit(TM) energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional coffee beverage containing additional caffeine, green tea extracts, niacin and garcinia cambogia to regular coffee to determine the effects on resting energy expenditure (REE) and hemodynamic variables. Methods Subjects included five male (26 ± 2.1 y, 97.16 ± 10.05 kg, 183.89 ± 6.60 cm) and five female (28.8 ± 5.3 y, 142.2 ± 12.6 lbs) regular coffee drinkers. Subjects fasted for 10 hours and were assessed for 1 hour prior (PRE) and 3 hours following 1.5 cups of coffee ingestion [JavaFit™ Energy Extreme (JF) ~400 mg total caffeine; Folgers (F) ~200 mg total caffeine] in a double-blind, crossover design. REE, resting heart rate (RHR), and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure was assessed at PRE and 1, 2, and 3-hours post coffee ingestion. Data were analyzed by three-factor repeated measures ANOVA (p < 0.05). Results JF trial resulted in a significant main effect for REE (p < 0.01), SBP (p < 0.01), RER (p < 0.01), and VO2 (p < 0.01) compared to F, with no difference between trials on the RHR and DBP variables. A significant interaction for trial and time point (p < 0.05) was observed for the variable REE. The JF trial resulted in a significant overall mean increase in REE of 14.4% (males = 12.1%, females = 17.9%) over the observation period (p < 0.05), while the F trial produced an overall decrease in REE of 5.7%. SBP was significantly higher in the JF trial; however, there was no significant increase from PRE to 3-hours post. Conclusion Results from this study suggest that JavaFit™ Energy Extreme coffee is more effective than Folgers regular caffeinated coffee at increasing REE in regular coffee drinkers for up to 3 hours following ingestion without any adverse hemodynamic effects.

Taylor, Lemuel W; Wilborn, Colin D; Harvey, Travis; Wismann, Jennifer; Willoughby, Darryn S

2007-01-01

401

The role of some compounds on extraction of chromium(VI) by amine extractants.  

PubMed

The extraction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from hydrochloric acid aqueous solution using Aliquat 336 and Alamine 336 extractants was performed under different experimental conditions. The data clarify that one molecule of amine extractants shares with approximately one molecule of HCl to extract two molecules of Cr(VI) from 1M HCl aqueous solutions. The extraction is an exothermic process and possesses enthalpy change values of -41.02 and -28.08 kJ mol(-1) for the extraction by Aliquat 336 and Alamine 336, respectively. The presence of potassium chloride greatly increases the extraction of Cr(VI) by amine extractants while the addition of some phenolic compounds such as phenol, dichlorophenol, o-nitrophenol and beta-naphthol decreases this extraction under the same experimental conditions. PMID:15629579

Someda, H H; El-Shazly, E A; Sheha, R R

2005-01-31

402

Line extraction in SAR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a line extraction algorithm in SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. The algorithm is designed based on the statistical characteristics of the speckle in SAR image. Three steps are involved. Firstly, a new edge detector, which combines the Canny operator and Ratio operator, is used to detect the edge points and calculate their directions, then the edge points are grouped according to their edge direction to form the initial lines. Finally, a high-level grouping step connects the fragmental lines. The proposed new edge operator is CFAR (Constant False Alert Rate) and prevents the line from cleavage. The algorithm has been applied in the X-band airborne SAR images, and the results are presented at the end of this paper.

Wang, Cheng; Wang, Runsheng

2003-06-01

403

Corneal astigmatism following cataract extraction.  

PubMed Central

The changes in corneal curvature in the first six months after cataract extraction were studied by performing sequential keratometry on a group of 57 patients. 8/0 Virgin silk interrupted sutures were used for the closure of corneoscleral incisions, and 10/0 monofilament tied in double running (bootlace) or single running (continuous) fashion was used for corneal wound closure. A high degree of with-the-rule astigmatism was evident in all patients two weeks postoperatively, but thereafter the character of the astigmatism produced by 8/0 virgin silk and 10/0 monofilament closure was quite different: in the 8/0 virgin silk group there was an early and pronounced shift in the axis of astigmatism to against-the-rule, whereas in the 10/0 monofilament group there was little further change in the astigmatism unless the sutures were removed. Wound compression and wound gape as factors responsible for these changes are discussed.

