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1

Hypolipemic Effect of Garcinia cambogia in Obese Women.  

PubMed

Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI?>?25 kg/m(2) ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n?=?30) and control (n?=?13) groups, received 2.4?g (800?mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p?=?0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p?=?0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24133059

Vasques, Carlos A R; Schneider, Ricardo; Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Falavigna, Andressa; Piazza, Ivone; Rossetto, Simone

2014-06-01

2

Direct interaction of garcinol and related polyisoprenylated benzophenones of Garcinia cambogia fruits with the transcription factor STAT-1 as a likely mechanism of their inhibitory effect on cytokine signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Garcinol (1), a polyisoprenylated benzophenone occurring in Garcinia species, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages, through inhibition of NF-?B and/or JAK/STAT-1 activation. In order to provide deeper insight into its effects on the cytokine signaling pathway and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms, 1 was isolated from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia along with two other polyisoprenylated benzophenones, guttiferones K (2) and guttiferone M (3), differing from each other in their isoprenyl moieties and their positions on the benzophenone core. The affinities of 1-3 for the STAT-1 protein have been evaluated by surface plasmon resonance and molecular docking studies and resulted in KD values in the micromolar range. Consistent with the observed high affinity toward the STAT-1 protein, garcinol and guttiferones K and M were able to modulate cytokine signaling in different cultured cell lines, mainly by inhibiting STAT-1 nuclear transfer and DNA binding, as assessed by an electrophorectic mobility shift assay. PMID:24417609

Masullo, Milena; Menegazzi, Marta; Di Micco, Simone; Beffy, Pascale; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Dal Bosco, Martina; Novelli, Michela; Pizza, Cosimo; Masiello, Pellegrino; Piacente, Sonia

2014-03-28

3

Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus by Garcinia indica extract and its antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinia is a large genus of polygamous trees or shrubs, distributed in the tropical Asia, Africa and Polynesia and is a rich source of bioactive molecules including xanthones, flavonoids, benzophenones, lactones and phenolic acids. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Garcinia sp. Concentrated and vacuum dried chloroform extract of rinds

A. Tamil Selvi; G. S. Joseph; G. K. Jayaprakasha

2003-01-01

4

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Activities of the Extracts from the Fruit Rinds of Garcinia cowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have reported the biological activities of the crude extracts\\/purified compounds from various parts of Garcinia cowa. In the present study, the dried fruit rinds of G. cowa were extracted with hexane and chloroform and the extracts were used to evaluate their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. Using ?-carotene-linoleate-model system, at 200 ppm concentration, hexane, chloroform extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole

P. S. Negi; G. K. Jayaprakasha; B. S. Jena

2010-01-01

5

Optimization of solid–liquid extraction of phytochemicals from Garcinia indica Choisy by response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central composite rotatable design was employed to study the effect of ultrasound assisted extraction conditions namely sonication amplitude (10–90%), sonication cycle (0.1–1.0s?1), solid–liquid ratio (2–10) and extraction time (5–35min) on the total anthocyanin extraction from Garcinia indica Choisy. Overall extractions of total anthocyanin, acidity and antioxidant activity were considered as response variables. The significant (p<0.05) response surface models with

Chetan A. Nayak; Navin K. Rastogi

6

In vitro antilisterial properties of crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.  

PubMed

Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

2012-01-01

7

In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy.

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

8

In vitro anti-listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) seeds.  

PubMed

We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8-17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8-11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079-0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log(10) decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

2011-01-01

9

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF TOTAL MANGOSTINS IN GARCINIA MANGOSTANA FRUIT RIND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (mangosteen) is very popular in Thailand. The fruit rind contains mangostins of which a major constituent is ?-mangostin. The fruit rind extract and mangostin have been known to possess antibacterial causing acne. In Thailand, the extract is popularly used in herbal cosmetics for anti-acne effect. Thus quality assessment of this plant needs to be

Werayut Pothitirat; Wandee Gritsanapan

2008-01-01

10

Pharmacokinetic characterization of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit extract standardized to ?-mangostin in C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Previously, we have reported the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of ?-mangostin in mice. For this study, we evaluated the PK profile of ?-mangostin using a standardized mangosteen extract in C57BL/6 mice. The primary objective was to determine the PK properties of ?-mangostin when administered as an extract. This experiment was designed to test our primary hypothesis that ?-mangostin in an extract should achieve a desirable PK profile. This is especially relevant as dietary supplements of mangosteen fruit are regularly standardized to ?-mangostin. Mice received 100 mg/kg of mangosteen fruit extract orally, equivalent to 36 mg/kg of ?-mangostin, and plasma samples were analyzed over a 24-hour period. Concentrations of ?-mangostin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, we evaluated the stability in the presence of phase I and phase II enzymes in liver and gastrointestinal microsomes. Furthermore, we identified evidence of phase II metabolism of ?-mangostin. Further research will be required to determine if less abundant xanthones present in the mangosteen may modulate the PK parameters of ?-mangostin. PMID:24774070

Petiwala, Sakina M; Li, Gongbo; Ramaiya, Atulkumar; Kumar, Anoop; Gill, Ravinder K; Saksena, Seema; Johnson, Jeremy J

2014-04-01

11

Antibacterial Activity of Polyphenols of Garcinia Indica  

PubMed Central

The aim of present work is to study the antibacterial activity of polyphenols isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble of methanol extract of stem bark of Garcinia indica against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli by paper disc method. The results showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus at higher concentrations, moderate at lower concentrations, against S. typhi moderate at higher concentrations but no activity against E. coli even at higher concentration for flavononylflavone. With proauthocyanin S. Aureus, S. Typhi and E. coli showed good antibacterial activity at higher concentration only.

Lakshmi, C.; Kumar, K. Akshaya; Dennis, T. J.; Kumar, T. S. S. P. N. S. Sanath

2011-01-01

12

In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Garcinia or Hydroxycitric Acid: A Review  

PubMed Central

Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown “no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)” at levels up to 2800?mg/day, suggesting its safety for use.

Chuah, Li Oon; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

2012-01-01

13

In vitro and in vivo toxicity of garcinia or hydroxycitric Acid: a review.  

PubMed

Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown "no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)" at levels up to 2800?mg/day, suggesting its safety for use. PMID:22924054

Chuah, Li Oon; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

2012-01-01

14

Antioxidative and chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid.  

PubMed

Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as "bitter kola", plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

Farombi, Ebenezer O; Owoeye, Olatunde

2011-06-01

15

Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid  

PubMed Central

Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors.

Farombi, Ebenezer O.; Owoeye, Olatunde

2011-01-01

16

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of benzophenones and xanthones from edible fruits of garcinia species.  

PubMed

Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones ?-mangostin (15), ?-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40?µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24?µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds. PMID:24963617

Lyles, James T; Negrin, Adam; Khan, Shabana I; He, Kan; Kennelly, Edward J

2014-06-01

17

Forward osmosis for the concentration of anthocyanin from Garcinia indica Choisy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of anthocyanin extract from Garcinia indica Choisy (popularly known as kokum) was explored by forward osmosis process and compared with thermally concentrated sample. Mechanism of water transport from feed to osmotic agent side during forward osmosis in a situation when feed contains high or low molecular weight compounds was elucidated. The effects of membrane orientation, osmotic agent concentration,

Chetan A. Nayak; Navin K. Rastogi

2010-01-01

18

Cytotoxic benzophenone and triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.  

PubMed

Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of G. hombroniana. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of G. hombroniana yielded two new (1, 9) and thirteen known compounds which were characterized by the spectral techniques of NMR, UV, IR and EI/ESI-MS, and identified as; 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone(1), 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (2), 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (4), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (5),3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (7), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside (8), 18(13?17)-abeo-3?-acetoxy-9?,13?-lanost-24E-en-26-oic acid (9), garcihombronane B (10), garcihombronane D (11), friedelan-3-one (12), lupeol (13), stigmasterol (14) and stigmasterol glucoside (15). In the in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, DBTRG, U2OS and PC-3 cell lines, compounds 1 and 9 displayed good cytotoxic effects against DBTRG cancer cell lines. Compounds 1-8 were also found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Owing to these properties, this study can be further extended to explore more significant bioactive components of this plant. PMID:24813683

Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Kamal, Nik Nur Syazni Nik Mohamed; Osman, Hasnah; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

2014-06-01

19

Isolation and biological activity of compounds from Garcinia preussii.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Plants of the genus Garcinia (Clusiaceae) are traditionally used to relieve stomachaches, toothaches, and as a chew stick. Objective: In order to determine which compounds were responsible for these activities, a phytochemical investigation of the fruits and leaves of Garcinia preussii Engl. was pursued. Materials and methods: Plants were extracted by solvents of various polarities. Compounds isolation was then carried out using chromatography methods (medium- and high-pressure liquid chromatography, open column and thin-layer chromatography). The isolated compounds were identified and characterized by using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopies. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH(•), ABTS(•-), ALP, and ORAC assays. The antimicrobial activity was assayed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. The cytotoxic activity of most of the isolated compounds was evaluated on a small panel of human cancer cell lines (DU145, HeLa, HT-29, and A431) using the XTT method. Results: The phytochemical investigation of G. preussii led to the isolation of eight known compounds, six benzophenones and two flavonoids. These compounds were tested for their biological activities. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8 demonstrated a high free radical scavenging activity with ER50 ranging from 0.1 to 0.7. The antimicrobial activity was shown only against Gram-positive bacteria for 1, 4, and 5. A moderate cytotoxic activity with IC50 ranging from 7 to 50?µM was observed, except for 6 which was not active. Conclusion: These results appear to support some of the properties reported for Garcinia species. PMID:24824323

Biloa Messi, Bernadette; Ho, Raimana; Meli Lannang, Alain; Cressend, Delphine; Perron, Karl; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Hostettmann, Kurt; Cuendet, Muriel

2014-06-01

20

Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor blocking substances from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

A crude methanolic extract of the fruit hull of Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L. inhibited the contractions of isolated thoracic rabbit aorta induced by histamine and serotonin. The extract of the fruit hull has been fractionated by silica gel chromatography, monitoring the pharmacological activity to give alpha- and gamma-mangostin. On the basis of pharmacological data, it is suggested that alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin are a histaminergic and a serotonergic receptor blocking agent, respectively. PMID:8923814

Chairungsrilerd, N; Furukawa, K; Ohta, T; Nozoe, S; Ohizumi, Y

1996-10-01

21

Two New Chemical Constituents from the Stem Bark of Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. PMID:24901833

See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

2014-01-01

22

An antibacterial biphenyl derivative from Garcinia bancana MIQ.  

PubMed

From the methanol extract of the twigs and leaves of Garcinia bancana MIQ., one new biphenyl derivative (1), was isolated and characterized along with nine known compounds; garcinol, isogarcinol, (-)-mellein, 8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-n-pentylisocoumarin, blumenol C O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside, kaemferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside, lupeol and stigmasterol. Their structures were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison of spectral data and physical data with those previously reported. The antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Garcinol showed the lowest minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) at 16 microg/ml while compound 1 exhibited weaker activity with MIC value of 64 microg/ml. PMID:15744113

Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Naklue, Wanpen; Sukpondma, Yaowapa; Phongpaichit, Souwalak

2005-03-01

23

Cytotoxic Polyisoprenyl Benzophenonoids from Garcinia subelliptica  

PubMed Central

Six new polyisoprenyl benzophenonoids, (±)-garcinialiptone A (1, 2), garcinialiptone B (3), (?)-cycloxanthochymol (4), garcinialiptone C (5), and garcinialiptone D (6), along with three known compounds, xanthochymol (7), isoxanthochymol (8), and cycloxanthochymol (9), were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures of 1–6 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Biological evaluation showed that all compounds 1–9 exhibited cytotoxic activity against a small panel of human tumor cell lines (A549, DU145, KB, vincristine-resistant KB).

Zhang, Li-Jie; Chiou, Chun-Tang; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yang Kuo, Li-Ming; Liao, Chia-Chin; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Kuo, Yao-Haur

2010-01-01

24

Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Methods 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. Results At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Conclusions Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp).

Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-01-01

25

Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of organic acids in leaves, pulp, fruits, and rinds of Garcinia.  

PubMed

An improved liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determination of organic acids in leaves, pulp, fruits, and rinds of Garcinia. At present, the commonly used LC method for analysis of organic acids in Garcinia extracts uses direct application of the extracts on the column. This practice gradually reduces efficiency of the column and shortens its life. In the improved method, the interfering substances such as pigments and xanthones were effectively removed by passing the aqueous extract through an ODS cartridge. With subsequent injection on a C18 reversed-phase column, using 6.0 mM phosphoric acid as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 210 nm, the organic acids were determined in the extracts. The major organic acid was (-)-hydroxycitric acid at the level of 2.5, 0.8, 3.0, and 20.1% in leaf, pulp, fresh fruit, and dried rinds, respectively. Minor quantities of hydroxycitric acid lactone, oxalic acid, and citric acid were also identified. Limits of detection and recoveries were 0.9-1.5 microg and 93.9-99.8%, respectively. This is the first report on the composition of organic acids from Garcinia pedunculata. PMID:14632411

Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Jena, Bhabani S; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

2003-01-01

26

Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (-)-HCA.  

PubMed

Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (-)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. PMID:23990846

Chuah, Li Oon; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

2013-01-01

27

Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (-)-HCA  

PubMed Central

Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (?)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid.

Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

2013-01-01

28

Potential use of Garcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave

G. N. Aniche; G. U. Uwakwe

1990-01-01

29

Antimicrobial prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia goudotiana.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation using antimicrobial assay of the crude acetonic extract of Garcinia goudotiana leaves and of its five partitions led to the isolation of two new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, goudotianone 1 (1) and goudotianone 2 (2), in addition to two known compounds including one xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-isoprenylxanthone (3), and one triterpenoid, friedelin (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of different spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The crude acetonic extract, the methylene chloride and ethyl acetate partitions, and some tested compounds isolated from this species (1-3) demonstrated selective significant antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Enterococcus faecalis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The potential cytotoxic activities of these extracts and compounds were evaluated against human colon carcinoma HT29 and human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 cells. PMID:24690454

Mahamodo, Sania; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel; Abedini, Amin; Ranarivelo, Heritiana; Duhal, Nathalie; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Lemoine, Amélie; Razafimahefa, Dorothée; Razanamahefa, Bakonirina; Bailleul, François; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina

2014-06-01

30

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Garcinia brevipedicellata (Clusiaceae).  

PubMed

In our continuous search for alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from plants, four new depsidones named brevipsidones A-D (1-4) were isolated from stem bark of Garcinia brevipedicellata together with known damnacanthal, scopoletin and a mixture of stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. Structural elucidations were made by spectroscopic analyses including 2D-NMR data. PMID:18827392

Ngoupayo, Joseph; Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Tsamo, Etienne

2008-10-01

31

Prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia with antienteroviral activity.  

PubMed

An acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia showed antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded 12 new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, oblongifolins J-U (1-12), and five known compounds. The structures of 1-12 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of a Mosher ester procedure carried out in NMR tubes and ECD calculations. Compared to ribavirin (IC50 253.1 ?M), compounds 1, 4, and 13 exhibited significant anti-EV71 activity in vitro, with IC50 values of 31.1, 16.1, and 12.2 ?M, respectively. In addition, the selectivity indices of these compounds were 1.5, 2.4, and 3.0 in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, respectively. PMID:24679044

Zhang, Hong; Tao, Ling; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yang, Yi-Fu; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Da-Jian; Lu, Ai-Ping; Xu, Hong-Xi

2014-04-25

32

Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical

Olayinka O Adegbehingbe; Saburi A Adesanya; Thomas O Idowu; Oluwakemi C Okimi; Oyesiku A Oyelami; Ezekiel O Iwalewa

2008-01-01

33

Complete NMR assignments of bioactive rotameric (3???8) biflavonoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.  

PubMed

The genus Garcinia is reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Garcinia hombroniana in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to isolate the chemical constituents from the bark of G. hombroniana and explore their possible pharmacological potential. Ethyl acetate extract afforded one new (1) and six (2-7) known 3???8 rotameric biflavonoids. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy together with electron ionization/ESI mass spectrometric techniques and were identified as (2R, 3S) volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (1), volkensiflavone (2), 4?-O-methyl-volkensiflavone (3), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), morelloflavone (5), 3?-O-methyl-morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (7). The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned by circular dichroism spectroscopy as 2R, 3S. The coexistence of conformers of isolated biflavonoids in solution at 25?°C in different solvents was confirmed by variable temperature NMR studies. At room temperature (25?°C), compounds 1-7 exhibited duplicate NMR signals, while at elevated temperature (90?°C), a single set of signals was obtained. Compound 5 showed significant in vitro antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. The antibacterial studies showed that compounds 5 and 6 are the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3 and 6 also showed moderate antituberculosis activity against H38 Rv. Based on the research findings, G. hombroniana could be concluded as a rich source of flavanone-flavone (3???8) biflavonoids that exhibit rotameric behaviour at room temperature and display significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24700704

Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

2014-07-01

34

[Research progress of chemistry and anti-cancer activities of natural products from Chinese garcinia plants].  

PubMed

Garcinia plants are one of the rich sources of natural xanthones and benzophenones which have attracted a great deal of attention from the scientists in the fields of chemistry and pharmacology. Recently, many structurally unique constituents with various bioactivities, especially anti-tumor activity, have been isolated from Garcinia plants. This concise review focused on the anti-cancer activity natural products isolated from Chinese Garcinia plants, and the research finding by authors and collaborators over the past several years were cited. PMID:24761605

Fu, Wen-Wei; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

2014-02-01

35

Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.  

PubMed

Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. PMID:21362142

Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

2011-07-01

36

[Novel types of receptor antagonists from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana].  

PubMed

A crude methanolic extract of the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana L. inhibited the contraction of the isolated rabbit aorta induced by histamine and serotonin. The extract has been fractionated by silica gel chromatography, monitoring the pharmacological activity to give active compounds. On the basis of physicochemical data, the active substances were identified as alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin. To define the pharmacological properties of alpha-mangostin, the effect of alpha-mangostin on both histamine H1 and H2 receptors were examined by monitoring the mechanical responses of smooth muscles and measuring the radioligand binding to cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. The results suggest that alpha-mangostin acts as a selective and competitive histamine H1 receptor antagonist. The pharmacological actions of gamma-mangostin on 5-HT receptors were also investigated by using contractile response of vascular smooth muscle, platelet aggregation and radioligand binding studies. The results provide the evidence that gamma-mangostin is a selective and competitive 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. It is of great interest that the structures of alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin free from nitrogen atom are not resemble to the common structures of histamine and serotonin receptor antagonists. alpha-Mangostin and gamma-mangostin may become novel types of lead compounds for histamine and serotonin receptor antagonists. PMID:9503424

Furukawa, K; Chairungsrilerd, N; Ohta, T; Nozoe, S; Ohizumi, Y

1997-10-01

37

Noncytotoxic and Antitumour-Promoting Activities of Garcinia Acid Esters from Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae).  

PubMed

The in vitro antitumour-promoting, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of two ester derivatives of garcinia acid, that is, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl)-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide (1) and 1',1''-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate (2), that had been previously isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae), were examined. Based on the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation, compound 1 (IC(50): 70??M) showed much higher (8-fold) antitumour-promoting activity than compound 2 (IC(50): 560??M). In addition, both compounds were nontoxic towards CEM-SS (human T-lymphoblastic leukemia) cells (CD(50): >100??M), Raji (human B-lymphoblastoid) cells (CD(50): >600??M), and brine shrimp (LD(50): >300??M). Although the antitumour-promoting activity of compound 1 is moderate compared with the known antitumour promoter genistein, its non-toxicity suggests the potential of compound 1 and related structures as chemopreventive agents. The weak antioxidant activity displayed by both compounds also suggested that the primary antitumour-promoting mechanism of compound 1 did not involve oxidative-stress quenching. PMID:22685487

Mackeen, Mukram M; Mooi, Lim Y; Amran, Mohidin; Mat, Nashriyah; Lajis, Nordin H; Ali, Abdul M

2012-01-01

38

Two novel triterpenoids with antiproliferative and apoptotic activities in human leukemia cells isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.  

PubMed

Two new triterpenoids, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-O-acetyllup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (1) and 3- O-(4'- O-acetyl)-alpha- L-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid ( 2), together with two known triterpenoids, betulinic acid ( 3) and messagenic acid ( 4) were isolated from the CHCl3 extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. The structures were elucidated by analysis of the NMR spectroscopic data. The antiproliferative effects and the apoptosis induction abilities of compounds 1 and 2 were determined in four human leukemia cell lines. Compound 2 was more potent than compound 1 in inhibiting cell growth with IC50 values of 2.45, 2.69, 2.42, and 4.15 microM in HL-60, NB4, U937 and K562 cells, respectively. PMID:18781544

Wang, Li-li; Li, Zhan-lin; Song, Dan-dan; Sun, Lin; Pei, Yue-hu; Jing, Yong-kui; Hua, Hui-ming

2008-11-01

39

Phytochemical analysis and antinociceptive properties of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu.  

PubMed

In a search for new and effective analgesic substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present study evaluates the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the methanol extract and a pure compound obtained from the seeds of Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae). The methanolic seed extract was directly subjected to purification by column chromatography and the purification was monitored by thin-layer chromatography. The main isolated compound was identified as Guttiferone A by comparison of conventional spectroscopic data (IR, NMR-(1)H and (13)C) to the literature data which was isolated for the first time from this plant. When evaluated in the acetic acid-induced nociception model in mice, the methanolic seed extract had an ID(50) (Inhibitory dose) of 13.1 (11.23-14.91) mg/kg and a maximal inhibition of 72 ± 4%. In the same model, Guttiferone A had an ID(50) of 4.54 (3.29-6.24) mg/kg and a maximal inhibition of 73 ± 5%. The methanolic seed extract and Guttiferone A were also active in pain models induced by formalin, capsaicin, glutamate and carrageenan. These data suggest that the antinociceptive effect of Guttiferone A partly depends on its interference with the synthesis or activity of the cytokine TNF-?, the keratinocyte-derived chemokine KC, and/or PGE(2). These data support, at least in part, the use of G. achachairu in folk medicine and suggest that this plant is an important source of compounds with a suitable profile for development as new and effective medicinal agents to treat pain processes. PMID:22553054

Dal Molin, Marlova Manhabosco; Silva, Suellen; Alves, Douglas Rafael; Quintão, Nara Lins Meira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo

2012-03-01

40

A new xanthone derivative from twigs of Garcinia nobilis.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the twigs of Garcinia nobilis led to the isolation of a new xanthone, named l-hydroxy-2,5-dimethoxyxanthone (1), together with 15 known compounds (2-16). The structures of the new and known compounds were established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. The structure of compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1-16 were tested for their cytotoxic activity against human cervix carcinoma cell line KB-3-1. Compounds 5 and 11 showed moderate activity while others showed weak biological activity in these cytotoxicity assays. Compounds 4 and 9 were found to be inactive. PMID:24697710

Fouotsa, Hugues; Tatsimo, Simplice J N; Neumann, Beate; Michalek, Carmela; Mbazoa, Celine Djama; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Sewald, Norbert; Lannang, Alain Meli

2014-07-01

41

Cytotoxic Compounds from the Leaves of Garcinia polyantha.  

PubMed

A new compound, named banganxanthone C (=12-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-en-1-yl)-5,10-dihydroxy-9-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)-2H,6H-pyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6-one; 4), together with five known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia polyantha. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Among the known compounds, two were xanthones, one was a pentacyclic triterpene, one sterol, and one benzophenone derivative. Isoxanthochymol (2) and 4-[(2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl]-1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-9H-xanthen-9-one (3) exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against the leukemia cell line TPH-1 with IC50 inhibition values of 1.5 and 2.8??g/ml, respectively. The cytotoxic activity was found to be related to apoptosis induction. PMID:24934683

Lannang, Alain Meli; Tatsimo, Simplice J N; Fouotsa, Hugues; Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Saxena, Ajit Kumar; Sewald, Norbert

2014-06-01

42

Rapid screening and identification of ?-amylase inhibitors from Garcinia xanthochymus using enzyme-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles coupled with HPLC and MS.  

PubMed

?-Amylase inhibitors play an important role in management of diabetes and obesity. In order to rapidly discover potent ?-amylase inhibitors from medicinal plants, a ligands-screening method based on enzyme-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles integrated with HPLC was developed. Amine-terminated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared for the immobilization of ?-amylase. Based on the affinity theory, the ?-amylase-coated magnetic nanoparticles were employed to fish out the ligands from the extracts of Garcinia xanthochymus, and the elutes were examined by HPLC. As a result, three ligands were screened out. Isolation and identification were carried out subsequently. By analyzing the UV, MS and NMR spectra, they were identified as three biflavonoids including GB2a glucoside (2), GB2a (3) and fukugetin (4). The IC50 values of the three compounds were also determined. The results suggest the proposed approach is efficient and accurate, and has great potential in rapid discovery of drug candidates from medical plants. PMID:24814002

Li, Yunfang; Chen, Yu; Xiao, Chuying; Chen, Dan; Xiao, Yuxiu; Mei, Zhinan

2014-06-01

43

A new prenylated xanthone from Garcinia xipshuanbannaensis Y.H. Li  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new prenylated xanthone, named bannaxanthone I (1), has been isolated from the leaves of Garcinia xipshuanbannaensis, along with five other known compounds, bannaxanthone E (2), mangostinone (3), tovophyllin A (4), garcinone E (5), and ?-mangostin (6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectra (HRFABMS), 1D-and 2D-NMR experiments, including

Zhi Na; You-Kai Xu

2010-01-01

44

[Progress in research of the structural optimization of natural product-like Garcinia caged xanthones].  

PubMed

Designing of natural product-like compounds using natural products as template structures is an important strategy for the discovery of new drugs. Gambogic acid (GA), which is a Garcinia natural product with a unique caged xanthone scaffold, inhibits potent antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. This review summarized the researches on the identification of the antitumor pharmacophore of GA, and the design, structural optimization and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of natural product-like caged xanthones based on it. PMID:24961098

Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Yang, Ying-Rui; Sun, Hao-Peng; You, Qi-Dong

2014-03-01

45

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50<3?g\\/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem

L. Tona; R. K. Cimanga; K. Mesia; C. T. Musuamba; T. De Bruyne; S. Apers; N. Hernans; S. Van Miert; L. Pieters; J. Totté; A. J. Vlietinck

2004-01-01

46

Proteasome-inhibitory and cytotoxic constituents of Garcinia lateriflora: absolute configuration of caged xanthones  

PubMed Central

A new biflavonoid (1), a new xanthone enantiomer (2), five new caged xanthones (3–7), and several known compounds were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia lateriflora, collected in Indonesia. The structures of the new compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of the caged xanthones was shown for the first time at carbons 5, 7, 8, 8a, 10a, and 27, by analysis of COSY and NOESY NMR and ECD spectra. The biflavonoids exhibited proteasome inhibitory activity, and the known compound, morelloflavone (8) was found to have the greatest potency (IC50 = 1.3 ?M). The caged xanthones were cytotoxic towards HT-29 cells, with the known compound, morellic acid (10) being the most active (ED50 = 0.36 ?M). However, when tested in an in vivo hollow fiber assay, it was inactive at the highest dose tested (20 mg/kg).

