Sample records for garcinia cambogia extract

  1. DETERMINATION OF (?) HYDROXYCITRIC ACID IN COMMERCIAL SAMPLES OF GARCINIA CAMBOGIA EXTRACT BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ULTRAVIOLET DETECTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Jayaprakasha; K. K. Sakariah

    2000-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of organic acids in commercial samples of Garcinia cambogia extracts. The major organic acid in commercially available extracts of Garcinia cambogia has been found to be (-) hydroxycitric acid present to the extent of 51–55%. Tartaric, citric, and malic acids are present in small quantities and have been detected

  2. Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Hydroxycitric Acid or Garcinia cambogia Extracts in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiola Márquez; Nancy Babio; Mònica Bulló; J. Salas-Salvadó

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight

  3. EVALUATION OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF HYDROXYCITRIC ACID OR GARCINIA CAMBOGIA EXTRACTS IN HUMANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márquez Fabiola; Babio Nancy; Bulló Mònica; J. Salas-Salvadó

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (?)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyses the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA.Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight and

  4. Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum leptin and insulin in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Hayamizu; H Hirakawa; D Oikawa; T Nakanishi; T Takagi; T Tachibana; M Furuse

    2003-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on 10% sucrose loading in mice for 4 weeks. Treatment was found to have no effect on body weight, fat pad weight or serum glucose level. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA were observed. Levels of serum insulin and leptin, as well as the leptin\\/WAT

  5. Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohsuke Hayamizu; Hironori Tomi; Izuru Kaneko; Manzhen Shen; Madhu G. Soni; Gen Yoshino

    2008-01-01

    (?) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants

  6. A xanthone from Garcinia cambogia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munekazu Iinuma; Tetsuro Ito; Ryoko Miyake; Hideki Tosa; Toshiyuki Tanaka; Veliah Chelladurai

    1998-01-01

    As a chemical constituent of Garcinia cambogia, a new xanthone, garbogiol, was isolated from the root; a known xanthone (rheediaxanthone A) and two known benzophenones (garcinol and isogarcinol) were obtained from the bark. The structures were established by spectral analysis.

  7. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of hydroxycitric acid or Garcinia cambogia extracts in humans.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Fabiola; Babio, Nancy; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight and fat loss in both experimental animals and humans, we should be cautious when interpreting the results as other randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have not reported the same outcomes. Furthermore, most studies in humans have been conducted on small samples and mainly in the short term. None of them have shown whether these effects persist beyond 12 weeks of intervention. Therefore, there is still little evidence to support the potential effectiveness and long-term benefits of G. cambogia extracts. With regard to toxicity and safety, it is important to note that except in rare cases, studies conducted in experimental animals have not reported increased mortality or significant toxicity. Furthermore, at the doses usually administered, no differences have been reported in terms of side effects or adverse events (those studied) in humans between individuals treated with G. cambogia and controls. PMID:22530711

  8. Acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis in a patient taking Garcinia cambogia extract successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott F; Godley, Robert W; Evron, Joshua M; Heider, Amer; Nicklas, John M; Thomas, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    A previously healthy 48-year-old woman was evaluated for lightheadedness and chest heaviness 2 weeks after starting the herbal supplement Garcinia cambogia. She was found to be hypotensive and had an elevated serum troponin level. The patient had a progressive clinical decline, ultimately experiencing fulminant heart failure and sustained ventricular arrhythmias, which required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Endomyocardial biopsy results were consistent with acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis (ANEM). High-dose corticosteroids were initiated promptly and her condition rapidly improved, with almost complete cardiac recovery 1 week later. In conclusion, we have described a case of ANEM associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia extract. PMID:25475477

  9. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Schneider, Ricardo; Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Falavigna, Andressa; Piazza, Ivone; Rossetto, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI?>?25 kg/m(2) ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n?=?30) and control (n?=?13) groups, received 2.4?g (800?mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p?=?0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p?=?0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia. PMID:24133059

  10. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ate?, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ay?en

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were p<0.05. Serum Ca levels were not significantly different between all groups on days 45 and 75. Serum P level was significantly higher in the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of phytate P in diet. It was hoped that with further evidence-based study this product will enter to mainstream medicines. PMID:22419377

  11. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 ± 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 ± 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (?12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as “tired eyes,” “blurry eyes,” “muscle pain/stiffness,” “early satiety,” “epigastralgia,” “dizziness,” “arthralgia” and “easily breaking into a sweat.” The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for “dizziness.” On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy. PMID:18385825

  12. Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohsuke Hayamizu; Yuri Ishii; Izuru Kaneko; Manzhen Shen; Yasuhide Okuhara; Norihiro Shigematsu; Hironori Tomi; Mitsuhiro Furuse; Gen Yoshino; Hiroyuki Shimasaki

    2003-01-01

    Background(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is an active ingredient extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit Garcinia cambogia. It inhibits adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase and has been used in the treatment of obesity.

  13. Collection and Characterisation of Malabar Tamarind [ Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Abraham; S. K. Malik; Gangadhar Eashwar Rao; S. Lakshmi Narayanan; S. Biju

    2006-01-01

    A collaborative crop specific exploration and collection mission to collect the germplasm and to study the population size\\u000a of male and female\\/hermaphrodite trees of Malabar tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] in the area of its diversity was undertaken during July 2002 in Kerala and Karnataka. A total of 56 accessions\\u000a of Malabar tamarind were collected. Two collections of Malabar tamarind

  14. Flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia lower lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asha Sarah Koshy; L Anila; N. R Vijayalakshmi

    2001-01-01

    Administration of flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia, at a dose of 1 mg 100 g?1 body weight day?1, significantly lowered lipid levels in rats fed normal and cholesterol-containing diets. ?-Hydroxy ?-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase showed significant reduction in normocholesterolemic rats. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were reduced significantly. Highly stimulated activities of the enzymes lipoprotein lipase and plasma

  15. A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia , soy peptide and l -carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Jung Kim; Keun-Young Kim; Min Sun Kim; Jin Hee Lee; Kang Pyo Lee; Taesun Park

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of a mixture composed of Garcinia cambogia extract, soypeptide, and l-carnitine (1.2:0.3:0.02, w\\/w\\/w) in rats rendered obese by a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either the\\u000a high-fat control diet (CD) or the 0.38% mixture-supplemented HFD (CD + M) for 9 weeks. The mixture significantly reduced body\\u000a weight gain and

  16. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-?. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-? level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance.

  17. Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Rossetto, Simone; Halmenschlager, Graziele; Linden, Rafael; Heckler, Eliane; Fernandez, Maria S Poblador; Alonso, José L Lancho

    2008-09-01

    Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the main compound of Garcinia cambogia extract, is a competitive blocker of ATP-citrate-lyase, presenting a potential inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis. Glucomannan fibers, abundant in Amorphophallus konjac, seem to reduce the absorption kinetics of dietary fat. Therefore, the aim of this double-blind randomized study was to evaluate the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of standardized extracts of G. cambogia (52.4% HCA) plus A. konjac (94.9% glucomannan) in the treatment of obesity. Fifty-eight obese subjects (BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to the placebo group (n = 26) or the treatment group (n = 32); no dietary restrictions were applied. Over a 12-week period, subjects were given daily doses of either Garcinia (2.4 g) plus Konjac (1.5 g) or placebo prior to their main meals (3 times/day). Before the start of treatment, and every 4 weeks thereafter, the following were recorded: height, weight, circumferences and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), lipid profile and glucose levels. The treatment had no significant effect on anthropometric parameters, REE, triglycerides or glucose levels. However, a significant reduction was observed in total cholesterol (-32.0 +/- 35.1 mg/dL) and LDL-c levels (-28.7 +/- 32.7 mg/dL) in the treated group, the final levels being significantly lower than those of the placebo group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.020, respectively). The results obtained suggest that the treatment had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect, without influencing the anthropometric or calorimetric parameters tested. PMID:18729243

  18. Determination of organic acids in Garcinia cambogia (Desr.) by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K Jayaprakasha; K. K Sakariah

    1998-01-01

    The major organic acid in Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind) has been found to be (?)-hydroxycitric acid, present in concentrations of 16–18%, using high-performance liquid chromatography with 10 mM sulfuric acid as eluent. Citric and malic acids are present in Malabar tamarind in minor quantities.

  19. High dose of Garcinia cambogia is effective in suppressing fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, but highly toxic to the testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Saito; M. Ueno; S. Ogino; K. Kubo; J. Nagata; M. Takeuchi

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the ability of Garcinia cambogia extract containing (?)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) to suppress body fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese (fa\\/fa) rats. We also examined histopathologically the safety of its high doses. Diets containing different levels of HCA (0, 10, 51, 102 and 154mmol\\/kg diet) were fed to 6-week-old rats for 92 or 93 days. Each diet group

  20. Polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivatives from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia and their absolute configuration by quantum chemical circular dichroism calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Masullo; Carla Bassarello; Giuseppe Bifulco; Sonia Piacente

    2010-01-01

    Three new tetracyclic polyisoprenylated xanthones, named oxy-guttiferones M, K2, and I, along with oxy-guttiferone K and guttiferone M, have been isolated from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia. Their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR spectroscopic experiments. The absolute configurations of oxy-guttiferone K, taken as a model of tetracyclic xanthones, and guttiferone M, as a model of polyisoprenylated benzophenones, have

  1. Garcinia Cambogia attenuates diet-induced adiposity but exacerbates hepatic collagen accumulation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Je; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Yong Bok; Kim, Sang Ryong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Un Ju

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate long-term effects of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), weight-loss supplement, on adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese mice. METHODS: Obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The HFD contained 45 kcal% fat, 20 kcal% protein and 35 kcal% carbohydrate. They were given free access to food and distilled water, and food consumption and body weight were measured daily and weekly, respectively. Data were expressed as the mean ± SE. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package for the social science software program. Student’s t test was used to assess the differences between the groups. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in body weight and food intake between the groups. However, the supplementation of GC significantly lowered visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size via inhibition of fatty acid synthase activity and its mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue, along with enhanced enzymatic activity and gene expression involved in adipose fatty acid ?-oxidation. Moreover, GC supplementation resulted in significant reductions in glucose intolerance and the plasma resistin level in the HFD-fed mice. However, we first demonstrated that it increased hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and inflammatory responses (tumor necrosis factor-? and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) as well as plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, although HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was not altered. CONCLUSION: GC protects against HFD-induced obesity by modulating adipose fatty acid synthesis and ?-oxidation but induces hepatic fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:23922466

  2. Antioxidant and antiplatlet aggregation properties of bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anushi; Joseph, G S; Singh, R P

    2014-08-01

    The bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa, which are abundant in the Northeastern regions of India, were screened for their antioxidant and in vitro antiplatelet aggregating activities. By ?-carotene linoleate model for antioxidant assay, acetone extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extracts of G. cowa exhibited higher antioxidant activity (86.47 and 66.94 % respectively, at 25 ppm) than other extracts. Similar pattern was observed for superoxide radical scavenging method for antioxidant assay. The ethyl acetate extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extract of G. cowa exhibited higher antiplatelet aggregation capacity towards ADP induced platelet aggregation (IC50 0.16 and 0.43 ug, respectively) than other extracts. PMID:25114359

  3. Identification and quantification of two biologically active polyisoprenylated benzophenones xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in Garcinia species using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil K. Chattopadhyay; Satyanshu Kumar

    2006-01-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography\\/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometrical (LC\\/ESI–MS\\/MS) method was developed for the identification and quantification of two polyisoprenylated benzophenones xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol in the extracts of the fruit rinds, stem bark, seed pericarps and leaves of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia. The separation of xanthochymol and isoxanthochymol was achieved on a RP-18 column

  4. Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunny E. Ohia; Catherine A. Opere; Angela M. LeDay; Manashi Bagchi; Debasis Bagchi; Sidney J. Stohs

    2002-01-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates the efficacy of Garcinia cambogia-derived natural (–)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) in weight management by curbing appetite and inhibiting body fat biosynthesis. However, the exact mechanism of action of this novel phytopharmaceutical has yet to be fully understood. In a previous study, we showed that in the rat brain cortex a novel HCA extract (HCA-SX, Super

  5. Chemistry and Biochemistry of (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid from Garcinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. JENA; G. K. J AYAPRAKASHA; R. P. S INGH; K. K. SAKARIAH

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid ((-)-HCA) is the principal acid of fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia indica, and Garcinia atroviridis. (-)-HCA was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA: citrate + ATP + CoA f acetyl-CoA + ADP + Pi + oxaloacetate. The inhibition of this

  6. Dose and time-dependent effects of a novel (?)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Shara; Sunney E. Ohia; Taharat Yasmin; Andrea Zardetto-Smith; Anthony Kincaid; Manashi Bagchi; Archana Chatterjee; Debasis Bagchi; Sidney J. Stohs

    2003-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60%

  7. Diffusion Properties of Garcinia Fruit Acids (Garcinia atroviridis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chairat SIRIPATANA

    2007-01-01

    The diffusion properties of garcinia fruit acids (Garcinia atroviridis) were investigated in a batch reactor. The influences of two variables were studied: material thickness and extraction temperature. Stirring was continuous to assure turbulent flow inside the vessel. Garcinia fruits were sliced into infinite slabs of two different thicknesses, 2.5 and 4.0 mm. Each group of a given thickness was then

  8. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  9. In vitro antilisterial properties of crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  10. Inhibition of acute experimental colitis by a crude extract and diets containing seeds of Garcinia kola (heckel).