Wishart, M S; Wishart, P K; Gregor, Z J

1986-01-01

404

Extraction of TNT from aggregate soil fractions.  

PubMed

Past explosives manufacture, disposal, and training activities have contaminated soil at many military facilities, posing health and environmental risks through contact, potential detonation, and leaching into ground water. While methods have been confirmed for extraction and measuring explosives concentration in soil, no work has addressed aggregate size material (the >2 mm gravel and cobbles) that often occurs with the smaller soil fractions. This paper describes methods and results for extraction and measurement of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in aggregate material from 1/2 to 2-1/1 from a WWII era ammunition plant. TNT was extracted into acetonitrile by both Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction methods. High pressure liquid chromatography analyses of extracts showed expected variation among samples. Also effective extraction and determination of TNT concentration for each aggregate size fraction was achieved. PMID:10379027

Williford, C W; Mark Bricka, R

1999-04-23

405

The extraction of nickel with aliphatic oximes  

SciTech Connect

The use of aliphatic oximes to extract nickel from acidic, nickelous-chromic-chloride solutions was investigated. Batch solvent extraction tests were conducted to characterize the nickel extraction and stripping properties of several oximes. Results indicated that the oximes selectively extracted nickel over chromium by an ion pair mechanism. Nickel was most effectively stripped from the loaded oxime extractants with dilute hydrochloric acid; however, these acidic strip solutions partially degraded the oximes to their parent aldehydes by hydrolysis. The oximes could, however, be regenerated by contacting the solvent phase with a neutralized hydroxylamine-hydrochloride solution. Decyl oxime was successfully used in a continuous counter-current solvent extraction circuit that incorporated loading, stripping, and regeneration stages. The decyl oxime degraded 12 pct per loading and stripping cycle, but was effectively regenerated prior to recycling to the head of the circuit.

Redden, L.D.; Groves, R.D. [Dept. of the Interior, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1993-01-01

406

Degradation of organothiophosphorous extractant Cyanex 301.  

PubMed

The resistance of extractants to light is important during industrial extraction processes. A photodegradation of the organothiophosphorous extractant Cyanex 301 in toluene and hexane as organic diluent and the identification of possible degradation products using FT-IR and GC-MS techniques were performed. The influence of copper(II) and cobalt(II) ions on the stability of the extractant under UV-vis light exposure was also studied. The changes in the percentage composition of individual components of the extractant depended on the types of organic diluents and copper or cobalt ions. During this process, copper complex irradiation precipitation of black powder and photooxidation of toluene were observed. Based on these results we proposed a hypothetical mechanism of photodegradation of extractant Cyanex 301. PMID:21664046

Wieszczycka, Karolina; Tomczyk, Wiktoria

2011-05-20

407

Rate Processes in Solvent Extraction of Metal Ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism and kinetics of metal extraction with several extractants, including chelating agents, acidic organophosphorous extractant and neutral extractants are discussed in this paper.Firstly the extraction rate of metal ion for the general extraction system is formulated by solving the diffusional equation with chemical reaction, in which the interfacial reaction is considered by the boundary conditions. The overall rate expressions

YOSHIKAZU MIYAKE; YOSHINARI BABA

2000-01-01

408

Antioxidant activities of selected oriental herb extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were studied by determining the peroxide values of linoleic\\u000a acid during storage at 50C. Among the herb extracts tested, 44 species showed strong antioxidant activities on the oxidation\\u000a of linoleic acid. The antioxidative effects of these 44 selected herb extracts were studied further in a methyl linoleate\\u000a system during storage for

S. Y. Kim; J. H. Kim; M. J. Oh; M. Y. Jung

1994-01-01

409

An optimal extraction algorithm for CCD spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimal spectrum extraction procedure is described, and examples of its performance with CCD data are presented. The algorithm delivers the maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio while preserving spectrophotometric accuracy. The effects of moderate geometric distortion and of cosmic-ray hits on the spectrum are automatically accounted for. In tests with background-noise limited CCD spectra, optimal extraction offers a 70-percent gain in effective exposure time in comparison with conventional extraction procedures.