Ren, Yulin; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Kardono, Leonardus B. S.; Riswan, Soedarsono; Chai, Heebyung; Cottrell, Charles E.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Swanson, Steven M.; Ding, Yuanqing; Li, Xing-Cong; Marais, Jannie P. J.; Ferreira, Daneel; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

2010-01-01

47

A-Ring Oxygenation Modulates the Chemistry and Bioactivity of Caged Garcinia Xanthones  

PubMed Central

Natural products of the caged Garcinia xanthones (CGX) family are characterized by a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities and promising pharmacological profiles. We have developed a Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction cascade that, in combination with a Pd(0)-catalyzed reverse prenylation, provide rapid and efficient access to the CGX pharmacophore, represented by the structure of cluvenone. To further explore this pharmacophore, we have synthesized various A-ring oxygenated analogues of cluvenone and have evaluated their bioactivities in terms of growth inhibition, mitochondrial fragmentation, induction of mitochondrial-dependent cell death and Hsp90 client inhibition. We found that installation of an oxygen functionality at various positions of the A-ring influences significantly both the site-selectivity of the Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction and the bioactivity of these compounds, due to remote electronic effects.

Elbel, Kristyna M.; Guizzunti, Gianni; Theodoraki, Maria A.; Xu, Jing; Batova, Ayse; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

2013-01-01

48

A powder X-ray diffraction method for detection of polyprenylated benzophenones in plant extracts associated with HPLC for quantitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust, direct, rapid and non-destructive X-ray diffraction crystallography method to detect the polyprenylated benzophenones 7-epi-clusianone (1) and guttiferone A (2) in extracts from Garcinia brasiliensis is presented. Powder samples of benzophenones 1 and 2, dried hexane extracts from G. brasiliensis seeds and fruit's pericarp, and the dried ethanolic extract from G. brasiliensis seeds were unambiguously characterized by powder X-ray

Felipe T. Martins; Marcelo H. dos Santos; Carla P. Coelho; Luiz C. A. Barbosa; Gizelly C. Dias; Mônica P. Fracca; Person P. Neves; Paulo C. Stringheta; Antônio C. Doriguetto

2011-01-01

49

Study on antioxidant activity of certain plants in Thailand: Mechanism of antioxidant action of guava leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol extracts from 24 samples plant species commonly found in Thailand were investigated and compared on their antioxidant activity by ABTS assay. The ethanol extract from the leaves of guava (Psidium guajava) showed the highest antioxidant capacity with the TEAC value of 4.908±0.050mM\\/mg, followed by the fruit peels of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) with the TEAC

Suganya Tachakittirungrod; Siriporn Okonogi; Sombat Chowwanapoonpohn

2007-01-01

50

Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.  

PubMed

Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans. PMID:24250785

Terrazas, Peterson Menezes; de Souza Marques, Eduardo; Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; Andrade, Sergio Faloni; Maistro, Edson Luis

2013-01-01

51

Xanthones with antiproliferative effects on prostate cancer cells from the stem bark of Garcinia xanthochymus.  

PubMed

Investigations of the constituents of the stem barks of Garcinia xanthochymus have yielded two new compounds, garcinenones X (1) and Y (2), along with five known xanthones, 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (3), 1,4,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (4), 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (5), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-4,7,8-tri(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (6), and 1,5,6-trihydroxy-7,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6',6'dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone (7). The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. The cell growth inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds against the PC-3 cell line was measured. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 exhibited significant inhibitory effects with IG50 values of 14.3, 15.5, 11.1, and 6.8 microM, respectively. PMID:22428244

Ji, Feng; Lia, Zhanlin; Liu, Gaofeng; Niu, Shengli; Zhao, Nan; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Hua, Huiming

2012-01-01

52

Garcimultiflorone G, a novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative from Garcinia multiflora with inhibitory activity on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.  

PubMed

A novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative, garcimultiflorone G (1), was isolated from the fruits of Garcinia multiflora. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. Garcimultiflorone G (1) showed inhibitory effects against superoxide anion (O·2(-) generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB), with IC50 values of 6.97 ± 1.56 and 11.70 ± 1.58 ?M, respectively. PMID:24827693

Ting, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung

2014-05-01

53

Importance of solvation in understanding the chiroptical spectra of natural products in solution phase: garcinia acid dimethyl ester.  

PubMed

The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (+)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed by comparison with the corresponding spectra predicted by quantum chemical methods for (2S,3S)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester. For solution-phase calculations the recently developed continuous surface charge polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used. It is found that gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level yield nearly mirror-image ECD spectra in the 190-250 nm region for the same absolute configuration and that gas-phase ECD predictions lead to incorrect absolute configuration. At the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, however, gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions of ECD in the 190-250 nm region are not so different, but PCM predictions provide better agreement with the experimental observations. For carbonyl stretching vibrations, the vibrational band positions predicted at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in gas-phase calculations differ significantly from the corresponding experimentally observed band positions, and this discrepancy has also been corrected by the use of PCM. In addition, the solution-phase VCD predictions provided better agreement (with experimental VCD observations) than gas-phase VCD predictions. These observations underscore the importance of including solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopic properties. PMID:21114277

Polavarapu, Prasad L; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K; Rizzo, Carmelo; Jeirath, Neha; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Habel, Deenamma; Nair, Divya Sadasivan; Haleema, Simimole

2011-03-25

54

Computer Aided Screening of Phytochemicals from Garcinia against the Dengue NS2B/NS3 Protease  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus NS2/NS3 protease because of its ability to cleave viral proteins is considered as an attractive target to screen antiviral agents. Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Therefore, this study was designed to uncover possible phytochemical of different classes (Aromatic, Carbohydrates, Lignin, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins, Terpenoids, Xanthones) that could be used as inhibitors against the NS2B/NS3 protease of DENV. With the help of molecular docking, Garcinia phytochemicals found to be bound deeply inside the active site of DENV NS2B/NS3 protease among all tested phytochemicals and had interactions with catalytic triad (His51, Asp75, Ser135). Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy.

Qamar, Tahir ul; Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Azhar, Samia; Fatima, Tabeer; Hassan, Muhammad; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Akram, Waheed; Idrees, Sobia

2014-01-01

55

Computer Aided Screening of Phytochemicals from Garcinia against the Dengue NS2B/NS3 Protease.  

PubMed

Dengue virus NS2/NS3 protease because of its ability to cleave viral proteins is considered as an attractive target to screen antiviral agents. Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Therefore, this study was designed to uncover possible phytochemical of different classes (Aromatic, Carbohydrates, Lignin, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins, Terpenoids, Xanthones) that could be used as inhibitors against the NS2B/NS3 protease of DENV. With the help of molecular docking, Garcinia phytochemicals found to be bound deeply inside the active site of DENV NS2B/NS3 protease among all tested phytochemicals and had interactions with catalytic triad (His51, Asp75, Ser135). Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy. PMID:24748749

Qamar, Tahir Ul; Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Azhar, Samia; Fatima, Tabeer; Hassan, Muhammad; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Akram, Waheed; Idrees, Sobia

2014-01-01

56

Reduction of adipose tissue and body weight: effect of water soluble calcium hydroxycitrate in Garcinia atroviridis on the short term treatment of obese women in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty obese women with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg\\/m2 were randomly allocated into two groups, 25 in each. Group 1, with a mean (±SEM) age of 40.0±2 years, received water soluble calcium hydroxycitrate (HCA) as Garcinia atroviridis. Group 2, with a mean age of 35.6±1.8 years, received placebo. All subjects were recommended a similar diet with 1000

Chulaporn Roongpisuthipong; Rungthiwa Kantawan

57

Kolaviron, a Garcinia biflavonoid complex ameliorates hyperglycemia-mediated hepatic injury in rats via suppression of inflammatory responses  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia-induced liver injury. Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds have been shown to possess anti- inflammatory properties which has not been explored in diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of KV on pro-inflammatory proteins in the liver of diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Kolaviron (100 mg/kg) was administered orally five times a week for six weeks. The concentrations of cytokines and chemokine were measured using Bio-plex Pro™ magnetic bead-based assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). Plasma glucose and serum biomarkers of liver dysfunction were analyzed with diagnostic kits in an automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Insulin concentration was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Result Kolaviron (100mg/kg) treatment significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction. Serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes were significantly reduced in kolaviron treated diabetic rats. Kolaviron prevented diabetes induced increase in the hepatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-?) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the hepatoprotective effects of kolaviron in diabetic rats may be partly associated with its modulating effect on inflammatory responses.

2013-01-01

58

Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement  

PubMed Central

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, some of the xanthones from mangosteen have been found to influence specific enzyme activities, such as aromatase, HIV-1 protease, inhibitor ?B kinase, quinone reductase, sphingomyelinase, topoisomerase and several protein kinases, and they also modulate histamine H1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding. Several synthetic procedures for active xanthones and their analogs have been conducted to obtain a better insight into structure-activity relationships for this compound class. This short review deals with progress made in the structural characterization of the chemical constituents of mangosteen, as well as the biological activity of pure constituents of this species and synthetic methods for the mangosteen xanthones.

Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

2011-01-01

59

Neuroprotective effects of xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning is a common environmental toxicity and low level of lead exposure is responsible for neurobehavioral or intelligence defects. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetycholinesterase (AChE) dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice. ICR mice were exposed to lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1%) with or without xanthone co-administration (100 and 200mg/kgBW/day) for 38days. Xanthone possesses a high phenolic content, which is positive correlation with its antioxidant activity (R(2)=0.98). The IC50 of xanthone on scavenging free radical activities, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in cell-free system were 0.48±0.08, 1.88±0.09, 2.20±0.03 and 0.98±0.40mg/mL, respectively. We found that Pb induced AChE dysfunction and memory deficit in a dose dependent manner, indicated by in vitro and in vivo studies. However, xanthone significantly restored AChE activity in the blood and brains of mice and prevented Pb-induced neurobehavioral defect indicators with Forced Swimming and Morris water maze tests. Xanthone treatment improved all indicators compared to the Pb-treated group. In conclusion, xanthone alleviates Pb-induced neurotoxicity, in part, by suppression of oxidative damage and reversing AChE activity with a reduction in learning deficit and memory loss. PMID:24795231

Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

2014-08-01

60

?-Mangostin: A Dietary Antioxidant Derived from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth in Xenograft Mouse Model.  

PubMed

Abstract Aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive malignant disease, ranking as the fourth most leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States. In this study, we provide evidence of chemotherapeutic effects of ?-mangostin, a dietary antioxidant isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. against human PC. Results: The chemotherapeutic effect of ?-mangostin was determined using four human PC cells (PL-45, PANC1, BxPC3, and ASPC1). ?-Mangostin resulted in a significant inhibition of PC cells viability without having any effects on normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. ?-Mangostin showed a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in PC cells. Also, ?-mangostin inhibited the expression levels of pNF-?B/p65Ser552, pStat3Ser727, and pStat3Tyr705. ?-Mangostin inhibited DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and signal transducer and activator 3 (Stat3). ?-Mangostin inhibited the expression levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin D1, and gp130; however, increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) was observed in PC cells. In addition, i.p. administration of ?-mangostin (6?mg/kg body weight, 5 days a week) resulted in a significant inhibition of both primary (PL-45) and secondary (ASPC1) human PC cell-derived orthotopic and ectopic xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. No sign of toxicity was observed in any of the mice administered with ?-mangostin. ?-Mangostin treatment inhibited the biomarkers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]) in the xenograft tumor tissues. Innovation: We present, for the first time, that dietary antioxidant ?-mangostin inhibits the growth of PC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of ?-mangostin against human PC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 682-699. PMID:24295217

Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Mustafa, Ala; Fischer, Joseph W; Singh, Ashok; Zhong, Weixiong; Shekhani, Mohammed Ozair; Meske, Louise; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit Kumar

2014-08-10

61

Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet(R) preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet  

PubMed Central

The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes.

Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul

2012-01-01

62

In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 ?g/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 ?g/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum.

Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

2009-01-01

63

Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures. Our results suggest that the main photosensitisers from terrestrial plants are likely based on the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure and photosensitisers with other structures, if present, are present in minor amounts or are not as active as those with the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure. PMID:19647445

Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

2009-09-01

64

Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 ?g/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 ?g/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 ?g/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

2011-04-01

65

Use of asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control columnaris in Nile tilapia.  

PubMed

To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen Garcinia mangostana, pomegranate Punica granatum, and guava Psidium guajava), the aqueous extract of Asiatic pennywort exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against F. columnare; the minimal inhibitory concentration was 31.25 lg/mL. It was also found to have a bactericidal effect on F. columnare. When experimental bath exposures of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to F. columnare were performed, the median lethal dose was determined to be 2.37 x 10(5) colony forming units/mL. For in vivo trials, six different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) of Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract were used as bath treatments to control experimentally induced columnaris in Nile tilapia. The decrease in fish mortality was dose dependent, and at a concentration of 100 mg/L no mortality or adverse effects were noted in the infected fish. This study suggests that Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract has the potential to control disease caused by F. columnare. PMID:20575361

Rattanachaikunsopon, P; Phumkhachorn, P

2010-03-01

66

Tooth Extraction  

MedlinePLUS

... the immune system. Wisdom teeth , also called third molars, are often extracted either before or after they ... sinus during removal of an upper back tooth (molar) — A small hole usually will close up by ...

67

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to plant biotechnology, learners extract DNA from fruit to investigate how it looks and feels. The procedure is similar to what scientists have to do before they can use information contained in this DNA. This lesson guide includes procedure and discussion questions to help learners reflect on the process and purpose of DNA extraction. Modifications for younger learners are included in a related PDF (see related resources).

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

68

Bevalac extraction  

SciTech Connect

This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

1992-02-01

69

Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

2011-01-01

70

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04

71

Extractable resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

1975-01-01

72

extraction (SPE) ??????????? ????????????????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

????????? High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ??? % Recovery ????????????????? 29-100% ??????????????? Linear working range ?????????? 0.05-10.4 mg\\/L ????????? Correlation coefficient (r) ?????? 0.9962-0.9999 ????????????????? dimethylphosphate ???????????????????? liquid-liquid extraction ?????? Shaker ??? Centrifuge ?????????????????????????????? Gas liquid chromatography (GC) ??? Flame photometric detector (FPD) ??? % Recovery ????????????????? 26-114 % ??????????????? Linear working range ?????????? 0.02-7.74 mg\\/L ?????? Correlation coefficient (r)

Tawatchai Hongtrakul; Sakson Suwannabutra

73

Extractant composition  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. It comprises: primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoly-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

Smith, B.F.; Jarvihen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

1990-05-08

74

Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

2013-03-19

75

An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products  

PubMed Central

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

2011-01-01

76

PITFALLS OF SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of researchers are using sequential extraction to determine the speciation of trace elements in sediments. nfortunately, sequential extraction methods have not been successfully validated. he results are simply taken as providing "operational definitions" of ...

77

Method of infusion extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

78

Standardization of allergen extracts.  

PubMed

A review of clinical and experimental data pertaining to the standardization of allergenic extracts is presented. Various problems facing practicing allergists are outlined: potency and stability of extracts the reactivity of the patient, in vitro and in vivo methods for assessing potency. Practical recommendations for allergists concerning allergenic extracts and their use are enumerated. PMID:82414

Ribon, A; Gavencak, J

1978-11-01

79

Uranium extraction process  

SciTech Connect

Uranium is extracted from wet process phosphoric acid by extraction with a mixture of a diorganophosphate and a neutral phosphorus compound, which is preferably a triorgano phosphine oxide, in the presence of nitrate to form an organic extract layer containing uranium and an aqueous acid layer, which are separated.

Rose, M.A.

1983-05-03

80

Precolumn for extract concentration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AUDRI requires test sample separation into organic compound families for subsequent insertion into several parallel chromatographs. Sample is first extracted by selective organic solvents. Solvent is then removed from extract to increase extract-to-solvent ratio, increasing system sensitivity. Backflushing of precolumn serves as cleanser.

Jahnsen, V. J.; Bloom, W. G.

1976-01-01

81

Automatic breast border extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In computer aided mammography algorithms there are several processing steps, which must be performed. The basic segmentation procedure involves extracting the principal feature on a mammogram; the breast border. This is performed by segmenting the breast and the non-breast into distinct regions. In this paper, a method for extracting the breast border is proposed. The method has performance similar to

Christina M. Olsen

2005-01-01

82

Onion DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from onion cells using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

83

Oilseed extraction process  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for the recovery of a separate lecithin/phosphatide-rich product during the extraction of soybeans with an isopropanol-based solvent. The invention comprises steps for contacting soybeans with solvent to obtain an extracted seed meal and a solvent extract of seedoils and lecithin and related phosphatides, cooling miscella to a temperature in the range from about 30/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ F., phase separating the cooled miscella, recovering from the phase separation an upper solvent-rich phase, an intermediate lecithin/phosphatide-rich phase and a lower crude oil phase, and directly recycling the solvent-rich phase to the extractor.

Sullivan, D. A.

1985-05-07

84

Malonamides as New Extractants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diamides of carboxylic acids could be an alternative to the mixture (carbamoylphosphonate, TBP) which is used nowadays in the TRUEX process to extract actinides from radioactive wastes. These solvents are economically interesting because they are easy to ...

C. Cuillerdier H. Hubert P. Hoel C. Musikas

1988-01-01

85

Automated Metadata Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metadata is data that describes data. There are many computer forensic uses of metadata and being able to extract metadata automatically provides positive forensic implications. This thesis presents a new technique for batch processing disk images and aut...

J. Migletz

2008-01-01

86

Peat dewatering: solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to determine the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of using IGT's solvent-extraction process for the dewatering of peat. Parallel objectives of the program are to: identify organic solvents that can be readily used to dewater raw peat by IGT's solvent-extraction process; design, construct, and operate bench-scale equipment for testing the most promising solvents; and estimate the preliminary economics of the process for a commerical-scale peat dewatering plant using a selective solvent. The results indicate that: solvent-extraction dewatering can remove up to 90% of the water in peat; and diethyl ketone (DEK) and benzene appear to dewater peat better than the other solvents tested. A preliminary economic evaluation of solvent-extraction dewatering of peat with DEK shows that the cost of this type of dewatering method is not currently competitive with other peat dewatering methods. (DWC)

Paganessi, J.E.; Mensinger, M.C.; Tsaros, C.L.; Arora, J.

1981-01-01

87

DNA Extraction Virtual Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual lab from the Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah provides a simple overview of DNA extraction, including what it's used for, illustrations, and an activity using cheek cells and laboratory equipment to isolate DNA. The lab is followed by a classroom activity that allows students and teachers to Extract DNA from Anything Living, using household items like spinach but not little sister's big toe.

2006-01-01

88

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-13

89

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01

90

Nano-electromembrane extraction.  

PubMed

The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 ?L acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary electrophoresis (CE). In that way the sample preparation performed by nano-EME was coupled directly with a CE separation. Separation performance of 42,000-193,000 theoretical plates could easily be obtained by this direct sample preparation and injection technique that both provided enrichment as well as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction. This corresponded to 100-times enrichment per minute of nano-EME. Nano-EME was found to be a very soft extraction technique, and about 99.2-99.9% of the analytes remained in the sample volume of 200 ?L. The SLM could be reused for more than 200 nano-EME extractions, and memory effects in the membrane were avoided by effective electro-assisted cleaning, where the electrical potential was actively used to clean the membrane. PMID:23764444

Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Jensen, Henrik; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

2013-06-27

91

Tevatron extraction microcomputer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction in the fErmilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad extraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the bucker and pulse magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the QXR magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

Chapman, L.; Finley, D. A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

1985-06-01

92

Tevatron extraction microcomputer  

SciTech Connect

Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

Chapman, L.; Finley, D.A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

1985-06-01

93

Magma Energy Extraction  

SciTech Connect

The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

1987-01-20

94

Oil shale extraction process  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from kerogen-containing oil shale by treating the oil shale with gaseous ammonia or a gaseous aliphatic amine prior to or during contact of the oil shale with an organic solvent. The hydrocarbon liquids thus extracted from the oil shale are then recovered from the solvent. The gaseous treatment step will normally take place at a temperature between about 500/sup 0/ F. and about 800/sup 0/ F. and at a pressure between about 200 psig and about 1000 psig. Preferably, the kerogen-containing oil shale will be treated with the ammonia or other gas prior to the extraction step.

Baset, Z.H.

1984-01-31

95

Supercritical fluid extraction  

DOEpatents

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

1994-01-01

96

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

97

Oil shale extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from kerogen-containing oil shale by treating the oil shale with gaseous ammonia or a gaseous aliphatic amine prior to or during contact of the oil shale with an organic solvent. The hydrocarbon liquids thus extracted from the oil shale are then recovered from the solvent. The gaseous treatment step will normally take place at a temperature

Baset

1984-01-01

98

The Tevatron Extraction Pulser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tevatron QXR (Quadrupole Extraction Regulator) power supply is a linear current pulser combined with a dc transistor regulator. The pulser produces programmable current pulses of up to 250 amps with a maximum duration of 12 ms and a maximum voltage drive of +200\\/-250 volts. Its fastest repetition rate is 1 Hz. Between pulses a single power transistor regulator maintains

H. Pfeffer

1985-01-01

99

Steerable Extraction Rocket.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a steerable rocket motor for towing a load or extracting an aircrew member from a disabled aircraft, regardless of aircraft attitude or altitude. The rocket motor is formed from a hollow cylindrical thin walled casing con...

R. B. Dillinger J. W. Stone

1976-01-01

100

Automated document metadata extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web documents are available in various forms, most of which do not carry additional semantics. This paper presents a model for general document metadata extraction. The model, which combines segmentation by keywords and pattern matching techniques, was implemented using PHP, MySQL, JavaScript and HTML. The system was tested with 40 randomly selected PDF documents (mainly theses). An evaluation of the

Bolanle Adefowoke Ojokoh; Olumide Sunday Adewale; Samuel Oluwole Falaki

2009-01-01

101

Lunar hydrogen extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the power and mass requirements of a lunar hydrogen extraction plant producing five metric tons of hydrogen per year. These power and mass requirements are based upon experimental work that determined gaseous hydrogen release rates from lunar samples at various heating rates and temperatures. An optimum heating temperature and rate can be selected to minimize the processing plant's power and mass requirements. The impact of thermal recovery on the power and mass requirements is studied, as is the use of nuclear waste heat for processing the regolith. In addition, the potential of using the extracted hydrogen in the form of methane as a propellant for a Lunar Excursion Vehicle is examined.

Snaufer, M. J.; Alred, J. W.

1991-01-01

102

Extracting concentrated guided light.  

PubMed

The maximum concentration of radiation is proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium in which it propagates. A medium with a high refractive index can also serve as a lightguide for concentrated radiation. However, if concentrated radiation is extracted from one medium, with a high refractive index, to another, whose index is lower (e.g., from fused silica into air), part of the radiation may be lost because of the total internal reflection at the interface. We present polygonal shapes suitable for efficient extraction of the concentrated radiation in a controllable way, without increasing the cross-section area (or diameter) of the lightguide. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the use of a secondary concentrator, followed by such a light extractor, both having a high refractive index, can provide considerably more power to a solar receiver with a specific aperture. PMID:18253285

Ries, H; Segal, A; Karni, J

1997-05-01

103

Ion extraction system optimization  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of a beam from ion sources is dominated by the strong space charge of the beam, due to the initial low speed of the particles. Several mathematical and computational issues are discussed, with reference to a diode design based on thin anode lens effect, yielding a parallel beam at its exit, which is the first block of many high current electrostatic accelerators. Perturbation to uniform current density are analyzed. Effect of a thick anode lens is also treated.

Cavenago, Marco [INFN-LNL, v.le dell'Universita n 2, I-35020, Legnaro (Italy)

2013-07-18

104

Neural Network Knowledge Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of ANNs in "safety-critical" domains, which include theeconomic and financial applications, is hindered by their "black box"- type approach,which makes it difficult to verify and debug software that includes ANNcomponents. Significant advantages can be gained by combining the symbolic knowledgeof a domain theory (DT), with the empirical sub-symbolic knowledge stored in an ANNtrained on examples. Rule extraction adds

Alexandra I. Cristea; Paul D. Cristea; Toshio Okamoto

1997-01-01

105

Solid phase extraction membrane  

DOEpatents

A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

2002-11-05

106

Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

2002-01-01

107

Prospex: Protocol Specification Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocol reverse engineering is the process of extracting application-level specifications for network protocols. Such specifications are very useful in a number of security-related contexts, for example, to perform deep packet inspection and black-box fuzzing, or to quickly understand custom botnet command and control (C&C) channels. Since manual re- verse engineering is a time-consuming and tedious process, a number of systems

Paolo Milani Comparetti; Gilbert Wondracek; Christopher Kruegel; Engin Kirda

2009-01-01

108

[Skeleton extractions and applications].  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

Quadros, William Roshan

2010-05-01

109

Extraction of primary and secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

Several new methods besides the usual organic solvent extraction have been developed over the last few years for the extraction of primary and secondary metabolites. These are: alcohol extraction with various biocompatible solvents, recovery of carboxylic acids and antibiotics with reactive extraction, dissociation extraction, aqueous two-phase extraction, and supercritical and near critical fluid extraction. Extraction and re-extraction processes are integrated into a single step by emulsion liquid membrane and solid supported liquid membrane extractions. These extraction processes are discussed and compared in this review, along with extraction with reversed micelles, and reactive extraction with the formation of a third phase at the organic-aqueous interface. PMID:15791931

Schügerl, K

2005-01-01

110

Soil saccharide extraction and detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of soil saccharides involves the use of reagents effective in breaking hydrogen and covalent bonds between soil\\u000a constituents and the saccharides. Of the many extractants proposed for saccharide determination, water is commonly used for\\u000a extraction of water-soluble mono- and polysaccharides in soil. Analysis of these water extracts by colorimetric assays (anthrone-sulfuric\\u000a acid and phenol-sulfuric acid methods) often show color

D. A. Martens; W. T. Frankenberger

1993-01-01

111

Text Mining with Information Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text mining concerns looking for patterns in unstructured text. The related task of Informa- tion Extraction (IE) is about locating specific items in natural-language documents. This paper presents a framework for text mining, called DISCOTEX (Discovery from Text EXtraction), using a learned information extraction system to transform text into more structured data which is then mined for interesting relationships. The

Raymond J. Mooney; Un Yong Nahm

2002-01-01

112

Learning for Collective Information Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Information Extraction (IE) system analyses a set of documents with the aim of identifying certain types of entities and relations between them. Most IE systems treat separate potential extractions as independent. However, in many cases, considering influence s between different candidate extractions could improve overall accuracy. For example, phrase repetitions inside a document are usually associated with the same

Razvan C. Bunescu

2004-01-01

113

Extracting tag hierarchies.  

PubMed

Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover, recommendation systems could also benefit from a tag hierarchy. PMID:24391901

Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

2013-01-01

114

Extracting Tag Hierarchies  

PubMed Central

Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover, recommendation systems could also benefit from a tag hierarchy.

Tibely, Gergely; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas; Palla, Gergely

2013-01-01

115

Method of extracting tetrodotoxin  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a new process of extracting tetrodotoxin from the tissues of an organism. The invention provides increased yield of tetrodotoxin from animal tissues. In the invention, a lixiviated solution is obtained by soaking the tissues with water and a weak organic acid. Soluble proteins are removed by heating the lixiviated solution at a temperature below the boiling point. After pH adjustment, the solution is passed through a cation exchange column. Inorganic salts and alkaline amino acids are removed, and then the tetrodotoxin is adsorbed and eluted from activated carbon. The tetrodotoxin is crystallized by adjusting the pH to 8-10.

2003-04-22

116

Coal extraction - environmental prediction  

SciTech Connect

To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

2002-08-01

117

Antimicrobial efficacy of henna extracts.  

PubMed

Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000.Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050).When comparing the extracts' MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050. PMID:22334837

Al-Rubiay, Kathem K; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K

2008-10-01

118

21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1410 Logwood extract. (a) Identity. The color additive logwood extract is a reddish brown-to-black solid material extracted from... (b) Specifications. Logwood extract shall conform to...

2010-04-01

119

21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1410 Logwood extract. (a) Identity. The color additive logwood extract is a reddish brown-to- black solid material extracted from... (b) Specifications. Logwood extract shall conform to...