    PubMed

    Olaleye, S B; Ige, S F; Onasanwo, S A; Cho, C H

    2010-12-01

    The protective effect of Garcinia kola (GK) crude extract on acetic acid induced colitis in rats was investigated. Colitis, a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by inflammation of colon. The pathology in colitis includes disruption of crypt architecture, inflammation of crypts, frank crypt abscesses, and hemorrhage or inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. Since oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of Inflammatory Bowel diseases,and Garcinia kola (GK), have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the rat stomach.The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Garcinia kola on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by acetic acid. Albino rats were divided into five groups; Group one served as control, group two received Normal saline, group three received 2.5% ethanol while groups four and five were given 20mg/kg and 100mg/kg of crude extract of Garcinia kolarespectively. In another experiment, rats were fed for 2 weeks on normal rat diets but specially composed to contain 12.5%, 25% and 50% by weight of G kola. Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 6% acetic acid. The colonic damage was elucidated by macroscopic damage scores; colon wet weight, stool consistency and colonic edema (thickness of the colon). Intra-luminal administration of 6% acetic acid resulted in observable clinical and macroscopic signs of colitis.Pre-orally administered of crude extract of GK significantly reduced the colonic damage score (p<0.001), colon weight (p<0.001), thickness of the colon (p<0.001) and diarrhea (p<0.001).Histological examinations also indicated a marked reduction in tissue injury and inhibition in neutrophil infiltration in rats pretreated with crude extract of Garcinia kola. Results of this investigation provide experimental evidence of Garcinia kola as an anti-colitis agent. PMID:22416650

  11. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumour-promoting and cytotoxic activities of different plant part extracts of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M Mackeen; A. M Ali; N. H Lajis; K Kawazu; Z Hassan; M Amran; M Habsah; L. Y Mooi; S. M Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts (methanol) of various parts, viz. the leaves, fruits, roots, stem and trunk bark, of Garcinia atroviridis were screened for antimicrobial, cytotoxic, brine shrimp toxic, antitumour-promoting and antioxidant activities. The crude extracts exhibited predominantly antibacterial activity with the root extract showing the strongest inhibition against the test bacteria at a minimum inhibitory dose (MID) of 15.6 ?g\\/disc. Although all

  12. Antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract from seeds of Garcinia kola on isolated rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Udia, P M; Braide, V B; Owu, D U

    2009-12-01

    The antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract of seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel were studied on smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The influence of the extract on rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum was investigated using acetylcholine and barium chloride as agonists. The extract exhibited dose-dependent antispasmodic effects on contractions induced by acetylcholine, and dose-dependent spasmolytic effects on spasms induced by cumulatively increased concentrations of acetylcholine and barium chloride. The graded log concentration-response curves for acetylcholine were non-parallel but shifted to the right in the presence of the extract. It is concluded that the Garcinia kola extract inhibits smooth muscle activity via other mechanisms but not involving neither cholinergic nor adrenergic receptor interaction. PMID:20234749

  13. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% ?-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of ?-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. PMID:23680732

  14. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) ?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) ?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) ?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) ?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) ?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  15. In-vitro antagonistic characteristics of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds against some Vibrio bacteria.

    PubMed

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Omobola O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were screened for their anti-Vibrio activities against 50 Vibrio isolates obtained from wastewater final effluents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The crude extracts at 10 mg/mL exhibited appreciable inhibitory activities against most of the test Vibrio isolates, with zones of inhibition ranging from 10-19 mm for methanol extract and 8-15 mm for the aqueous extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the methanol extract varied from 0.313 to 2.5 mg/mL while that for the aqueous extract was 10 mg/mL for all the susceptible Vibrio isolates. Rate of kill assay of the methanolic extracts against three selected Vibrio species showed bacteriostatic activities against all of them achieving 58% and 60% (Vibrio vulnificus AL042); 68% and 69% (Vibrio parahaemolyticus AL049); and 70% and 78% (Vibrio fluvialis AL040) killing of the test bacteria at 3× and 4 ×MIC values, respectively, after 2 h exposure time. We conclude that Garcinia kola seeds hold promise as a potential source of therapeutic compounds of relevance in Vibrio infections management. PMID:21441874

  16. Biocidal activity of partially purified fractions from methanolic extract of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds on bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, D A; Adegboye, M F; Adeloye, O A; Okoh, A I

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract of the seeds of Garcinia kola was investigated. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 mm to 25 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the diethyl ether fraction was between 0.313 and 5.0 mg/ml, while that of butanol fraction varied from 0.157 to 5.0 mg/ml. The butanol fraction killed about 77% of Bacillus anthracis and 79% of Escherichia coli cells within 120 min at a concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Protein leakage from the B. anthracis and E. coli cells when exposed to the butanol and diethyl ether fractions was observed. We conclude that Garcinia kola seed extract has a broad spectrum antibacterial activity, with the butanol and diethyl ether fractions being bactericidal as exemplified by the killing rate and protein leakage regimes, which suggest cell membrane disruption as a mechanism of action of the extract. PMID:19399341

  17. In vivo evaluation of interaction between aqueous seed extract of Garcinia kola Heckel and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Esimone, Charles O; Nwafor, Sunday V; Okoli, Charles O; Chah, Kennedy F; Uzuegbu, David B; Chibundu, Chinedu; Eche, Mike A; Adikwu, Micheal U

    2002-01-01

    The effect of Garcinia kola seed extract (100 mg/kg) on the pharmacokinetic and antibacterial effects of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (40 mg/kg) was studied. The results (mean +/- SEM) indicated that concurrent administration of both agents significantly (P < 0.05) decreased average serum concentration, peak serum concentration, and elimination rate of ciprofloxacin HCl, whereas the half-life and clearance rate were increased. The decrease in clearance rate was not significant. There was no difference in time to peak plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl in both groups (n = 5), which occurred at 1 hour. However, the peak plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl was 46.90 +/- 9.50 microg/mL in the group that received ciprofloxacin HCl alone as against 35.80 +/- 9.30 microg/mL noted in the group that received both agents (difference of 22.24%). At 2.5 hours and longer, the values were higher in the group that received both agents, but these were not statistically significant. The reciprocal serum inhibitory titer (SIT) was 33.33 and 50.00% higher in group that received ciprofloxacin HCl alone at 1 and 2.5 hours, respectively; the highest value for both groups being at 1 hour. In contrast, at 4 hours, the value of reciprocal SIT was 66.67% higher in the group that received both agents and at 24 hours, the value was zero for both groups. The observed pharmacokinetic and antibacterial interactions at various time interval indicate biphasic interaction. The interaction was antagonistic at 1 and 2.5 hours, but exhibited potentiation at 4 hours. The precise mechanism underlying the observed biphasic interaction is not fully understood. PMID:12115015

  18. Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamal A Amin; Hamdy H Kamel; Mohamed A Abd Eltawab

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered

  19. In vitro anti-listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8-17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8-11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079-0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log(10) decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

  20. Immune Regulation and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Isogarcinol Extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. against Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanxia; Zhou, Hailing; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wei, Qun

    2014-05-01

    Isogarcinol is a natural compound that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., and we were the first to report that it is a new immunosuppressant. In the present study, we investigated the immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explored its potential mechanism in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The oral administration of isogarcinol significantly reduced clinical scores, alleviated cartilage and bone erosion, and reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in CIA mice. Isogarcinol inhibited xylene-induced mouse ear edema in vivo. In vitro, isogarcinol decreased iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression and NO content by inhibiting NF-?B expression. Furthermore, isogarcinol decreased the activity of NFAT and inhibited IL-2 expression. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with down-regulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory reactions. PMID:24738849

  1. Crude ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola seeds Heckel (Guttiferae) prolong the lag phase of Helicobacter pylori: inhibitory and bactericidal potential.

    PubMed

    Njume, Collise; Afolayan, Anthony J; Clarke, Anna M; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-01-01

    Problems associated with current treatment regimens have generated a considerable interest in alternative approaches for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infections using phytochemical compounds. In an attempt to identify potential sources of such compounds, the antimicrobial activity of five solvent extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori and a standard control strain, NCTC 11638, using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the extracts tested exhibited anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 25 mm. The ethanol extract demonstrated considerable anti-H. pylori activity with a percentage susceptibility of 53.3% and minimum inhibitory concentration for 50% susceptibility (MIC??) values ranging from 0.63 to 5.0 mg/mL. Ranges of MIC?? values for amoxicillin and metronidazole were 0.01-0.63 mg/mL and 0.04-5.0 mg/mL, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was similar to that of metronidazole (P?>?.05) as opposed to amoxicillin (P?extract caused a 12-hour extension of the lag phase of H. pylori at 1.25 mg/mL. The same observations were recorded when this concentration was doubled and quadrupled alongside a killing rate of 80.1% and 93.7%, respectively, after 24 hours and of 100% after 30 hours. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extract of G. kola may contain therapeutically useful compounds against H. pylori. PMID:21476930

  2. Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots).

    PubMed

    Ogunleye, R F; Adefemi, S O

    2007-12-01

    Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5% to approximately 100% and 70% to approximately 100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively, from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais. PMID:18257127

  3. Detection of a Gentamicin-Resistant Burn Wound Strain of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa but Sensitive to Honey and Garcinia Kola (Heckel) Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Adeleke, O.E.; Coker, M.E.; Oke, O.B.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Studies on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus intermedius from dog and cat, and also on Staphylococcus aureus from wound and pyoderma infections, have shown a correlation between the site of microbial infection and antimicrobial susceptibility. Both the methanolic extract concentrate of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds and natural honey have been associated with activity on bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infections. In this study, selected bacteria belonging to genera from burn wound infection sites were treated with natural honey and methanolic extract concentrate of Garcinia kola in antimicrobial susceptibility tests separately and in combined form, and also with gentamicin and methanol as controls. The two natural products were found to be active on the bacterial isolates, excluding Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, all of which showed resistance to honey. Combination forms of the two natural products were active only on the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At 4 and 8 µg/ml, gentamicin was ineffective on the three strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae while 8 µg/ml was moderately active on only two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, UCH002, was resistant to gentamicin beyond 1,000 µ/ml. Gentamicin at 4 µ/ml was inhibitory to one strain of Escherichia coli and two strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Though the antimicrobial activity of the two natural products tested had been previously reported against microbial agents of respiratory tract infection, it was also recorded in this study. The lack of activity of each of the three honey types used in this study against the Klebsiella pneumoniae strains tested underscores the need to exclude this organism from burn wound infections before embarking on treatment with honey. The sensitivity of one high-level gentamicin-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to honey and Garcinia kola seed extract was noteworthy considering the therapeutic failures of gentamicin and other antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:21991206

  4. Detection of a gentamicin-resistant burn wound strain of pseudomonas aeruginosa but sensitive to honey and garcinia kola (heckel) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Adeleke, O E; Coker, M E; Oke, O B

    2010-06-30

    Studies on Staphylococcusaureus and Staphylococcusintermedius from dog and cat, and also on Staphylococcusaureus from wound and pyoderma infections, have shown a correlation between the site of microbial infection and antimicrobial susceptibility. Both the methanolic extract concentrate of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds and natural honey have been associated with activity on bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infections. In this study, selected bacteria belonging to genera from burn wound infection sites were treated with natural honey and methanolic extract concentrate of Garcinia kola in antimicrobial susceptibility tests separately and in combined form, and also with gentamicin and methanol as controls. The two natural products were found to be active on the bacterial isolates, excluding Klebsiellapneumoniae strains, all of which showed resistance to honey. Combination forms of the two natural products were active only on the strains of Pseudomonasaeruginosa. At 4 and 8 µg/ml, gentamicin was ineffective on the three strains of Klebsiellapneumoniae while 8 µg/ml was moderately active on only two strains of Pseudomonasaeruginosa. One strain of Pseudomonasaeruginosa, UCH002, was resistant to gentamicin beyond 1,000 µ/ml. Gentamicin at 4 µ/ml was inhibitory to one strain of Escherichiacoli and two strains of Staphylococcusaureus. Though the antimicrobial activity of the two natural products tested had been previously reported against microbial agents of respiratory tract infection, it was also recorded in this study. The lack of activity of each of the three honey types used in this study against the Klebsiellapneumoniae strains tested underscores the need to exclude this organism from burn wound infections before embarking on treatment with honey. The sensitivity of one high-level gentamicin-resistant strain of Pseudomonasaeruginosa to honey and Garcinia kola seed extract was noteworthy considering the therapeutic failures of gentamicin and other antibiotics against Pseudomonasaeruginosa. PMID:21991206

  5. The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of Garcinia extract, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as a weight reduction agent, using data from randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in language or time. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified and twelve were included. Nine trials provided data suitable for statistical pooling. The meta-analysis revealed a small, statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring HCA over placebo (MD: ?0.88?kg; 95% CI: ?1.75, ?0.00). Gastrointestinal adverse events were twice as common in the HCA group compared with placebo in one included study. It is concluded that the RCTs suggest that Garcinia extracts/HCA can cause short-term weight loss. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should be more rigorous and better reported. PMID:21197150

  6. Anti-acne inducing bacteria activity and ?a-mangostin content of Garcinia mangostana fruit rind extracts from different provenience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werayut Pothitirat; Mullika Traidej Chomnawang; Wandee Gritsanapan

    The fruit rind of Garcinia mangostana Linn. has been traditionally used for treatment of skin infection, wounds, dysentery, and diarrhea. ?a-Mangostin, a major constituent of the fruit rind, was reported to possess a strong inhibitory effect against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is involved in acne development. This study was conducted to quantitative analyze the content of ?a-mangostin in