Horne, K.

1986-06-01

410

Extraction of nutraceuticals from milk thistle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds from milk thistle (Silybum marianum Gaert L.) contain flavanolignan and dihydroflavanol compounds that have interesting and important therapeutic activities.\\u000a The recovery of these silymarin compounds generally involves a two-step defatting and extraction process using organic solvents.\\u000a This study examined the batch, single-stage extraction of whole and defatted seeds using ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile,\\u000a and acetone as the solvents. In extracting

Sunny N. Wallace; Danielle Julie Carrier; Edgar C. Clausen

2003-01-01

411

Ontology Based Information Extraction from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information extraction systems employ ontologies as a means to describe formally the domain knowledge exploited by these systems\\u000a for their operation. The aim of this survey is to study the contribution of ontologies to information extraction systems.\\u000a We believe that this will help towards specifying a concrete methodology for ontology based information extraction exploiting\\u000a all levels of ontological knowledge, from

Vangelis Karkaletsis; Pavlina Fragkou; Georgios Petasis; Elias Iosif

2011-01-01

412

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOEpatents

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01

413

Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems  

SciTech Connect

Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

Neuman, R.D.

1993-01-01

414

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOEpatents

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1991-12-31

415

Side Extraction Duopigatron-Type Ion Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We have designed and constructed a compact duoPIGatron-type ion source, for possible use in ion implanters. In our ion source ions are extracted from side aperture in contrast to conventional duoPIGatron sources with axial ion extraction. The size of the side extraction aperture is 1times40 mm. The ion source was developed to study physical and technological

V. I. Gushenets; E. M. Oks; A. Hershcovitch; B. M. Johnson

2007-01-01

416

Oil extraction from microalgae for biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the performance of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and hexane extraction of lipids from marine Chlorococcum sp. for lab-scale biodiesel production. Even though the strain of Chlorococcum sp. used in this study had a low maximum lipid yield (7.1 wt% to dry biomass), the extracted lipid displayed a suitable fatty acid profile for biodiesel [C18:1 (?63 wt%),

Ronald Halim; Brendan Gladman; Michael K. Danquah; Paul A. Webley

2011-01-01

417

Entity Profile Extraction from Large Corpora? ? ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information Extraction (IE) has two anchor points: (i) entity-centric information leads to an Entity Profile (EP); (ii) action-centric information leads to an Event Scenario. Based on a pipelined architecture which involves both document-level IE and corpus-level IE, a multi-level modular approach to EP extraction from large corpora is described: (i) named entity tagging; (ii) three-level pattern matching for extracting the

Wei Li; Rohini Srihari; Cheng Niu; Xiaoge Li

418

Detecting Corn Syrup in Barley Malt Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 78(3):349-353 Methods for detecting corn syrup in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malt extract were evaluated. Twelve samples representative of commercially available 2-rowed and 6-rowed malting barleys were malted. Extracts prepared from the finely ground malts were analyzed for 13 C\\/ 12 C ratios, Malt extract is produced from malted barley and used in the formulation of foodstuffs, where

David M. Peterson; Allen D. Budde; Cynthia A. Henson; Berne L. Jones

2001-01-01

419

Information Extraction by Convergent Boundary Classificat ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the application of classification technique s to the problem of information extraction (IE). In particular we use support vector machines and several different feature-sets to build a set of classifiers for information extraction. We show that this approach is competitive with current state-of- the-art information extraction algorithms based on special- ized learning algorithms. We also introduce a new

Aidan Finn; Nicholas Kushmerick

420

Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks  

SciTech Connect

The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

1996-12-31

421

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

422

Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

2010-05-03

423

Thermal behavior of conifer needle extractives  

SciTech Connect

Thermal generation of combustible vapors has been measured up to 500 degrees C for green Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine foliage. The relative contributions to combustible products are given for ether, benzene-ethanol, and total extractives, as well as for holocellulose and lignin. Each of these components makes a sizeable contribution to flammable vapors. Extractives account for about 80 percent of the volatiles below 300 degrees C. Most of these low-temperature volatiles were extracted with benzene-ethanol, but only 15 to 30 percent were ether soluble. For these fuels, ether extractive content was found to be of limited value as an indicator of differences in flammability.