2009-04-01

120

Actinide extraction methods  

DOEpatents

Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. (Moore, ID) [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

2010-09-21

121

The root extraction problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nth root extraction problem for germs of diffeomorphisms f :(C,0)?(C,0) is the problem of finding a germ of diffeomorphism g :(C,0)?(C,0) such that g=f, where g is the Nth iterate of g under composition. Depending on f and on the multiplier of g at the origin there can be formal and analytic obstructions to a solution of the problem. By considering an unfolding of f we explain these obstructions. Indeed each analytic obstruction corresponds to an accumulation of periodic points which, in turn, are an obstruction to taking an Nth root of the unfolding. We apply this to the problem of the section of a curvilinear angle in N equal parts in conformal geometry.

Rousseau, C.

122

Automatic breast border extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In computer aided mammography algorithms there are several processing steps, which must be performed. The basic segmentation procedure involves extracting the principal feature on a mammogram; the breast border. This is performed by segmenting the breast and the non-breast into distinct regions. In this paper, a method for extracting the breast border is proposed. The method has performance similar to established techniques but with higher degrees of automatization and robustness. It iteratively adapts a model of the background to ensure a robust object detection yielding a smooth outline of the breast. The main idea is to identify the "knee" in the cumulative intensity histogram of the image. The intensity value at the knee is thereafter used to automatically define a region, to be modelled by a two-dimensional polynomial surface of degree two. The modelled background is then subtracted from the original image. The procedure described is iteratively performed until the degree of non-uniformity of the grey-scale background is smaller then a certain value. Thereafter the difference image is post-processed by a flood-filling algorithm, a new threshold is estimated as above and applied to yield a binary image. Lastly morphological operations are performed to smoothen the breast border. In conclusion, the strength in the proposed method, compared to similar methods, is that it makes use of an iterative approach to reduce the effects of the background, it produces smooth edges and automatically finds thresholds. It is also evaluated on the entire MIAS database (322 images) with a performance of 94%.

Olsen, Christina M.

2005-04-01

123

Extraction of soil organic phosphorus.  

PubMed

Organic phosphorus is an important component of soil biogeochemical cycles, but must be extracted from soil prior to analysis. Here we critically review the extraction of soil organic phosphorus, including procedures for quantification, speciation, and assessment of biological availability. Quantitative extraction conventionally requires strong acids and bases, which inevitably alter chemical structure. However, a single-step procedure involving sodium hydroxide and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) is suitable for most soils and facilitates subsequent speciation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of extracts by molybdate colorimetry is a potential source of error in all procedures, because organic phosphorus is overestimated in the presence of inorganic polyphosphates or complexes between inorganic phosphate and humic substances. Sequential extraction schemes fractionate organic phosphorus based on chemical solubility, but the link to potential bioavailability is misleading. Research should be directed urgently towards establishing extractable pools of soil organic phosphorus with ecological relevance. PMID:18969994

Turner, Benjamin L; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Condron, Leo M; Newman, Susan

2005-04-15

124

RNA extraction from plant tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several protocols and commercial kits are used for the extraction of nucleic acids from different plant tissues. Although\\u000a there are several procedures available to remove sugars, which hinder the extraction of clean genomic DNA, there are few to\\u000a assist with extraction of RNA. Those presently used include precipitations with ethylene glycol monobutyl ether or lithium\\u000a chloride (LiCl), or centrifugation in

Valeriano Dal Cin; Marcello Danesin; Fabio Massimo Rizzini; Angelo Ramina

2005-01-01

125

Antioxidant activities of buckwheat extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) extracts were evaluated and compared with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using a ?-carotene bleaching assay, a 2,2-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the Rancimat method. Buckwheat was extracted with solvents of different polarities. The methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity coefficient (AAC) of 627±40.0 at 200 mg\\/l

Ting Sun; Chi-Tang Ho

2005-01-01

126

Passive vapor extraction feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-06-30

127

Crystal extraction at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

2005-06-01

128

Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

Compton, L. E. (inventor)

1983-01-01

129

Isoflavone extraction from okara using water as extractant.  

PubMed

We here report on the use of water as a 'green' extraction solvent for the isolation of isoflavones from okara, a by-product of soymilk production. At a low liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 to 1 and 20 °C, 47% of the isoflavones that can be extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol were extracted. The malonyl-glucosides were fully recovered with a ratio of 20 to 1, while ?-glucosides were recovered with an increased liquid-to-solid ratio of 40 to 1. The extraction of aglycones was better at higher ratios, but leveled off before reaching a 100% yield. Temperature hardly affected the total amount of isoflavones. At a 20 to 1 ratio, 20 °C, and pH 10, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between isoflavone extraction in water and in 70% aqueous ethanol. The results suggest that water may be used as a green alternative for separation of isoflavones from okara. PMID:24799251

Jankowiak, Lena; Kantzas, Nikolaos; Boom, Remko; van der Goot, Atze Jan

2014-10-01

130

Delignification of Miscanthus by Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of lignin from miscanthus liberates cellulose and hemicellulose for hydrolysis to obtain sugars that can subsequently be fermented to ethanol or butanol. Extraction of lignin from raw miscanthus at 70°C is feasible when the extracting solvent contains a base (Ethylenediamine, EDA) mixed with an organic solvent or a mildly hydrophobic ionic liquid. A 50–50 (by weight) mixture of EDA

Sasisanker Padmanabhan; Edmond Zaia; Katherine Wu; Harvey W. Blanch; Douglas S. Clark; Alexis T. Bell; John M. Prausnitz

2012-01-01

131

Spectral-textural endmember extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several available techniques for endmember extraction and spectral unmixing use only the spectral information contained in the hyperspectral data. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for spatial-spectral endmember extraction which incorporates texture features in the quantification of spatial information (jointly with spectral information). Experimental results with simulated and real hyperspectral data sets indicate that textural information could assist

Maciel Zortea; Devis Tuia; Fabio Pacifici; Antonio Plaza

2010-01-01

132

Automatic extraction of face contours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy of the human face contour can help evaluate the facial orientation to retrieve facial features to identifying or verifying a human facial expression. Automatic extraction human face contour algorithm with high accuracy is necessary. In this paper, a novel flowchart of the face contour extraction algorithm was proposed for improving accuracy of face contours. Poisson Gradient Vector Flow (PGVF)

Chih-Yu Hsu; Hao-Feng Wang; Hui-Ching Wang; Kuo-Kun Tseng; Yih-Jing Tang

2010-01-01

133

Contour Extraction of Drosophila Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contour extraction of Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos is an important step to build a computational system for matching expression pattern of embryonic images to assist the discovery of the nature of genes. Automatic contour extraction of embryos is challenging due to severe image variations, including i) the size, orientation, shape and appearance of an embryo of interest; ii) the neighboring

Qi Li; Chandra Kambhamettu

2009-01-01

134

Compositions comprising hypsizygus ulmarius extract  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed are topical compositions comprising extracts of Hypsizygus ulmarius in amounts that are effective to influence LTB4-mediated chemotaxis and/or IL-1.beta. mediated adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The hypsizygus ulmarius extract may be used alone or in combination with secondary anti-inflammatory and skin active agents, such as other mushroom and/or natural extracts. The secondary anti-inflammatory agents may or may not function by antagonizing LTB4-mediated chemotaxis and IL-1.beta. mediated adhesion. The extract may be incorporated into a cosmetically acceptable vehicle. The present invention includes methods of treating skin inflammation by applying to inflamed skin, anti-inflammatory effective amounts of Hypsizygus ulmarius extract in a defined treatment regimen.

2009-08-18

135

Dental extractions using improvised equipment.  

PubMed

Extracting a tooth is the final treatment for multiple dental problems. Persons who are not dentists, however, have little experience with tooth extractions. When a remote setting makes it impossible to send a patient for optimal dental treatment, the clinician may need to extract teeth, sometimes using improvised equipment. The following cases of two patients with three carious, painful molars describe such a situation. The non-dental clinicians had to improvise not only appropriate dental tools, but also personal protective equipment, a functional suction machine, medications for a dental block, a dental chair, and dental consent forms and follow-up instructions in the patients' language. In these cases, they also communicated with their patients through a translator. To prepare to do tooth extractions in remote settings, clinicians should learn and practice dental blocks and review extraction techniques before they deploy. If they must do an extraction, clinicians should use the closest approximation available to the appropriate dental tools. When done correctly, a dental extraction can take some time and should not be rushed. PMID:24076092

Iserson, Kenneth V

2013-12-01

136

Antioxidant activity of sesame cake extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sesame cake was extracted with methanol to obtain a crude antioxidant extract. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of antioxidants\\/lignans present in the extract was carried out by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C18 column. In this study, sesame cake was also subjected to successive extractions with solvents of differing polarity to get a purified antioxidant extract

K. P. Suja; A. Jayalekshmy; C. Arumughan

2005-01-01

137

Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants  

DOEpatents

A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Rome, IT)

1988-01-01

138

Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

1999-01-01

139

Endovascular extraction techniques for pacemaker and ICD lead extraction  

PubMed Central

In the last few years, comprehensive endovascular techniques have been developed to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads. It is important that referring physician have knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results of the currently used endovascular extraction techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

2001-01-01

140

The fallacy of serial extractions.  

PubMed

It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'. PMID:24380143

Lee, K Paul

2013-11-01

141

Radar Imaging and Feature Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced spectral estimation methods are presented for radar imaging and target feature extraction. We study problems involved in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) autofocus and imaging, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus and motion compensati...

J. Li

1999-01-01

142

Liquid - Liquid Extraction Parametric Pumping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research performed extended parametric pumping and cycling zone separation to extraction, developed an alternate theoretical method for predicting separation, and developed a new method for continuous separation of multicomponent mixtures. In addition...

P. C. Wankat

1974-01-01

143

COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.  

SciTech Connect

A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

VOGELSANG, W.

2005-09-07

144

DNA Extraction & Staging Laboratory (DESL)  

Cancer.gov

As part of the Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR), the DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL) located in Frederick, MD, is responsible for the preparation of samples for investigators at NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

145

Neural Network for Feature Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper suggests a statistical framework for the parameter estimation problem associated with unsupervised learning in a neural network, leading to an exploratory projection pursuit network that performs feature extraction, or dimensionality reduction....

N. Intrator

1990-01-01

146

Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Cobalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction of cobalt from leach solutions and, more particularly, to extraction of cobalt from raffinate remaining after extraction of nickel from ammonium sulfate leach solutions containing both nickel and cobalt. ...

D. C. Thompson

1982-01-01

147

Panel on Review of Allergenic Extracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains safety and effectiveness evaluations of allergenic extracts and poison ivy and poison oak extracts. Written by the Panel on Review of Allergenic Extracts, an advisory committee to the Bureau of Biologics, Food and Drug Administration, ...

1981-01-01

148

Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A multimembrane reactor is described. Four layers (gas, cells, nutrient, and solvent) are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethyl alcohol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification removes the toxic effect of TBP on yeast metabolism. (Refs. 29).

Cho, T.; Shuler, M.L.

1986-03-01

149

Method for extraction solvent recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovery of extraction solvent from a dissolved solute wherein halogen gas evolution and halogen compound retention in the solute are minimized comprises heating a solution of a halogenated organic solvent and the extracted solute in the presence of an ammonium, Group I metal or Group II metal salt of an acid of carbon number 1 to 6, such as ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium formate, sodium carbonate, sodium formate, or calcium formate, to recover the solvent and the solute.

Wolff, W. F.

1985-10-22

150

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOEpatents

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID) [Aberdeen, ID; Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID) [Pocalello, ID; Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID) [Blackfoot, ID; Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID) [Blackfoot, ID

2009-04-28

151

Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOEpatents

A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2007-11-06

152

Pressurized liquid extraction as a green approach in food and herbal plants extraction: A review.  

PubMed

Pressurized liquid extraction is a "green" technology for the extraction of nutraceuticals from foods and herbal plants. This review discusses the extraction principles and the optimization of the extraction parameters that improves the extraction efficiency. The use of different solvent mixtures and other extraction additives to enhance the efficiency of the extraction are discussed. Dynamic mode of extraction in Pressurized liquid extraction, and the use of combined and hyphenated sample preparation and analytical techniques are presented. This work discusses how different studies used Pressurized liquid extraction to enrich phenolic compounds, lignans, carotenoids, oils and lipids, essential oils and other nutraceuticals from foods and herbal plants. PMID:21843670

Mustafa, Arwa; Turner, Charlotta

2011-10-01

153

Studies on the extraction and back-extraction of a recombinant cutinase in a reversed micellar extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the extraction and back-extraction of a recombinant cutinase using AOT reversed micelles in isooctane. The effect of pH, ionic strength, AOT concentration and temperature on the extraction and back-extraction of the cutinase was investigated. High extraction (97%) of the cutinase was achieved at pH 7.0 with a 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer solution containing 100 mM KCl,

M. G. Carneiro-da-Cunha; J. M. S. Cabral; M. R. Aires-Barros

1994-01-01

154

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

155

Fingerprint minutia extraction algorithm based on DSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new fingerprint minutia extraction algorithm based on DSP. The traditional fingerprint recognition algorithm requires a lot of time to do the binarization and thinning for fingerprint image. Different from traditional fingerprint minutiae extraction algorithm, the proposed algorithm makes some improvements based on Direct Minutia Extraction algorithm. It improves the accuracy and anti-interference ability of minutia extraction.

Xiujuan Zhangl; Chao Chen; Lina Ni; Jinquan Zhang

2011-01-01

156

A new video text extraction approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video text provides precise and meaningful information about video content. Video text extraction is a crucial step to retrieve video text characters. Most of papers perform video text extraction in a whole text row. Compared with whole text row extraction, single character extraction can achieve higher accuracy because the background of single character is relatively simple. However, character segmentation is

Xiaodong Huang; Huadong Ma; He Zhang

2009-01-01

157

Antibacterial activity of Pulicaria dysenterica extracts.  

PubMed

Aqueous, methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica aerial parts were tested for their antibacterial activity using the disc-diffusion assay technique. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective extract against three out of six tested bacteria. All of the extracts were active against Vibrio cholera. PMID:12781813

Nickavar, Bahman; Mojab, Faraz

2003-06-01

158

Catastrophic extraction of anomalous events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss extraction of anomalous events based on the theory of catastrophes, a mathematical theory of continuous geometrical manifolds with discrete singularities called catastrophes. Intelligence exploitation systems and technologies include such novel data mining techniques as automatic extraction of discrete anomalous events by software algorithms based on the theory of catastrophes, that can reduce complex problems to a few essential so-called state variables. This paper discusses mostly corank-1 catastrophes with only one state variable, for simplicity. As an example we discuss mostly avionics platforms and catastrophic failures that can be recorded by flight instruments.

Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ro, Sookwang; Kostrzewski, Andrew

2012-05-01

159

Extracting light out of LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

`External quantum efficiency', that is, the number of photons generated per electron passing through the p-n junction of an LED is probably the most important number to quantify the performance of an LED chip. Although advances in epitaxy have increased the fraction of radiative recombination to extremely high values, the extraction of the precious photons that are trapped in a high refractive index crystal is still tricky. In this brief tutorial, we look at the physics of light extraction both from a geometrical optics/thermodynamic and a wave optics point of view, discussing both random and deterministic surface structures.

Muschaweck, Julius; Wiesmann, Christopher

2013-08-01

160

Blind extraction of singularly mixed source signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel technique for sequential blind extraction of singularly mixed sources. First, a neural-network model and an adaptive algorithm for single-source blind extraction are introduced. Next, an extractability analysis is presented for singular mixing matrix, and two sets of necessary and sufficient extractability conditions are derived. The adaptive algorithm and neural-network model for sequential blind extraction are

Yuanqing Li; Jun Wang; Jacek M. Zurada

2000-01-01

161

Supercritical extraction of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chromatographic methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extracts (essential oil obtained by steam distillation and extracts obtained by carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction\\u000a and methylene chloride) are described. The composition of extracts obtained at different pressures (from 80 bar to 400 bar)\\u000a and constant temperature (40°C) is discussed. The extraction system thyme— supercritical carbon

Z. Zekovi?; Ž. Lepojeviíc; Dj. Vuji?

2000-01-01

162

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of soy isoflavones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency in extracting four isoflavone derivatives (daidzin, glycitin, genistin and malonyl genistin) from freeze–dried ground soybeans was compared for mix-stirring extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction, using different solvents and extraction temperatures with both. The efficiency of the extraction of soy isoflavones was improved by ultrasound but was dependent on the solvent employed. Optimization of the ratios of sample quantity to solvent

Mauricio A. Rostagno; Miguel Palma; Carmelo G. Barroso

2003-01-01

163

The Overview of Entity Relation Extraction Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Information extraction can be defined as the task of extracting information of specified events or facts, and then stored in a database for the users' querying. Only with the correct relationship between the various entities, the database can be correctly store in. Entity relation extraction becomes a key technology of information Extraction system. In this paper, we analyze the status of entity relation extraction method; propose several problems for this field to be solved.

Cheng, Xian-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Jin

164

Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.  

PubMed

Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

2014-06-20

165

Extracting DNA from a Banana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners extract DNA from a banana. The procedure requires only basic lab equipment (i.e. beaker, test tube) and chemicals (i.e. liquid soap, meat tenderizer, ethanol). This activity is most appropriate for learners in grades 5-8. With slight modifications, this activity is appropriate for younger learners as well.

Gallo, Mark; Ventresca, Shannon; Cordts, Marcia

2012-01-01

166

TES: A Text Extraction System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how TES, a text extraction system, is able to electronically retrieve a set of sentences from a document to form an indicative abstract. Discusses various text abstraction techniques and related work in the area, provides an overview of the TES system, and compares system results against manually produced abstracts. (LAM)

Goh, A.; Hui, S. C.

1996-01-01

167

Sequential Extraction of Minor Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal component analysis (PCA) and Minor component analysis (MCA) are similar but have different dynamical performances. Unexpectedly, a sequential extraction algorithm for MCA proposed by Luo and Unbehauen [11] does not work for MCA, while it works for PCA. We propose a different sequential-addition algorithm which works for MCA. We also show a conversion mechanism by which any PCA algorithms

Tianping Chen; Shun-Ichi Amari; Noboru Murata

2001-01-01

168

Improvements in Aircraft Extraction Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flight data from an F-8 Corsair and a Cessna 172 was analyzed to demonstrate specific improvements in the LRC parameter extraction computer program. The Cramer-Rao bounds were shown to provide a satisfactory relative measure of goodness of parameter estim...

A. V. Balakrishnan R. E. Maine

1976-01-01

169

Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

Greene, Richard

1981-01-01

170

New AGS fast extraction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the high energy physics program and ISA injection require an improved fast extraction system from the AGS. The proposed new system consists of a fast kicker at H5 and an ejector magnet at H10. The H5 kicker is capable of producing 1.2 mrad deflection and rising up to 99% strength in 150 nsec with flat top ripple within +-

Weng

1980-01-01

171

Extracting footfalls from voxel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a method for extracting footfall locations from three dimensional voxel data created from a pair of silhouettes. With the growth of the elderly population, there is a need for passive monitoring of physical activity to allow older adults to continue living in independent settings. Prior research using anonymized video data has shown good results in

Erik E. Stone; Derek Anderson; Marjorie Skubic; James M. Keller

2010-01-01

172

Uranium Extraction from Phosphoric Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped the authors to synthesize a phosphoric acid tha...

A. Lounis

1983-01-01

173

Optimum Spacing Of Extraction Wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to selecting the optimum spacing of extraction wells for both groundwater production and groundwater cleanup is presented. Optimum well spacing is dependent upon 1) whether the system consits of an odd or even number of wells, 2) total number of wells, 3) aquifer thickness (B), 4) regional groundwater velocity (U), and 5) pumping rate of an extraction well (Q). Although an exact optimum well spacing cannot be determined for a system that consists of 30 or more wells (due to a lack of convergence for finding the roots of the stagnation-point equation), the optimum well-spacing factor of 0.4765 x Q/BU ensures minimum loss of groundwater recovery between the wells for a system that consists of 30 to 200 wells. Optimum well spacing and the points on the capture-zone curves are presented. Regression equations were developed for estimating capture-zone curves. Specific capture-zone curves can be constructed for any number of wells with knowledge of the parameters, Q/BU. This approach provides a method to design a new group of extraction wells and modify existing but deficient and under-designed systems, where more extraction wells are required. Using this scheme for such a modification, it is recommended that the number of wells be increased in pairs. The resulting arrangement ensures minimum loss of groundwater recovery between the wells.

Ahmad, W.

1995-03-01

174

Parameter extraction from spaceborne MOSFETs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An addressable matrix of 32 CMOS transistors was designed into a test chip to be flown on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). In this paper the matrix is described along with a SPICE-like parameter extraction procedure called JMOSFIT, and Cobalt 60 radiation test results are presented that illustrate the shift in the 21-MOSFET parameters derived from JMOSFIT.

Buehler, M. G.; Moore, B. T.; Nixon, R. H.

1985-01-01

175

IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

176

Tool Extracts Smooth, Fragile Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When laterally compressible tube too slippery to pull, simple tool does job. Consists of three linked sections of steel tube with sticky rubber on inside and handles on outside. Hinged sections encircle tube to be pulled. User pulls on handles to extract tube.

Sanders, Fred G.

1988-01-01

177

Standardization of Thick Crowberry Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently [1], we have developed a method for obtaining a thick extract of black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) using an acetone infusion – a by-product in the technology of the anticonvulsant drug empetrin, also manufactured in this plant. The results of pharmacological tests performed in the Research Institute of Pharmacology (Tomsk Scientific Center, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences,

E. V. Ermilova; T. V. Kadyrova; E. A. Krasnov; A. A. Blinnikova

2002-01-01

178

Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

Malmary, G.; And Others

1984-01-01

179

Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

2001-01-01

180

Materials for geopressure energy extraction  

SciTech Connect

The status of efforts in methane and energy extraction from the geopressured aquifer sources of the North Gulf of Mexico region is outlined. Three different schemes for energy extraction are considered, and the anticipated materials and corrosion problems are defined. Suitable materials are suggested for use in the production well and surface equipment. J-55 steel can be used for production well casing. Monel clad carbon steel or high chromium ferritic stainless steels, such as E-Brite or AL 29-4 can be used in the cyclone gas separator. Polymer-concrete coated steel pipings are suitable for brine piping. The hydraulic turbine as well as the power turbine in the thermal energy converter can be made of a titanium alloy such as Ticode-12. Monel or Hastelloy-C276 clad steel is recommended for steam processing areas and monel piping is recommended for the heat exchangers. 20 references.

Raman, A.

1982-01-01

181

Extracting aluminum from dross tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

Amer, A. M.

2002-11-01

182

Extracting concealed information from groups.  

PubMed

Lie detection procedures are typically aimed at determining guilt or innocence of a single suspect. Serious security threats, however, often involve groups, such as terrorist networks or criminal organizations. In this report, we describe a variant of the skin conductance-based Concealed Information Test (CIT) that allows for the extraction of critical information from such groups. Twelve participants were given information about an upcoming (mock) terrorist attack, with specific instructions not to reveal this information to anyone. Next, each subject was subjected to a CIT, with questions pertaining to the details of the attack. Results showed that for every question, the average skin conductance response to the correct answer option differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those to all other options. These results show that the information about the upcoming attack could be extracted from the group of terror suspects as a whole. PMID:20533975

Meijer, Ewout H; Smulders, Fren T Y; Merckelbach, Harald L G J

2010-11-01

183

Solvent Extraction of Transuranium Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady-state and unsteady-state digital computer programs, processed on an IBM 7072 computer, were used to obtain the concentration profiles for hydrochloric acid, curium, americium, and europium for a 16-stage liquid-liquid extraction process which is the final purification step in the production of curium 244. The equilibrium data were in the form of empirical equations which were suitable for the computer

J. E. Agee; J. A. Roth

1967-01-01

184

Extracting energies from the vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and study a possible mechanism of extracting energies from the\\u000avacuum by external classical fields. Taking a constant magnetic field as an\\u000aexample, we discuss why and how the vacuum energy can be released in the\\u000acontext of quantum field theories. In addition, we give a theoretical\\u000acomputation showing how much vacuum energies can be released. The possibilities

She-Sheng Xue

2000-01-01

185

Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ambrisentan  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Ambrisentan (ABS) is an antihypertensive drug used in the treatment of pulmonary atrial hypertension. The survey of literature for ABS revealed only two spectrophotometric methods for its quantification. The reported methods lack the sensitivity. This study is aimed at developing two sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ABS in bulk and in tablets. Methods: The proposed methods are based on the formation of colored chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of ABS with methylene blue (MB method) and safranine O (SO method) in buffered solution at pH 9.8. The extracted complexes showed maximum absorbance at 525 and 515 nm for methylene blue and safranine O, respectively. Results: In both the methods, the calibration curve was linear from 1–15 µg mL-1 of drug. Apparent molar absorpitivities were 1.7911 x 105, 2.3272 x 105 L mol-1 cm-1; Sandell’s sensitivities were 0.0215, 0.0162 µg cm-2; LOD were 0.182, 0.175 µg mL-1; LOQ were 0.551, 0.531 µg mL-1 for methods MB and SO, respectively. The relative standard deviation and percent recovery ranged from 0.206–1.310% and 99.0–101.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are sensitive, precise, accurate and inexpensive. These methods can easily be used for the assay of ABS in quality control laboratories.

Kumar, Namasani Santhosh; Rani, Avula Prameela; Visalakshi, Telu; Sekharan, Chandra Bala

2013-01-01

186

Solvent Extraction Procedure for Separating Metal Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Separation of mixtures of metals, particularly complex lanthanide mixtures, in aqueous solution can be accomplished by means of a process comprising total extraction of metal values into an organic extractant, and subsequent selective stripping of one or ...

D. J. Bauer R. E. Lindstrom L. E. Schultze

1972-01-01

187

Development of Lightweight Fume Extraction Welding Guns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a project conducted for the NSRP SP-7 Welding Panel to develop a lightweight fume extraction welding gun for shipyard use. Shipbuilders are interested in fume extraction welding guns to improve worker comfort meet workplace safety re...

D. Yapp J. Lawmon H. Castner

2001-01-01

188

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

...vanilla extract or concentrated vanilla flavoring or vanilla flavoring concentrated to the semisolid form called vanilla oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin. (2) Propylene...

2014-04-01

189

Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.  

PubMed

In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

2014-04-15

190

Extraction of Molybdenum from Ores by Electrooxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction of molybdenum from molybdenite ore by an electrolytic oxidation procedure was investigated by the Bureau of Mines. Various parameters affecting molybdenum extraction, such as salt concentration, temperature, treatment rate, current density, and...

B. J. Scheiner R. E. Lindstrom

1972-01-01

191

How to Extract DNA From Anything Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics activity, learners discover how to extract DNA from green split peas. This resource guide includes a brief explanation of DNA and provides suggestions for ways to experiment with DNA extraction further.

Utah, University O.

2008-01-01

192

Collecting Evaluative Expressions for Opinion Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic extraction of human opin- ions from Web documents has been re- ceiving increasing interest. To auto- mate the process of opinion extraction, having a collection of evaluative ex- pressions such as \\

Nozomi Kobayashi; Kentaro Inui; Yuji Matsumoto; Kenji Tateishi; Toshikazu Fukushima

2004-01-01

193

Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems  

SciTech Connect

Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

Neuman, R.D.