  7. In vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer effects of Garcinia mangostana xanthones extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Xanthones are a group of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds with remarkable pharmacological effects such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Methods A xanthones extract (81% ?-mangostin and 16% ?-mangostin), was prepared by crystallization of a toluene extract of G. mangostana fruit rinds and was analyzed by LC-MS. Anti-colon cancer effect was investigated on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-tumorigenicity, and effect on cell signalling pathways. The in vivo anti-colon cancer activity was also investigated on subcutaneous tumors established in nude mice. Results The extract showed potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration 6.5?±?1.0??g/ml), due to induction of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Three key steps in tumor metastasis including the cell migration, cell invasion and clonogenicity, were also inhibited. The extract and ?-mangostin up-regulate the MAPK/ERK, c-Myc/Max, and p53 cell signalling pathways. The xanthones extract, when fed to nude mice, caused significant growth inhibition of the subcutaneous tumor of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Conclusions Our data suggest new mechanisms of action of ?-mangostin and the G. mangostana xanthones, and suggest the xanthones extract of as a potential anti-colon cancer candidate. PMID:22818000

  8. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions from aerial parts of selected plants (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against some pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Melim, Carla; Guimarães, Karoliny; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Alves, Aurea Damaceno; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruza, Alexandre Bella; Niero, Rivaldo

    2013-11-01

    As part of the program of our research group to search for new and effective substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of four species from the Brazilian flora (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium) and Candida albicans (yeast). The extracts of R. niveus and M. velame showed promising antibacterial activity with MICs, ranging from 1000 to 125 microg/mL. Bio-guided fractionation of M. velame yielded four compounds, with the highest inhibition being observed for compound 3, with a MIC of 125 microg/mL against S. aureus. The combinations of fractions 2 and 4 showed beneficial effect against Gram-positive bacteria (additive effect), suggesting a possible synergistic effect. PMID:24427943

  9. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Garcinia hanburyi extracts by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xiangdong; Liang, Chuang; Dong, Lei; Qu, Xiaotong; Zhao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Gambogic acid and gambogenic acid are two major bioactive components of Garcinia hanburyi, and play a pivotal role in biologic activity. In this study, a specific and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using an isocratic elution with methanol-10 m m ammonium acetate buffer-acetic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray positive ionization using multiple reaction monitoring modes. The transitions monitored were m/z 629.3 [M + H](+) ? 573.2 for gambogic acid, m/z 631.2 [M + H](+) ? 507.2 for gambogenic acid and m/z 444.2 [M + NH4 ](+) ? 83.1 for IS. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 2.00-1000 ng/mL for gambogic acid and 0.500-250 ng/mL for gambogenic acid. The lower limits of quantification of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma were 2.00 and 0.500 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) values were <11.7% and accuracy (RE) was -10.6-12.4% at three QC levels for both analytes. The assay was successfully applied to evaluate pharmacokinetics behavior in rats after oral administration of Garcinia hanburyi extracts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25159917

  10. Garcinia cambogia - uma espécie vegetal como recurso terapêutico contra a obesidade?6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana C S Santos; Michelle S Alvarez; Priscila B Brandão; Ary G Silva

    Resumo Atualmente, a obesidade é um problema de saúde pública mundial, tanto nos países desenvolvidos como nos em desenvolvimento, apresentando elevação de sua prevalência. A transição nutricional é um processo de modificações seqüenciais no padrão de nutrição e consumo que acompanha mudanças econômicas, sociais e demográficas, e mudanças do perfil de saúde das populações. Este trabalho objetiva abordar a comprovação

  11. Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of (?)-Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA-SX) Isolated from Garcinia cambogia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Hwan Lee; Byung Mu Lee

    2007-01-01

    (?)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is widely used as an ingredient for nutritional supplements aimed at reducing food intake, appetite, and body weight. In this study, the genotoxicity of HCA was evaluated using three tests: a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), an in vitro chromosomal aberration (CA) test, and an in vivo micronucleus (MN) test. HCA was negative by the Ames

  12. Four new cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhong-Yan; Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Qiao, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Chao; Shen, Guo-Rong; Cai, Mei-Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the twigs of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of four new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones C-F (1-4), and ten known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. PMID:25727735

  13. Antiangiogenic tocotrienol derivatives from Garcinia amplexicaulis.

    PubMed

    Lavaud, Alexis; Richomme, Pascal; Litaudon, Marc; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Guilet, David

    2013-12-27

    Phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract from Garcinia amplexicaulis stem bark led to the isolation of four new tocotrienols (1-4); two known tocotrienols, two triterpenes, and a xanthone were also isolated. Their structures were mainly established using NMR and MS methods. The main compounds isolated, ?-amplexichromanol (1) and ?-amplexichromanol (2), were evaluated on VEGF-induced angiogenesis using a Matrigel assay. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited in vitro angiogenesis of VEGF-induced human primary endothelial cells in the low nanomolar range. Their capacity to inhibit VEGF-induced proliferation of endothelial cells partially explained this activity, although ?-amplexichromanol (1) also prevented adhesion and migration processes. PMID:24245984

  14. Antioxidative Compounds from Garcinia buchananii Stem Bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3??6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2?R,3?R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 ?M (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Garcinia or Hydroxycitric Acid: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Li Oon; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown “no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)” at levels up to 2800?mg/day, suggesting its safety for use. PMID:22924054

  16. Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid

    PubMed Central

    Farombi, Ebenezer O.; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

  17. Antioxidative and chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid.

    PubMed

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2011-06-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as "bitter kola", plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

  18. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Garcinia kola seeds.

    PubMed

    Okoko, Tebekeme

    2009-10-01

    Garcinia kola Heckel--a tropical plant which grows in moist forest, has found wide applications in traditional medicine especially in the West and Central African sub-region. The seeds have been demonstrated to possess numerous bioactivities but research is highly limited on the link between its fractions and the bioactivities. In this work, the methanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds was subjected to silica gel column chromatography into five fractions ME1-ME5 and the free radical scavenging activities and antioxidant potentials were determined for each fraction using various in vitro models. The ME4 fraction possessed the greatest activities. It was also demonstrated that the ME4 fraction strongly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide activated macrophage U937 cells. Chromatographic fractionation and spectroscopic analysis of the ME4 fraction revealed the presence of four compounds namely garcinia biflavonoids GB1 and GB2, garcinal and garcinoic acid. These findings show that these four compounds are partly responsible for the great antioxidant potential of Garcinia kola seeds. This gives further evidence to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential of Garcinia kola. PMID:19635523

  19. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of benzophenones and xanthones from edible fruits of Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Lyles, James T; Negrin, Adam; Khan, Shabana I; He, Kan; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones ?-mangostin (15), ?-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40 µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24 µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds. PMID:24963617

  20. Physicochemical properties of a novel (—)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Shara; Sunny E. Ohia; Robert E. Schmidt; Taharat Yasmin; Andrea Zardetto-Smith; Anthony Kincaid; Manashi Bagchi; Archana Chatterjee; Debasis Bagchi; Sidney J. Stohs

    2004-01-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (—)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a popular and natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in

  1. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zeng; Huang, Lei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Gong-Kan; Lan, Wen-Jian; Li, Hou-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, named 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-xanthone (1) and 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), together with the five known compounds garcinones C (3) and D (4), gartanin (5), xanthone I (6), and ?-mangostin (7). Their structures were elucidated primarily based on MS and NMR data. Compounds 1-7 showed significant cytotoxic activities against various human cancer cell lines. PMID:24509722

  2. Two new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojun; He, Luan; Wu, Xinxing; Zhong, Yanxia; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Yuanxing; Wang, Bin; Xu, Zhifang; Qiu, Shengxiang

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, designated garcimangosxanthone F (1) and garcimangosxanthone G (2), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established as 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone, respectively, on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and MS data interpretation. PMID:25299822

  3. Cytotoxic benzophenone and triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Kamal, Nik Nur Syazni Nik Mohamed; Osman, Hasnah; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of G. hombroniana. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of G. hombroniana yielded two new (1, 9) and thirteen known compounds which were characterized by the spectral techniques of NMR, UV, IR and EI/ESI-MS, and identified as; 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone(1), 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (2), 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (4), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (5),3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (7), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside (8), 18(13?17)-abeo-3?-acetoxy-9?,13?-lanost-24E-en-26-oic acid (9), garcihombronane B (10), garcihombronane D (11), friedelan-3-one (12), lupeol (13), stigmasterol (14) and stigmasterol glucoside (15). In the in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, DBTRG, U2OS and PC-3 cell lines, compounds 1 and 9 displayed good cytotoxic effects against DBTRG cancer cell lines. Compounds 1-8 were also found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Owing to these properties, this study can be further extended to explore more significant bioactive components of this plant. PMID:24813683

  4. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80?% (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2?µM for 3 and 6.3?µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3?µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. PMID:25340468

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

    The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

  6. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  7. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. PMID:24901833

  8. Isoprenylated xanthone and benzophenone constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia planchonii.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Duong Hoang; Ha, Ly Dieu; Tran, Phuong Thu; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa Dieu

    2014-12-01

    A new xanthone, planchoxanthone (1), together with six known compounds, garcinianone A (2), cowanin (3), rubraxanthone (4), f-mangostin (5), dulcisxanthone B (6), and guttiferone Q (7), were isolated from an n-hexane extract of the pericap of Garcinia planchonii. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds was tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. PMID:25632472

  9. Identification and characterization of anticancer compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy from Chinese native Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Xu, Naihan; Hu, Hui; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Gu, Yunzhi; Song, Zhijun; Cao, Peng; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. Active compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy are candidates for anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we collected Garcinia species from China and extracted them into water or ethanol fractions. Then, we performed a functional screen in search of novel apoptosis and autophagy regulators. We first characterized the anti-proliferation activity of the crude extracts on multiple cell lines. HeLa cells expressing GFP-LC3 were used to examine the effects of the crude extracts on autophagy. Their activities were confirmed by Western blots of A549 and HeLa cells. By using bioassay guided fractionation, we found that two caged prenylxanthones from Garcinia bracteata, neobractatin and isobractatin, can significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results suggest that different Garcinia species displayed various degrees of toxicity on different cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the use of a high content screening assay to screen natural products was an essential method to identify novel autophagy regulators. PMID:25478784

  10. A new xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Fu, Manqin; Qiu, Samuel X; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Chen, Yulong; Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2013-12-01

    A new prenylxanthone, garcimangostanol (1), was isolated from the EtOAc-soluble partition of the ethanol extract of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L., along with three known compounds, namely 8-deoxygartanin (2), 1-isomangostin (3), and garcinone C (4). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of its 1D, 2D NMR and MS data. Compounds 1-4 exhibited either significant o r moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, A549, Hep-G2 and CNEhuman cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 values from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 23.6+/- 1.5 microM by MTT colorimetric assay. PMID:24555285

  11. Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2?-hydroxy-3?-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods. PMID:24392659

  12. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. ?-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 ?g/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and ?-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 ?g/mL. PMID:25110196

  13. Some physical properties of tabletted seed of Garcinia kola (HECKEL).

    PubMed

    Onunkwo, G C; Egeonu, H C; Adikwu, M U; Ojile, J E; Olowosulu, A K

    2004-06-01

    The formulation of Garcinia kola seeds into tablet dosage form and evaluation of some physical properties of the tablets are presented. A chemical assay was conducted on the dry, powdered seeds as well as the crude aqueous extract of the seeds. The dry powdered seeds contain 0.003% of flavonoids while the crude extract contained 0.007% of flavonoids based on rutin used as the standard. The powdered material (50 mg) and crude extract (10 mg) were formulated into tablets using the wet granulation method. Named binders were evaluated in these formulations. The various tablet parameters were evaluated, namely: weight variation, thickness and diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration time, dissolution profile and content uniformity. The results indicated that the tablets had good disintegration time, dissolution and hardness/friability profiles. Tablets formulated with starch had the best disintegration properties but were consequently very friable. Tablets formulated from 10 mg of the crude extract needed a larger proportion of diluents, which affected the tablet properties. PMID:15187382

  14. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Methods 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. Results At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Conclusions Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp). PMID:25183269

  15. New cholinesterase inhibitors from Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Khaw, Kooi-Yeong; Vikneswaran, Murugaiyah

    2014-09-01

    A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge. PMID:24924287

  16. Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (?)-HCA

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (?)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. PMID:23990846

  17. An overview on genus garcinia : phytochemical and therapeutical aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hemshekhar; K. Sunitha; M. Sebastin Santhosh; S. Devaraja; K. Kemparaju; B. S. Vishwanath; S. R. Niranjana; K. S. Girish

    2011-01-01

    The genus Garcinia belongs to the family Clusiaceae and has been involved in ayurvedic preparations to medicate various pathophysiological disorders. The bioactive molecules\\u000a like hydroxycitric acid (HCA), flavonoids, terpenes, polysaccharides, procyanidines and polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivatives\\u000a like garcinol, xanthochymol and guttiferone isoforms have been isolated from the genus Garcinia. The genus has received the attention of pharmaceutical industries due to their

  18. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1?mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0?mg ?-carotene equivalents (BC)/100?g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

  19. Thermogenic Effect from Nutritionally Enriched Coffee Consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay R. Hoffman; Jie Kang; Nicholas A. Ratamess; Peter F. Jennings; Gerald Mangine; Avery D Faigenbaum

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionally enriched JavaFit™ (JF) coffee (450 mg of caffeine, 1200 mg of garcinia cambogia, 360 mg of citrus aurantium extract, and 225 mcg of chromium polynicotinate) on resting oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) in healthy and physically active individuals.