Susott, R.A.

1980-09-01

424

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY  

DOEpatents

A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

1958-06-17

425

Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichiacoli.

R. K. Satdive; P. Abhilash; Devanand P. Fulzele

2003-01-01

426

Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea leaves extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves exhibited significant activity against Pseudomonas frutescens, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis.

E. Talla; D. Djamen; D. R. Djouldé; L. Tatsadjeu; D. Tantoh; J. T. Mbafor; Z. T. Fomum

2002-01-01

427

Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea leaves extracts.  

PubMed

Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves exhibited significant activity against Pseudomonas frutescens, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:12234581

Talla, E; Djamen, D; Djouldé, D; Tatsadjeu, L; Tantoh, D; Mbafor, J T; Fomum, Z T

2002-07-01

428

Microwave steam diffusion for extraction of essential oil from orange peel: Kinetic data, extract’s global yield and mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microwave steam diffusion (MSDf) apparatus for extraction of essential oils from orange peel (by-products) was studied. MSDf has been compared with conventional steam diffusion (SDf). A response surface methodology (RSM) was realised to investigate the influence of process variables by a central composite design (CCD) approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for the extraction of orange

Asma Farhat; Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier; Mohamed El Maataoui; Jean-François Maingonnat; Mehrez Romdhane; Farid Chemat

2011-01-01

429

Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

2010-01-01

430

Sulphur containing novel extractants for extraction-separation of palladium (II).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction performance of palladium (II) by sulphur containing extragents has unequivocally established their strong extraction ability toward this thiophilic soft metal. Hence a comprehensive investigative study was initiated by us to examine selective r...

J. P. Shukla S. R. Sawant Anil Kumar R. K. Singh

1995-01-01

431

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of...

2013-07-01

432

Parameter extraction with neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semiconductor processing, the modeling of the process is becoming more and more important. While the ultimate goal is that of developing a set of tools for designing a complete process (Technology CAD), it is also necessary to have modules to simulate the various technologies and, in particular, to optimize specific steps. This need is particularly acute in lithography, where the continuous decrease in CD forces the technologies to operate near their limits. In the development of a 'model' for a physical process, we face several levels of challenges. First, it is necessary to develop a 'physical model,' i.e. a rational description of the process itself on the basis of know physical laws. Second, we need an 'algorithmic model' to represent in a virtual environment the behavior of the 'physical model.' After a 'complete' model has been developed and verified, it becomes possible to do performance analysis. In many cases the input parameters are poorly known or not accessible directly to experiment. It would be extremely useful to obtain the values of these 'hidden' parameters from experimental results by comparing model to data. This is particularly severe, because the complexity and costs associated with semiconductor processing make a simple 'trial-and-error' approach infeasible and cost- inefficient. Even when computer models of the process already exists, obtaining data through simulations may be time consuming. Neural networks (NN) are powerful computational tools to predict the behavior of a system from an existing data set. They are able to adaptively 'learn' input/output mappings and to act as universal function approximators. In this paper we use artificial neural networks to build a mapping from the input parameters of the process to output parameters which are indicative of the performance of the process. Once the NN has been 'trained,' it is also possible to observe the process 'in reverse,' and to extract the values of the inputs which yield outputs with desired characteristics. Using this method, we can extract optimum values for the parameters and determine the process latitude very quickly.

Cazzanti, Luca; Khan, Mumit; Cerrina, Franco

1998-06-01

433

Repeat silica extraction: a simple technique for the removal of PCR inhibitors from DNA extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors are often co-extracted with ancient DNA (aDNA) and when present make the analysis of aDNA difficult, if not impossible. In this study we review previous research on PCR inhibitors and techniques that address their co-extraction with DNA from sub-optimal samples. Additionally, we introduce a simple extraction technique, “repeat silica extraction,” that effectively removed PCR inhibitors

Brian M. Kemp; Cara Monroe; David Glenn Smith

2006-01-01

434

Comparative Studies on the Extraction of Protactinium Using Different Kinds of Organic Extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction behavior of Pa(V) from various aqueous solutions was studied using different extractants, namely Amberlite-LA-2 (Amb-LA2), diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP), tributylphosphate (TBP) and Tricaprylylmethyl ammonium chloride (TCMA) in toluene. The extraction was carried out from slightly acidic as well as strong acidic solutions of HCl, HBr, and HI, at various temperatures. The extracted species in every case were postulated.