1992-01-01

194

Advances in Aqueous Extraction Processing of Soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extraction processing technologies, having advanced in recent years, may be a viable alternative to hexane extraction\\u000a to separate oil and protein from soybeans. Different extraction strategies incorporating various modes of comminution, extraction\\u000a buffers, and enzymes allow production of a range of oil and protein products, but also create different processing challenges.\\u000a Processes capable of achieving high free oil yields

K. A. CampbellC; C. E. Glatz; L. A. Johnson; S. Jung; J. M. N. de Moura; V. Kapchie; P. Murphy

2011-01-01

195

Beam transfer and extraction at LAMPF II  

SciTech Connect

Protons will be single-turn extracted from the LAMPF II synchrotron at 30 Hz. On alternate pulses they will be single-turn injected into a storage ring. Both processes utilize fast kickers and Lambertson septum magnets. Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow-extract the beam from the storage ring over a time spread of 1/15 s. The slow extraction occurs using electrostatic wire and iron septa.

Colton, E.P.

1983-01-01

196

Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

Krasnov, I. V.

1977-01-01

197

Extraction, Fixed Costs and the Hotelling Rule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Starting from the matter of fact that in the extracting industry large-scale investments and fixed costs play an important role the influence of fixed extraction costs and a convex curve on the time path of extraction is investigated. Moreover the time pa...

H. Siebert

1981-01-01

198

Improved extraction technique for biological fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid-liquid extraction technique speeds up separation of biological fluids into number of compounds. This eliminates agitation, emulsion formation, centrifugation, mechanical separation of phases, filtration, and other steps that have been used previously. Extraction efficiencies are equal or better than current manual liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

Jahnsen, V. J.

1975-01-01

199

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and Drugs...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of...

2010-04-01

200

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and Drugs...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of...

2009-04-01

201

Extraction and Quantitation of Polyolefin Additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction and subsequent separation and quantitation of polymer additives in polyolefins has proven to be a challenge for the analytical chemist. There have been several workers over the years who have investigated the separation of additives in polyolefins (1–7), but the extraction and recovery (at > 90%) in reasonable times has been most difficult. the Soxhlet extraction technique has

Richard C. Nielson

1991-01-01

202

Supercritical fluid extraction of celery seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of oil from milled celery seeds, using CO2 as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of the process parameters — pressure and temperature of extraction, particle size of celery seeds and flow rate of CO2 — on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments. The results indicated a significant increase

I. Papamichail; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

2000-01-01

203

Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cynara scolymus L. leaves, heads and stems were tested for their antifungal activity using the agar-well diffusion assay technique. The leaves extracts and the ethanol fractions were found to be the most effective extract against all the tested organisms.

X. F. Zhu; H. X. Zhang; R. Lo

2005-01-01

204

Study on Ultrasonic Extraction of Gastrodin from Gastrodia elata Bl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrodin, a pharmacologically active constituent, was ultrasonically extracted from gastrodia elata Bl. in the aqueous solution. The effects of six parameters including ethanol–water compositions, extraction time, extraction temperature, particle size, solvent volume, and ultrasonic power on the extraction yield of gastrodin were investigated. According to the orthogonal design, the optimal extraction conditions was explored as extraction temperature 60°C, extraction time

Long Yue; Feng Zhang; Zhixiang Wang

2010-01-01

205

Supercritical fluid extraction of tea seed oil and its comparison with solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of tea seed oil was performed to study the effects of various parameters such as pressure, temperature, extraction time (dynamic) and modifier (ethanol) on the yield and composition of the oil. The results were also compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and DGF (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Fettwissenschaft) standard method B-I5 (87) in lab

Ahmad Rajaei; Mohsen Barzegar; Yaddollah Yamini

2005-01-01

206

Extraction of zirconium and hafnium from nitric acid solutions by solid extractant based on tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of extraction equilibrium and kinetics and the influence of temperature and aqueous phase acidity on the extraction of zirconium and hafnium from nitric acid solutions by a solid extractant based on tributyl phosphate. Results are presented from pilot-plant experiments on Zr and Hf extraction from acidic pulps with high silicon contents, using pulsed columns.

Korovin, V.Yu.; Yagodin, G.A.; Savel`eva, V.I. [Dnieper Scientific Center, Dneprodzerzhinsk (Ukraine)

1994-10-20

207

Biological activity of feijoa peel extracts.  

PubMed

Fractionated extracts of Feijoa peels were studied for cytotoxic activity, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and antibacterial activity. Two most cytotoxic fractions A3 of acetone extract and M2 of methanol extract had potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi tested. Fraction A4 of acetone extract showed multidrug resistance (MDR)-reversal activity comparable with that of verapamil (positive control). These results indicate the therapeutic value of Feijoa peel extracts as potential antimicrobial and MDR-modulating agents. PMID:11205266

Motohashi, N; Kawase, M; Shirataki, Y; Tani, S; Saito, S; Sakagami, H; Kurihara, T; Nakashima, H; Wolfard, K; Mucsi, I; Varga, A; Molnár, J

2000-01-01

208

Automatic extraction of planetary image features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

2013-01-01

209

Extraction treatment using Invisalign Technique.  

PubMed

The Invisalign method is gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patients and in difficult orthodontic cases. The aim of this work is to show a class II malocclusion with severe crowding in the upper and lower arches treated with the extraction of the upper first premolars performed by means of Invisalign. The alignment phase was successfully completed but the space closure achieved with crown tipping and without correct root inclination making a further fixed appliance phase necessary. PMID:16552454

Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca

2006-01-01

210

Extracting Coherent Structures from Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of extracting dynamically-important exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations directly from turbulent flows. By monitoring near-recurrences of the flow in direct numerical simulations of 2D body-forced turbulence, we uncover an array of equilibrium points, travelling waves and periodic orbits over a range of Reynolds numbers, which underpin the complicated dynamics seen. Progress will be discussed in determining whether these solutions can then be used to predict the mean statistics of the turbulence (in the spirit of Kawahara & Kida 2001).

Chandler, Gary; Kerswell, Rich

2011-11-01

211

Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

Segall, P.

1989-01-01

212

Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

Noah, Etam

2014-02-01

213

PSR extraction kicker system improvements  

SciTech Connect

A program to improve the reliability of hardware required to operate the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring has been under way for the past three years. The extraction kicker system for the PSR was identified as one candidate for improvement. Pulse modulators produce 50kV pulses 360 nsec in length at up to 24-Hz pulse repetition rate and drive two 4-meter-long stripline electrodes. Sources of difficulty with this system included short width switch tube lifetime, drive cable electrical breakdown, high-voltage connector failure, and occasional electrode breakdown. This paper discusses modifications completed on this system to correct these difficulties. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Hardek, T.W.

1991-01-01

214

Membrane clarification of tea extracts.  

PubMed

The ready-to-drink (RTD) tea beverages are becoming increasingly popular owing to the health benefits associated with tea polyphenols, but instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is a common problem encountered in the product. Membrane technology provides a scope to produce natural, additive-free RTD teas while overcoming the major disadvantages associated with the conventional decreaming methods. Approaches employing membranes for the clarification of extracts from black and green tea have been discussed together with their relative advantages and limitations. The article also outlines the concerns to be addressed in the future attempts employing membrane technology. PMID:24499147

Subramanian, R; Kumar, Chandini S; Sharma, Pankaj

2014-01-01

215

Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

Koumpis, Konstantinos; Renals, Steve

216

Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.  

PubMed

A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, ?-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23099617

Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

2012-01-01

217

Community extraction for social networks.  

PubMed

Analysis of networks and in particular discovering communities within networks has been a focus of recent work in several fields and has diverse applications. Most community detection methods focus on partitioning the entire network into communities, with the expectation of many ties within communities and few ties between. However, many networks contain nodes that do not fit in with any of the communities, and forcing every node into a community can distort results. Here we propose a new framework that extracts one community at a time, allowing for arbitrary structure in the remainder of the network, which can include weakly connected nodes. The main idea is that the strength of a community should depend on ties between its members and ties to the outside world, but not on ties between nonmembers. The proposed extraction criterion has a natural probabilistic interpretation in a wide class of models and performs well on simulated and real networks. For the case of the block model, we establish asymptotic consistency of estimated node labels and propose a hypothesis test for determining the number of communities. PMID:21502538

Zhao, Yunpeng; Levina, Elizaveta; Zhu, Ji

2011-05-01

218

Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

2010-05-01

219

Hydrophilic solutes in modified carbon dioxide extraction-prediction of the extractability using molecular dynamic simulation.  

PubMed

Super- and subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extractions of crude drugs were simulated by molecular modelling to predict the extractability of different hydrophilic plant constituents under various extraction conditions. The CO2 extraction fluids were simulated either with pure CO2 or with solvent modified CO2 at different pressures and temperatures. Molecular modelling resulted in three different solubility parameters: the total solubility parameter delta and the partial solubility parameters delta(d) for the van der Waals and delta(EL) for the polar forces. Thus, delta(EL) enabled the estimation of the polarity of the extraction fluids and the solute molecules. If the value of delta(EL) of the extraction fluid reached the value of the solute molecule in the crude drug, i.e. minimum extraction value, the compound was soluble at the distinct extraction conditions. For a further increase in yield of the hydrophilic solutes, the polarity of the extraction fluid had to be increased, too. That means delta(EL) of the fluid exceeded the minimum extraction value. All simulations were verified by CO2 extractions of the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (harpagoside, stachyose) and the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum (aescin). CO2 extractions of the flowers of Matricaria recutita ((-)-alpha-bisabolol) were obtained from literature data. These four constituents with different properties, like molecular size and the allocation of polar functional groups were extracted, analysed, simulated and the extract content was correlated with the extraction fluid used, respectively. PMID:15911229

Günther, Martina; Maus, Martin; Wagner, Karl Gerhard; Schmidt, Peter Christian

2005-06-01

220

Supercritical extraction of toxic contaminants from water  

SciTech Connect

Recent attention has been directed to supercritical fluid extraction as a viable method for the economic removal of toxic organic contaminants from hazardous waste streams as well as surface and groundwater resources. Two factors underlie current problems in the understanding, design, equipment scale-up, and on line usage of supercritical fluid extraction systems for waste chemical isolation from waste sites and water: determination of a single, lumped design parameter for extraction; i.e. the distribution coefficient or the K value; and for a particular mixture, determination of the extent of extraction necessary for detoxification. The authors have used various toxicity indices to determine these two parameters for extraction of complex contaminant mixtures from water. Their approach is to monitor and measure (before and after extraction) water borne toxic activity via application of short term bioassays for toxic endpoints for prenatal toxicity. Extraction of creosote from water by CO/sub 2/ is chosen as the model system. The extraction process is carried out in a single equilibrium stage extractor and continued until equilibrium is reached. This approach permits simultaneous determination of a ''lumped'' overall distribution coefficient (K value) for the toxic mixture and the extent of extraction necessary for the clean-up of contaminated water. In addition, this novel approach, for the first time, relates the engineering parameters (such as pressure, temperature, superficial velocity, etc.) of the extraction process to toxicity indices.

Irvin, T.R.; Roop, R.K.; Akgerman, A.

1987-01-01

221

Inhibitory effect of pollen and propolis extracts.  

PubMed

Bee pollen and propolis were collected from Apis mellifera colonies in five regions of Turkey. The antifungal properties of methanol extracts of pollen and propolis (2% and 5% concentrations) were determined on Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. melonis. The least active concentration towards the tested fungi was 2% concentration of both extracts. The inhibitory effect of all propolis extracts on growth of F. oxysporium and A. alternata were generally higher when compared with pollen extracts. The growth of A. alternata and F. oxysporium were not affected at both concentrations of pollens. However, F. oxysporium against propolis extracts was more sensitive than A. alternata (P < 0.01). None of the pollen extracts tested completely inhibited mycelial growth of fungi used in our experiment. Percent inhibition of both pollen concentrations against A. alternata and F. oxysporium was lower than 50%. However, both concentrations of Alanya and Bey?ehir propolis extracts were 100% effective on mycelial growth of F. oxysporium until the 7th day of incubation (P < 0.01). 2% Alanya and Bey?ehir pollen extracts completely stimulated mycelial growth of F. oxysporium on the 7th day of incubation. Both concentrations of propolis extract showed more than 50% inhibition against E. oxysporium. It is suggested that high concentrations ofpropolis extract could be used as an antifungal agent against tested fungi. PMID:15285109

Ozcan, Musa; Unver, Ahmet; Ceylan, Durmu? Ali; Yeti?ir, Ramazan

2004-06-01

222

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

PubMed

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

2011-08-01

223

Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.  

PubMed

A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. PMID:23578626

Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

2013-09-01

224

High recall document content extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

2011-01-01

225

Line extraction in SAR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a line extraction algorithm in SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. The algorithm is designed based on the statistical characteristics of the speckle in SAR image. Three steps are involved. Firstly, a new edge detector, which combines the Canny operator and Ratio operator, is used to detect the edge points and calculate their directions, then the edge points are grouped according to their edge direction to form the initial lines. Finally, a high-level grouping step connects the fragmental lines. The proposed new edge operator is CFAR (Constant False Alert Rate) and prevents the line from cleavage. The algorithm has been applied in the X-band airborne SAR images, and the results are presented at the end of this paper.

Wang, Cheng; Wang, Runsheng

2003-06-01

226

Automated Extraction of Flow Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, recirculation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; iso-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for (co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

2004-01-01

227

Extraction and purification of cephalosporin antibiotics.  

PubMed

The biologically active natural and semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotics require proper methods of extraction and purification for their isolation and subsequent pharmacological studies. This article reviews the various methods useful for extraction and purification of individual compounds as well as the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis. Applicability of the methods for downstream processing of the spent medium has been critically analysed. Adsorption chromatography, particularly with reverse phase materials, in combination with membrane separation is the most successful technique for extraction as well as purification of most of the enzymes and individual compounds. Techniques such as reactive extraction in liquid membrane, non-dispersive extraction in hollow fiber membrane and aqueous two-phase extraction are likely to emerge in new generation processes. Finally, some aspects of process design and scale-up have been discussed, highlighting the research needs of pragmatic importance. PMID:8939060

Ghosh, A C; Mathur, R K; Dutta, N N

1997-01-01

228

Decision Boundary Feature Extraction for Nonparametric Classification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feature extraction has long been an important topic in pattern recognition. Although many authors have studied feature extraction for parametric classifiers, relatively few feature extraction algorithms are available for nonparametric classifiers. A new feature extraction algorithm based on decision boundaries for nonparametric classifiers is proposed. It is noted that feature extraction for pattern recognition is equivalent to retaining 'discriminantly informative features' and a discriminantly informative feature is related to the decision boundary. Since nonparametric classifiers do not define decision boundaries in analytic form, the decision boundary and normal vectors must be estimated numerically. A procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary for non-parametric classification is proposed. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm finds effective features for the nonparametric classifier with Parzen density estimation.

Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

1993-01-01

229

Oil extracts of herbal drugs--optimisation of the extraction parameters.  

PubMed

The plant constituents of fourty two olive oil extracts from chamomile flowers [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert] were analysed by means of GC, VIS-spectrometry, and HPLC in order to assess the effectiveness of the traditional extraction methods of the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HAB 2008). The influence of the extraction temperature and the extraction period as well as the influence of stirring during the extraction period and of a pre-treatment of the herbal drug with ethanol 94% on the extraction efficiency was also studied. The results are presented in the form of transfer ratios with regard to the essential oil, the carotenoids, coumarins, flavonoids and the phenolcarboxylic acids. PMID:19618679

Heldmaier, M; Beyer-Koschitzke, J; Stahl-Biskup, E

2009-06-01

230

Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems  

SciTech Connect

Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

Neuman, R.D.

1993-01-01

231

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOEpatents

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1992-12-08

232

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THYMUS DAENENSIS METHANOLIC EXTRACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are potential of antimicrobial compounds. The present study deals with the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Thymus daenensis. Aerial parts of the plant were collected from Alvand mountainside (Hamadan, Iran) in May 2005, air-dried and extracted by methanol. The dried extract was redissolved in methanol to make a 100mg\\/ml solution and then filtered. Antibacterial activity of the

FARAZ MOJAB; MAHSHID POURSAEED; HADI MEHRGAN; SHIMA PAKDAMAN

2008-01-01

233

Antioxidant activities of selected oriental herb extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were studied by determining the peroxide values of linoleic\\u000a acid during storage at 50C. Among the herb extracts tested, 44 species showed strong antioxidant activities on the oxidation\\u000a of linoleic acid. The antioxidative effects of these 44 selected herb extracts were studied further in a methyl linoleate\\u000a system during storage for

S. Y. Kim; J. H. Kim; M. J. Oh; M. Y. Jung

1994-01-01

234

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOEpatents

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01

235

Pressurized liquid extraction of isoflavones from soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoflavone derivatives from freeze-dried soybeans were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with both photo diode array and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Both real and spiked samples were used in the development of the method.Several extraction solvents (methanol (MeOH) and ethanol (EtOH), 30–80% in water and water), temperatures (60–200°C), pressures (100–200atm),

M. A. Rostagno; M. Palma; C. G. Barroso

2004-01-01

236

Solvent Extraction of Thorium with Versatic 911  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Th(IV) between an aqueous solution and a high-molecular weight synthetic carboxylic acid, Versatic 911 (Shell Co. Ltd., London), diluted with benzene was studied. Thorium was quantitatively extracted at pH 4.0–4.9 from 0.1 M acetic acid solution. The study of the effects of pH, extractant concentration, metal concentration, diluent, and contact time on the extraction of thorium(IV) was

Uday Sankar Ray; Sagar Chandra Modak

1981-01-01

237

Fast Resonant Extraction from the CERN SPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different modes of fast resonant extraction are used at the SPS: non-coherent half-integer extraction with a spill duration from 1 ms to 3 ms and coherent half-integer extraction with a spill duration from about 70 ¿s (two 23 ¿s bursts separated by a 23 ¿s interval) to 1 ms. A special requirement is to stop a 2 ms spill

Karl Heinz Kissler; J. Riche; Walter Scandale; G. Schröder

1979-01-01

238

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

239

DNA Extraction and Quantitation for Forensic Analysts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is part of the President's DNA Initiative and is devoted to the methodology for the extraction and quantification of DNA obtained from crime scene evidence. The site is designed as an on-line short course. The site identifies potential obstacles in the collection, extraction, and amplification of DNA. Extraction methods covered are organic, Chelex, and other extraction procedures. The site reviews inhibitors of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process and suggests methods for separating these inhibitors from the sample DNA. The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used methods for DNA are reviewed. The user must register and secure a readily obtainable password prior to entering the site.

2011-05-18

240

Profitability of U. S. NGL extraction  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas liquids (NGL's) are a significant source of hydrocarbon production in the U.S. NGL's are extracted from produced natural gas, and their volume depends on the levels of oil and gas production. For NGL extraction to be economically viable, however, the sales price of the NGL product must exceed the cost of extraction. This paper reviews factors that affect NGL extraction economics and addresses the effects of petrochemical demand, imports of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and vapor-pressure limitations on motor gasoline.

Hubbard, R.A. (John M Campbell and Co. (US)); Reynolds, J.W. (Texaco, USA (US))

1989-09-01

241

Antimutagenicity of extracts of Hericium erinaceus.  

PubMed

Hericium erinaceus is valuable in the diet and in medical treatment. It contains water-soluble polysaccharides that have been found to enhance immunity and which show anti-artificial pulmonary metastatic tumor effects. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of the mycelium and fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus were examined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 to screen for antimutagenic effects against 5 mutagens: AFB1, B[a]P, Glu-P-1, NQNO, and Trp-P-1. We found that both extracts have the strongest antimutagenic activity against Trp-P-1, followed by Glu-P-1, B[a]P-1, AFB1, and finally NQNO. In addition, the antimutagenicity of the extracts was produced in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 200 ppm, both extracts showed the highest inhibitory action. However, the linear correlation indicated that concentration-activity relationship was not significant (p > 0.05). In addition, extracts showed less antimutagenicity after heat treatment (p < 0.05). This suggests that the antimutagenicity of the extracts is heat-labile. The ethanol extract from mycelium or fruiting body had better antimutagenic effects than did the water extract (p < 0.05). Also, the extract from the fruiting body had better antimutagenic effects than did that from the mycelium. PMID:11517861

Wang, J C; Hu, S H; Lee, W L; Tsai, L Y

2001-05-01

242

Fungal metabolite extracts active against phytopathogens.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of some genetically engineered microorganisms in the control of plant disease pathogens is widely acknowledged. These biopesticides, so far, pose less danger to the environment. However, little attention has been paid to the potential benefit of the use of exometabolites of some microorganisms in spite of their known activity and high biodegradability. A total of 1108 fungal metabolite extracts obtained from different strains of micromycetes cultured in two different liquid media (malt extract and yeast saccharose) were tested for antifungal activity. The target organisms were Collectotrichum musae, Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Pyricularia oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Gerlachia oryzae. Percentage mycelial growth inhibition activities varied widely with the different taxonomic groups. Extracts from Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. consistently showed the highest activity. A greater number of micromycetes produced active extracts in a liquid yeast extract saccharose medium than in a liquid malt extract medium. Mycelial growth inhibition diameters were also greater in assays with extracts from the yeast extract saccharose medium. The results generally demonstrated fungal metabolite extracts as potential sources of agricultural chemical input. PMID:7973617

Okeke, B; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Buarque De Gusmão, N

1994-10-14

243

Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks  

SciTech Connect

The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

1996-12-31

244

Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

2013-07-01

245

Image segmentation by background extraction refinements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

1990-01-01

246

Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

Skarnemark, G.

247

The effect of extraction temperature, time and number of steps on the antioxidant capacity of methanolic banana peel extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solvent extraction method was developed to obtain methanolic extracts rich in antioxidants from banana peel. Central composite design “23+star” and response surface methodology were used in order to optimise the number of extraction steps, extraction temperature and extraction time. The number of extractions was statistically the most significant factor in scavenging activity against both DPPH and ABTS+ radicals and

Rafaela González-Montelongo; M. Gloria Lobo; Mónica González

2010-01-01

248

Microwave steam diffusion for extraction of essential oil from orange peel: Kinetic data, extract’s global yield and mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microwave steam diffusion (MSDf) apparatus for extraction of essential oils from orange peel (by-products) was studied. MSDf has been compared with conventional steam diffusion (SDf). A response surface methodology (RSM) was realised to investigate the influence of process variables by a central composite design (CCD) approach. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for the extraction of orange

Asma Farhat; Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier; Mohamed El Maataoui; Jean-François Maingonnat; Mehrez Romdhane; Farid Chemat

2011-01-01

249

Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

2010-01-01

250

Brazilian Ginseng extraction via LPSE and SFE: Global yields, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilian Ginseng extracts of two species, Pfaffia paniculata and Pfaffia glomerata, were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 and by low-pressure solvent extraction (LPSE) with methanol, hexane and ethanol. The SFE assays were conducted at pressures of 100, 200 and 300bar, and temperatures of 30 and 50°C. The qualitative chemical compositions of the extracts were determined by thin

Patrícia F. Leal; Marina B. Kfouri; Fábio C. Alexandre; Fábio H. R. Fagundes; Juliana M. Prado; Marcos H. Toyama; M. Angela A. Meireles

2010-01-01

251

Study on the Extraction and Back Extraction of Bovine Serum Albumin using Reversed Micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction and back extraction of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) using a new reversed micelle system of CTAB\\/isooctane\\/1?pentanol have been investigated. Under the optimal operating conditions in this study, the extraction ratio of BSA reaches as high as 98%. The back extraction ratio can reach 80% as pH in stripping phase approaches to the isoelectric point (pI) of BSA. UV?spectra

Xiangcun Li; Gaohong He; Chang Lin; Hongjing Liu

2007-01-01

252

Extracting entanglement from identical particles.  

PubMed

Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability. PMID:24785015

Killoran, N; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

2014-04-18

253

Extracting Entanglement from Identical Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

Killoran, N.; Cramer, M.; Plenio, M. B.

2014-04-01

254

Language extraction from zinc sulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

Varn, Dowman Parks

2001-09-01

255

Water Extraction from Martian Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the projected growth in space exploration, several milestones have been set for future space programs. One milestone in particular is the landing of a human on the planet Mars. However, one major barrier to the successful placement of persons on Mars is a lack of water on the Martian surface. Because of the massive quantity of water that would be necessary for a mission to Mars, it is not possible to transport the amount necessary from Earth to Mars. Water would be necessary for human consumption as well as a base for jet propulsion fuel. Past unmanned missions to Mars, such as the Viking missions of the 1970's, have revealed the presence of small quantities of water in Martian soil. Research has determined that the water in the soil can be recovered when the soil is heated to a temperature between 200 C and 500 C. Team JFEET has designed a system with the capability to extract water from the soil of Mars, and then meter and deliver the water to a storage tank for later use.

Wiens, J.; Bommarito, F.; Blumenstein, E.; Ellsworth, M.; Cisar, T.; McKinney, B.; Knecht, B.

2001-01-01

256

Improvements in aircraft extraction programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight data from an F-8 Corsair and a Cessna 172 was analyzed to demonstrate specific improvements in the LRC parameter extraction computer program. The Cramer-Rao bounds were shown to provide a satisfactory relative measure of goodness of parameter estimates. It was not used as an absolute measure due to an inherent uncertainty within a multiplicative factor, traced in turn to the uncertainty in the noise bandwidth in the statistical theory of parameter estimation. The measure was also derived on an entirely nonstatistical basis, yielding thereby also an interpretation of the significance of off-diagonal terms in the dispersion matrix. The distinction between coefficients as linear and non-linear was shown to be important in its implication to a recommended order of parameter iteration. Techniques of improving convergence generally, were developed, and tested out on flight data. In particular, an easily implemented modification incorporating a gradient search was shown to improve initial estimates and thus remove a common cause for lack of convergence.

Balakrishnan, A. V.; Maine, R. E.

1976-01-01

257

Extraction of RNA from dictyostelium.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTIONDictyostelium discoideum is a unicellular eukaryote often referred to as a social ameba because it can form a multicellular structure when nutrient conditions are limiting. General principles for cell-to-cell communication, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeletal organization during cell motility have been derived from cellular and molecular studies of Dictyostelium and have been found to be conserved across all eukaryotes. The availability of a complete genome database and stocks of wild-type and mutant strains make D. discoideum an accessible and powerful model organism. Dictyostelium is amenable to genetic manipulations that require the introduction of DNA into cells, such as gene knockout, overexpression, antisense RNA expression, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown, and restriction-enzyme-mediated mutagenesis. The extraction of RNA from Dictyostelium is relatively easy because RNA levels are very high in comparison to DNA levels (i.e., ~40 times higher). Certain commercially available kits, such as Trizol (Invitrogen) and RNeasy (QIAGEN) have been used successfully, although lysis conditions need to be adjusted. RNA samples are stable for several years at -80°C in diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC)-treated H(2)O. For longer-term storage, the RNA pellet can be stored in 100% ethanol at -80°C. Such samples are suitable for Northern blots, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and microarray analysis of gene expression. PMID:21356752

Gaudet, Pascale; Fey, Petra; Chisholm, Rex

2008-01-01

258

Upper incisors' positions after extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

2014-01-01

259

Comparative Study of Siriraj In-house Mite Extracts and Commercially Available Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

his study compared the quality of allergenic extracts produced from pure mite bodies (PMBs) and spent mite medium (SMM) of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) and D. farinae (Df), with commercially available extracts (FDA, Greer, CSL). It also evaluated the use of glycerine as a preservative, the stability of these extracts under various temperatures, and the reactions of allergy patients to skin-prick

Vanna Mahakittikun; Sirichit Wongkamchai; Pattama Ekpo; John J Boitano; Chulaluk Komoltri; Chaiyaporn Manochnon; Kunda Kasetsinsombat; Pakit Vichyanond; Chaweewan Bunnag

2007-01-01

260

Antimicrobial activity of extracts and a germacranolide- type sesquiterpene lactone from Tithonia diversifolia leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaf of Tithonia diversifolia, and one sesquiterpene lactone 1 isolated from the ethyl acetate extract was studied. Of the fourteen strains of bacteria used, the ethyl acetate extract was the most active, showing inhibitory activity against five Gram +ve and two Gram -ve organisms. This

C. A. Obafemi; T. O. Sulaimon; D. A. Akinpelu; T. A. Olugbade

261

Extraction of rotenone from Derris elliptica and Derris malaccensis by pressurized liquid extraction compared with maceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of active compounds from plants is one of the most critical steps in the commercial development of natural products for medicinal, herbicidal or pesticidal use. The focus of this study was to compare conventional maceration and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) techniques for the efficient extraction of rotenone from the stem and root of Derris elliptica Benth and Derris

Attawadee Sae-Yun; Chitchamai Ovatlarnporn; Arunporn Itharat; Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

2006-01-01

262

Extraction\\/photometric determination of neutral extraction agents in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of neutral extraction agents in industrial waste waters in an inorganic substance produced using these extraction agents is a problem of current concern. In this work a study was made of the conditions for concentrating tributylphosphate, the higher alcohols, and petroleum sulfoxides in water and in aqueous solutions of the mineral acids by extracting these compounds with an

N. V. Popandopulo; A. N. Turanov

1987-01-01

263

Comparative study of copper extraction by nitric and microwave assisted nitric acid extraction from industrial sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu was removed from industrial sludge by traditional and microwave assisted acid extraction. The effects of acid concentration, extraction time, sludge particle size and solid\\/liquid (S \\/L) ratio on removal of Cu from industrial sludge were investigated. The results indicated that extraction of Cu by 1 N nitric acid for 90 min at an S \\/L ratio of 1\\/20 is

Xiangyi Zha; Chunwei Han; Jiancheng Tu; Dandan Ma

2011-01-01

264

Impact of ultrasound-assisted extraction on quality and photostability of the Pothomorphe umbellata extracts.  