  20. Separation of Hydroxycitric Acid Lactone from Fruit Pectins and Polyhydroxyphenols on Poly(4-Vinylpyridine) Weak-Base Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. CHANDA; G. L. REMPEL

    2000-01-01

    Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) has been used for the separation of hydroxycitric acid lactone (HCAL) from polyhydroxyphenols and fruit pectins, as the study has relevance to the problem of extraction of the antiobesity substance hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia cambogia fruits, a rich source of the acid. PVP has been used both in free-base form and in protonated or salt form as a

  1. Antiplasmodial and other constituents from four Indonesian Garcinia spp.

    PubMed

    Elfita, Elfita; Muharni, Muharni; Latief, Madyawati; Darwati, Darwati; Widiyantoro, Ari; Supriyatna, Supriyatna; Bahti, Husein H; Dachriyanus, Dachriyanus; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Foubert, Kenne; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc

    2009-05-01

    Phytochemical investigations of four Garcinia spp. from Indonesia, i.e. Garcinia griffithii T. Anderson, Garcinia celebica L., Garcinia cornea L. and Garcinia cymosa K. Schum (Clusiaceae), have resulted in the isolation of a xanthone, 1,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2,7-diprenylxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone, isoxanthochymol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside from the stem bark of G. griffithii; friedelin and 3beta-hydroxy-23-oxo-9,16-lanostadien-26-oic acid or garcihombronane D from leaves of G. celebica; 23-hydroxy-3-oxo-cycloart-24-en-26-oic acid and epicatechin from stem bark of G. cornea; (+/-)-morelloflavone, morelloflavone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside or fukugiside, the triterpene 3beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid and canophyllol from stem bark of G. cymosa. The xanthone and garcihombronane D displayed a selective activity against Plasmodium falciparum; isoxanthochymol and the triterpene beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal activity. PMID:19481231

  2. Antimicrobial prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia goudotiana.

    PubMed

    Mahamodo, Sania; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel; Abedini, Amin; Ranarivelo, Heritiana; Duhal, Nathalie; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Lemoine, Amélie; Razafimahefa, Dorothée; Razanamahefa, Bakonirina; Bailleul, François; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina

    2014-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation using antimicrobial assay of the crude acetonic extract of Garcinia goudotiana leaves and of its five partitions led to the isolation of two new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, goudotianone 1 (1) and goudotianone 2 (2), in addition to two known compounds including one xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-isoprenylxanthone (3), and one triterpenoid, friedelin (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of different spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The crude acetonic extract, the methylene chloride and ethyl acetate partitions, and some tested compounds isolated from this species (1-3) demonstrated selective significant antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Enterococcus faecalis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The potential cytotoxic activities of these extracts and compounds were evaluated against human colon carcinoma HT29 and human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 cells. PMID:24690454

  3. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-07-25

    Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-? plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24960143

  4. Vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract (Garcinia mangostana Linn) in hypercholesterol-diet-given Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain

    PubMed Central

    Wihastuti, Titin Andri; Sargowo, Djanggan; Tjokroprawiro, Askandar; Permatasari, Nur; Widodo, Mohammad Aris; Soeharto, Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in atherosclerosis produces H2O2 and triggers the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-?B) and increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The formation of vasa vasorum occurs in atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis is mediated by VEGFR-1 and upregulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). The newly formed vasa vasorum are fragile and immature and thus increase plaque instability. It is necessary to control vasa vasorum angiogenesis by using mangosteen pericarp antioxidant. This study aims to demonstrate that mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract can act as vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition in rats given a hypercholesterol diet. Methods This was a true experimental laboratory, in vivo posttest with control group design, with 20 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats divided into five groups (normal group, hypercholesterol group, and hypercholesterol groups with certain doses of mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract: 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight). The parameters of this study were H2O2 measured by using colorimetric analysis, as well as NF-?B, iNOS, and HIF-1?, which were measured by using immunofluorescence double staining and observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope in aortic smooth muscle cell. The angiogenesis of vasa vasorum was quantified from VEGFR-1 level in aortic tissue and confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results Analysis of variance test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract had a significant effect (P<0.05) in decreasing vasa vasorum angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition in hypercholesterol-diet-given R. norvegicus Wistar strain. Conclusion Mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract 800 mg/kg body weight is proven to decrease vasa vasorum angiogenesis. Similar studies with other inflammatory parameters are encouraged to clarify the mechanism of vasa vasorum angiogenesis inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract. PMID:25187725

  5. Phenolic compounds from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Deachathai; W. Mahabusarakam; S. Phongpaichit; Y.-J. Zhang; C.-R. Yang

    2006-01-01

    Dulcisxanthones C–F (1–4) and dulcinone (5) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The abilities of some of these compounds to act as radical scavengers and antibacterial agents were investigated.

  6. alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Garcinia brevipedicellata (Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ngoupayo, Joseph; Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Tsamo, Etienne

    2008-10-01

    In our continuous search for alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from plants, four new depsidones named brevipsidones A-D (1-4) were isolated from stem bark of Garcinia brevipedicellata together with known damnacanthal, scopoletin and a mixture of stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. Structural elucidations were made by spectroscopic analyses including 2D-NMR data. PMID:18827392

  7. Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O; Adesanya, Saburi A; Idowu, Thomas O; Okimi, Oluwakemi C; Oyelami, Oyesiku A; Iwalewa, Ezekiel O

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. Patients and methods Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. All KOA patients presenting at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex were recruited into the study. The patients were grouped into four (A = Placebo, B = Naproxen, C = Garcinia kola, D = Celebrex). The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of 200 mg of G. kola, Naproxen (500 mg), Celebrex (200 mg) and Ascorbic acid (100 mg). The primary outcome measure over six weeks study period was the change in mean WOMAC pain visual analogue scales (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in joint stiffness and physical function (mobility/walking). Results 143 patients were recruited, 84 (58.7%, males – 24, females – 60) satisfied the selection criteria and completed the study. The effect of knee osteoarthritis bilateralism among the subjects was not significant on their outcome (p > 0.05). The change in the mean WOMAC pain VAS after six weeks of G. kola was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (p < 0.001). Multiple comparisons of the mean VAS pain change of G. kola group was not lowered significantly against the naproxen and celebrex groups (p > 0.05). The onset of G. kola symptomatic pain relief was faster than the placebo (p < 0.001). However, it was slower than the active comparators (p > 0.05). The duration of therapeutic effect of Garcinia kola was longer than the placebo (p > 0.001). G. kola period of effect was less than naproxen and celebrex (p < 0.001). G. kola subjects had improved mean change mobility/walking after six weeks better than the control group(p < 0.001). The mean change in mobility of the G. kola group when compared to the active comparators was not significantly better (p < 0.05). The mean change of knee joint stiffness (p < 0.001) and the change of mean WOMAC score (p < 0.001) were improved on Garcinia kola as compared to the placebo. The mid term outcome of eleven Garcinia kola subjects after cessation of use had a mean pain relief period of 17.27 +/- 5.15 days (range: 9–26 days). There was no significant cardiovascular, renal or drug induced adverse reaction to Garcinia kola. Conclusion Garcinia kola appeared to have clinically significant analgesic/anti-inflammatory effects in knee osteoarthritis patients. Garcinia kola is a potential osteoarthritis disease activity modifier with good mid term outcome. Further studies are required for standardization of dosages and to determine long-term effects. PMID:18667082

  8. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones Oraphin Chantarasriwong,[a, b

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    mole- cule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural the years Garcinia trees have retained considerable value as sources for medicines, pigments, gums, waxes to have medicinal potential.[4] The utility of the Garcinia trees in the arts and sciences is well

  9. Complete NMR assignments of bioactive rotameric (3???8) biflavonoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-07-01

    The genus Garcinia is reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Garcinia hombroniana in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to isolate the chemical constituents from the bark of G. hombroniana and explore their possible pharmacological potential. Ethyl acetate extract afforded one new (1) and six (2-7) known 3???8 rotameric biflavonoids. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy together with electron ionization/ESI mass spectrometric techniques and were identified as (2R, 3S) volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (1), volkensiflavone (2), 4?-O-methyl-volkensiflavone (3), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), morelloflavone (5), 3?-O-methyl-morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (7). The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned by circular dichroism spectroscopy as 2R, 3S. The coexistence of conformers of isolated biflavonoids in solution at 25?°C in different solvents was confirmed by variable temperature NMR studies. At room temperature (25?°C), compounds 1-7 exhibited duplicate NMR signals, while at elevated temperature (90?°C), a single set of signals was obtained. Compound 5 showed significant in vitro antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. The antibacterial studies showed that compounds 5 and 6 are the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3 and 6 also showed moderate antituberculosis activity against H38 Rv. Based on the research findings, G. hombroniana could be concluded as a rich source of flavanone-flavone (3???8) biflavonoids that exhibit rotameric behaviour at room temperature and display significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24700704

  10. Damnacanthal from the Congolese medicinal plant Garcinia huillensis has a potent preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dibwe, Dya Fita; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Screening of eight Congolese medicinal plants showed that the CHCl(3) and MeOH extracts of Aframomum melegueta (PC(50) ?=?47.8?µg/mL and 13.8?µg/mL, respectively) and CHCl(3) extracts of Garcinia huillensis (PC(50) ?=?17.8?µg/mL) and Securidaca longepedunculata (PC(50) ?=?23.4?µg/mL) had preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells under nutrient-deprived conditions. The active constituents of the CHCl(3) extract of G. huillensis were examined and 12 known anthraquinones were identified. Among them, damnacanthal (1) caused preferential necrotic cell death of PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells under nutrient-deprived and serum-sensitive conditions (PC(50) ?=?4.46?µm and 3.77?µm, respectively). PMID:22447631

  11. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species

    PubMed Central

    Sosef, Marc S.M.; Dauby, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii. PMID:23233817

  12. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    PubMed

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. PMID:21362142

  13. Phytochemical analysis and antinociceptive properties of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Marlova Manhabosco; Silva, Suellen; Alves, Douglas Rafael; Quintão, Nara Lins Meira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo

    2012-03-01

    In a search for new and effective analgesic substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present study evaluates the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the methanol extract and a pure compound obtained from the seeds of Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae). The methanolic seed extract was directly subjected to purification by column chromatography and the purification was monitored by thin-layer chromatography. The main isolated compound was identified as Guttiferone A by comparison of conventional spectroscopic data (IR, NMR-(1)H and (13)C) to the literature data which was isolated for the first time from this plant. When evaluated in the acetic acid-induced nociception model in mice, the methanolic seed extract had an ID(50) (Inhibitory dose) of 13.1 (11.23-14.91) mg/kg and a maximal inhibition of 72 ± 4%. In the same model, Guttiferone A had an ID(50) of 4.54 (3.29-6.24) mg/kg and a maximal inhibition of 73 ± 5%. The methanolic seed extract and Guttiferone A were also active in pain models induced by formalin, capsaicin, glutamate and carrageenan. These data suggest that the antinociceptive effect of Guttiferone A partly depends on its interference with the synthesis or activity of the cytokine TNF-?, the keratinocyte-derived chemokine KC, and/or PGE(2). These data support, at least in part, the use of G. achachairu in folk medicine and suggest that this plant is an important source of compounds with a suitable profile for development as new and effective medicinal agents to treat pain processes. PMID:22553054

  14. Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lemuel W Taylor; Colin D Wilborn; Travis Harvey; Jennifer Wismann; Darryn S Willoughby

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional coffee beverage containing additional caffeine, green tea extracts, niacin and garcinia cambogia to regular coffee to determine the effects on resting energy expenditure (REE) and hemodynamic variables. METHODS: Subjects included five male (26 ± 2.1 y, 97.16 ± 10.05 kg, 183.89 ± 6.60 cm) and five

  15. Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Asghar; Emmanuel Monjok; Ghislaine Kouamou; Sunny E. Ohia; Debasis Bagchi; Mustafa F. Lokhandwala

    2007-01-01

    Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium\\/potassium salt of (?)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of\\u000a the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation,\\u000a oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated

  16. Investigations on possible serotonergic involvement in effects of OB200G (polyherbal preparation) on food intake in female mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gurpreet Kaur; Shrinivas Krishnarao Kulkarni

    2001-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background OB-200G is a polyherbal preparation containing aqueous extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Gymnema sylvestre, Zingiber officinale, Piper longum and resin from Commiphora mukul, all possessing thermogenic properties. Our previous studies reveal OB-200G to exert antiobesity effects in dietary animal\\u000a models of obesity. Aim of the study The present study investigated the possible involvement of serotonergic system in the effect

  17. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of 7-epiclusianone, a prenylated benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Freitas, Lissara A S; Vilela, Fabiana C; Veloso, Clarice de C; da Rocha, Cláudia Q; Moreira, Maria E C; Dias, Danielle F; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; dos Santos, Marcelo H

    2011-11-16

    7-Epiclusianone, a natural prenylated benzophenone, was extracted from Garcinia brasiliensis Planch. & Triana (Clusiaceae), a native plant commonly known as bacupari and used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. As a result of the wide spectrum of biological activities attributed to polyisoprenylated benzophenones, the aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of 7-epiclusianone using two animal models. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and peritonitis were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of 7-epiclusianone in rats. The acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests were used to investigate its antinociceptive activity in mice. At test doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg p.o., 7-epiclusianone had an anti-inflammatory effect as demonstrated by the reduction of paw oedema induced by carrageenan and the inhibition of leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity. At the same doses, 7-epiclusianone inhibited nociception induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid, observed by the decrease in the number of writhing episodes. Additionally, 7-epiclusianone decreased licking time caused by a subplantar injection of formalin. Moreover, the hot plate test produced a significant increase in latency reaction, demonstrating an antinociceptive effect. The experimental data demonstrated that the polyisoprenylated benzophenone 7-epiclusianone has remarkable anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. PMID:21924261

  18. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively. PMID:25460314

  19. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterisation of the anti-Listeria components of Garcinia kola seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, D; Basson, K A; Mayekiso, B; Buwa, L; Okoh, I A

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption chromatography was used to separate the bioactive constituents of the crude n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds. The silica gel 60 column fractions were eluted using the solvent combination of benzene: ethanol : ammonium hydroxide (BEA) in the ratio combination of 36 : 4 : 0.4 v/v. The fractions were tested for anti-Listeria activities by determining their MIC50, MIC90 or MIC against 4 Listeria isolates. The fractions were labelled BEA1 to BEA5 and 3 out of the 5 fractions eluted were active against the test Listeria species with MIC's ranging from MIC 0.57 mg/mL to MIC50 0.625 mg/mL. The most active fractions, BEA2 and BEA3, were subjected to gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify their composition. Fraction BEA2 constituted of 18 compounds mostly sterols and the BEA3 fraction contained 27 compounds with the most abundant compounds being fatty acids derivatives. The BEA2 fraction's interactions with antibiotics proved to be 100% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin whilst it exhibited 50% additivity and 50% synergism with penicillin G. However, all the interactions of the BEA2 fraction with each of the conventional antibiotics used were synergistic against the human listeriosis causative bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:25757343

  20. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  1. Anti-Helicobacter pylori xanthones of Garcinia fusca.