F. H. El-Sweify; A. A. Abdel Fattah; S. M. Ali

2009-01-01

435

Solvent extraction of silver from chloride media with some commercial sulfur-containing extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different kinds of commercial sulfur-containing extractants (SFI-6R, MSP-8, Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 301 in EXXSOL D-80) were examined to extract silver from chloride media. The aggregation of MSP-8 was analyzed quantitatively by means of vapor-pressure osmometry and it was found that this extractant exists as a dimeric species in aliphatic organic diluents. Extractants containing P = S and P(S)SH functional

M. Shafiqul Alam; K. Inoue; K. Yoshizuka; Y. Dong; P. Zhang

1997-01-01

436

Comparative study of copper extraction by nitric and microwave assisted nitric acid extraction from industrial sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu was removed from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave assisted acid extraction. The effects of acid concentration, extraction time, sludge particle size and solid\\/liquid (S \\/L) ratio on removal of Cu from industrial sludge were investigated. The results indicated that extraction of Cu by 1 N nitric acid for 90 min at an S \\/L ratio of 1\\/20 is

Xiangyi Zha; Chunwei Han; Jiancheng Tu; Dandan Ma

2011-01-01

437

Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of palladium (II) extraction by extractant mixtures containing LIX 63  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of palladium (II) by LIX 63, TOPO, TIBPS, Aliquat 336 and HDEHP individually or in mixture with LIX 63, was studied in HCl (1 mol l?1). It was found that the association of LIX 63 with TOPO or Aliquat 336 enhances the extraction rate of Pd(II). Aliquat 336 is the most powerful additive, the extraction thermodynamics were carefully investigated

C. Foulon; D. Pareau; G. Durand

1999-01-01

438

Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to modify the Mehlich 2 (M2) extractant to include Cu among the extractable nutrients, retain or enhance the wide range of soils for which it is suitable and minimize it's corrosive properties. The substitution of nitrate for chloride anions and the addition of EDTA accomplished those objectives. The new extracting solution, already designated Mehlich

A. Mehlich

1984-01-01

439

Resume Information Extraction with Cascaded Hybrid Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective approach for resume information extraction to support automatic resume management and routing. A cascaded information extraction (IE) framework is designed. In the first pass, a resume is segmented into a consecutive blocks attached with labels indicating the information types. Then in the second pass, the detailed information, such as Name and Address, are identified in

Kun Yu; Gang Guan; Ming Zhou

2005-01-01

440

Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

Earl, L. L.; And Others

441

NATURAL EXTRACTS UTILIZED IN COSMETOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this paper are presented the main plants whose alcoholic or aqueous extracts are used in cosmetically and pharmaceutical industry. For better understanding the therapeutically properties of a product which are based on his extracts it is necessary to know: (1) the taxonomic positions of producing species, their spreading, culture and biology; (2) the way they are obtained, preservation

Curelea Adina; Bolcu Constantin

442

Music Motive Extraction Through Hanson Intervallic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music motive extraction is an important concept to consider in music information retrieval. Among the possible applications are the creations of music databases that need of indexing tools and access in a dynamic way, copyright management and plagiarism detection, computer-aided composition, etc. This paper presents an unsupervised method for automatic music motive extraction from symbolic sources, using an intervallic analysis.

Johnny F. Serrano; Jose M. Inesta

2006-01-01

443

Significant Scene Extraction Method Using Situation Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports videos for mobile terminals and PCs and other multimedia information services have recently spread. The ability to efficiently extract significant scenes is important with these services. We proposed the personal digest making scheme (PDMS), which calculates the significance of events in a sports game based on video meta data and extracts significant scenes to compose a digest. PDMS calculations

Takako Hashimoto; Takashi Katooka; Atsushi Iizawa; Hiroyuki Kitagawa

2004-01-01

444

An Architecture for Biological Information Extraction and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivations: Technological advances in biomedical research are generating a plethora of heterogeneous data at a high rate. There is a critical need for extraction, integration and management tools for information discovery and synthesis from these heterogeneous data. Results: In this paper, we present a general architecture, called ALFA, for information extraction and representation from diverse biological data. The ALFA architecture

Peter Bluvas; Allan Kuchinsky; Michael Creech; Annette Adler

445

Extraction of vanadium into isobutyl methyl ketone.  