PubMed

Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq. is a Brazilian shrub with therapeutic and economic applications. There are some reports on the technological development of P. umbellata preparations; however, there are no studies on the influence of non-conventional extraction procedures on the quality of P. umbellata extracts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UE) parameters upon the extraction yield (EY%) of 4-nerolidylcatechol (4-NC) and the antioxidant activity of P. umbellata extracts using a factorial design and response surface methodology. Extracts obtained by UE and percolation were compared, and the photostability of 4-NC was evaluated via the exposure of UVA and visible light to the samples. The most influential variables observed for the UE were the ethanol-to-water and drug-to-solvent ratios. UE improved the extraction kinetics of 4-NC from plant material and improved the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Some of the ultrasound extracts showed an antioxidant activity that was not proportional to their 4-NC concentration, which suggests the presence of other active antioxidant compounds in these P. umbellata extracts. There was no significant difference in the photostability of 4-NC between the percolated and ultrasound extracts. Surprisingly, the isolated 4-NC material was significantly more stable when exposed to UVA-visible light compared to 4-NC in the plant extracts. PMID:21507702

Costa, Fernanda Steger de Oliveira; de Araújo Júnior, César Aparício; Silva, Emmanuelle de Jesus; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; Lima, Eliana Martins; Valadares, Marize Campos; Marreto, Ricardo Neves

2011-09-01

265

Antioxidant and anti-cancer cell proliferation activity of propolis extracts from two extraction methods.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total flavonoid compounds and cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines of propolis extracts from two extraction methods were investigated in this study. Propolis was collected from Phayao province and extracted with 70% ethanol using maceration and sonication techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were also determined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of propolis was evaluated using MTT assay. The percentage propolis yield after extraction using maceration (18.1%) was higher than using sonication (15.7%). Nevertheless, antioxidant and flavonoid compounds of the sonication propolis extract were significant greater than using maceration. Propolis extract from sonication showed antioxidant activity by 3.30 ± 0.15 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract. Total phenolic compound was 18.3 ± 3.30 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and flavonoid compound was 20.49 ± 0.62 mg quercetin/g extract. Additionally, propolis extracts from two extraction methods demonstrated the inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines at 24, 48 and 72 hours in a dose-dependent manner. These results are of interest for the selection of the most appropriate method for preparation of propolis extracts as potential antioxidant and anticancer agents. PMID:24377638

Khacha-ananda, Supakit; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Tragoolpua, Yingmanee

2013-01-01

266

Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to modify the Mehlich 2 (M2) extractant to include Cu among the extractable nutrients, retain or enhance the wide range of soils for which it is suitable and minimize it's corrosive properties. The substitution of nitrate for chloride anions and the addition of EDTA accomplished those objectives. The new extracting solution, already designated Mehlich

A. Mehlich

1984-01-01

267

Preliminary validation of Prepfiler Express™ Extraction kit in AutoMate Express DNA Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of challenging biological samples, including blood stains, saliva, semen, hair, bones, finger nails, among others, are often a part of our casework investigation. In this study, semen, blood samples and saliva swabs were extracted by several methods in order to optimize and validate the Prepfiler Express™ Extraction kit and the AutoMate Express DNA Extraction System. Results obtained with

F. Balsa; V. Bogas; P. Cunha; P. Brito; A. Serra; V. Lopes; M. Carvalho; L. Andrade; A. M. Bento; M. São Bento; F. Corte-Real; M. J. Anjos

268

Web-scale information extraction with vertex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertex is a Wrapper Induction system developed at Yahoo! for extracting structured records from template-based Web pages. To operate at Web scale, Vertex employs a host of novel algorithms for (1) Grouping similar structured pages in a Web site, (2) Picking the appropriate sample pages for wrapper inference, (3) Learning XPath-based extraction rules that are robust to variations in site

Pankaj Gulhane; Amit Madaan; Rupesh R. Mehta; Jeyashankher Ramamirtham; Rajeev Rastogi; Sandeepkumar Satpal; Srinivasan H. Sengamedu; Ashwin Tengli; Charu Tiwari

2011-01-01

269

Extraction of vanadium into isobutyl methyl ketone.  

PubMed

Because of its advantages in atomic-absorption spectroscopy, isobutyl methyl ketone was chosen as organic solvent for an extraction study on vanadium. Of eight chelating agents which were evaluated for completeness of extraction, ease of use, working pH range, and freedom from interference, cupferron was judged best. PMID:18960477

Crump-Wiesner, H J; Purdy, W C

1969-01-01

270

Data Extraction from Deep Web Pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel model to extract data from Deep Web pages. The model has four layers, among which the access schedule, extraction layer and data cleaner are based on the rules of structure, logic and application. In the experiment section, we apply the new model to three intelligent system, scientific paper retrieval, electronic ticket ordering and

Jufeng Yang; Guangshun Shi; Yan Zheng; Qingren Wang

2007-01-01

271

Testbed for information extraction from deep web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search results generated by searchable databases are served dynamically and far larger than the static documents on the Web. These results pages have been referred to as the Deep Web. We need to extract the target data in results pages to integrate them on different searchable databases. We propose a test bed for information extraction from search results. We chose

Yasuhiro Yamada; Nick Craswell; Tetsuya Nakatoh; Sachio Hirokawa

2004-01-01

272

Extraction of Tritium from Lithium Aluminate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complete data are presented for the extraction of tritium from neutron irradiated lithium aluminate pellets. Two methods were used: (a) thermal/vacuum extraction at temperatures up to 980 exp 0 C and (b) dissolution of the pellets in sodium tetraborate at...

W. Yunker

1976-01-01

273

Direct supercritical fluid extraction from water  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of apparatus suitable for direct supercritical fluid extraction of organics from water. Results are presented for the extraction of pentachlorophenol present in water at concentrations of the order of 0.1 ppm. The effect of changes in apparatus design and supercritical fluid flow rate on recovery are discussed.

Brewer, S.E.; Kruus, P. [Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Chemistry Dept.

1993-12-01

274

Feature extraction and selection of neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the feature extraction and feature selection methods for the wood veneer inspection application using neural network classifiers. The paper emphatically describes the statistical method of feature extraction and feature selection. The intra-class variation, inter-class variation and feature correlation are introduced to measure the discriminatory power of the wood veneer image

Wu Chengdong; Gao Feng; Ma Shaohua

2000-01-01

275

Extraction of El-Lajjun Oil Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of the bitumen fraction of El-Lajjun oil shale was carried out using 17 different solvents, pure and combined. Out of all the solvents used, toluene and chloroform were found to be the most efficient for extraction of the bitumen to perform the major part of the experiments. This selectivity was based on the quality and quantity of the yield

Mohammed Z. Anabtawi; B. Z. Uysal

1995-01-01

276

Comparison of commercial peanut skin test extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Skin prick testing is a major tool for diagnosing food allergy. Food allergen extracts have not been standardized; this may lead to great variability in the predictive accuracy of skin prick tests. Methods: Six commercial peanut skin test extracts were compared in vitro with RAST inhibition assays, ELISA, and sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by immunoblotting with

Susan L. Hefle; Ricki M. Helm; A. Wesley Burks; Robert K. Bush

1995-01-01

277

Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N.

1996-12-01

278

CUTER: An Efficient Useful Text Extraction Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present CUTER, a system that processes HTML pages in order to extract the useful text from them. The mechanism is focalized on HTML pages that include news articles from major portals and blogs. As useful text we define the body of the article that contains the news report. In order to extract the body of the

George Adam; Christos Bouras; Vassilis Poulopoulos

2009-01-01

279

[Surgical extraction techniques for companion animals].  

PubMed

The extraction of teeth in cats and dogs is a common surgical intervention in veterinary practice. This article describes the correct technical approach to the surgical extraction of dental elements, focussing on the indications, possible complications, and advantages of this technique. PMID:16276727

Knaake, Frans; van Foreest, Andries

2005-10-15

280

Plate Performance in Liquid-Liquid Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relative effectiveness of perforated, nozzle, and burred plates from a capacity and extraction standpoint were studied in a pulsed liquid-liquid extraction system. The experiments were conducted in a 3.8 x 10 exp -2 m diameter column using a mixture o...

R. P. Wadkins

1984-01-01

281

Liquid membrane extraction in analytical sample preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane-based extraction techniques offer efficient alternatives to classical sample preparation techniques by making use of the advantages of liquid–liquid extraction, such as the possibility of tuning the selectivity by chemical means, and by avoiding the disadvantages, such as solvent consumption and the need for manual handling. They permit high selectivity and high enrichment factors, as well as giving good possibilities

Jan Åke Jönsson; Lennart Mathiasson

1999-01-01

282

Current practice of cataract extraction and anaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire regarding preferred methods of cataract extraction and anaesthesia was sent to 456 consultant ophthalmologists in England and Wales. Replies were received from 86% (n = 392), 83% (n = 380) having completed the questionnaire in full. The most frequently employed surgical approach was non-automated extracapsular cataract extraction. Only 2% of surgeons (n = 8) used phacoemulsification routinely and

P. R. Hodgkins; A. J. Luff; A. J. Morrell; L. T. Botchway; T. J. Featherston; A. R. Fielder

1992-01-01

283

Antibacterial activity of some lichen extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from some lichens species were evaluated for antibacterial activity against six standard strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and two environmental strains (Aeromonas) that were isolated from different lakes. The aqueous and ethanol extracts showed a variable range of antibacterial activity to both standard strains and

Ali Karagöz; Nihal Doruöz; Zuhal Zeybek; Ali Aslan

2009-01-01

284

Method of Extracting Boron from Natural Brines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the invention is a method of extracting boron from natural brines. For a more thorough extraction of boron, the brine is treated with a mixture of lime with aluminum sulfates, or with salt of trivalent iron (for example, chloride, or sulfate...

K. I. Khrennikov

1965-01-01

285

Bacteremia in Children Following Dental Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and intensity of bacteremia following tooth extraction in children were measured by blood culture. The effects on bacteremia of the number and type of teeth extracted, oral hygiene, gingival health, presence of abscess, and antibiotic prophylaxis were assessed. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the incidence of bacteremia from 63% to 35%. The intensity of bacteremia was 2 cfu\\/mL of blood

W. A. Coulter; A. Coffey; I. D. F. Saunders; A. M. Emmerson

1990-01-01

286

Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

1969-01-01

287

Tumour Production in Plants by Plant Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE importance of purified forms of alkaloids in inducing plant tumours is well known. Very little work has however been done on the use of plant extracts, containing alkaloids, in tumour production. Takenaka1 has summarized the meagre data available and noted the effects of two plant extracts on living plant tissue. Alstonia scholaris yields an alkaloid having medicinal properties, especially

Archana Sharma

1959-01-01

288

Model-Based Road Extraction from Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an approach to the automatic extraction of roads from aerial images. We argue that a model for road extraction is needed in every step of the image interpretation process. The model needs to include knowledge about different aspects of roads, like geometry, radiometry, topology, and context. The main part of this paper discusses the parts

Carsten Steger; Clemens Glock; Wolfgang Eckstein; Helmut Mayer; Bernd Radig

1995-01-01

289

AutoKey: human assisted key extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key extraction is an inverse problem of finding the foreground, the background, and the alpha from an image and some hints. Although the chromakey solves this for a limited case (single background color), this is often too restrictive in practical situations. When the extraction from arbitrary background is necessary, this is currently done by a time consuming manual task. In

Tomoo Mitsunaga; Taku Yokoyama; Takashi Totsuka

1995-01-01

290

Extracting Semistructured Information from the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a configurable tool for extracting semistructured data from a set of HTML pages and for converting the extracted information into database objects. The input to the extractor is a declarative specification that states where the data of interest is located on the HTML pages, and how the data should be \\

J. Hammer; H. Garcia-Molina; J. Cho; R. Aranha; Arturo Crespo

1997-01-01

291

Molecular design of the phenol type extractants.  

PubMed

A method of optimisation of new extractants structure using the desirable function has been developed. Earlier the desirable function has been proposed by Harrington (Ind Qual Control 21: 494-498, 1965) for the optimisation of processes with several response functions. The developed method of optimisation of new extractants structure has been used for construction of phenolic type extractants (PTE) (a class of N-(2-hydroxy-5-nonylbenzil)-dialkylamines). It has been offered to use the charge on the nitrogen atom, the heat of dissociation of phenolic group, the logarithm of distribution factor of extractant between water and octanol (computed data) and maximum permissible concentration of extractants in aqueous phase (MPC) of the o-replaced phenols (the literary data) as the controllable parameters, defining efficiency of extractants for molecular design of PTE. During optimisation of extractants structure the quantity of alkyl substitutes at nitrogen atom, the carbon atoms number in these substitutes and the electronegative substitutes in o-position to phenolic group have been varied. As the result of the molecular design, the optimal structure of PTE found is N-(2,3-dihydroxy-5-nonylbenzil)-didecylamine, which perfectly meets the requirements to industrial extractants. PMID:23543841

Semenov, Sergey A; Reznik, Aleksandr M

2013-12-01

292

Definition extraction: Improving Balanced Random Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses methods of improving the ways of applying Balanced Random Forests (BRFs), a machine learning classification algorithm, used to extract definiti ons from written texts. These methods include different approaches to selecting attributes, optimising the classifier predictio n threshold for the task of definition extraction and initial filtering by a very simple grammar. I. I NTRODUCTION

Lukasz Degórski; Lukasz Kobylinski; Adam Przepiórkowski

2008-01-01

293

Facial feature extraction for face characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of image processing and facial recognition has presented many interesting challenges. This research focuses on feature extraction but touch upon other topics such as Face detection. Simply put face detection attempts to accurately pick out a human face in an arbitrary scene, while feature extraction is the attempt to accurately isolate the desired portion of a

Jeff Mcdermott

2006-01-01

294

Antiestrogenic activities of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the wide use of extracts from the rhizome of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for the treatment of menopausal complaints, surprisingly little is known on their potential estrogenic properties, e.g. on estrogen dependent gene transcription. In addition, available informations on the effects on cell proliferation are contradictory. We therefore, tested for estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts on

Oliver Zierau; Claudia Bodinet; Susanne Kolba; Marina Wulf; Günter Vollmer

2002-01-01

295

IN SITU SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is designed to physically remove volatile compounds, generally from the vadose or unsaturated zone. t is an in situ process employing vapor extraction wells alone or in combination with air injection wells. acuum blowers supply the motive force, induci...

296

Extracting user posting behavior using HTTP flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a decision-tree-based method for quick extraction of user posting behavior from flow data. Since our method scans only HTTP POST headers fields, which are described at the beginning of the HTTP body, we do not have to fully scan the HTTP body. Thus, traffic flow can be quickly scanned to extract posting behavior. However, it might be

Reiko Sakurada; Takaaki Moriya; Junichi Akahani

2010-01-01

297

Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans  

SciTech Connect

Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

1990-10-01

298

DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

2010-01-01

299

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACEROLA PECTIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pectic substances are responsible by fouling in the ultrafiltration process (Prato, 2003). In order to explain this fouling, the pectic substances were extracted and characterised in several clarification process stages, estimating yet their utilisation as thickness of fruit juice. In this work, the pectic substances were extracted according to MacCready (1952) and analyses of total sugar (Dubois et al.,

A. M. Prato; E. S. Mendes; S. T. D. Barros; S. C. Costa

300

Extraction of glucose isomerase from Streptomyces flavogriseus.  

PubMed Central

Cationic detergent (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or cetylpyridinium chloride) treatment extracted almost the same amount of glucose isomerase from cells of Streptomyces flavogriseus as mechanical disruption (sonic oscillation or abrasive grinding). The specific activity of the enzyme extracted with cationic detergents was approximately 20% higher than that liberated by mechanical disruption.

Chen, W P; Anderson, A W; Han, Y W

1979-01-01

301

Extraction of glucose isomerase from Streptomyces flavogriseus.  

PubMed

Cationic detergent (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or cetylpyridinium chloride) treatment extracted almost the same amount of glucose isomerase from cells of Streptomyces flavogriseus as mechanical disruption (sonic oscillation or abrasive grinding). The specific activity of the enzyme extracted with cationic detergents was approximately 20% higher than that liberated by mechanical disruption. PMID:453842

Chen, W P; Anderson, A W; Han, Y W

1979-04-01

302

ON EXTRACTING ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY FROM THE VACUUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generators and batteries do not furnish any of their internal energy to their external circuit, but only dissipate it internally to perform work on their own internal charges to form a source dipole. Once formed, the dipole's broken symmetry extracts observable energy from the virtual particle exchange between dipole charges and active vacuum. The extracted observable energy is reradiated as

Thomas E. Bearden

303

Concept similarity analysis in Ontology's automatic extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ontology's automatic extraction is a core problem of information integration in electronic government affair. In the process of ontology's automatic extraction, FCA method is used in analyzing relationships between concepts automatically. But this method's ability is insufficient in the analysis of the synonym relationship. This paper optimizes the FCA method and brings forward a new algorithm - SFCA. SFCA sets

Li Peng

2009-01-01

304

Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

Earl, L. L.; And Others

305

Treatment of trinitrotoluene by crude plant extracts.  

PubMed

Crude plant extract solutions (spinach and parrotfeather) were prepared and spiked with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) (20 mgl(-1)). 90-h TNT removal by these solutions was compared to controls. Spinach and parrotfeather extract solutions removed 99% and 50% of the initial TNT, respectively; TNT was not eliminated in the controls or in extract solutions where removal activity was deactivated by boiling. A first-order removal constant of 0.052 h(-1) was estimated for spinach extract solutions treating 20 mgl(-1) TNT concentrations, which compared favorably to intact plant removal. Concentration variation was described by Michaelis-Menton kinetics. Detectable TNT degradation products represented only a fraction of the total TNT transformed, and the transformation favored the formation of 4-aminodinitrotoluene. The results indicated that crude plant extracts transform TNT, without the presence of the live plant. PMID:15013677

Medina, Victor F; Larson, Steven L; Agwaramgbo, Lovell; Perez, Waleska; Escalon, Lynn

2004-05-01

306

Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.  

PubMed

A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum). PMID:10374253

Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

1999-05-01

307

Membrane extraction for detoxification of biomass hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment. PMID:22361069

Grzenia, David L; Schell, Daniel J; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil

2012-05-01

308

Barley ?-glucans extraction and partial characterization.  

PubMed

Barley is rarely used in the food industry, even though it is a main source of ?-glucans, which have important health benefits and a technological role in food. This work evaluated the humid extraction of barley ?-glucans and partially characterized them. The extraction was studied using surface response methodology with both temperature and pH as variables. The extracted ?-glucans were characterized by chemical and rheological analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect on extraction of linear and quadratic terms of pH and temperature corresponding to the regression model was significant, and we obtained a maximum concentration of 53.4% at pH 7.56 and temperature 45.5°C, with protein and mainly starch contamination. The extracted ?-glucans presented a higher apparent viscosity than the commercial ones, the behavior of the commercial and extracted samples can be described as Newtonian and pseudoplastic, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were characteristic of commercial ?-glucans, indicating that this method is efficient for extracting ?-glucans. PMID:24518319

Limberger-Bayer, Valéria M; de Francisco, Alicia; Chan, Aline; Oro, Tatiana; Ogliari, Paulo J; Barreto, Pedro L M

2014-07-01

309

Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

Özkaya, M.

2012-07-01

310

Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code--ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)]--is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T.

2012-06-01

311

XML-based Web information extraction system design and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the research of the existing Web information extraction techniques, this paper proposes a XML-based Web information extraction system design. This design can extract the interested information points from HTML pages and express the extracted results by using structured XML with strong scalability. The system has certain versatility and flexibility, users can quickly customize for the Web information extraction

Ma Jun; Li Tihong

2010-01-01

312

Extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by mechanical shaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shaking extraction method for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was developed and compared to Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet extraction is an EPA-approved method for volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants from solid materials, but it has many disadvantages including long extraction periods and potential loss of volatile compounds. When field-moist soils are used, variability in subsamples is higher, and the extraction of

A. P. Schwab; J. Su; S. Wetzel; S. Pekarek; M. K. Banks

1999-01-01

313

Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.  

PubMed

Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

1999-01-01

314

Extraction of edge feature in cardiovascular image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction of edge feature and accurate measurement of vascular diameter in cardiovascular image are the bases for labeling the coronary hierarchy, 3D refined reconstruction of the coronary arterial tree and accurate fusion between the calculated 3D vascular trees and other views. In order to extract vessels from the image, the grayscale minimization of the circle template and differential edge detection are put forward. Edge pixels of the coronary artery are set according to maximization of the differential value. The edge lines are determined after the edge pixels are smoothed by B-Spline function. The assessment of feature extraction is demonstrated by the excellent performance in computer simulation and actual application.

Lu, Jianrong; Chen, Dongqing; Yu, Daoyin; Liu, Xiaojun

2001-09-01

315

Antidiabetic effects of Gymnema yunnanense extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated anti-hyperglycemic effect and body weight reduction activity of Gymnema yunnanense extract in obese ob\\/ob and diabetic db\\/db mice. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of the extract 100mg\\/kg for 12 days. On Day 5, the extract-treated ob\\/ob mice had significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels compared to vehicle-treated mice (161±14.5mg\\/dl versus 238±21.5mg\\/dl, P<0.01). On Day 12,

Jing-Tian Xie; Anbao Wang; Sangeeta Mehendale; Jian Wu; Han H. Aung; Lucy Dey; Shengxiang Qiu; Chun-Su Yuan

2003-01-01

316

3D Feature Extraction for Unstructured Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visualization techniques provide tools that help scientists identify observed phenomena in scientific simulation. To be useful, these tools must allow the user to extract regions, classify and visualize them, abstract them for simplified representations, and track their evolution. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This article explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and those from Finite Element Analysis.

Silver, Deborah

1996-01-01

317

Continuous extraction of organic materials from water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

Goldberg, M. C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

1971-01-01

318

Sedating effects of Humulus lupulus L. extracts.  

PubMed

It was the aim of the study to check ethanolic and CO2 extracts from Humulus lupulus for sedating activity. Both preparations reduced the spontaneous locomotor activity, increased the ketamine-induced sleeping time and reduced body temperature, confirming a central sedating effect. No indications of anxiolytic activity were found in the elevated plus maze test for any of the test preparations. This sedating activity could be attributed to three categories of constituents of lipophilic hops extracts. Though the alpha-bitter acids proved to the be most active constituents, the beta-bitter acids and the hop oil clearly contributed to the sedating activity of lipophilic Humulus extracts. PMID:16860977

Schiller, H; Forster, A; Vonhoff, C; Hegger, M; Biller, A; Winterhoff, H

2006-09-01

319

Solvent extraction of scandium from Wolframite residue  

SciTech Connect

The particular properties of scandium make it an attractive candidate for recovery by solvent extraction - one of the most important processes in hydrometallurgy for the separation, purification and concentration of metal ions. Toward this end, an acid leaching and solvent extraction system has been developed and optimized to extract scandium from wolframite residue. With the technique, the scandium oxide content in the resultant scandium hydroxide can reach 70 - 78 percent. Further, the concentration coefficient and total recovery of scandium oxide from the residue to the product has amounted to (1.9 - 3.9) x 10/sup 3/ and 76 -89 percent, respectively.

Gongyi, G.; Yuli, C.; Yu, L.

1988-07-01

320

Feigel effect: Extraction of momentum from vacuum?  

SciTech Connect

The Green-function formalism for the electromagnetic field in a magnetoelectric (ME) medium is constructed as a generalization of conventional Casimir theory. Zero temperature is assumed. It is shown how the formalism predicts electromagnetic momentum to be extracted from the vacuum field, just analogous to how energy is extracted in the Casimir case. The possibility of extracting momentum from vacuum was discussed recently by Feigel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 020404 (2004)]. In contrast to Feigel's approach, we assume that the ME coupling occurs naturally, rather than being produced by external strong fields. We also find the same effect qualitatively via another route by considering one single electromagnetic mode.

Birkeland, Ole Jakob; Brevik, Iver [Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

2007-12-15

321

Feigel effect: Extraction of momentum from vacuum?  

PubMed

The Green-function formalism for the electromagnetic field in a magnetoelectric (ME) medium is constructed as a generalization of conventional Casimir theory. Zero temperature is assumed. It is shown how the formalism predicts electromagnetic momentum to be extracted from the vacuum field, just analogous to how energy is extracted in the Casimir case. The possibility of extracting momentum from vacuum was discussed recently by Feigel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 020404 (2004)]. In contrast to Feigel's approach, we assume that the ME coupling occurs naturally, rather than being produced by external strong fields. We also find the same effect qualitatively via another route by considering one single electromagnetic mode. PMID:18233935

Birkeland, Ole Jakob; Brevik, Iver

2007-12-01

322

Recovery of grape seed oil by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction: a comparison with conventional solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the extraction of grape seed oil by means of liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent is described. The operating conditions to determine the maximum extraction yield were studied. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was similar to that obtained by conventional liquid extraction, but the quality of the supercritically extracted oil was higher, equivalent to

A. Molero Gómez; C. Pereyra López; E. Martinez de la Ossa

1996-01-01

323

SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF TAGITININ C FROM TITHONIA DIVERSIFOLIA: COMPARISON OF EXTRACTION YIELD AND SELECTIVITY BETWEEN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID AND CLASSICAL METHODS OF EXTRACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tagitinin C was extracted from the aerial parts of Tithonia diversifolia using supercritical carbon dioxide and was quantified by FTIR spectroscopy. The optimized supercritical fluid extraction (SFE optimized) was compared to Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (S) and to macerat ion followed by lixiviation with ether (ML). The results demonstrated that the SFE optimized is an effective and selective extraction method

E. Ziémonsa; E. Goffin; R. Lejeunea; L. Angenot; L. Thunus

324

Stabilizing Unmilled Brown Rice by Ethanol Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is drawn to a highly advantageous and unobvious process for stabilizing unmilled brown rice comprising, contacting unmilled brown rice with ethanol under conditions providing extraction of 15% or less of brown rice oil from the unmilled brow...