    PubMed

    Nontakham, Jannarin; Charoenram, Napaporn; Upamai, Wanchalerm; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Suksamrarn, Sunit

    2014-08-01

    A new geranylated xanthone derivative, fuscaxanthone I (1), along with nine xanthones (2-9 and 11), a biphenyl (10) and three biflavonoids (12-14) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia fusca Pierre. Compounds 8, 10 and 11-14 were reported from this plant species for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori. Cowaxanthone (5) and fukugiside (14) exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against H. pylori DMST reference strain at MICs 4.6 and 10.8 ?M, respectively, than that of the control metronidazole. Isojacareubin (8) displayed the most potent activity against H. pylori HP40 clinical isolate with MIC 23.9 ?M, which was approximately two times greater than that of the standard drug amoxicillin. PMID:24155023

  2. Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 ?g/ml?M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 ?g/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 ?g/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). Conclusions The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude extract from G. nobilis, O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis as well as some of their compounds, and mostly compound 2 (isolated from G. nobilis,) could be considered as interesting natural antibacterial products. PMID:23574627

  3. Evaluation of the protective and ameliorative properties of Garcinia kola on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ibulubo, Mina T.; Eze, Gerald I.; Ozolua, Raymond I.; Baxter-Grillo, Doroteo; Uwaya, Dickson O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Garcinia kola is popularly used in African traditional medicine for the relief of acute bronchoconstrictive episodes. Objective: In this study, we examined the anti-asthmatic and morphological effects of the ethanol extract of G. kola in animal model. Materials and Methods: Guinea pigs were sensitized with ovalbumin and then given doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg/day for 21 consecutive days. Theophylline (10 mg/kg/day) was used as a standard. At the end of the exposure, the animals were exposed to 0.2% histamine aerosol in a chamber. Lymphocyte count, bronchial histology and morphometry were done. Results: Compared with non-sensitized controls, 200 mg/kg/day dose of the extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time taken for onset of preconvulsive dyspnea while the dose of 400 mg/kg/day significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bronchial wall thickness. Lymphocytes counts were not significantly affected but the bronchi of extract-treated animals were histologically clearer of lesions visible in the sensitized. Conclusion: These protective and ameliorative properties lend credence to the use of G. kola in ethnomedicine. PMID:23225963

  4. Cytotoxic compounds from the leaves of Garcinia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Lannang, Alain Meli; Tatsimo, Simplice J N; Fouotsa, Hugues; Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Saxena, Ajit Kumar; Sewald, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    A new compound, named banganxanthone C (=12-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-en-1-yl)-5,10-dihydroxy-9-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)-2H,6H-pyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6-one; 4), together with five known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia polyantha. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Among the known compounds, two were xanthones, one was a pentacyclic triterpene, one sterol, and one benzophenone derivative. Isoxanthochymol (2) and 4-[(2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl]-1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-9H-xanthen-9-one (3) exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against the leukemia cell line TPH-1 with IC50 inhibition values of 1.5 and 2.8??g/ml, respectively. The cytotoxic activity was found to be related to apoptosis induction. PMID:24934683

  5. Facultative Apomixis in Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae) and Effects of Different Pollination Regimes on Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Pangsuban, Sasithorn; Bamroongrugsa, Noparat; Kanchanapoom, Kamnoon; Nualsri, Charassri

    2009-01-01

    Various aspects of the reproductive success of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. were studied. Controlled pollination experiments were carried out in an orchard located in Songkhla province, southern Thailand, from February to July 2003. Floral longevity, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability were examined before carrying out the experiments. Three pollination treatments were compared: open pollination, manual pollination with bags, and bags without pollination (apogamy). Although there was no significant difference in the initial fruit set, bagged and manual pollination produced a significantly greater fruit drop rate than apogamy or natural pollination at one week after the flowers had been pollinated. On the other hand, the apogamy treatment had a greater fruit drop rate than natural and manual pollination treatments before fruit maturation. In addition, unpollinated bagged flowers bore fewer and smaller fruit than naturally and manually cross-pollinated flowers. Although the fruits from unpollinated flowers were capable of asexual seed formation, they produced fewer seeds and had poorer seed quality (defined as average fresh weight and germination rate) than those from the other treatments. The occurrence of asexual and sexual reproduction was also studied using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by comparing the patterns of bands produced from DNA extracted from the offspring of the naturally cross-pollinated fruits. On average, 58% of the offspring had a genetic constitution identical to that of the maternal parent (ranging from 36% to 87%), indicating that some offspring were produced without prior fertilisation. However, the remainder showed polymorphism, demonstrating the occurrence of sexual reproduction. These findings indicate that facultative apomixis occurred in the study population. However, a residual sexuality was important for fruit production, fruit size, normal seed set and seed quality. PMID:24575182

  6. Facultative Apomixis in Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae) and Effects of Different Pollination Regimes on Reproductive Success.

    PubMed

    Pangsuban, Sasithorn; Bamroongrugsa, Noparat; Kanchanapoom, Kamnoon; Nualsri, Charassri

    2009-12-01

    Various aspects of the reproductive success of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. were studied. Controlled pollination experiments were carried out in an orchard located in Songkhla province, southern Thailand, from February to July 2003. Floral longevity, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability were examined before carrying out the experiments. Three pollination treatments were compared: open pollination, manual pollination with bags, and bags without pollination (apogamy). Although there was no significant difference in the initial fruit set, bagged and manual pollination produced a significantly greater fruit drop rate than apogamy or natural pollination at one week after the flowers had been pollinated. On the other hand, the apogamy treatment had a greater fruit drop rate than natural and manual pollination treatments before fruit maturation. In addition, unpollinated bagged flowers bore fewer and smaller fruit than naturally and manually cross-pollinated flowers. Although the fruits from unpollinated flowers were capable of asexual seed formation, they produced fewer seeds and had poorer seed quality (defined as average fresh weight and germination rate) than those from the other treatments. The occurrence of asexual and sexual reproduction was also studied using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by comparing the patterns of bands produced from DNA extracted from the offspring of the naturally cross-pollinated fruits. On average, 58% of the offspring had a genetic constitution identical to that of the maternal parent (ranging from 36% to 87%), indicating that some offspring were produced without prior fertilisation. However, the remainder showed polymorphism, demonstrating the occurrence of sexual reproduction. These findings indicate that facultative apomixis occurred in the study population. However, a residual sexuality was important for fruit production, fruit size, normal seed set and seed quality. PMID:24575182

  7. Characterization of proapoptotic compounds from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Gao, Xue-Mei; Xu, Hong-Xi; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2014-05-23

    Twenty compounds from Garcinia oblongifolia were screened for proapoptotic activity using FRET-based HeLa-C3 sensor cells. Among them, oblongifolins F and G (1 and 2), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-13,13-dimethyl-2H-pyran[7,6-b]xanthone (3), nigrolineaxanthone T (4), and garcicowin B (5) showed significant proapoptotic activity at a concentration of 10 ?M. Bioassessments were then performed to evaluate the potential of these compounds for therapeutic application. All five compounds showed significant cytotoxicity and caspase-3-activating ability in cervical cancer HeLa cells, with compounds 1 and 2 having the highest potencies. All five compounds specifically induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, which could be prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. In particular, 3 induced apoptosis through mitotic arrest. Compounds 1-5 displayed similar IC50 values (3.9-16.5 ?M) against the three cancer cell lines HeLa, MDA-MB-435, and HepG2. In addition, compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited similar and potent IC50 values (2.4-5.1 ?M) against several breast and colon cancer cell lines, including those overexpressing either HER2 or P-glycoprotein. HER2 and P-glycoprotein are known factors that confer resistance to anticancer drugs in cancer cells. This is the first study on the cytotoxicity, caspase-3-activing ability, and specificity of proapoptotic compounds isolated from G. oblongifolia in HeLa cells. The potential application of these compounds against HER2- or P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cancer cells was investigated. PMID:24754786

  8. Rapid screening and identification of ?-amylase inhibitors from Garcinia xanthochymus using enzyme-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles coupled with HPLC and MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfang; Chen, Yu; Xiao, Chuying; Chen, Dan; Xiao, Yuxiu; Mei, Zhinan

    2014-06-01

    ?-Amylase inhibitors play an important role in management of diabetes and obesity. In order to rapidly discover potent ?-amylase inhibitors from medicinal plants, a ligands-screening method based on enzyme-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles integrated with HPLC was developed. Amine-terminated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared for the immobilization of ?-amylase. Based on the affinity theory, the ?-amylase-coated magnetic nanoparticles were employed to fish out the ligands from the extracts of Garcinia xanthochymus, and the elutes were examined by HPLC. As a result, three ligands were screened out. Isolation and identification were carried out subsequently. By analyzing the UV, MS and NMR spectra, they were identified as three biflavonoids including GB2a glucoside (2), GB2a (3) and fukugetin (4). The IC50 values of the three compounds were also determined. The results suggest the proposed approach is efficient and accurate, and has great potential in rapid discovery of drug candidates from medical plants. PMID:24814002

  9. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  10. A MYB transcription factor regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yossapol Palapol; Saichol Ketsa; Kui Lin-Wang; Ian B. Ferguson; Andrew C. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit undergo rapid red colour development, both on the tree and after harvest, resulting in high anthocyanin production\\u000a in the pericarp. Here, we report the isolation of three full-length mangosteen MYB transcription factors (GmMYB1, GmMYB7 and GmMYB10) and all the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (GmPal to GmUFGT). Phylogenetic analysis at the protein level of the R2R3-MYB

  11. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, D.; Buwa, L.; Mayekiso, B.; Basson, A. K.; Okoh, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through MIC determination and only Benz2 and Benz3 were found to be active with MIC's ranging from 0.625 to 2.5?mg/mL. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed Benz2 to have 9 compounds whilst Benz3 had 7 compounds, with the major compounds in both fractions being 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.?.) and 9,19-Cyclolanostan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3.?.). The Benz2 fraction was found to have mainly indifferent interactions with ampicillin and penicillin G whilst mainly additive interactions were observed with ciprofloxacin. The Benz3 fraction's interactions were found to be 50% synergistic with penicillin G and 25% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. A commercially available 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.?.) was found not to exhibit any antiListerial activities at maximum test concentrations of 5?mg/mL, suggesting that the compound could be acting in synergy with the other compounds in the eluted fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. PMID:24527056

  12. Removal of arsenic(III) from aqueous solutions using fresh and immobilized plant biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Kamala; K. H. Chu; N. S. Chary; P. K. Pandey; S. L. Ramesh; A. R. K. Sastry; K. Chandra Sekhar

    2005-01-01

    The ability of Garcinia cambogia, an indigenous plant found in many parts of India, to remove trivalent arsenic from solution was assessed. Batch experiments were carried out to characterize the As(III) removal capability of fresh and immobilized biomass of G. cambogia. It was found that the kinetic property and uptake capacity of fresh biomass were significantly enhanced by the immobilization

  13. Kaennacowanols A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the roots of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Kaennakam, Sutin; Siripong, Pongpun; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2015-04-01

    Three new xanthones, named kaennacowanols A-C (1-3), along with nineteen known xanthones were isolated from the roots of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB and HeLa cell lines. Compounds 17 and 22 showed good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 values of 7.97 and 9.10?M, respectively. On the other hand, compound 15 showed good cytotoxicity against HeLa cell with IC50 value of 9.34?M. PMID:25771120

  14. Chemistry of ?-mangostin. Studies on the semisynthesis of minor xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Carlo F; Biagiotti, Marco; Pappalardo, Valeria M; Rabuffetti, Marco; Speranza, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    ?-Mangostin is the major prenylated xanthone from Garcinia mangostana and it has been used also in recent times as starting material for the semisynthetic preparation of various biologically active derivatives. Its structure is characterised by the presence of few functional groups amenable to chemical manipulations, but present in the molecule in multiple instances (three phenolic hydroxyl groups, two prenyl chains and two unsubstituted aromatic carbons). This study represents a first approach to the systematic investigation of the reactivity of ?-mangostin and describes the semisynthesis of some minor xanthones isolated from G. mangostana. PMID:25482370

  15. A tocotrienol series with an oxidative terminal prenyl unit from Garcinia amplexicaulis.

    PubMed

    Lavaud, Alexis; Richomme, Pascal; Gatto, Julia; Aumond, Marie-Christine; Poullain, Cyril; Litaudon, Marc; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Guilet, David

    2015-01-01

    Ten tocotrienol derivatives, i.e., amplexichromanols (1-10), were isolated from stem bark of Garcinia amplexicaulis Vieill. ex Pierre collected in Caledonia. The structures of the compounds 1-5 were determined to be chromanol derivatives substituted by a polyprenyl chain oxidized in terminal position. The remaining compounds 6-10 are the corresponding dimeric derivatives. Eleven known compounds, including xanthones, tocotrienol derivatives, triterpenes and phenolic compounds, were also isolated. Their structures were mainly determined using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectroscopy analysis. The compounds and some amplexichromanol molecules formerly isolated from G. amplexicaulis exhibited significant antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and in the ORAC assay. PMID:25468538