PubMed

Because of its advantages in atomic-absorption spectroscopy, isobutyl methyl ketone was chosen as organic solvent for an extraction study on vanadium. Of eight chelating agents which were evaluated for completeness of extraction, ease of use, working pH range, and freedom from interference, cupferron was judged best. PMID:18960477

Crump-Wiesner, H J; Purdy, W C

1969-01-01

446

Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans  

SciTech Connect

Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

1990-10-01

447

Producing concentrated anthracene by fractional extraction  

SciTech Connect

The results are presented of laboratory experiments in the production of 98-99% pure anthracene by fractional extraction using white spirit and an aqueous solution of dimethylacetamide. It was shown that under optimal conditions, concentrated anthracene at 99% purity may be obtained with 93-95% extraction of the feedstock.

Litvinenko, M.S.

1982-01-01

448

IN SITU SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is designed to physically remove volatile compounds, generally from the vadose or unsaturated zone. t is an in situ process employing vapor extraction wells alone or in combination with air injection wells. acuum blowers supply the motive force, induci...

449

Super Parsing: Sentiment Classification with Review Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the sentiment classification with review extraction. Whole process can be illustrated logically as: (1) extract the review expressions on specific subjects and attach sentiment tag and weight to each expression; (2) calculate the sentiment indicator of each tag by accumulating the weights of all the expression with the corresponding tag; (3) given the indicators on different tags,

Jian Liu; Jianxin Yao; Gengfeng Wu

2005-01-01

450

Effect of olive pomace extracts on hyperlipidaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have examined the hypolipidemic effect of olive pomace extracts. Identification and quantitation of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid as the potentially effective components of the pomace extracts were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography methods. Hyperlipidaemia was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days. The

Jun Liu; Hongbin Sun; Jing Shang; Yuanyuan Yong; Luyong Zhang

2011-01-01

451

Automatic Extraction of Fixed Multiword Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed multiword expressions are strings of words which to- gether behave like a single word. This research establishes a method for the automatic extraction of such expressions. Our method involves three stages. In the first, a statistical measure is used to extract candidate bi- grams. In the second, we use this list to select occurrences of candidate expressions in a

Campbell Hore; Masayuki Asahara; Yuji Matsumoto

2005-01-01

452

Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N.

1996-12-01

453

Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for

K. Vangelas; B. Looney; R. Kamath; D. Adamson; C. Newell

2010-01-01

454

Automated extraction of information in molecular biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review data mining techniques in molecular biology, specifically those that extract information from the scientific literature itself. As more of the biological literature is published electronically, there is an opportunity, and even a need, to automatically summarize the literature in a customized way, for example by associating keywords to a topic. These keywords can be extracted from relevant publications.

Miguel A. Andrade; Peer Bork

2000-01-01

455

Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

1999-01-01

456

EDIBLE OIL EXTRACTION SOLVENTS: FDA REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When a solvent is used to extract edible oil from oil bearing materials in the United States, federal and state workplace, environmental, and food safety regulations have to be complied with. Hexane has been the solvent of choice to extract edible oils since 1940's. The main component of hexane, n...