E. T. Champagne R. J. Hron G. Abraham

1990-01-01

325

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

1984-07-06

326

Biological Extraction and Accumulations in Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of the study was an investigation of the phenomena of biological extraction and accumulation in streams in terms of its influence on river self-purification, particularly as it related to oxygen balance.

C. J. Velz J. J. Gannon

1968-01-01

327

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature.

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

328

Pressurized liquid extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers.  

PubMed

A method has been developed for the extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE); these compounds are determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with detection by fluorescence spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry (MS). The stability of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin has been studied at different temperatures (50-200 degrees C), and several extraction variables have been assayed: solvent (methanol, ethanol, and water), different percentages of water in the methanol (0-20%) and in the ethanol (0-20%), and the number of extraction cycles. The study has evaluated the repeatability (RSD < 7%) and the reproducibility (RSD < 7%) of the method. Finally, the PLE method developed has been applied to quantify the capsaicinoids present in three varieties of hot peppers cultivated in Spain, quantifying five capsaicinoids: nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, an isomer of dihydrocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin. PMID:16637678

Barbero, Gerardo F; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

2006-05-01

329

Optimal extraction of information from two spins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the issue of extracting information from parallel and antiparallel spins, as initiated by Gisin and Popescu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 432 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.432], from the viewpoint of parameter estimation. By comparing two fundamental figures of merit based on fidelity and quantum Fisher information for assessing information quality, we demonstrate that these criteria yield different strategies for optimally extracting spin information. A surprising observation is that while for a single spin, as well as for parallel spins, quantum Fisher information cannot be fully extracted by any uniform measurement, this is not the case for antiparallel spins. A simple uniform measurement fully extracting quantum Fisher information in antiparallel spins is identified. This reveals a significant feature of antiparallel spins from the perspective of Fisher information and provides an alternative illustration of the idea that antiparallel spins carry more information than parallel spins.

Chang, Lina; Li, Nan; Luo, Shunlong; Song, Hongting

2014-04-01

330

Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and report...

M. D. McHood

2000-01-01

331

Molecular mechanism of cyclodextrin mediated cholesterol extraction.  

PubMed

The depletion of cholesterol from membranes, mediated by ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is well known and documented, but the molecular details of this process are largely unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have been able to study the CD mediated extraction of cholesterol from model membranes, in particular from a pure cholesterol monolayer, at atomic resolution. Our results show that efficient cholesterol extraction depends on the structural distribution of the CDs on the surface of the monolayer. With a suitably oriented dimer, cholesterol is extracted spontaneously on a nanosecond time scale. Additional free energy calculations reveal that the CDs have a strong affinity to bind to the membrane surface, and, by doing so, destabilize the local packing of cholesterol molecules making their extraction favorable. Our results have implications for the interpretation of experimental measurements, and may help in the rational design of efficient CD based nano-carriers. PMID:21455285

López, Cesar A; de Vries, Alex H; Marrink, Siewert J

2011-03-01

332

Measurement and Extraction of Specific Contact Resistivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a unified approach for the accurate extraction of specific contact resistivity rho(c) for ohmic contacts from measured contact resistance using the Cross Bridge Kelvin Resistor, the Contact End Resistor. Conventional 1-D models overest...

K. C., Saraswat W. M. Loh T. A. Schreyer S. E. Swirhun

1986-01-01

333

Extracting Coherent Structure from Ocean Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The central effort of this research will be to develop the appropriate theoretical structure and subsequent processing tools and then to experimentally demonstrate utility of extracting the deterministic acoustical properties of the environment from rando...

H. C. Song, K. Sabra, P. Roux, W. A. Kuperman, W. S. Hodgkiss

2005-01-01

334

Extraction of Collagen from Calcified Tissues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is disclosed for extracting collagen from calcified tissue without a prior decalcification step. The method may be used with calcified tissues such as fish skin with scales, alligator skeletons, and crustacean exoskeletons. It does not require th...

J. N. Losso, M. Ogawa, M. A. Schexnayder, R. J. Porter

2005-01-01

335

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01

336

SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY PROTOTYPE TEST  

SciTech Connect

The SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) accumulator ring Extraction System consists of a Fast kicker and a Lambertson Septum magnet. The proposed design will use 14 kicker magnets powered by an Extraction Kicker Power Supply System. They will eject the high power beam from the SNS accumulator ring into RTBT (Ring to Target Beam Tunnel) through a Lambertson Septum magnet. This paper describes some test results of the SNS Extraction Kicker power supply prototype. The high repetition rate of 60 pulse per second operation is the challenging part of the design. In the prototype testing, a 3 kA damp current of 700ns pulse-width, 200 nS rise time and 60 Hz repetition rate at 32 kV PFN operation voltage has been demonstrated. An Extraction kicker power supply system design diagram is depicted.

MI,J.L.; SANDBERG,J.; SANDERS,R.; SOUKAS,A.; ZHANG,W.

2000-06-27

337

Motion-Model-Based Boundary Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Motion boundary extraction and optical flow computation are two subproblems of the motion recovery problem that cannot be solved independently of each other. They represent the most common dilemma in motion research. A popular approach uses an iterative s...

H. Liu T. H. Hong M. Herman R. Chellappa

1995-01-01

338

ANALYSIS OF ALKYL PHOSPHATES BY EXTRACTIVE ALKYLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of suitable methods for analysis of the alkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in urine has been a rather difficult and persistent problem. Currently available methodology suffers from several shortcomings. The extraction of the compounds from ...

339

Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

2001-01-01

340

Antibacterial activities of Sesbania grandiflora extracts.  

PubMed

In this study, Sesbania grandiflora, a plant in the Leguminosae family, was investigated for its antibacterial activities. The agar well diffusion assay as well as the agar and broth dilution assays were used for determination of antibacterial activities. The crude ethanolic extracts obtained from different parts of this plant exhibited different potent activities. The stem bark has the most potential to yield an extract with the highest antibacterial action. The fractionation of the stem bark with different solvents indicated that the fractionated extracts obtained from ethyl acetate or butanol possessed the most pronounced antibacterial activity. The kinetic study of bactericidal activities revealed that the butanol fractionated extract of the stem bark was effective against Gram negative bacteria. This study suggests that the stem bark of S. grandiflora contains promising antibacterial substances for clinical purposes. PMID:22466091

Anantaworasakul, P; Klayraung, S; Okonogi, S

2011-02-01

341

Continuous Extraction during Treatment with Ultrasound.  

PubMed

A variety of constituents from plants can be extracted in an apparatus of simple design in which the plant material and fresh supplies of solvent are exposed together in an ultrasonic tank. PMID:17798188

Lott, J A; Demaggio, A E

1963-03-01

342

Comprehensive Ocean Dataset Extraction. User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual describes the installation and operation of the Beta Version of the Comprehesive Ocean Dataset Extraction (CODE) program. CODE allows quick and easy access to oceanographic and meteorological information stored in the COADS dataset. There are ...

R. Mendelssohn C. Roy

1996-01-01

343

21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.100 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive cochineal extract is the concentrated solution...

2010-04-01

344

21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.100 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive cochineal extract is the concentrated solution...

2009-04-01

345

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

346

Equipment and Technology Used in Gold Extraction in Foreign Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains descriptions of methods used for the extraction of gold such as sorption, fluid extraction, hydrochlorination, chloride sublimation, autoclave oxidation, bacterial leaching and extraction from sea water.

V. V. Lodeishchikov

1974-01-01

347

Device for Extracting Flavors and Fragrances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machine for making coffee and tea in weightless environment may prove even more valuable on Earth as general extraction apparatus. Zero-gravity beverage maker uses piston instead of gravity to move hot water and beverage from one chamber to other and dispense beverage. Machine functions like conventional coffeemaker during part of operating cycle and includes additional features that enable operation not only in zero gravity but also extraction under pressure in presence or absence of gravity.

Chang, F. R.

1986-01-01

348

Supercritical gas extraction of oil shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of supercritical gas extraction for the refining of oil shales is studied. The experiments are carried out in a 300 cc reactor with toluene as the solvent. The temperature is allowed to range from 330 to 450°C, and the pressure from 6.9 to 22.4 mPa. The extraction efficiency as a function of temperature is determined. Solubility parameters are

1983-01-01

349

Supercritical gas extraction of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The use of supercritical gas extraction for the refining of oil shales is studied. The experiments are carried out in a 300 cc reactor with toluene as the solvent. The temperature is allowed to range from 330 to 450/sup 0/C, and the pressure from 6.9 to 22.4 mPa. The extraction efficiency as a function of temperature is determined. Solubility parameters are used to predict this temperature dependence.

Compton, L.E.

1983-01-01

350

Fuzzy Pattern Rule Induction for Information Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web’s vast growth contains a great variety and quantity of on-line information. People need to have the computing\\u000a systems with the ability to process those documents to simplify the text information. One type of appropriate processing is\\u000a called Information Extraction (IE) technology. Information extraction can be regarded as one kind of classification problems\\u000a and one of the

Jing Xiao

2007-01-01

351

An optimal extraction algorithm for CCD spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal spectrum extraction procedure is described, and examples of its performance with CCD data are presented. The algorithm delivers the maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio while preserving spectrophotometric accuracy. The effects of moderate geometric distortion and of cosmic-ray hits on the spectrum are automatically accounted for. In tests with background-noise limited CCD spectra, optimal extraction offers a 70-percent gain in

K. Horne

1986-01-01

352

Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution  

DOEpatents

An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2003-01-01

353

Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.  

PubMed

Uncaria tomentosa ("Uña de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines. PMID:16569487

De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

2006-08-11

354

A Review of Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an extraction technique for enrichment of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds\\u000a from aqueous and gaseous media. After exposure to a sample, the stir bar, which is covered in a layer of a polysiloxane is\\u000a subsequently removed and the sorbed compounds are then either thermally desorbed, and analysed by GC-MS or desorbed by means\\u000a of

Fuensanta Sánchez-Rojas; Catalina Bosch-Ojeda; José Manuel Cano-Pavón

2009-01-01

355

Polymer bead containing immobilized metal extractant  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to the preparation of beads containing immobilized extractants of either biomass material, organic solvents or mixtures of biomass material and organic solvent materials. These beads are used to effectively remove metal contaminants present in low concentrations from dilute solutions, such as processing streams and waste waters. Removal of the metal values from these extractants is accomplished by using dilute mineral acids or other dilute solutions to solubilize the metal.

Seidel, D.; Jeffers, T.

1989-10-18

356

Hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula leaf extract.  

PubMed

Hepatoprotective activity of the n-heptane extract of Cassia fistula leaves was investigated by inducing hepatotoxicity with paracetamol in rats. The extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt. exhibited orally, significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The effects produced were comparable to that of a standard hepatoprotective agent. PMID:11417916

Bhakta, T; Banerjee, S; Mandal, S C; Maity, T K; Saha, B P; Pal, M

2001-05-01

357

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is an interesting process to obtain high valuable compounds and could contribute to\\u000a the increase in the value of some food by-products when used as sources of natural compounds. The main benefits will be a\\u000a more effective extraction, thus saving energy, and also the use of moderate temperatures, which is beneficial for heat-sensitive\\u000a compounds. For a successful

M. D. Esclapez; J. V. García-Pérez; A. Mulet; J. A. Cárcel

2011-01-01

358

Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation.

Barbara M. Schmidt; Nebojsa Ilic; Alexander Poulev; Ilya Raskin

2007-01-01

359

Plant extracts as modulators of genotoxic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity\\u000a of environmental genotoxicants. The property of preventing carcinogenesis has been reported in many plant extracts. The observation\\u000a of a close association between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis has extended the survey to include plant extracts and plant\\u000a products able to modify the process of

Debisri Sarkar; Archana Sharma; Geeta Talukder

1996-01-01

360

The trans-hepatic extraction of nifedipine.  

PubMed Central

1. The trans-hepatic extraction of nifedipine during steady state infusion was studied in six patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation for suspected coronary disease. 2. Mean extraction ratio across the liver was 0.64 but hepatic clearance accounted for a mean of only 65% of total body clearance. 3. These results are consistent with the liver as the major site of metabolism of nifedipine, but also suggest that significant metabolism occurs outside the liver.

Challenor, V F; Waller, D G; Renwick, A G; Gruchy, B S; George, C F

1987-01-01

361

Bootstrap method for Chinese new words extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bootstrap approach for extracting unknown words from a Chinese text corpus is proposed. Instead of using a non-iterative segmentation-detection approach, the proposed method iteratively extracts the new words and adds them into the lexicon. Then the augmented dictionary, which includes potential unknown words (in addition to known words), is used in the next iteration to re-segment the input corpus

Shan He; Jie Zhu

2001-01-01

362

Automated Metadata Extraction from Web Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of web wrapping technology in extracting metadata from web sources. This capability has been incorporated into a software tool known as Dynamic Dublin Core\\/Resource Description Framework Metadata Editor (DDC\\/RDF-Editor) which supports metadata development and management for resources in the World Wide Web. One key feature of the editor is the ability to automatically extract relevant

Nor Adnan Yahaya; Rosiza Buang

2006-01-01

363

Discriminant feature extraction based on center distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel discriminant feature extraction algorithm employing center-based distance is proposed for face recognition. This new method, which is a supervised linear dimensionality reduction and feature extraction approach, computes the center-based distance between each training sample-pairs in the same class and the distance between each training sample-pair belonging to different classes. Then the high-dimensional data are embedded

Hui Yan; Wankou Yang; Jian Yang; Jingyu Yang

2009-01-01

364

Chemical Extraction of Arsenic from Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of batch extraction experiments were conducted using a fortified soil with different extracting solutions such as inorganic acids (hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), perchloric acid (HClO4), or nitric acid (HNO3)), organic acids (acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7)) and alkaline agent (NaOH). Various concentrations were used to investigate the removal efficiency and to optimise

M. G. M. ALAM; S. TOKUNAGA

2006-01-01

365

Ultrasonication assisted lipid extraction from oleaginous microorganisms.  

PubMed

Various solvents, including water, hexane, methanol, and chloroform/methanol (1:1 v/v), were tested to identify the efficiency of lipid extraction from Trichosporon oleaginosus and an oleaginous fungal strain SKF-5 under ultrasonication (520kHz 40W and 50Hz 2800W) and compared with the conventional chloroform methanol (2:1 v/v) extraction method. The highest lipid recovery 10.2% and 9.3% with water, 43.2% and 33.2% with hexane, 75.7% and 65.1% with methanol, 100% and 100% w/w biomass with chloroform/methanol were obtained from T. oleaginosus and SKF-5 strain, respectively, at ultrasonication frequency 50Hz and power input 2800W. Ultrasonication chloroform/methanol extraction recovered total lipid in a short time (15min) and low temperature (25°C). Whereas the conventional chloroform methanol extraction to achieve total lipid recovery required 12h at 60°C. Ultrasonication chloroform/methanol extraction would be a promising method of lipid extraction from the microorganisms. PMID:24607462

Zhang, Xiaolei; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Drogui, Patrick; Surampalli, Rao Y

2014-04-01

366

Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.  

PubMed

Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 ?g/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p < 0.05) in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds. PMID:24647154

Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

2014-01-01

367

Antiradical activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae) extracts.  

PubMed

Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decorative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence of phenolic substances. We identified and quantified acteoside (1) and isoacteoside (2) in the EtOAc and n-BuOH extracts; mimulone (3) and diplacone (4) in the MeOH extract. To determine the antiradical activity of extracts we used the anti DPPH and peroxynitrite assays. The activity was expressed as Trolox C equivalents, IC50 for DPPH scavenging and a time dependency course was established. The polyphenols content was determined; results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Using these methods we found the fractions of the n-BuOH, EtOAc and MeOH extracts that display antiradical activity, which could be exploited as potential pharmaceuticals. PMID:17876290

Smejkal, Karel; Holubova, Pavla; Zima, Ales; Muselik, Jan; Dvorska, Margita

2007-01-01

368

Information extraction during simultaneous motion processing.  

PubMed

When confronted with multiple moving objects the visual system can process them in two stages: an initial stage in which a limited number of signals are processed in parallel (i.e. simultaneously) followed by a sequential stage. We previously demonstrated that during the simultaneous stage, observers could discriminate between presentations containing up to 5 vs. 6 spatially localized motion signals (Edwards & Rideaux, 2013). Here we investigate what information is actually extracted during the simultaneous stage and whether the simultaneous limit varies with the detail of information extracted. This was achieved by measuring the ability of observers to extract varied information from low detail, i.e. the number of signals presented, to high detail, i.e. the actual directions present and the direction of a specific element, during the simultaneous stage. The results indicate that the resolution of simultaneous processing varies as a function of the information which is extracted, i.e. as the information extraction becomes more detailed, from the number of moving elements to the direction of a specific element, the capacity to process multiple signals is reduced. Thus, when assigning a capacity to simultaneous motion processing, this must be qualified by designating the degree of information extraction. PMID:24333279

Rideaux, Reuben; Edwards, Mark

2014-02-01

369

Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

2009-01-01

370

[Socket healing after rat mandibular incisor extraction].  

PubMed

Prosthodontic treatment is difficult if the alveolar ridge is low or thin. To develop a method for alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, we need an experimental model of a small animal, in which we can analyze the socket healing easily and quantitatively. The purpose of the present study was to establish such an experimental model. Ten weeks old male rats of Wistar strain were used. The edge of the right mandibular incisor was cut every three days three times and the incisor was extracted at three days after the final cut. The animals were sacrificed 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after the extraction and the mandibles were dissected out. The length of the alveolar bone was measured on soft X-ray photographs and bone mineral content was measured with a dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA). Then, transverse sections of the alveolar bone were prepared. Periodic three-times cutting of the edge of the mandibular incisor made the extraction easy. Quantitative analyses of new bone formation in the socket and the resorption of the alveolar bone were possible with soft X-ray photography and DEXA. The histological findings corresponded well with the data from the soft X-ray photos and DEXA measurements. The present results demonstrated the possibility of simple and quantitative analyses of socket healing after the extraction of rat mandibular incisors. This experimental model would be useful for developing a method to prevent atrophy of the alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. PMID:15856778

Sato, Daisuke

2005-03-01

371

General well function for soil vapor extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a well function applicable to extraction of groundwater or soil vapor from a well under the most common field test conditions. The general well function (Perina and Lee, 2006) [12] is adapted to soil vapor extraction and constant head boundary at the top. For groundwater flow, the general well function now applies to an extraction well of finite diameter with uniform drawdown along the screen, finite-thickness skin, and partially penetrating an unconfined, confined, and leaky aquifer, or an aquifer underneath a reservoir. With a change of arguments, the model applies to soil vapor extraction from a vadose zone with no cover or with leaky cover at the ground surface. The extraction well can operate in specified drawdown (pressure for soil vapor) or specified flowrate mode. Frictional well loss is computed as flow-only dependent component of the drawdown inside the extraction well. In general case, the calculated flow distribution is not proportional to screen length for a multiscreen well.

Perina, Tomas

2014-04-01

372

Genotoxicity testing of a Hoodia gordonii extract.  

PubMed

Hoodia gordonii extract consists of a mixture of steroid glycosides, fatty acids, plant sterols and alcohols. As part of the overall safety assessment H. gordonii extract was assessed for genotoxicity in two assays in vitro: a bacterial mutation assay; and a gene mutation assay using mouse lymphoma cells. H. gordonii extract showed no evidence of genotoxic activity in either of these assays. In addition, H. gordonii extract was assessed for mutagenic activity in a bone marrow micronucleus (MN) assay in the mouse, with 400mg/kg selected as the high-dose group, based on observations in a dose-range-finding study. The group mean frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes of treated animals were similar to those of the vehicle control group, indicating H. gordonii extract to be non-genotoxic under the conditions of this test. All assays were performed in compliance with the Good Laboratory Practice Regulations and in accordance with standard guidelines for genotoxicity tests. H. gordonii extract was shown to be non-genotoxic in 3 independent assays (a bacterial mutation test, a gene mutation assay using mouse lymphoma cells and a bone marrow micronucleus assay in the mouse). PMID:21315789

Scott, A D; Orsi, A; Ward, C; Bradford, R

2012-01-01

373

Can extraction sites affect the profile?  

PubMed

Tooth extractions, apart from the third molars, which it seems is normal to extract today, have always given rise to controversy among orthodontists with both supporters and opponents. It is legitimate to raise the question regarding the need for extractions in our treatment plan and to opt for the first or second premolars as the extraction site, or even the first molars when the latter are decayed and the germs of the third molars are in place. Facial esthetic guides us in our treatment decisions but we must free ourselves from the so-called esthetic lines drawn up many years ago and, for the most part, on the basis of lateral headfilms and small study samples. Particular ethnic features are another major factor to be borne in mind, given that the vast majority of cephalometric standards were based on Caucasian populations. In this article, we will draw on clinical studies to illustrate the thinking behind the need for extractions and the choice of extraction sites. PMID:24508298

Barthelemi, Stéphane

2014-03-01

374

Antibacterial activity of Thymus daenensis methanolic extract.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are potential of antimicrobial compounds. The present study deals with the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Thymus daenensis. Aerial parts of the plant were collected from Alvand mountainside (Hamadan, Iran) in May 2005, air-dried and extracted by methanol. The dried extract was redissolved in methanol to make a 100 mg/ml solution and then filtered. Antibacterial activity of the extract was evaluated against various Gram-positive and Gram-negatives bacteria using disk diffusion technique. Blank paper disks were loaded with 40 microl of the methanol solution and then dried up. The impregnated disks were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar inoculated with bacterial suspension equal to 0.5 McFarland. The extract inhibited the growth Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Entrococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, but it showed no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The most significant effect was seen against S.aureus including MRSA, which are important nosocomial pathogens. MIC90 of the extract was determined against Gram-positive bacteria (3.12 mg/ml) and 11 MRSA strain (1.56 mg/ml). PMID:18614414

Mojab, Faraz; Poursaeed, Mahshid; Mehrgan, Hadi; Pakdaman, Shima

2008-07-01

375

Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.  

PubMed

Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals. PMID:19050923

Derda, Monika; Hada?, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

2009-02-01

376

Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

Gamse, T.; Marr, R. [Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Graz (Austria); Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M. [VTU, Graz (Austria)

1997-01-01

377

Near-critical extraction of sage, celery, and coriander seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-critical extraction of coriander seed, Dalmatian sage, and celery was performed on a pilot-scale extraction apparatus. Sage and celery were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide to obtain oleoresins. Coriander seed was extracted at 250 bar and 40°C. Coriander extract was fractionated into triglycerides and essential oils by using two separation stages at different pressures. Extractions were carried out using a

Bruce M. Smallfield; J GREY

1996-01-01

378

Antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonically assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction using 95% ethanol were performed to obtain ultrasonically assisted\\u000a extract of Agrimonia pilosa (UEA) and Soxhlet extract of Agrimonia pilosa (SEA). The effects of the different extracting methods on the total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) content of the\\u000a extracts from Agrimonia pilosa were investigated. The findings showed that UEA contained higher TP

Chunhuan He; Xiaowen Ji; Yingming Pan; Hengshan Wang; Kai Wang; Min Liang; Lizhu Yang

2010-01-01

379

Microwave-assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Grape Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave-assisted extraction technique was developed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from grape seeds. The microwave power (300-150W) and time of extraction (20-200s) were varied during the optimization process. The polyphenol content of the resulting extracts were measured as mg of tannic acid equivalent per gram of crude extract (mg TAE\\/g of crude extract), using a Folin-Ciocalteau reagent.

Ni Hong; Varoujan A. Yaylayan; G. S. Vijaya Raghavan; J. R. Jocelyn Paré; Jacqueline M. R. Bélanger

2001-01-01

380

Effect of chaotropes on lipase back extraction recovery in the process of reverse micellar extraction.  

PubMed

Chaotropes could significantly enhance lipase activity recovery in reverse micellar back extraction. However, the mechanism of chaotropes promoting the release of enzyme from reverse micelles was not clear. In this study, chaotropes were added in the process of lipase reverse micellar extraction, and back extraction recovery was improved. In back extraction, at 0.6 M urea in stripping solution, 94.60% total extraction recovery was obtained. Meanwhile at 0.3 M guanidine hydrochloride, nearly 65% lipases were released into the stripping solution. DLS and Karl Fischer method results showed that the presence of urea in stripping solution could weaken the electrostatic interaction between lipase and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide molecules, promoting lipase release from reverse micelles, and guanidine hydrochloride could stimulate lipase and free water molecules enwrapped in reverse micelle release into the stripping solution. These experimental results provide a clue for understanding the mechanism of chaotropes influencing on protein recovery in reverse micelle back extraction. PMID:24519627

Yu, Tingting; Cao, Xuejun

2014-03-01

381

Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

Blank, A.B.

1985-09-01

382

Effect of extraction pH on metal speciation in plant root extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species patterns of nutrient and trace metals (K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn) obtained by extraction of plant roots have been determined as a function of extraction pH in the range 4-9. The extractable metal concentrations were subdivided into low-molecular-weight (10 kDa) metal species by TXRF analysis. Except for pH 9, the low-molecular-weight fraction is predominant. This fraction was

G. Weber; J. Messerschmidt; A. von Bohlen; F. Alt

2001-01-01

383

Comparison of Supercritical Fluid and Hexane Extraction Methods in Extracting Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus ) Seed Oil Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate and compare fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols of kenaf seed oil extracted\\u000a by supercritical carbon dioxide and traditional solvent methods. Fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols were determined in the\\u000a extracted oils as functions of the pressure (400 bar, 600 bar), temperature (40 °C, 80 °C) and CO2 flow rate (25 g\\/min) using a 1-L extraction vessel. Gas

Abdalbasit Adam Mariod; Bertrand Matthäus; Maznah Ismail

2011-01-01

384

Factors affecting oil extraction\\/water adsorption in sequential extraction processing of corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequential extraction process (SEP) uses ethanol to extract oil and protein from cracked, flaked, and dried corn, and\\u000a the dried corn simultaneously dehydrates the ethanol. Value-added co-products are possible, potentially making production\\u000a of fuel ethanol more economical. The effects of solvent-to-corn (S\\/C) ratio, corn moisture content (MC), and number of extraction\\u000a stages on ethanol drying, oil recovery, and protein

Mila P. Hojilla-Evangelista; Lawrence A. Johnson

2002-01-01

385

Intensified extraction of ionized natural products by ion pair centrifugal partition extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) combined with the ion-pair (IP) extraction mode to simultaneously extract and purify natural ionized saponins from licorice is presented in this work. The design of the instrument, a new laboratory-scale Fast Centrifugal Partition Extractor (FCPE300®), has evolved from centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) columns, but with less cells of larger volume. Some hydrodynamic characteristics

Mahmoud Hamzaoui; Jane Hubert; Jamila Hadj-Salem; Bernard Richard; Dominique Harakat; Luc Marchal; Alain Foucault; Catherine Lavaud; Jean-Hugues Renault

2011-01-01

386

Extraction conditions affecting supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of lycopene from watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycopene, a carotenoid linked to protection against certain forms of cancer, is found in produce such as papaya, red-fleshed tomatoes, grapefruit and watermelon. The preparation of a supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) watermelon–lycopene extract could serve as a food grade source of this carotenoid. This study established preliminary conditions for enhancing SC-CO2 extraction of lycopene from watermelon. Freeze-dried watermelon was extracted with

L. S. Vaughn Katherine; C. Clausen Edgar; W. King Jerry; R. Howard Luke; Carrier Danielle Julie

2008-01-01

387

Evaluation of vacuum microwave-assisted extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from plant samples.  