  16. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tona; R. K. Cimanga; K. Mesia; C. T. Musuamba; T. De Bruyne; S. Apers; N. Hernans; S. Van Miert; L. Pieters; J. Totté; A. J. Vlietinck

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50<3?g\\/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem

  17. Unified synthesis of caged Garcinia natural products based on a site-selective Claisen DielsAlder

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    Unified synthesis of caged Garcinia natural products based on a site-selective Claisen Diels natural prod- ucts has been designed and implemented. Central to the strategy is a tandem Claisen Diels natural products with high pharmaceutical potential (3). For example, gamboge, the com- mercially

  18. Molecular docking studies and in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of chemical constituents of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Atlas, Amir; Khan, Imran; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3?-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE. PMID:25219673

  19. Bioactive Prenylated Xanthones from the Young Fruits and Flowers of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Siridechakorn, Ittipon; Maneerat, Wisanu; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2015-02-27

    Five new xanthones, garciniacowones A-E (1-5), together with 14 known xanthones, 6-19, were isolated from the young fruits and fresh flowers of Garcinia cowa. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and mass spectrometric data. The compounds 1-19 were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity and for their ability to inhibit ?-glucosidase. Compounds 16 and 17 showed the most potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 7.8 ± 0.5 and 8.7 ± 0.3 ?M, respectively. Compounds 8, 9, and 19 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with identical MIC values of 2 ?g/mL, while 8, 10, and 19 exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688 with identical MIC values of 4 ?g/mL. PMID:25651042

  20. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Cimanga, R K; Mesia, K; Musuamba, C T; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Hernans, N; Van Miert, S; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

    2004-07-01

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50 < 3 microg/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant. Their respective petroleum ether soluble fractions also exhibited an antiplasmodial activity with IC50 < 3 microg/ml. EtOH extracts from Vernonia amygdalina leaves (5 < IC50 < 10 microg/ml), Tetracera poggei leaves (10 < IC50 < 50 microg/ml) and Morinda morindoides leaves (50 < IC50 < 100 microg/ml) were less active, but their petroleum ether fractions exhibited a pronounced antiplasmodial activity (IC50 < 3 microg/ml). The same observation could also be made for the petroleum ether fraction from Cassia occidentalis, Euphorbia hirta, Garcinia kola and Phyllanthus niruri. Isoamyl alcohol fractions from Euphorbia hirta, Phyllanthus niruri and Vernonia amygdalina showed IC50) values less than 3 microg/ml, and from Cassia occidentalis, Garcinia kola, Morinda morindoides and Tetracera poggei between 10 and 50 microg/ml. The observed antiplasmodial activity may be related to the presence of terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones and anthraquinones. PMID:15182900

  1. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs

    PubMed Central

    Padhye, Subhash; Ahmad, Aamir; Oswal, Nikhil; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as an anti-cancer agent, and it is increasingly being realized that garcinol is a pleiotropic agent capable of modulating key regulatory cell signaling pathways. Here we have summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on garcinol and its observed biological activities. We have also provided an explanation of observed properties based on its chemical structure and provided an insight into the structure and properties of chalcones, the precursors of garcinol. The available data is promising but more detailed investigations into the various properties of this compound, particularly its anti-cancer activity are urgently needed, and it is our hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this nature's wonder agent. PMID:19725977

  2. DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM TOXICITY AND PROTECTION BY XANTHONE DERIVATIVE OF GARCINIA MANGOSTANA

    PubMed Central

    Tangpong, J.; Miriyala, S.; Noel, T.; Sinthupibulyakit, C.; Jungsuwadee, P.; St. Clair, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is a potent, broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic drug used around the world. Despite its effectiveness, it has a wide range of toxic side effects, many of which most likely result from its inherent pro-oxidant activity. It has been reported that Dox has toxic effects on normal tissues, including brain tissue. The present study tested the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia Mangostana against Dox-induced neuronal toxicity. Xanthone can prevent Dox from causing mononuclear cells to increase the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?). We show that xanthone given to mice before Dox administration suppresses protein carbonyl, nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2?-nonenal (4HNE)-adducted proteins in brain tissue. The levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL were significantly increased in Dox-treated mice compared with the control group. Consistent with the increase of apoptotic markers, the levels of caspase-3 activity and TUNEL-positive cells were also increased in Dox-treated mice. Pretreatment with xanthone suppressed Dox-induced increases in all indicators of injury tested. Together, the results suggest that xanthone prevents Dox-induced central nervous system toxicity, at least in part, by suppression of Dox-mediated increases in circulating TNF?. Thus, xanthone is a good candidate for prevention of systemic effects resulting from reactive oxygen generating anticancer therapeutics. PMID:21074598

  3. Immunomodulatory activities of kolaviron, a mixture of three related biflavonoids of Garcinia kola Heckel.

    PubMed

    Nworu, C S; Akah, P A; Esimone, C O; Okoli, C O; Okoye, F B C

    2008-01-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of kolaviron (KV), a mixture of three related biflavonoids of Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae), were investigated. The study was conducted using in vitro and in vivo immunocompetent and immunocompromised animal models. KV (250 and 500 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of delayed-type hypersensitivity in rats and also caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the primary and secondary sheep erythrocytes-specific antibody titres in rats. In vitro, KV inhibited the classical complement system at concentrations greater than 100 microg/ml. The administration of KV ameliorated the cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenia and increased the proportion of lymphocytes count in rats after 14 days of treatment. Administration of KV on alternate days after immunosuppression with cyclophospamide increased the rate of excision wound closure and reduced epithelialization period from 21.75 to 15.5 days. This study established the immunomodulatory and immunorestorative properties of KV, which could be harnessed for possible clinical benefits to immunodeficient patients. PMID:18569087

  4. Mangostanaxanthones I and II, new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaaban, Mona I A; Ross, Samir A

    2014-10-01

    Two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (3) and II (5) were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, along with four known xanthones: 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (1), parvifolixanthone C (2), ?-mangostin (4), and rubraxanthone (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, UV, 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. Compounds 3 and 5 displayed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 12.07 and 14.12 ?M, respectively using DPPH assay. Compounds 4-6 had weak to moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while demonstrated promising action against Bacillus cereus with MICs 0.25, 1.0, and 1.0mg/mL, respectively. The tested compounds were inactive against Candida albicans. However, they showed selective antifungal potential toward Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 3 and 4 possessed quorum-sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. PMID:25128900

  5. New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lin, Li-Gen

    2015-02-11

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. This condition, and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be a promising source for developing effective and safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree, and its fruit, mangosteen, is called 'Queen of Fruit'. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medicinal agent for treatment of various diseases. Products derived from mangosteen are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. This review summarizes the recent chemical and pharmacological studies related to G. mangostana, including weight reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activity. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing and treating obesity, which should encourage more interest in the development of relevant therapeutic methods. PMID:25520256

  6. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex of Garcinia kola seeds modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Ayepola, Omolola R; Cerf, Marlon E; Brooks, Nicole L; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is a complex disease that involves increased production of free radicals which is a strong stimulus for the release of pro-inflammatory factors. We evaluated the renal protective effect of kolaviron (KV) - a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of 5 flavonoids, in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: untreated controls (C); normal rats treated with kolaviron (C+KV); untreated diabetic rats (D); kolaviron treated diabetic rats (D+KV). A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg) was used for the induction of diabetes. Renal function parameters were estimated in a clinical chemistry analyzer. Markers of oxidative stress in the kidney homogenate were analyzed in a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader and Bio-plex Promagnetic bead-based assays was used for the analysis of inflammatory markers. The effect of kolaviron on diabetes-induced apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay. In the diabetic rats, alterations in antioxidant defenses such as an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were observed. There was no difference in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Diabetes induction increased apoptotic cell death and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? with no effect on IL-10. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation and increased ORAC and GSH concentration in renal tissues. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats also suppressed renal IL-1?. The beneficial effects of kolaviron on diabetes-induced kidney injury may be due to its inhibitory action on oxidative stress, IL-1? production and apoptosis. PMID:25481391

  7. Garcimultiflorone G, a novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative from Garcinia multiflora with inhibitory activity on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung

    2014-05-01

    A novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative, garcimultiflorone G (1), was isolated from the fruits of Garcinia multiflora. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. Garcimultiflorone G (1) showed inhibitory effects against superoxide anion (O·2(-) generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB), with IC50 values of 6.97 ± 1.56 and 11.70 ± 1.58 ?M, respectively. PMID:24827693

  8. Cowabenzophenones A and B, two new tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione derivatives, from ripe fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Machan, Theeraphan; Phakhodee, Wong; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Two new tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione derivatives, cowabenzophenones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from ripe fruits of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione skeleton from the Garcinia genus is reported for the first time. PMID:24334104

  9. Effects of Central Kalimantan plant extracts on intraerythrocytic Babesia gibsoni in culture.

    PubMed

    Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Trimurningsih; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2004-07-01

    The inhibitory effects of 45 plant extracts selected from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia on Babesia gibsoni in vitro and their acute toxicity to mice were evaluated. Of these plant extracts studied, Arcangelisia flava, Curcuma zedoaria, Garcinia benthamiana, Lansium domesticum and Peronema canescens were found to have appreciable antibabesial activity with IC50 values from 5.3 to 49.3 microg/ml without acute toxicity in mice at the intraperitoneal dose of 0.7 g/kg of body weight. PMID:15297762

  10. Natural products: a safest approach for obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Neeru; Yadav, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize adverse reactions associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The use of natural products as medicine has been documented for hundreds of years in various traditional systems of medicines throughout the world. This review focuses on the medicinal plants such as Achyranthus aspera, Camellia sinensis, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, etc., being used traditionally in Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Chinese, etc., systems of medicine. The review also highlights recent reported phytochemicals such as escins, perennisosides, dioscin, gracillin, etc., and the various extracts of the plants like Nelumbo nucifera, Panax japonicas, Cichorium intybus, Cyperus rotundus, Paeonia suffruticosa, etc., which have been successfully identified for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22821661

  11. Kolaviron, a Garcinia biflavonoid complex ameliorates hyperglycemia-mediated hepatic injury in rats via suppression of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia-induced liver injury. Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds have been shown to possess anti- inflammatory properties which has not been explored in diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of KV on pro-inflammatory proteins in the liver of diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Kolaviron (100 mg/kg) was administered orally five times a week for six weeks. The concentrations of cytokines and chemokine were measured using Bio-plex Pro™ magnetic bead-based assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). Plasma glucose and serum biomarkers of liver dysfunction were analyzed with diagnostic kits in an automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Insulin concentration was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Result Kolaviron (100mg/kg) treatment significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction. Serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes were significantly reduced in kolaviron treated diabetic rats. Kolaviron prevented diabetes induced increase in the hepatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-?) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the hepatoprotective effects of kolaviron in diabetic rats may be partly associated with its modulating effect on inflammatory responses. PMID:24359406

  12. Inhibition effects of mangosenone F from Garcinia mangostana on melanin formation in B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyung Won; Jeong, Seong Hun; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Jung, Sunin; Lee, Ji Won; Woo, Hyun Sim; Cho, Jung Keun; Park, Ki Hun

    2012-08-29

    Melanogenesis can be controlled by tyrosinase inhibition or by blocking the maturation processes of tyrosinase and its related proteins. Mangostenone F was isolated from the seedcases of Garcinia mangostana . Mangostenone F was shown to be inactive against tyrosinase (IC50 > 200 ?M) but was a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor in vitro (IC50 = 21.0 ?M). Mangostenone F was found to inhibit production of melanin in the mouse melanoma cell line B16F10. Importantly, unlike most glycosidase inhibitors, mangostenone F displayed very low cytotoxicity (EC50 > 200 ?M). The Western blot for expression levels of proteins involved in melanogenesis showed that mangostenone F down-regulated tyrosinase and TRP-2 expression. Treating B16F10 cells with mangostenone F significantly increased the susceptibility of tyrosinase to endoglycosidase H digestion, indicating that tyrosinase was unable to mature fully and pass to the trans-golgi apparatus. Consistent with these data, in lysate assays, mangostenone F was shown to be a better inhibitor of ?-glucosidases than deoxynojirimycin, a representative glycosidase inhibitor. PMID:22779928

  13. Anti-ulcerogenic and proton pump (H+, K+ ATPase) inhibitory activity of Kolaviron from Garcinia kola Heckel in rodents.

    PubMed

    Onasanwo, Samuel A; Singh, Neetu; Olaleye, Samuel B; Palit, Gautam

    2011-06-01

    Anti-ulcer potential and proton pump inhibitory activity of kolaviron (KV) isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel has been evaluated using different ulcer models. Cold-restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP), alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models were used to assess anti-ulcerogenic activity of KV in rats. Effects of KV on gastric juice for free and total acidity, peptic activity and mucin secretion were also evaluated. The H+, K+-ATPase activity was assayed in gastric microsomes, spectrophotometrically. Results of this study showed that KV (200 mg/kg) reduced the incidence of ulcers in CRU (69.0%), PL (67.6%), ASP (68.6%) and AL (51.5%). Reductions were also observed in free acidity (32.6%), total acidity (56.2%) and peptic activity (35.4%) with increase in mucin secretion by 40.1%. KV inhibited the H+,K+-ATPase activity with IC50 of 43.8 microg/ml compared with omeprazole with IC50 of 32.3 microg/ml. KV showed both cytoprotective and anti-secretory potentials against peptic ulcer models, and a proton pump inhibitory activity. KV may emerge as a potent anti-ulcer compound. PMID:21702226

  14. Neuroprotective effects of xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2014-08-01

    Lead poisoning is a common environmental toxicity and low level of lead exposure is responsible for neurobehavioral or intelligence defects. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetycholinesterase (AChE) dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice. ICR mice were exposed to lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1%) with or without xanthone co-administration (100 and 200mg/kgBW/day) for 38days. Xanthone possesses a high phenolic content, which is positive correlation with its antioxidant activity (R(2)=0.98). The IC50 of xanthone on scavenging free radical activities, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in cell-free system were 0.48±0.08, 1.88±0.09, 2.20±0.03 and 0.98±0.40mg/mL, respectively. We found that Pb induced AChE dysfunction and memory deficit in a dose dependent manner, indicated by in vitro and in vivo studies. However, xanthone significantly restored AChE activity in the blood and brains of mice and prevented Pb-induced neurobehavioral defect indicators with Forced Swimming and Morris water maze tests. Xanthone treatment improved all indicators compared to the Pb-treated group. In conclusion, xanthone alleviates Pb-induced neurotoxicity, in part, by suppression of oxidative damage and reversing AChE activity with a reduction in learning deficit and memory loss. PMID:24795231

  15. Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.