457

REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

458

DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

2010-01-01

459

Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)|

Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

1969-01-01

460

Evaluation of Road Marking Feature Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a systematic approach to evaluate algorithms for extracting road marking features from images. This specific topic is seldom addressed in the literature while many road marking detection algorithms have been proposed. Most of them can be decomposed into three steps: extracting road marking features, estimating a geometrical marking model, tracking the parameters of the geometrical model along

Thomas Veit; Jean-Philippe Tarel; Philippe Nicolle; Pierre Charbonnier

2008-01-01

461

Anomalous solvent extraction behavior of astatine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the solvent extraction behavior of astatine and found the anomalous behavior of this element similar to radioiodine. Astatine was extracted into CS2 from acidic solution over a wide range of carrier iodine concentration. The distribution ratios of astatine were determined by measuring the -ray from 210 At with a Nal(TI) detector. A drastic change was observed around at

N. Takahashi; H. Baba

1997-01-01

462

EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

463

FEUDOR: Feature Extraction Using Distinctive Octagonal Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel feature extraction algorithm called FEUDOR. The features extracted by this method are octagonal homogeneous regions that have different mean square difference compared to their surrounding area. By using integral images we have implemented this algorithm effi- ciently. We have shown that the repeatability score of FEUDOR under vari- ous image transformations is comparable and in

Ario Emaminejad; Mike Brookes

2008-01-01

464

Extraction of phenolic compounds from soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the composition and amount of phenolic inputs from plants is important for studies of soil organic matter formation and nutrient cycling. However, some phenolic compounds, including tannins, can sorb or complex with the soil making them difficult to extract. We extracted soils with a...

465

IKONOS STEREO FEATURE EXTRACTION - RPC APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

IKONOS stereo imagery is particularly well suited for 3-D feature extraction. The sophisticated geometric and radiometric characteristics of the IKONOS sensor provide the end user with excellent metric accuracy and wealth of information which can be used for interpretive analysis. In order to be able to perform stereo feature extraction with sufficient accuracy the very complex IKONOS sensor model needs

Jacek Grodecki

2001-01-01

466

Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Solid Phase Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and solid phase extraction (SPE) is reviewed. MIPs, which have high selectivity and affinity for a predetermined molecule (template), have been used as sorbents for SPE to selectively isolate analytes from biological, pharmaceutical, and environmental samples. Solid phase extraction with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP–SPE) is a promising technique which allows specific analytes to

Fengxia Qiao; Hanwen Sun; Hongyuan Yan; Kyung Ho Row

2006-01-01

467

Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Infusions of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries, but to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken so far to determine the possible mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic properties of the fruit. The present study was designed to investigate whether these fruits possess insulinotropic effects. For this purpose, different extracts of Citrullus colocynthis seed components were obtained: RN II (crude extract), RN VI (hydro-alcoholic extract), RN X (purified extract) and RN XVII (beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine), the major free amino acid present in the seeds. The insulin secretory effects of these different extracts were evaluated in vitro in the isolated rat pancreas and isolated rat islets in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. All tested extracts, when perfused for 20 min at 0.1 mg/ml, immediately and significantly stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was transient. In addition, the purified extract (RN X) provoked a clear dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated islets. Moreover, a significant and persistant increase in pancreatic flow rate appeared during RN VI, RN X and RN XVII perfusions. In conclusion, our results show that different Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts have an insulinotropic effect which could at least partially account for the antidiabetic activities of these fruits. PMID:10909260

Nmila, R; Gross, R; Rchid, H; Roye, M; Manteghetti, M; Petit, P; Tijane, M; Ribes, G; Sauvaire, Y

2000-06-01

468

Extracting Events and Temporal Expressions from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracting temporal information from raw text is fundamental for deep language understanding, and key to many applications like question answering, information extraction, and document summarization. Our long-term goal is to build complete temporal structure of documents and apply the temporal structure in other applications like textual entailment, question answering, dialog systems or others. In this paper, we present a first

Naushad UzZaman; James F. Allen

2010-01-01

469

Antibacterial activity of some lichen extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from some lichens species were evaluated for antibacterial activity against six standard strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and two environmental strains (Aeromonas) that were isolated from different lakes. The aqueous and ethanol extracts showed a variable range of antibacterial activity to both standard strains and

Ali Karagöz; Nihal Doruöz; Zuhal Zeybek; Ali Aslan

2009-01-01

470

A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

1993-01-01

471

Whitening Effects of Marine Pseudomonas Extract  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria associated with marine invertebrates are a rich source of bioactive metabolites. Objective The effects of marine bacteria extracts on pigmentation were investigated to find novel whitening agents. Methods The marine bacteria collected near Gangwha Island in Korea were isolated