PubMed

In the present work, vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) was to perform microwave-assisted extraction in vacuum. Two well-known antioxidants, vitamin C from guava and green pepper, and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) from soybean and tea leaves, which were easy to be oxidized, were chosen as representative target compounds for the evaluation of VMAE. The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE and those in MAE performed in atmosphere (air-MAE) were compared and the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature and sample matrix were studied. Moreover, the effects of the oxygen and subpressure invacuo were also discussed via performed MAE in N(2) atmosphere (N(2)-MAE). The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE were higher than that in air-MAE, 35% increments of vitamin C from green pepper, 22% increments of alpha-tocopherol and 47% increments of gamma-tocopherol from tea leaves were obtained, respectively. The comparable increased extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in N(2)-MAE to that in air-MAE confirmed that oxygen in system was the crucial factor for the oxidation of vitamin C and vitamin E, VMAE was beneficial for the extraction of these oxygen-sensitive compounds. In addition, the subpressure invacuo in the VMAE system also showed positive affect on the extraction yields. On the basis of preventing oxidation and improving extraction efficiency of target compounds because of less oxygen and subpressure invacuo in the extraction system, VMAE has good potential for the extraction of oxygen-sensitive and thermosensitive compounds from plant samples. PMID:19922940

Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jia-Yue; Li, Gong-Ke

2009-12-18

388

Co-extraction during reactive extraction of phenylalanine using Aliquat 336: interfacial mass transfer.  

PubMed

Reactive liquid-liquid extraction can be used to separate hydrophilic fermentation products that would not otherwise partition into nonpolar solvents. However, during extraction of the target solute other compounds present in the extraction medium will also react with the ion exchange reagent and are thus co-extracted. In this study the effect of co-extraction on the interfacial flux of the target solute phenylalanine has been investigated for reactive extraction using Aliquat 336. The effect of co-extracting compounds has been included in a new interfacial flux balance, and experimental results reveal that the interfacial concentrations are equal to the final equilibrium conditions of the system. Using this information a simple mass transfer model has been developed from which film mass transfer coefficients may be determined. Co-extraction of other compounds present in the feed was found to reduce the interfacial flux of the target solute by reducing the driving force. Co-extraction did not affect the value of the film mass transfer coefficient, and therefore, co-extraction does not effect the transport properties of the solute to the interface. Extraction from a multicomponent fermentation broth resulted in a reduced flux, which arises from a reduction in the driving force caused by high levels of co-extraction. Furthermore, the flux was also reduced as the result of a mass transfer resistance caused by soluble surface-active compounds present in the fermentation broth adsorbing to the interface. The biomass associated with the fermentation broth was also found to reduce the solute flux, and it is believed that this is due to blockage of the interfacial area. PMID:12675589

Pursell, Mark R; Mendes-Tatsis, M Alcina; Stuckey, David C

2003-01-01

389

Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC\\/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with

Irena Atanassova; Stefan H. Doerr

2010-01-01

390

Coextraction during reactive extraction of phenylalanine using Aliquat 336: modeling extraction equilibrium.  

PubMed

Reactive liquid-liquid extraction can be used to recover hydrophilic fermentation products that would not otherwise partition into nonpolar solvents through an ion-exchange reaction at the two-phase interface. However, the ion-exchange reagent may not be specific to the solute of interest and other compounds present may also be extracted. In this study, the effect on solute extraction of other compounds present in the extraction medium was investigated for phenylalanine extraction using Aliquat 336. The extent of extraction at equilibrium was modeled using the equilibrium constants for the reactions present in the process. The interaction of different species within a multicomponent medium was examined using the model and experimental results. It was found that the extent of extraction and coextraction is controlled by the thermodynamics of each extraction reaction and, due to the formation of a common product, the interaction between each of the reactions. The main competition to reactive extraction will come from hydrophobic anionic compounds that will be present in fermentation broth. PMID:12652477

Pursell, Mark R; Mendes-Tatsis, M Alcina; Stuckey, David C

2003-06-01

391

BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE SNS RING AND DESIGN OF EXTRACTION KICKERS.  

SciTech Connect

The accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [1] will accumulate a proton beam, injected from a LINAC, into a single bunch containing {approximately} 2.1 x 10{sup 14} protons at a maximum energy of 1.3 GeV. The single bunch with length {approximately}650 nsec and a gap of {approximately}290 nsec will circulate into the accumulator ring for {approximately}1.0 msec before it is extracted into the RTBT transfer line. The accumulation, extraction frequency is set at 60 Hz. This paper discusses the extraction process and the requirements of the fast beam extraction system.

TSOUPAS, N.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; LEE, Y.Y.; MI, J.L.; SOUKAS, A.; WANG, J.G.; WEI, J.; ZHANG, S.Y.

2000-06-30

392

Extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membranes using TOPO as extractant.  

PubMed

Experimental results for the extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) using trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as extractant are presented. The membrane phase consists of kerosene as diluent, TOPO as extractant, ECA 4360J (a nonionic polyamine) as surfactant and (NH(4))(2)CO(3) solution as stripping phase. Effects of various parameters such as mixing speed, type and concentration of stripping solution, surfactant and extractant concentrations, and volume ratio of the membrane phase to internal stripping phase on Cr (VI) extraction were studied and optimum conditions were determined. Results show that with proper adjustment of experimental conditions for the extraction of Cr (VI) can be enhanced to a great extent. This study also examined the effects of concentrations of acid and metal ions in the feed phase for the extraction of Cr (VI) ions. The results also showed that by appropriate selection of the extraction and stability conditions, nearly all of the Cr (VI) ions (100-500 mg/L) present in the acidic feed solution containing 1000 mg/L from each of Cu (II), Zn (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cd (II) ions were extracted within a few minutes. Concentration variations of Cr (VI) and other ions in the acidic solutions were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:19250744

Ali Kumbasar, Recep

2009-08-15

393

Review of third phase formation in extraction of actinides by neutral organophosphorus extractants  

SciTech Connect

Data are reviewed on the information of third phase in the extraction of actinide(IV,VI) nitrates by neutral organophosphorus extractants, mainly tributyl phosphate. The data are critically evaluated and the effect of variables on the third phase formation is discussed. The variables are the concentrations of nitric acid and the extractant, temperature, the nature of diluent, addition of modifiers and the ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Also discussed are systems involving two extracted actinide ions. 42 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Rao, P.R.V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Kolarik, Z. [Inst. of Nuclear Waste Management, Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-11-01

394

Empirical Evaluation of Bone Extraction Protocols  

PubMed Central

The application of high-resolution analytical techniques to characterize ancient bone proteins requires clean, efficient extraction to obtain high quality data. Here, we evaluated many different protocols from the literature on ostrich cortical bone and moa cortical bone to evaluate their yield and relative purity using the identification of antibody-antigen complexes on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis. Moa bone provided an ancient comparison for the effectiveness of bone extraction protocols tested on ostrich bone. For the immunological part of this study, we focused on collagen I, osteocalcin, and hemoglobin because collagen and osteocalcin are the most abundant proteins in the mineralized extracellular matrix and hemoglobin is common in the vasculature. Most of these procedures demineralize the bone first, and then the remaining organics are chemically extracted. We found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed. In contrast, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in smearing upon electrophoretic separation, possibly indicating these samples were not as pure. The denaturing agents sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and guanidine HCl have been used extensively for the solubilization of proteins in non-biomineralized tissue, but only the latter has been used on bone. We show that all three denaturing agents are effective for extracting bone proteins. One additional method tested uses ammonium bicarbonate as a solubilizing buffer that is more appropriate for post-extraction analyses (e.g., proteomics) by removing the need for desalting. We found that both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. With the increasing use of proteomics, a new generation of scientists are now interested in the study of proteins from not only extant bone but also from ancient bone.

Cleland, Timothy P.; Voegele, Kristyn; Schweitzer, Mary H.

2012-01-01

395

Simple, miniaturized blood plasma extraction method.  

PubMed

A rapid plasma extraction technology that collects a 2.5 ?L aliquot of plasma within three minutes from a finger-stick derived drop of blood was evaluated. The utility of the plasma extraction cards used was that a paper collection disc bearing plasma was produced that could be air-dried in fifteen minutes and placed in a mailing envelop for transport to an analytical laboratory. This circumvents the need for venipuncture and blood collection in specialized vials by a phlebotomist along with centrifugation and refrigerated storage. Plasma extraction was achieved by applying a blood drop to a membrane stack through which plasma was drawn by capillary action. During the course of plasma migration to a collection disc at the bottom of the membrane stack blood cells were removed by a combination of adsorption and filtration. After the collection disc filled with an aliquot of plasma the upper membranes were stripped from the collection card and the collection disc was air-dried. Intercard differences in the volume of plasma collected varied approximately 1% while volume variations of less than 2% were seen with hematocrit levels ranging from 20% to 71%. Dried samples bearing metabolites and proteins were then extracted from the disc and analyzed. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D was quantified by LC-MS/MS analysis following derivatization with a secosteroid signal enhancing tag that imparted a permanent positive charge to the vitamin and reduced the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 1 pg of collected vitamin on the disc; comparable to values observed with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a venipuncture sample. A similar study using conventional proteomics methods and spectral counting for quantification was conducted with yeast enolase added to serum as an internal standard. The LOQ with extracted serum samples for enolase was 1 ?M, linear from 1 to 40 ?M, the highest concentration examined. In all respects protein quantification with extracted serum samples was comparable to that observed with serum samples obtained by venipuncture. PMID:24156552

Kim, Jin-Hee; Woenker, Timothy; Adamec, Jiri; Regnier, Fred E

2013-12-01

396

Extraction optimization of carbohydrate compound from Huangqi using orthogonal design.  

PubMed

The effect of extraction time, extraction temperature and time on the yield of Huangqi carbohydrate compound (HQCC) was investigated using single factor and orthogonal experiment design. The influence by the parameters on the extraction yields of carbohydrate compound decreased in the order of: C (extraction number)>A (extraction time)>B (extraction temperature) according to the R values. Based on this analysis, and considering the carbohydrate compound extraction efficiency, the cost of energy and the feasibility of experiment, the optimum conditions of extraction were therefore determined as follows: extraction time 120min, extraction temperature 80°C, and extraction number 4. Oral administration of HQCC reduced lipid peroxidation level and enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities in gastric mucosa. In addition, HQCC reduced the serum IL-8 and TNF-? levels. In conclusion, these data reveal that HQCC promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antioxidative mechanism. PMID:23541555

Zhou, Shen-kang; Bi, Tie-Nan; Xu, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Rui-Li; Yang, Mei-Juan

2013-07-01

397

Feature Extraction Based on Decision Boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a novel approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. We note that feature extraction is equivalent to retaining informative features or eliminating redundant features; thus, the terms 'discriminantly information feature' and 'discriminantly redundant feature' are first defined relative to feature extraction for classification. Next, it is shown how discriminantly redundant features and discriminantly informative features are related to decision boundaries. A novel characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that usually only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is therefore introduced. Next, a procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary is proposed. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: (1) It predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and (2) it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal class means or equal class covariances as some previous algorithms do. Experiments show that the performance of the proposed algorithm compares favorably with those of previous algorithms.

Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

1993-01-01

398

Maintaining perspective on third molar extraction.  

PubMed

Third molar extraction is one of the most common oral surgeries performed on Canadian patients, particularly young adults. Vigorous debate persists about the risks of retention of asymptomatic impacted third molars, compared to extraction. The controversy centres on whether medical necessity justifies the cost of third molar extraction for the patient in terms of substantial pain and potential loss of income during recovery and for the federal or provincial health care systems, which may be billed for a portion of the surgical fees. Several research studies initiated by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) report new associations between oral disease and asymptomatic impacted third molars. These findings merit careful attention because they are being used by the AAOMS to advocate for prophylactic third molar extraction-an approach that contradicts the conclusions of a Canadian health technology report, American Public Health Association policy, and health technology reports from Sweden, Belgium and the UK. The decision to extract third molars seems most effective when made on a case-by-case basis that is tailored to each patient's health status and access to professional oral health care. PMID:24309037

Boughner, Julia C

2013-09-01

399

Natural resource extraction and exploration under uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

There are at least two reasons why the market for natural resources may differ from that of a standard commodity in a perfectly competitive economy. First, natural resources are nonrenewable: extracting a barrel of oil today leaves one less barrel for future generations. Second, the global endowment of resources - the size, quality and location of resource deposits - is for most part unknown. In this dissertation, a model is presented that captures these two aspects of natural resources, but does so in a manner somewhat different from the standard literature. The resource is viewed as inexhaustible, but occurring in a continuum of grades. Having spelled out this two-period, stochastic dynamic optimization model, it is used to answer three questions: (1) if extraction today places a burden on future users, what is the social cost of extracting a nonrenewable resource and how may it be estimated; (2) how does risky exploration affect the optimal strategies of resource firms; since extraction depletes reserves while exploration augments them, the uncertainty can affect both the extractive and exploratory decisions; and (3) the normative question, does exploratory risk cause the competitive equilibrium to diverge from the social optimum.

Devarajan, S.

1981-01-01

400

Influence of extraction parameters on the phytochemical characteristics of extracts from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) herb.  

PubMed

In recent years, the interest in herbal medicinal products, especially in the field of dermatology and cosmetics, has risen enormously. Many plant-derived substances show photoprotective properties in terms of absorption of UV radiation and preventing photodamage to molecular structures of human skin. Modern phytopharmaceutics as well as phytocosmetics require standardized, defined extracts from the herbal matrix. Buckwheat herb is rich in flavonoids, which have been identified as potent antioxidants. Up to now, there have been no systematic investigations available concerning the extraction conditions for phenolic substances from buckwheat herb. In this paper, we report the influence of three extraction parameters, ethanol concentration, temperature, and extraction time, on the response variables extractable matter, antioxidant activity, and content of fagopyrin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid. Our results suggest that an extract with good antioxidant activity, a high content of phenolics, and a low content of the phototoxic fagopyrin can be yielded by agitated maceration with 30% ethanol at 60 degrees C for 2 h. Furthermore, there is good correlation between the antioxidant activity and the rutin content, whereas the extractable matter is not an appropriate parameter for extract quality. Huge differences in the content of rutin and chlorogenic acid when using herbal drugs from different suppliers confirm the demand of standardized procedures for the production of herbal drugs. PMID:15631500

Hinneburg, Iris; Neubert, Reinhard H H

2005-01-12

401

Investigation of Sequential Chemical Extraction of Arsenic from Sediments: Variations in Sample Treatment and Extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP) is a very useful technique as an indirect measurement for arsenic (As) fractionation in soils and sediments. However, SCEP can produce variations in results due to sample conditions, types of samples, and extracting reagents used. Therefore, this study has evaluated the SCEP for determination of As in subsurface sediments using different sample treatments and

Hossain M. Anawar; Martin Mihaljevi?; A. Garcia-Sanchez; Junji Akai; A. Moyano

2010-01-01

402

Mathematical modeling of supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining extracts from vetiver root  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical modeling study for extraction of oil from vetiver root using supercritical carbon dioxide was performed in this study. Mass transfer is based on local equilibrium between solvent and solid. The equilibrium constant between solid and solvent was determined by fitting theoretical extraction yield with experimental constant velocity data. The model was solved numerically. Model estimation was validated with constant

M. A. A. Melreles; G. Zahedi; T. Hatami

2009-01-01

403

New approach for extraction of charantin from Momordica charantia with pressurized liquid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of anti-diabetic compound, charantin, from fruits of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) was proposed using ethyl alcohol. This is a more benign alternative for conventional Soxhlet extraction with chloroform or dichloromethane. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of several factors of PLE including type of solvent (acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, and water), solvent composition (0–100% ethanol in

Jesada Pitipanapong; Sutawadee Chitprasert; Motonobu Goto; Weena Jiratchariyakul; Mitsuru Sasaki; Artiwan Shotipruk

2007-01-01

404

Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890

Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

2009-01-01

405

Rapid estimation of the manufacturing cost of extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the scientific knowledge and the large availability of raw materials having sufficient quality and cost, there is no industrial supercritical fluid extraction unit in any of the South American countries. Supercritical fluid extraction is associated with high investment costs; nowadays, an easy method for technical–economical evaluation of supercritical fluid process is not available. Thus, a simple method

Paulo T. V. Rosa; M. Angela A. Meireles

2005-01-01

406

A geometric interpretation of the feasibility of reactive extraction/re-extraction of penicillin G.  

PubMed

The reactive extraction (re-extraction) of penicillin G from reaction mixtures is based on complexation with a carrier and subsequent dissociation of the complex. An established mathematical model for this has been analysed to develop a feasibility domain within which the process may be designed and optimised. Geometric and physical interpretations of this domain are provided. PMID:1367949

Patnaik, P R

1992-03-01

407

Salt Content Determination for Bentonite Mine Spoil: Saturation Extracts Versus 1:5 Extracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reliability of estimating salt content in saturated extracts from 1:5 (1spoil:5water) extract levels for bentonite mine spoil was examined by regression analyses. Nine chemical variables were examined that included pH, EC, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, HCO(sub...

M. E. Voorhees D. W. Uresk

2004-01-01

408

SUPERCRITICAL CO2, HYDRODISTILLATION EXTRACTIONS OF SALVIA OFFICINALIS L. INFLUENCE OF EXTRACTION PROCESS ON ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a perennial woody shrub, cultivated in the Mediterranean countries, mainly to obtain dried leaves used as raw material in medicine, perfumery and food industry. The aim of this paper is to compare the antioxidant properties and the chemical composition of essentials oils obtain by two extraction process: the hydrodistillation and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

S. FELLAH; P. N. DIOUF; M. PETRISSANS; D. BARTH; M. ROMDHANE; D. PERRIN; M. ABDERRABBA

409

Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.  

PubMed

The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

2011-05-01

410

Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction  

PubMed Central

Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged.

Dejoye, Celine; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

2011-01-01

411

Extraction and Separation of Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with Chitosan as Extractant  

PubMed Central

Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution?:?sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4?mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30?:?1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6?h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan.

Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Qin, Yukun; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

2013-01-01

412

Enzymatic improvement in the polyphenol extractability and antioxidant activity of green tea extracts.  

PubMed

This study describes increases in extraction efficiency and the bioconversion of catechins after treatment with several commercial enzymes. Tannase was also used to improve the anti-radical activities of green tea extracts. Enzymatic treatment with various commercial enzymes was introduced to improve the extraction efficiency of polyphenols. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and catechin contents and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the green tea extract treated with Viscozyme (VG) were significantly higher than those treated with other commercial enzymatic extractions (p<0.05). More than 95% of the epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and of the epicatechingallate (ECG) was hydrolyzed to epigallocatechin (EGC) and to epicatechin (EC) in successive 20 min treatments with Viscozyme and tannase (TG). Due to its hydrolytic activity, treatment involving tannase resulted in a significant release of gallic acid (GA), EGC, and EC, leading to greater radical scavenging activities. Regarding the IC(50) values of the DPPH and 2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, the green tea extract treated with TG showed values of 131.23 and 28.83 µg/mL, VG showed values of 224.70 and 32.54 µg/mL, and normal green tea extract (NG) showed values of 241.11 and 66.27 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that successive treatment with Viscozyme and tannase improves the extraction efficiency of polyphenols and increases radical scavenging activities. PMID:23291774

Hong, Yang-Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Park, Yooheon; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Tae Young; Yu, Kwang-Won; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

2013-01-01

413

Combined extraction processes of lipid from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae: microwave prior to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

PubMed

Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO(2)) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO(2)). Work performed with pressure range of 20-28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40-70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO(2) allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO(2) extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO(2) extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO(2) extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO(2), microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

2011-01-01

414

Automatic Extraction of Planetary Image Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the launch of several Lunar missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Chandrayaan-1, a large amount of Lunar images will be acquired and will need to be analyzed. Although many automatic feature extraction methods have been proposed and utilized for Earth remote sensing images, these methods are not always applicable to Lunar data that often present low contrast and uneven illumination characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new method for the extraction of Lunar features (that can be generalized to other planetary images), based on the combination of several image processing techniques, a watershed segmentation and the generalized Hough Transform. This feature extraction has many applications, among which image registration.

Troglio, G.; LeMoigne, J.; Moser, G.; Serpico, S. B.; Benediktsson, J. A.

2009-01-01

415

Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

2006-06-07

416

Methods of extracting hydrogen from lunar soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing interest in establishing a lunar base has generated considerable study on the utilization of lunar resources. Because of its importance in producing water, reducing oxides, and serving as a fuel for orbital tranfer vehicles, hydrogen is of prime importance as a resource. Lowman (1985) states that hydrogen would greatly facilitate the establishment of an autonomous permanent colony, and he calls hydrogen the most valuable lunar resource. Through the centuries, hydrogen has been embedded in lunar soil by the solar wind. The hydrogen can be extracted by heating the soil to 900 C (Carr et al, 1987). In order to obtain hydrogen on the lunar surface, an extraction method must be developed which will not only be reliable but also economically feasible. Three heating methods are examined for possible use in extracting hydrogen from lunar soil.

Bustin, Roberta

1988-10-01

417

Soil vapor extraction enhanced by oscillatory flow  

SciTech Connect

The rate of contaminant removal by soil vapor extraction becomes low when diffusion limits the transfer of vapor from the soil to the channels in the soil where air preferentially flows. This paper suggests that adding an oscillatory component to the pressure and velocity of the subsurface air may increase the transport to the channels of flow, and thereby increase the rate of extraction, when the diffusion limit occurs. Three physical mechanisms by which oscillatory flow may increase the transport are described. Algebraic expressions and numerical estimates are given for the penetration of oscillatory pressure into various soils. Exploratory experiments with a laboratory soil column indicate enhanced extraction when an oscillatory component is superimposed upon nonequilibrium steady flow. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Neeper, D.A.

1991-01-01

418

Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

2010-11-16

419

Extraction and identification of flavonoids from parsley extracts by HPLC analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flavonoids are phenolic compounds isolated from a wide variety of plants, and are valuable for their multiple properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In the present work, parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) extracts were obtained by three different extraction techniques: maceration, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted solvent extractions. The extractions were performed with ethanol-water mixtures in various ratios. From these extracts, flavonoids like the flavones apigenin and luteolin, and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol were identified using an HPLC Shimadzu apparatus equipped with PDA and MS detectors. The separation method involved a gradient step. The mobile phase consisted of two solvents: acetonitrile and distilled water with 0.1% formic acid. The separation was performed on a RP-C18 column.

Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.

2012-02-01

420

H- ion beam extraction from a transformer coupled plasma source with triode extraction system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous-mode H- ion source has been developed in SNU by using rf transformer coupled plasma source for long lifetime. Recently, its plasma confinement has been improved by modifying the main cusp magnet system that covers rf antenna and plasma electrode regions. The extraction system has also been upgraded to triode extraction system, where permanent magnets in dipole configuration are embedded in extraction electrode to provide additional magnetic field for filtering out fast electrons. Electrode shape, extraction hole size, and gap distance are optimized for high beam currents with low emittance by using PBGUNS code. With new configuration, H- beam currents of up to 1.67 mA with 1.7 kW, 13.56 MHz rf power are extracted in a continuous mode. Low e/H- ratios down to 8 are achieved by increasing total filtering field strength up to 190 G.

Jeong, H. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Hong, I. S.; Park, D. H.; Hwang, Y. S.

2006-03-01

421

Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.  

PubMed

2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid. PMID:19382334

Tewfik, Ihab

2008-01-01

422

Extraction of acids with DI-(2,4-diethyloctyl) amine  

SciTech Connect

The authors explain how being bases, amines extract acids by neutralization with the formation of the corresponding salts. This investigation describes a study of the extraction of mineral acids, and the measurement of the extraction constants. The extractant used was di-(2,4-diethyloctyl) amine, which is a secondary amine with a branched radical at the nitrogen atom.

Ul'yanov, V.S.; Sidorova, O.P.; Sokal'skaya, L.I.; Sviridova, R.A.; Tarasova, N.A.

1986-03-01

423

Extraction of safflower seed oil by supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safflower seed oil extraction with supercritical CO2 at series operational parameters of pressure, temperature, flow rate and particle size was investigated in a bench scale apparatus. The results show that the extraction yields plotted as a function of time are significantly affected by the extraction pressure, flow rate and particle size, but extraction yields plotted versus CO2 used are scarcely

Xiaojin Han; Leming Cheng; Rong Zhang; Jicheng Bi

2009-01-01

424

Extraction and characterization of antioxidant from cocoa by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidative properties of extracts from six types of cocoa by-products have been studied. Seven different solvents differing in polarity were used to extract the antioxidants from cocoa by-products. Out of 42 different extracts tested, twelve extracts from cocoa powder, natural cocoa powder, cocoa nib and cocoa shell exhibited strong antioxidant activities using a diene conjugation formation method. The characterization studies

A. H Azizah; N. M Nik Ruslawati; T Swee Tee

1999-01-01

425

SOLID\\/LIQUID EXTRACTION OF ZINC FROM EAF-DUST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid\\/liquid extraction of nonferrous heavy metals was investigated. This process may be of technical importance in the upgrading of dust from steel mills and from electrical arc furnaces (EAF-dust). Extraction was carried out with aqueous acetic acid. Objectives of the project were the evaluation of partition data and the investigation of extraction kinetics. The extraction efficiency of the substances

T. Hilber; R. Marr; M. Siebenhofer; W. Zapfel

2001-01-01

426

Studies on aphicidal efficiency of different stinging nettle extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undiluted cold water extract of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) with an extraction time of 24 h, a fermenting extract of the same plant with an extraction time of 6 days were tested against the aphids of plum (Prunus domestica), red currant (Ribes rubrum) and spiraea (Spiraea vanhuottei) in the field. The efficiency of the preparations was calculated according to the

A. Bozsik

1996-01-01

427

Solvent extraction of rhenium from molybdenum in alkaline solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of selective extraction of rhenium from alkaline solutions containing rhenium and molybdenum by solvent extraction using a mixture of tributyl phosphate and triotylamine as extractant has been investigated, complete separation of rhenium from alkaline solutions containing rhenium and molybdenum was possible after repeated extraction and repeated stripping. The results show that the mixture of 20% triotylamine and 30%

Cao Zhan-fang; Zhong Hong; Qiu Zhao-hui

2009-01-01

428

Automated parameter extraction software for advanced IGBT modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A software package for extracting parameters to be used in advanced IGBT models is presented. In addition, new model equations and extraction procedures are introduced that more accurately describe a wide range of IGBT types including the Warp-Speed IGBTs. The parameter extraction software package consists of five programs that extract the 20 physical and structural parameters needed in the most

S. Bouche

2000-01-01

429

Extraction of ginger flavor with liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginger flavor, containing both aromatic and pungent components, was extracted by high pressure carbon dioxide from the rhizome of dried ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). However, the effects of extraction conditions on yield and quality of the ginger flavor have not yet been elucidated. In this study, the extract yield and the composition of the extract were studied using a semi-batch

Chiaki Yokoyama; H HINATA; R YOSHIDA; Y SHIMIZU

1995-01-01

430

Pressurised liquid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability and efficiency of the pressurised liquid extraction technique (PLE) for extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil has been investigated. Experimental design was used to study the influence of seven extraction variables (sample load, solvents used, solvent ratios, pressure, temperature, extraction time, and rinse volume). The results show that large sample loads in combination with small solvent

Staffan Lundstedt; Bert van Bavel; Peter Haglund; Mats Tysklind; Lars Öberg

2000-01-01

431

Extraction parameters in the mutagenicity assay of soil samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at investigating parameters of chemical extraction associated with the detection of mutagenicity in soil samples extracts. In order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of inorganic mutagens, besides the chemical analysis of metals, the Salmonella\\/microsome assay was performed in the preincubation and microsuspension procedures, using two solvents, and using two extraction methodologies. The efficiency of two organic compound

Flavio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Júnior; Jocelita Aparecida Vaz Rocha; Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

2009-01-01

432

Antidiabetic properties of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of securinega virosa leaves on blood levels of streptozocin-induced diabetes rats. Three doses of the extract (100, 300 and 600 mg\\/kg) were administered intraperitoneally. After 2 h of extract administration there was no significant change in the blood glucose levels in all the three doses of the extract.