    PubMed

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1. PMID:25128427

  16. Efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% Aqueous Eye Drops in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Adefule-Ositelu, Adebukunola O.; Adegbehingbe, Bernice O.; Adefule, Adebayo K.; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O.; Samaila, Elsie; Oladigbolu, Kehinde

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% aqueous solution eye drops in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (POAG/OH). Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, active-controlled prospective study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive Timolol 0.5% eye drops as a control medication (A = Group 1 eyes) or Garcinia kola 0.5% eye drops as the study medication (B = Group 2 eyes). All drops were instilled at 6 am and 6 pm daily. Goldman applanation tonometry was performed at 9 am, 12 pm and 3 pm at baseline, week-6, week-12 and week-24 visits. Voluntary and actively elicited reports of adverse events were documented. The mean change in IOP over 24 weeks was the primary outcome measure. Both groups were compared for statistically significant differences at all visits. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to G. kola and Timolol groups. At baseline there were no differences in mean IOP between groups, based on age, sex, or diagnosis. At the end of the study period (24th week), the mean (± SD) reduction in IOP was 12.93 ± 2.3 mmHg (47.8% ± 0.8% reduction) in G. Kola group and 13.09 ± 2.8 mm Hg (48.2% ± 1.03% reduction) in the Timolol group (P > 0.05). Adverse events were mild in nature with no statistically significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Garcinia kola ophthalmic solution significantly reduces IOP as compared to baseline. The IOP lowering effect of both treatments was equivalent. PMID:20543944

  17. DESTRUCTION OF HISTAMINE BY COOKING INGREDIENTS- AN ARTIFACT OF ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TJINITA M. THADHANI; E. R. JANSZ; HEMANTHA PEIRIS

    recent article reported that histamine can be destroyed by cooking ingredients such as Garcinia cambogia (gorakal, Tamarindus indica isiyambala) and Averrhoa bilimbi (bilini. It was further reported that the same effects are observed with some pure common organic acids normaily present in food. In this paper we provide evidence that the results previously obtained was an artifact of analysis, specifically

  18. Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: A case for better post-marketing surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ano Lobb

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia . These case reports may substantially undercount the true magnitude of harm. Based on the past experience with harmful dietary supplements, US regulators should assume the more precautionary approach favored by Canada and Europe. Lacking effective

  19. Safety assessment of (?)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax ®, a novel calcium\\/potassium salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Soni; G. A. Burdock; H. G. Preuss; S. J. Stohs; S. E. Ohia; D. Bagchi

    2004-01-01

    (?)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10–30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake. The objective of this review is

  20. A botanical approach to managing obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilip Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    metabolic syndrome in check like obesity. There are few drugs in the market to ameliorate or prevent obesity but there are the costs, efficacy and side effects to consider. For centuries people across the countries have been using natural products and plant based dietary supplements for weight control. The current review will consists of one South Asian herb, Garcinia cambogia

  1. Identification and antibacterial evaluation of bioactive compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.

    PubMed

    Seanego, Christinah T; Ndip, Roland N

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the bioactivity of G. kola seeds on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Salmonella typhimurium. The crude ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion method and their activities were further determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. The extracts were fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Bioautography was used to assess the activity of the possible classes of compounds present in the more active extracts. Column chromatography was used to purify the active compounds from the mixture, while GC-MS was used to identify the phytocomponents of the fractions. The inhibition zone diameters of the extracts ranged from 0-24 ± 1.1 mm, while MIC and MBC values ranged between 0.04-1.25 mg/mL and 0.081-2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) solvent system separated more active compounds. The MIC of the fractions ranged between 0.0006-2.5 mg/mL. CEF 3 (F3), CEF 11 (F11) and CEF 12 (F12) revealed the presence of high levels of linoleic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl ester, respectively. The results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and provide leads which could be further exploited for the development of new and potent antimicrobials. PMID:22728354

  2. Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

    1999-12-15

    Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

  3. Anti-babesial activity of some central kalimantan plant extracts and active oligostilbenoids from Shorea balangeran.

    PubMed

    Subeki; Nomura, Shinkichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Trimurningsih; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2005-05-01

    Bark extracts from a total of 22 species of Central Kalimantan plants were evaluated for their anti-babesial activity against Babesia gibsoni in vitro. Of these plant species, extracts of Calophyllum tetrapterum, Garcinia rigida, Lithocarpus sp., Sandoricum emarginatum, and Shorea balangeran showed more than 90% inhibition of the parasite growth at a test concentration of 1000 microg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation of the bark of S. balangeran (Dipterocarpaceae) led to the reisolation of oligostilbenoids, vaticanol A(1), B(2), and G(3). The structures were determined on the basis of spectral evidence. Compounds 1 and 3 showed complete inhibition on the growth of Babesia gibsoni in vitro at a concentration of 25 microg/mL, and compound 2 at concentration of 50 microg/mL. PMID:15931579

  4. Inhibition of CHOP accentuates the apoptotic effect of ?-mangostin from the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-10-10

    The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit has been a popular food in Southeast Asia for centuries and is increasing in popularity in Western countries. We identified ?-Mangostin as a primary phytochemical modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer cells and propose that ?-Mangostin is responsible for exerting a biological effect in prostate cancer cells. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with ?-Mangostin and evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blot, fluorescent microscopy and siRNA transfection to evaluate ER stress. Next, we evaluated ?-Mangostin for microsomal stability, pharmacokinetic parameters, and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. ?-Mangostin significantly upregulated ER stress markers in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, ?-Mangostin did not promote ER stress in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) from prostate cancer patients. CHOP knockdown enhanced ?-Mangostin-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. ?-Mangostin significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Our study suggests that ?-Mangostin is not the only active constituent from the mangosteen fruit requiring further work to understand the complex chemical composition of the mangosteen. PMID:25261723

  5. Effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, on the antioxidant, hormonal and spermatogenic indices of diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, O A; Lawal, S O

    2014-10-01

    The antihyperglycaemic effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola has been established in previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of KV (200 mg kg(-1) ) on the antioxidant, hormonal and spermatogenic indices of alloxan-diabetic male rats, and metformin hydrochloride (MET) (30 mg kg(-1) ) served as standard drug. The results showed that KV and MET significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic rats. Also, untreated and MET-treated diabetic groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower body-weight gain and relative weights of testes. In addition, epididymal sperm abnormalities were increased, whereas sperm count, motility, testicular protein and sialic acid were decreased in untreated diabetic group. Also, antioxidant parameters, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the testes with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation in untreated diabetic group. Furthermore, untreated diabetic group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower levels of testosterone, luteinising and follicle-stimulating hormones relative to controls. Treatment with KV restored the relative weights of testes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, sperm and hormonal indices of the diabetic animals. This study demonstrated the role of KV to promote fertility in diabetic male rats by enhancing the hormonal and antioxidant status of the rats. PMID:24007369

  6. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

  7. Chemistry, physiological properties, and microbial production of hydroxycitric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Yamada; Hiroyuki Hida; Yasuhiro Yamada

    2007-01-01

    The tropical plants Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa produce hydroxycitric acid (HCA), of which the absolute configurations are (2S,3S) and (2S,3R), respectively. (2S,3S)-HCA is an inhibitor of ATP-citrate lyase, which is involved in fatty acid synthesis. (2S,3R)-HCA inhibits pancreatic ?-amylase and intestinal ?-glucosidase, leading to a reduction in carbohydrate metabolism. In this\\u000a study, we review current knowledge on the structure,

  8. Effects of (?)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Mattes; Leslie Bormann

    2000-01-01

    (?)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) reportedly promotes weight loss, in part, through suppression of hunger. However, this mechanism has never been evaluated in humans in a controlled study. Eighty-nine mildly overweight females were prescribed 5020-kJ diets for 12 weeks as part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Forty-two participants ingested 400-mg caplets of Garcinia cambogia 30–60 min prior to meals for

  9. Kolaviron, a Garcinia kola Biflavonoid Complex, Protects Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: Pertinent Mechanistic Insights from Biochemical and Physical Evaluations in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Akinrinola, Bolanle L; Olaleye, M Tolulope; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-04-01

    The pathophysiology of stroke is characterized by biochemical and physical alterations in the brain. Modulation of such aberrations by therapeutic agents affords insights into their mechanism of action. Incontrovertible evidences that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of neurologic disorders have brought antioxidative compounds, especially plant phytochemicals, under increasing focus as potential remedies for the prevention and management of neurodegenerative diseases. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) was evaluated for neuroprotectivity in brains of male Wistar rats submitted to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). Animals were divided into six groups: sham treated, vehicle (I/R), 50 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 100 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 200 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R and quercetin (20 mg/kg i.p.) + I/R. The common carotid arteries were occluded for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Relative brain weight and brain water content were determined and oxidative stress and neurochemical markers were also evaluated. I/R caused significant decreases in glutathione level and the activities of enzymic antioxidants, the sodium pump and acetylcholinesterase while significant increases were recorded in relative brain weight, brain water content, lipid peroxidation and the activities of glutamine synthetase and myeloperoxidase. There was a remarkable ablation of I/R induced oxidative stress, neurochemical aberrations and brain edema in animals pretreated with kolaviron. The results suggested that the protection afforded by kolaviron probably involved regulation of redox and electrolyte homeostasis as well as anti-inflammatory and antiexcitotoxic mechanisms. PMID:25638229

  10. In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 ?g/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 ?g/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum. PMID:18844256

  11. A review on botanical species and chemical compounds with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control.

    PubMed

    Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-09-01

    As obesity has reached epidemic proportions, the management of this global disease is of clinical importance. The availability and popularity of natural dietary supplements for the treatment of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this paper was to review the effect of commonly available over the counter plant-derived supplements used to suppress appetite for obesity control and management. The data were obtained from the electronic databases PubMed, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE with full text (via EBSCOHost) and the databases were accessed during late 2012 - early January 2013. The botanical species discussed in this review include Camellia sinensis, Caralluma fimbriata, Citrus aurantium, Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia and Phaseolus vulgaris. This review found that many botanical species including crude extracts and isolated compounds from plants have been shown to provide potentially promising therapeutic effects including appetite control and weight loss. However, many of these crude extracts and compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms of action, long term safety, and potential side effects. PMID:23666454

  12. Tooth Extraction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the immune system. Wisdom teeth , also called third molars, are often extracted either before or after they ... sinus during removal of an upper back tooth (molar) — A small hole usually will close up by ...

  13. DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janice Stephens

    2011-01-01

    In this activity related to plant biotechnology, learners extract DNA from fruit to investigate how it looks and feels. The procedure is similar to what scientists have to do before they can use information contained in this DNA. This lesson guide includes procedure and discussion questions to help learners reflect on the process and purpose of DNA extraction. Modifications for younger learners are included in a related PDF (see related resources).

  14. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  15. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14?weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30?min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500?kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26?±?2.37?kg compared with 0.56?±?2.34?kg for placebo (pU ?=?0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. PMID:24797657

  16. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  17. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  18. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    PubMed Central

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  19. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:22016616

  20. Extraction of Dicarboxylic Acids by ABC Extractants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Syzova; A. M. Eyal; A. Vitner; B. Hazan

    2004-01-01

    Extraction of various dicarboxylic acids (maleic, malic, malonic, succinic, and tartaric) by acid–base couple (ABC) extractants was studied. The main extraction mechanisms were found to be ion?pair and hydrogen?bond formation. The relative contribution of each mechanism and extraction efficiency were found to be controlled by parameters such as acid–base properties and hydrogen?bonding capability of the components of the ABC extractants

  1. ?-Mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn) reduces tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in an immunocompetent xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer carrying a p53 mutation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mangosteen fruit has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Recently, the compound ?-mangostin, which is isolated from the pericarp of the fruit, was shown to induce cell death in various types of cancer cells in in vitro studies. This led us to investigate the antitumor growth and antimetastatic activities of ?-mangostin in an immunocompetent xenograft model of mouse metastatic mammary cancer having a p53 mutation that induces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancers. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of BALB/c mice syngeneic with metastatic BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with ?-mangostin at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps and histopathologically examined. To investigate the mechanisms of antitumor ability by ?-mangostin, in vitro studies were also conducted. Results Not only were in vivo survival rates significantly higher in the 20 mg/kg/day ?-mangostin group versus controls, but both tumor volume and the multiplicity of lymph node metastases were significantly suppressed. Apoptotic levels were significantly increased in the mammary tumors of mice receiving 20 mg/kg/day and were associated with increased expression of active caspase-3 and -9. Other significant effects noted at this dose level were decreased microvessel density and lower numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells in mammary carcinoma tissues. In vitro, ?-mangostin induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and G1-phase arrest and S-phase suppression in the cell cycle. Since activation by Akt phosphorylation plays a central role in a variety of oncogenic processes, including cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic cell death, angiogenesis and metastasis, we also investigated alterations in Akt phosphorylation induced by ?-mangostin treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that ?-mangostin significantly decreased the levels of phospho-Akt-threonine 308 (Thr308), but not serine 473 (Ser473), in both mammary carcinoma cell cultures and mammary carcinoma tissues in vivo. Conclusions Since lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer patients, the antimetastatic activity of ?-mangostin as detected in mammary cancers carrying a p53 mutation in the present study may have specific clinical applications. In addition, ?-mangostin may have chemopreventive benefits and/or prove useful as an adjuvant therapy, or as a complementary alternative medicine in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:21639868

  2. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  3. PITFALLS OF SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increasing number of researchers are using sequential extraction to determine the speciation of trace elements in sediments. nfortunately, sequential extraction methods have not been successfully validated. he results are simply taken as providing "operational definitions" of ...