Y. Tanko; M. A. Okasha; G. M. Magaji; M. Yerima; A. H. Yaro; M. I. A. Saleh

433

Blind extraction of chaotic signal from an instantaneous linear mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the problem of blind extraction of a chaotic signal from an instantaneous linear mixture. Determination of the desired extracting vector is formulated as an optimization problem, in which the knowledge of the dynamics of the chaotic signal to be extracted is exploited. A noisy chaotic signal is first extracted and a noise reduction technique is

Bao-Yun Wang; Wei Xing Zheng

2006-01-01

434

Extracting laboratory test information from biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background: No previous study reported the efficacy of current natural language processing (NLP) methods for extracting laboratory test information from narrative documents. This study investigates the pathology informatics question of how accurately such information can be extracted from text with the current tools and techniques, especially machine learning and symbolic NLP methods. The study data came from a text corpus maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, containing a rich set of information on laboratory tests and test devices. Methods: The authors developed a symbolic information extraction (SIE) system to extract device and test specific information about four types of laboratory test entities: Specimens, analytes, units of measures and detection limits. They compared the performance of SIE and three prominent machine learning based NLP systems, LingPipe, GATE and BANNER, each implementing a distinct supervised machine learning method, hidden Markov models, support vector machines and conditional random fields, respectively. Results: Machine learning systems recognized laboratory test entities with moderately high recall, but low precision rates. Their recall rates were relatively higher when the number of distinct entity values (e.g., the spectrum of specimens) was very limited or when lexical morphology of the entity was distinctive (as in units of measures), yet SIE outperformed them with statistically significant margins on extracting specimen, analyte and detection limit information in both precision and F-measure. Its high recall performance was statistically significant on analyte information extraction. Conclusions: Despite its shortcomings against machine learning methods, a well-tailored symbolic system may better discern relevancy among a pile of information of the same type and may outperform a machine learning system by tapping into lexically non-local contextual information such as the document structure.

Kang, Yanna Shen; Kayaalp, Mehmet

2013-01-01

435

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for the 6-Shogaol-rich Extract from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)  

PubMed Central

6-Shogaol, a dehydrated form of 6-gingerol, is a minor component in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and has recently been reported to have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol. Based on the thermal instability of gingerols (their dehydration to corresponding shogaols at high temperature), we aimed to develop an optimal process to maximize the 6-shogaol content during ginger extraction by modulating temperature and pH. Fresh gingers were dried under various conditions: freeze-, room temperature (RT)- or convection oven-drying at 60 or 80°C, and extracted by 95% ethanol at RT, 60 or 80°C. The content of 6-shogaol was augmented by increasing both drying and extraction temperatures. The highest production of 6-shogaol was achieved at 80°C extraction after drying at the same temperature and the content of 6-shogaol was about 7-fold compared to the lowest producing process by freezing and extraction at RT. Adjustment of pH (pH 1, 4, 7 and 10) for the 6-shogaol-richest extract (dried and extracted both at 80°C) also affected the chemical composition of ginger and the yield of 6-shogaol was maximized at the most acidic condition of pH 1. Taken together, the current study shows for the first time that a maximized production of 6-shogaol can be achieved during practical drying and extraction process of ginger by increasing both drying and extracting temperatures. Adjustment of pH to extraction solvent with strong acid also helps increase the production of 6-shogaol. Our data could be usefully employed in the fields of food processing as well as nutraceutical industry.

Ok, Seon; Jeong, Woo-Sik

2012-01-01

436

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for the 6-Shogaol-rich Extract from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).  

PubMed

6-Shogaol, a dehydrated form of 6-gingerol, is a minor component in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and has recently been reported to have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol. Based on the thermal instability of gingerols (their dehydration to corresponding shogaols at high temperature), we aimed to develop an optimal process to maximize the 6-shogaol content during ginger extraction by modulating temperature and pH. Fresh gingers were dried under various conditions: freeze-, room temperature (RT)- or convection oven-drying at 60 or 80°C, and extracted by 95% ethanol at RT, 60 or 80°C. The content of 6-shogaol was augmented by increasing both drying and extraction temperatures. The highest production of 6-shogaol was achieved at 80°C extraction after drying at the same temperature and the content of 6-shogaol was about 7-fold compared to the lowest producing process by freezing and extraction at RT. Adjustment of pH (pH 1, 4, 7 and 10) for the 6-shogaol-richest extract (dried and extracted both at 80°C) also affected the chemical composition of ginger and the yield of 6-shogaol was maximized at the most acidic condition of pH 1. Taken together, the current study shows for the first time that a maximized production of 6-shogaol can be achieved during practical drying and extraction process of ginger by increasing both drying and extracting temperatures. Adjustment of pH to extraction solvent with strong acid also helps increase the production of 6-shogaol. Our data could be usefully employed in the fields of food processing as well as nutraceutical industry. PMID:24471079

Ok, Seon; Jeong, Woo-Sik

2012-06-01

437

Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.  

PubMed

Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds. PMID:18390447

Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

2008-04-01

438

Extraction of magnesium as the iodide by tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of magnesium by tributyl phosphate from KI solutions was investigated. With increasing KI and TBP concentrations, the extraction increased. The maximum extraction (82%) was attained at pH 4, and it did not decrease with a further pH increase. With decreasing pH, the extraction decreased because of HI extraction. The magnesium was extracted as the compound MgI/sub 2/ x 4TBP. Complexone III (at pH 3-4) does not affect the extraction of magnesium, which makes it possible to use it to mask other metals.

Litvinova, G.V.; Kuchkina, E.D.; Gorbenko, F.P.

1987-08-20

439

General-Purpose Element-Extracting Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed ore-refining or element-extracting process nonspecific: decomposes any ore or other raw material into constituent elements, regardless of composition. Enables conversion of ores into elements and recombination of elements into usefulmaterials as necessary. Effected on small scale to supplement such other mineral-refining processes as fluidized-bed reduction or carbochlorination. Alternatively, effected on large scale to produce wide range of materials. Conceived to provide materials for self-sufficient lunar base from such local ores as anorthite, ilmenite, and olivine. Proves useful on Earth in recovery or extraction of scarce, valuable, or hazardous materials.

Curreri, Peter A.

1993-01-01

440

Extracting Enterprise Vocabularies Using Linked Open Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common vocabulary is vital to smooth business operation, yet codifying and maintaining an enterprise vocabulary is an arduous, manual task. We describe a process to automatically extract a domain specific vocabulary (terms and types) from unstructured data in the enterprise guided by term definitions in Linked Open Data (LOD). We validate our techniques by applying them to the IT (Information Technology) domain, taking 58 Gartner analyst reports and using two specific LOD sources - DBpedia and Freebase. We show initial findings that address the generalizability of these techniques for vocabulary extraction in new domains, such as the energy industry.

Dolby, Julian; Fokoue, Achille; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Schonberg, Edith; Srinivas, Kavitha

441

Antipyretic activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract.  

PubMed

Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract of rhizome of N. nucifera was studied on normal body temperature and yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Yeast suspension (10 ml/kg, s.c.) increased rectal temperature after 19 hr of administration. The extract, in doses of 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg (po) produced significant dose dependent lowering of normal body temperature and yeast provoked elevation of body temperature in rats. The effect produced was comparable with the standard antipyretic drug, paracetamol (150 mg/kg, i.p.). PMID:8781041

Mukherjee, P K; Das, J; Saha, K; Giri, S N; Pal, M; Saha, B P

1996-03-01

442

Acceleration of Automated HI Source Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim to enable fast automated extraction of neutral hydrogen (HI) sources from large survey data sets. This requires both handling the large files (>5 TB) to be produced by next-generation interferometers and acceleration of the source extraction algorithm. We develop an efficient multithreaded implementation of the A'Trous wavelet reconstruction algorithm, which we evaluate against the serial implementation in the DUCHAMP package. We also evaluate three memory management libraries (Mmap, Boost and Stxxl) that enable processing of data files too large to fit into main memory, to establish which provides the best performance.

Badenhorst, S. J.; Blyth, S.; Kuttel, M. M.

2013-10-01

443

Large datasets: Segmentation, feature extraction, and compression  

SciTech Connect

Large data sets with more than several mission multivariate observations (tens of megabytes or gigabytes of stored information) are difficult or impossible to analyze with traditional software. The amount of output which must be scanned quickly dilutes the ability of the investigator to confidently identify all the meaningful patterns and trends which may be present. The purpose of this project is to develop both a theoretical foundation and a collection of tools for automated feature extraction that can be easily customized to specific applications. Cluster analysis techniques are applied as a final step in the feature extraction process, which helps make data surveying simple and effective.

Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

1996-07-01

444

Software Artifacts Extraction for Program Comprehension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maintenance of legacy software applications is a complex, expensive, quiet challenging, time consuming and daunting task due to program comprehension difficulties. The first step for software maintenance is to understand the existing software and to extract the high level abstractions from the source code. A number of methods, techniques and tools are applied to understand the legacy code. Each technique supports the particular legacy applications with automated/semi-automated tool support keeping in view the requirements of the maintainer. Most of the techniques support the modern languages but lacks support for older technologies. This paper presents a lightweight methodology for extraction of different artifacts from legacy COBOL and other applications

Rasool, Ghulam; Philippow, Ilka

445

Fractured Geothermal Growth Induced by Heat Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Field testing of a hydraulically stimulated, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal system at the Fenton Hill site in northern New Mexico indicated that significant reservoir growth occurred as energy was extracted. Tracer, microseismic, and geochemical measurements provided the primary quantitative evidence for the increases in accessible reservoir volume and fractured rock surface area that were observed during energy extraction operations that caused substantial thermal drawdown in portions of the reservoir. These temporal increases suggest that augmentation of reservoir hear-production capacity in an HDR system may be possible. [DJE 2005

Tester, J.W.; Murphy, H.D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Potter, R.M.; Robinson, B.A.

1989-02-01

446

Ultrasound-guided thoracoscopic dental extraction.  

PubMed

Recurrent pneumonias in children may be from an unrecognized aspirated foreign body. Our patient was a 10-year-old neurologically impaired child with an aspirated tooth in the right lower lobe segmental bronchus that was inaccessible to extraction using flexible bronchoscopy because of its extremely distal location. We used intraoperative ultrasound during thoracoscopy to locate the foreign body, a tooth, and to facilitate a wedge resection of the involved lung. This combined approach with ultrasound and thoracoscopy can be useful in managing an aspirated foreign body that cannot be extracted from the airway using conventional rigid or flexible bronchoscopy. PMID:24069984

Pandya, Samir R; Ruiz, Rodrigo; Brudnicki, Adele

2013-09-01

447

Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W. [Washington Savannah River Company, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01

448

Application of novel extraction technologies for bioactives from marine algae.  

PubMed

Marine algae are a rich source of bioactive compounds. This paper outlines the main bioactive compounds in marine algae and recent advances in novel technologies for extracting them. Novel extraction technologies reviewed include enzyme-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction. These technologies are reviewed with respect to principles, benefits, and potential applications for marine algal bioactives. Advantages of novel technologies include higher yield, reduced treatment time, and lower cost compared to traditional solvent extraction techniques. Moreover, different combinations of novel techniques used for extraction and technologies suitable for thermolabile compounds are identified. The limitations of and challenges to employing these novel extraction technologies in industry are also highlighted. PMID:23634989

Kadam, Shekhar U; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

2013-05-22

449

Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. PMID:24996300

Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

2014-12-01

450

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuphea seed oil (CSO) is a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids. Although CSO has been obtained using solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from disadvantages. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a promising alternative extraction technology. It is a very effective means to extract vegetable oils, non-toxic, non-flammable, easy to separate from extracts (i.e., no

F. J. Eller; S. C. Cermak; S. L. Taylor

2011-01-01

451

Process for producing an extract of Hydrangea containing plant powder  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method for producing a liquid plant extract containing plant powder, which includes concentrating a liquid extract containing an active ingredient in the presence of the plant powder, the liquid extract being obtained from a plant containing the active ingredient; a process for producing a plant extract containing plant powder, which is characterized by concentrating and drying a liquid extract containing an active ingredient in the presence of the plant powder.

2009-04-21

452

Separation of lactic acid from fermented broth by reactive extraction.  

PubMed

The separation of lactic acid from complex fermentation broth was examined. Liquid-liquid extraction using reversible chemical complexation for reactive extraction was chosen to be the separation method. Over 50% yield of lactic acid was obtained from fermented broth in a single extraction step, when using the tertiary amine as the extractant, 1-dekanol as the diluent and trimethylamine (TMA) as the stripping solution. The effect of complex media on the extraction behaviour has hardly been examined previously. PMID:11105245

Järvinen, M; Myllykoski, L; Keiski, R; Sohlo, J

2000-01-01

453

Enzymatic extraction of mustard seed and rice bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous enzymatic extraction was investigated for recovery of oil from mustard seed and rice bran. The extraction process\\u000a was reproducible based on statistical analysis of extraction data under different extraction conditions. The most significant\\u000a factors for extraction were the time of digestion with enzymes, seed or bran concentration in water, volume of hexane added\\u000a before recovery, and amount of enzyme(s)

R. Sengupta; D. K. Bhattacharyya

1996-01-01

454

Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

Lin, Yupo J. (Naperville, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2012-02-07

455

Antimicrobial Activity of Extractable Conifer Heartwood Compounds Toward Phytophthora ramorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven western conifer trees and individual volatile compounds in the extracts were\\u000a tested for antimicrobial activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western redcedar exhibited the strongest activity, followed by yellow-cedar, western juniper,\\u000a and Port-Orford-cedar with moderate activity, and no activity for Douglas-fir and redwood extracts. Chemical composition of\\u000a the extracts varied both

Daniel K. Manter; Rick G. Kelsey; Joseph J. Karchesy

2007-01-01

456

Effect of the Extraction Method on the MIP?Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the extraction methods (conventional immersion extraction, ultrasonic?assisted extraction, microwave?assisted extraction, and Soxhlet extraction) on the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sensor function has been investigated in this paper. The molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized by copolymerizing template analyte (theophylline) with methacrylic acid in the presence of the cross?linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) in tetrahydrofuran. Piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) sensors

Zhaohui Zhang; Hui Li; Haiping Liao; Lihua Nie; Shouzhuo Yao

2005-01-01

457

Microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from solanum nigrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microwave-assisted method was used to extract polysaccharides from solanum nigrum. The optimum experimental parameters,\\u000a mechanism of the extraction and the effect of microwave-assisted extraction process on the structures of polysaccharides were\\u000a investigated. The extract was analyzed by the modified phenol-sulfuric acid method at 490 nm. The optimum experimental parameters\\u000a were obtained by orthogonal experiments as follows: extraction time 15

Xiao-qing Chen; qin Liu; xin-yu Jiang; fan Zeng

2005-01-01

458

Extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger ( Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil: Studies of extraction kinetics and thermodynamic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger (Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil was conducted to determine the extraction kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. Two extraction models were proposed: mass transfer kinetic model and reaction kinetic model. It was found that both of mass transfer and reaction kinetic control the extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp waste using palm oil.

Akdes Dewi Handayani; Sutrisno; Nani Indraswati; Suryadi Ismadji

2008-01-01

459

Simultaneous extraction of tetracycline, macrolide and sulfonamide antibiotics from agricultural soils using pressurised liquid extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The veterinary antibacterial agents chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfadiazine (SDZ), erythromycin (ERY) and tylosin (TYL A, B, C and D) were extracted from soil using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Citric acid (pH 4.7) and methanol was used as extraction buffer, followed by tandem-solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up (SAX+HLB) for all compounds. For quantification two slightly different methods were employed using LC–MS–MS

Anne Marie Jacobsen; Bent Halling-Sørensen; Flemming Ingerslev; Steen Honoré Hansen

2004-01-01

460

Competitive Complexation\\/Solvation Theory of Solvent Extraction. III. Influence of Active Solvents on Acid Solvent Extraction by Amine Based Extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitive complexation\\/solvation theory is used to interpret the influence of active solvents on solvent extraction of acids by amine-based extractants. This theory is based on the modified competitive preferential solvation theory, the concept of amphoteric properties of extractants, and the concept of changing aggregation structures when extractant loading increases.Active solvent concentration parameter is introduced to the quantitative consideration of the

V. Kislik; A. Eyal; B. Hazan

2003-01-01

461

Characteristics and antioxidative ability of defatted rice bran extracts obtained using several extractants under subcritical conditions.  

PubMed

Defatted rice bran was treated with water, 50% (v/v) ethanol, ethanol, 50% (v/v) acetone, or acetone. The treatment temperature and time were fixed at 230°C and 5 min, respectively. The treatment with 50% (v/v) acetone produced the highest yield of 0.549 g-extract/g-bran, and the extract exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity of 0.495 mmol-ascorbic acid/g-extract. The extract obtained with 50% (v/v) acetone showed the higher UV absorbance and highest amount of hydrophobic substances in the HPLC analysis than the other extracts, and it also showed the highest antioxidative ability in both the rancidity test at 105°C and bulk oil system at 60°C for the longest induction period of 4.9 h and 14.4 h, respectively. However, the extracts obtained using various extractants showed no effect on the oxidation rate constant of linoleic acid in the bulk oil system. PMID:23357811

Chiou, Tai-Ying; Ogino, Akane; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

2013-01-01

462

AGS new fast extraction system and the single bunch extraction test  

SciTech Connect

For the neutrino physics program and for the CBA injection, a new fast extraction system has been implemented to improve the extraction efficiency and the quality of the extracted beam. Central to the new system is a new fast kicker, placed at the H5 straight section, capable of rising between bunches, t/sub r/ < 170 nsec, and staying constant for 2.6 ..mu..sec with flat top ripple less than +-1.5%. So far, the system has been operated for longer than 3000 hours and routinely extracts 10/sup 13/ ppp at 99% efficiency. Experiment 745 on QCD test requires a single AGS bunch of 40 nsec. For this purpose another fast kicker was placed at the E5 straight section and powered by a new pulser to produce a half sinusoidal pulse with both a rise and fall time of 200 nsec. A single AGS bunch was extracted through the slow beam channel at 22 GeV/c leaving the remaining 11 bunches undisturbed which continued to be accelerated to 29.4 GeV/c and extracted by the H5 kicker through the fast beam channel. Because the ring circumference ratio of CBA to the AGS is 4-3/4, some of the injected beam from the AGS has to contain 11 bunches instead of 12; consequently, this single bunch extraction mode will also be used for CBA injection.

Weng, W.T.

1983-01-01

463

DEREPLICATION OF CYTOTOXIC CUCURBITACINS IN PLANT EXTRACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs based on compounds isolated from plants form a major part of the pharmaceutical armamentarium against cancer,1 and plants are an excellent source of pharmaceutical leads.2 As part of an ongoing search for novel natural product anticancer agents, plant samples are collected, mainly from tropical forests, and a portion is extracted and screened in a panel of human cancer cell

William P. Jones; Heebyung Chai; Leonardus B. S. Kardono; Soedarsono Riswan; Norman R. Farnsworth; Geoffrey A. Cordell; Steven M. Swanson; A. Douglas

464

Sequential blind extraction of instantaneously mixed sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general approach to sequential blind extraction of instantaneously mixed sources for several major ill-conditioned cases as well as the regular case of full column rank mixing matrices. Four ill-conditioned cases are considered: The mixing matrix is square but singular; the number of sensors is less than that of sources; the number of sensors is larger than

Yuanqing Li; Jun Wang

2002-01-01

465

Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material  

DOEpatents

Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

1983-07-26

466

Solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction.  

PubMed

In this research, a novel extraction technique termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (SADSPE) was developed for the first time. The new method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample to maximize the contact surface. In this method, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by injecting a solution of the sorbent into the aqueous sample. Thereby, a cloudy solution formed. The cloudy state resulted from the dispersion of the fine particles of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifugation and the enriched analyte in the sedimented phase could be determined by instrumental methods. The performance of SADSPE was illustrated with the determination of the trace amounts of cobalt(II) as a test analyte in food and environmental water samples by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry detection. Some key parameters for SADSPE, such as sorbent selection and amount, type and volume of dispersive solvent, pH, chelating agent concentration, and salt concentration, were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, good limit of detection (as low as 0.2 µg L(-1)) and repeatability of extraction (RSD below 2.2%, n=10) was obtained. The accuracy of the method was tested with standard reference material (SRM-1643e and SRM-1640a) and spiked addition. The advantages of SADSPE method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, high recovery, and enrichment factor. PMID:24148429

Jamali, Mohammad Reza; Firouzjah, Ahmad; Rahnama, Reyhaneh

2013-11-15

467

RECOVERY OF NEPTUNIUM IN SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to investigate the feasibility of recovering Np in existing ; Hanford separation plants by the Purex and Redox processes are described. In the ; Purex process, nitrate ion in the presence of catalytic traces of nitrous acid ; can be used to oxidize Np to the extractable hexavalent state, and in the Redox ; process, a strong oxidant (dichromate)

G. E. Benedict; T. R. McKenzie; G. L. Richardson

1960-01-01

468

Granular computing, rough entropy and object extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of image object extraction in the framework of rough sets and granular computing is addressed. A mea- sure called ''rough entropy of image'' is defined based on the concept of image granules. Its maximization results in minimization of roughness in both object and background regions; thereby determining the threshold of partitioning. Methods of selecting the appropriate granule size

Sankar K. Pal; B. Uma Shankar; Pabitra Mitra

2005-01-01

469

Fast title extraction method for business documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional electronic document filing systems are inconvenient because the user must specify the keywords in each document for later searches. To solve this problem, automatic keyword extraction methods using natural language processing and character recognition have been developed. However, these methods are slow, especially for japanese documents. To develop a practical electronic document filing system, we focused on the extraction of keyword areas from a document by image processing. Our fast title extraction method can automatically extract titles as keywords from business documents. All character strings are evaluated for similarity by rating points associated with title similarity. We classified these points as four items: character sitting size, position of character strings, relative position among character strings, and string attribution. Finally, the character string that has the highest rating is selected as the title area. The character recognition process is carried out on the selected area. It is fast because this process must recognize a small number of patterns in the restricted area only, and not throughout the entire document. The mean performance of this method is an accuracy of about 91 percent and a 1.8 sec. processing time for an examination of 100 Japanese business documents.

Katsuyama, Yutaka; Naoi, Satoshi

1997-04-01

470

REDS: Resistance Extraction for Digital Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes an extractor designed to produce resistance values for use in digital circuit simulation. REDS avoids resistance extraction on most nets in a design using a simple filter based on the perimeter and area values calculated by the capaci...

D. Stark M. Horowitz

1987-01-01

471

Development of Hair Dye from Herbal Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared

Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai

2009-01-01

472

Antiviral activities of coffee extracts in vitro.  

PubMed

Both hot water extracts of coffee grinds and instant coffee solutions inhibited the multiplication of herpes simplex virus type 1, a representative enveloped DNA virus, when they were added to the culture medium of the virus-infected cells at a dose of one fifth the concentration suitable for drinking. The antiherpetic activity was independent of the suppliers (companies) of the coffee grinds and of the locations where the coffee beans were produced. Further characterization revealed that there are two different mechanisms, by which the coffee extracts exert inhibitory activities on the virus infection; (1) a direct inactivation of the infectivity of virus particle (i.e., a virucidal activity) and (2) the inhibition of progeny infectious virus formation at the late stage of viral multiplication in the infected cells. Caffeine, but not quinic acid and chlorogenic acid, inhibited the virus multiplication to some extent, but none of them showed the virucidal activity, suggesting that other component(s) in the coffee extracts must play a role in the observed antiviral activity. In addition, the coffee extracts inhibited the multiplication of poliovirus, a non-enveloped RNA virus, but showed no virucidal effect on this virus. PMID:18314244

Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Ichinose, Masao; Uozaki, Misao; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Koyama, A Hajime

2008-06-01

473

Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

2008-10-10

474

Extracting Randomness Using Few Independent Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we give the rst deterministic extractors from a constant number of weak sources whose entropy rate is less than 1\\/2. Specically , for every > 0 we give an explicit construction for extracting randomness from a constant (depending polynomially on 1= ) number of distri- butions over f0; 1gn, each having min-entropy n. These extractors output n

Boaz Barak; Russell Impagliazzo; Avi Wigderson

475

Exploiting Triangulated Surface Extraction Using Tetrahedral Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with digitized volumetric data, we wish to rapidly and efficiently extract and represent surfaces defined as isosurfaces in the interpolated data. The Marching Cubes algorithm is a standard approach to this problem. We instead perform a decomposition of each 8-cell associated with a voxel into five tetrahedra. We guarantee the resulting surface representation to be closed and oriented, defined

André Guéziec; Robert A. Hummel

1995-01-01

476

Microliter Scale Solid Phase Extraction Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microliter scale solid phase extraction devices for preparing analytes in microliter volumes are disclosed. A re-useable device is provided in cartridge form that includes a central containment member with a containment bore that holds as little as 1 to 5...

B. A. Simmons G. S. Chirica R. F. Renzi

2005-01-01

477

Riveted Fastener Extraction Apparatuses and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extraction apparatus for the removal of a riveted fastener from a structure includes a shaft and a cutting element. The cutting element is mechanically coupled to the shaft and is configured to cut a portion of the riveted fastener. The shaft and the c...

B. G. Weiskittel J. F. Suarez

2005-01-01

478

Building Footprints Extraction from Oblique Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, multi-camera aerial platforms combining nadir and oblique cameras are experiencing a revival and several companies have proposed new image acquisition systems. Due to their various advantages, oblique imagery have found their place in numerous companies and civil applications. However, the automatic processing of such image blocks still remains a topic of research. Camera configuration indeed poses a challenge on the traditional photogrammetric pipeline used in commercial software but, on the other hand, gives the opportunity to exploit the additional information provided by the oblique views and allows a more reliable feature extraction. In particular, the information that can be provided in correspondence of building façades can open new possibilities for the building detection and footprint extraction. In this paper, a methodology for the automated extraction of building footprints from oblique imagery is presented. The extraction is performed using dense point clouds generated using an image matching algorithm. The developed methodology and the achieved results are described in detail showing the advantages and opportunities offered by oblique aerial systems for cartographic and mapping purposes.

Nex, F.; Rupnik, E.; Remondino, F.

2013-10-01

479

Keyword extraction from abstracts and titles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords are very important for any academic paper. We propose the Perceptron Training Rule for keyword extraction from titles and abstracts. We present a system for generating keywords which relies on weights of words in a sentence. The system generates keywords from academic research articles by selecting the most relevant keywords. We compare the keywords generated by our system and

Rekha Bhowmik

2008-01-01

480

Continuous Extraction and Stripping of Uranyl Nitrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction of UO sub 2 (NO sub 3 ) sub 2 , scrubbing and stripping of uranium as well as clean-up of the organic phase have been studied using TBP-n-paraffins as a solvent. Flowsheet for a battery of mixer-settlers has been optimized. (Atomindex citation ...

W. Gawlowska

1975-01-01

481

Calculation of a TBP Extraction Column.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problems involving the number of stages in an extraction column and the equipment needed in most aqueous methods of reprocessing of nuclear fuels were studied. A solution for the separation of uranium from fission products in a feed solution that contains...

M. L. de Lima Soares

1973-01-01

482

Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = ?100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and ?100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

Oudini, N. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy) [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Laboratoire des plasma de décharges, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout BP 17 Baba Hassen, 16081 Algiers (Algeria); Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)] [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Aanesland, A.; Raimbault, J.-L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2013-10-15

483

Automatic Metadata Extraction from Museum Specimen Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the information properties of museum specimen labels and machine learning tools to automatically extract Darwin Core (DwC) and other metadata from these labels processed through Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The DwC is a metadata profile describing the core set of access points for search and retrieval of natural history collections and obs