  4. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Extract Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera grapes.jpg © Steven Foster On this page: What ... naturaldatabase.com on June 25, 2009. Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed ...

  5. Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®) Patient Version Health Professional Version Last Modified: 02/20/2014 Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®) Overview Questions and Answers About Mistletoe ...

  6. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (<50 ?A). Bradykinin acetate, angiotensin II antipeptide, angiotensin II acetate, neurotensin, angiotensin I trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 ?L of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 ?L of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 ?L was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than 50 ?A, and extraction recoveries for the model peptides were in the range of 77-94%, with RSD values less than 10%. PMID:25467476

  7. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696699

  8. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  9. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  10. Exploring DNA Extraction Erica Butts

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    · Define DNA extraction · Downstream concerns for DNA extraction · Methods used to evaluate extraction into the extraction process and determine the amount recovered DNA Sources: #12;Applied Genetics Extraction MethodsApplied Genetics Exploring DNA Extraction Efficiency Erica Butts Research Biologist, Applied

  11. Solvent Extract, Plant Extraction Correspondence to Author:

    E-print Network

    Sunil H. Ganatra; Archana M. Ramteke; Shweta P. Durge; S. U. Patil; Dr. S. H. Ganatra

    ABSTRACT: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. is belongs to the family Fabaceae. It is used as herbal and as vegetable from ancient times. It is abundant in tropical region of Africa and Asia. Preliminary phytochemicals investigations have been carried out on the seed extract using n-Hexane, Ethyl Acetate, Acetone, Ethanol and Methanol solvents. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis reflects the presence of Phenol, Quinone, Steroid, Flavanoids and Terpenoid in the plant extract. TLC profiling of seed extracts give an idea about the presence of various phytochemicals. Different Rf (Retention factor) value of various phytochemicals provide valuable clue regarding their polarity and selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. INTRODUCTION: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. (syn. C. psoraloides) or cluster bean (also called as Guar, Guwar and Guvar bean), is a drought-tolerant summer annual legume and it is cultivated as a feed

  12. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  13. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction We report our experience with lead extraction in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and discuss the indications for extraction in these patients. Patients Eighteen patients with an ICD (mean age 58±12 years) were referred for lead extraction: two patients with infection and 16 with lead dysfunction. Methods Lead extraction was performed with a laser sheath (Excimer) if traction with a locking device was insufficient. New leads were implanted during the same procedure, if applicable. Results Shock leads were successfully extracted in 16 patients and additional pace-sense leads in seven patients. In two patients, the shock conductor was considered unaffected and only a pace-sense lead was exchanged or an additional pace-sense lead inserted. After extraction, new shock leads were implanted in 14 patients. Major complications occurred in one patient: a pericardial tamponade after perforation of the superior caval vein necessitating acute surgery. Conclusion Lead extraction with a laser sheath is effective in ICD patients, but major complications can occur. Our current policy with malfunctioning leads is to extract all leads in which insulation defects cannot be ruled out to avoid interference, but to abandon leads that are without insulation defects and properly insulated. In case of infection, extraction remains the primary treatment of choice. PMID:25696709

  14. Onion DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lana Hays

    2009-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from onion cells using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

  15. Yeast DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lana Hays

    2009-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

  16. Wheat Germ DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lana Hays

    2009-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from wheat germ using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

  17. Extracting the Max From a DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edmund Marek

    2009-01-01

    Students of all ages get a thrill out of actually seeing clumps or strands of DNA. The Biotechnology/Bioinformatics Discovery! Project, a professional development workshop offered to science teachers, has always included a DNA-extraction activity. Over the course of four years, as the authors conducted these workshops for scores of teachers, they extended and refined the DNA-extraction activity to make it relevant to middle school students. Although the protocol for this exercise is on their project website along with teaching tips, they describe here the use of oral directions to give teachers many opportunities to interact with their students, and to assess how well students can follow directions and stay focused on the task.

  18. Complete Bacterial Proteome Extraction Kit

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    ....................................................................................7 7. Extraction of proteins from gram-negative bacteria.................................................................8 8. Extraction of proteins from gram-positive bacteria by centrifugation and sample preparation with was performed. 200 µg proteins of the whole cell extract were

  19. Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    E-print Network

    Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    In supercritical fluid extraction, many options are available for achieving and controlling the desired selectivity, which is extremely sensitive to variations in pressure, temperature, and choice of solvent. The ability of supercritical fluids...

  20. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  1. DNA Extraction Virtual Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This virtual lab from the Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah provides a simple overview of DNA extraction, including what it's used for, illustrations, and an activity using cheek cells and laboratory equipment to isolate DNA. The lab is followed by a classroom activity that allows students and teachers to Extract DNA from Anything Living, using household items like spinach but not little sister's big toe.

  2. Fruitful DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Karen Kalamuck

    2000-01-01

    In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

  3. Thymus DNA Extractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lana Hays

    2009-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can be extracted from a chunk of thymus (sweetbread) or liver. This experiment requires the use of a centrifuge (not included in cost of materials). Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

  4. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  5. Extraction processes for bioproduct separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartl, J.; Marr, R. [Technische Universitaet Graz (Austria)

    1993-01-01

    The three-phase extraction process, a modification of reactive extraction, was investigated for its applicability in the separation of organic acids from fermentation broth. It was compared with reactive extraction, liquid membrane permeation, and supercritical fluid extraction. These processes are based on the use of amine extractants, which have to be dissolved in nonpolar solvents, for the extraction of carboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, and aminocarboxylic acids. This paper considers the comparison of the above-mentioned processes. Furthermore, the extractability of acids from synthetic aqueous solutions and fermented broths was compared. Principal consideration was paid to the extraction of lactic acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, and L-leucine.

  6. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. (CSIR, Trivandrum (India))

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY OF EUXENITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. May; J. L. Tews; A. W. Henderson; W. G. Gruzensky

    1959-01-01

    Results of this study demonstrate that multiple-oxide minerals can be ; processed to usable compounds by the techniques described. The chlorination ; procedure offers an efficient method for extracting tantalum, niobium, uranium, ; titanium, thorium, and the rare-earth elements from their ores. Separation of ; the chloride products into four groups is of additional benefit for processing ; materials such

  9. Extractable work from correlations

    E-print Network

    Martí Perarnau-Llobet; Karen V. Hovhannisyan; Marcus Huber; Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Antonio Acín

    2014-11-11

    Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyse this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system, and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems which are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  10. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  11. Ion extraction system optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, Marco [INFN-LNL, v.le dell'Universita n 2, I-35020, Legnaro (Italy)

    2013-07-18

    The extraction of a beam from ion sources is dominated by the strong space charge of the beam, due to the initial low speed of the particles. Several mathematical and computational issues are discussed, with reference to a diode design based on thin anode lens effect, yielding a parallel beam at its exit, which is the first block of many high current electrostatic accelerators. Perturbation to uniform current density are analyzed. Effect of a thick anode lens is also treated.

  12. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  13. Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction

    E-print Network

    to conventional techniques. The research will also quantify the new technology's energy savings for the extraction of the dried vegetable matter and extracts using the new technology as compared to thermal drying methods

  14. Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Martella; J. D. Navratil; W. F. Santiago

    1978-01-01

    The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction

  15. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  16. Solvent extraction in nuclear technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Navratil

    1986-01-01

    Some aspects of solvent extraction chemistry in the field of nuclear technology are briefly reviewed. Applications of solvent extraction in actinide recovery and purification, radionuclide production, and reactor materials preparation are summarized. The need for new, more selective, solvent extraction reagents is presented via examples of recent work with bifunctional organophosphorus reagents applied to the removal of actinides from acidic

  17. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover, recommendation systems could also benefit from a tag hierarchy. PMID:24391901

  18. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  19. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30...FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared from...

  20. The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1913-01-01

    I39-3I3-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. 155 JANUARY, 1913 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY TECHNICAL BULLETIN THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLORO? FORM EXTRACT OF SOILS BY G. S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION... postal card will bring these publications. THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF SOILS. (t. S. FliAPS , Chemist. ?J. B. o Y . C U G O Assistant Chemist. The soil may coDtarn any of the Substances which are found in plants or animals...

  1. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Sz?yk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. PMID:25467854

  2. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  3. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. (Moore, ID) [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  4. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  5. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  6. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Minier; G. Goma

    1982-01-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

  7. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  8. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  9. Terminology Extraction from Log Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

    The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

  10. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. Garde; Ramón Catalá; Rafael Gavara

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which

  11. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency. PMID:10209581

  12. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  13. Sub-acute effect of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices in rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L

    PubMed Central

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A.; Nwosu, Ifeanyi O.; Farombi, Ebenezer O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kolaviron (KV) (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) and extract of Curcuma longa (CL) are frequently used in folk medicine for treatment of hypertension. One of their mechanisms of action is to enhance antioxidant properties in animals. NG- nitro- l- arginine methyl- ester (L- NAME) is L- arginine analogue, which by binding to Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) may induce hypertension partly due to increase in tissues oxidative stress. Objectives: To investigate the effect of L- NAME on some biochemical indices and the possible protective effect of KV or CL. Materials and Methods: Four groups consisting of 6 rats each were used. One group served as control, second group received L- NAME (40 mg/kg/day). Third and fourth groups were treated with KV and CL, respectively and also received L- NAME. KV and CL were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Results: L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) increase in the levels of serum urea, creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase relative to controls. L- NAME treated rats had markedly decreased hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione- S- transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Precisely, L- NAME decreased CAT, SOD, GST and GSH by 48, 52, 76 and 40%, respectively. L- NAME intoxication significantly decreased (P <0.05) renal GSH and SOD levels. Also, L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the animals. Administration of KV or CL with L- NAME caused significant (P <0.05) inhibition of LPO and augments tissue antioxidant indices. Conclusion: These results confirm the adverse effect of L- NAME on biochemical indices and, the ability of kolaviron or Curcuma longa to ameliorate the alterations. PMID:22923949

  14. Helium, its extraction and purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Wilson; H. R. Newson

    1967-01-01

    This is a general discussion of the extraction of helium from natural gas as practiced in the existing helium plants. Several phases of the helium extraction process, such as the refrigeration systems, and methods of carbon dioxide and water removal, are similar to those in natural gas processing. It is concluded that in cryogenic processes solid desiccants are more suited

  15. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  16. Thromboplastic Activity of Placenta Extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Finkelstein

    1945-01-01

    IN the course of an investigation of hormones of human placenta, we came across a substance which showed strong blood-coagulating properties. Freshwater extracts of placenta contain this factor. Their activity diminishes when they are kept at room temperature or in a refrigerator. It is not removed from the extracts by dialysis at 0° C. On filtration through a Seitz filter,

  17. Successive solvolytic extraction of petrocrops

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, D.K.; Pradeep, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, M. [M.D. Univ., Rohtak (India)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Petrocrops may provide a renewable source of petroleum in the future. The use of low boiling nonpolar (hexane) and polar (methanol) solvents may afford nonpolar and polar biocrudes respectively by successive extractions. However, further successive extraction of spent residue obtained in anthracene oil, quinoline, or liquid paraffin may afford recovery of biopolymer biocrude. These biocrudes may be hydro treated to yield liquid fuels.

  18. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    E-print Network

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  19. Extraction of Questions Behind Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki

    To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.

  20. Comparison of Automated Nucleic Acid Extraction Methods with Manual Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dundas, Nicola; Leos, N. Kristine; Mitui, Midori; Revell, Paula; Rogers, Beverly Barton

    2008-01-01

    Automated nucleic acid extractors can improve workflow and decrease variability in the clinical laboratory. We evaluated Qiagen EZ1 (Valencia, CA) and bioMérieux (Durham, NC) easyMAG extractors compared with Qiagen manual extraction using targets and matrices commonly available in the clinical laboratory. Pooled samples were spiked with various organisms, serially diluted, and extracted in duplicate. The organisms/matrices were Bordetella pertussis/bronchoalveolar lavage, herpes simplex virus II/cerebrospinal fluid, coxsackievirus A9/cerebrospinal fluid, BK virus/plasma, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae/endotracheal tube samples. Extracts were amplified in duplicate using real-time PCR assays, and amplification of the target at a cycle threshold of 35 using the manual method was used for comparison. Amplification efficiency of nucleic acids extracted by automated methods was similar to that by the manual method except for a loss of efficiency for M. pneumoniae in endotracheal tube samples. The EZ1 viral kit 2.0 gave better results for coxsackievirus A9 than the EZ1 viral kit version 1.0. At the lowest limit of detection (past a cycle threshold of 35), the easyMAG was more likely to produce amplifiable nucleic acid than were either the EZ1 or manual extraction. Operational complexity, defined as the number of manipulations required to obtain an extracted sample, was the lowest for the easyMAG. The easyMAG was the most expensive of the methods, followed by the EZ1 kit and manual extraction. PMID:18556770

  1. The Effects of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Traditional Extraction Techniques on Larvae Leptinotarsa decemlineata SAY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Pavela; Marie Sajfrtová; Helena Sovová; Jind?ich Karban; Martin Bárnet

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and thymus (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, hydrodistillation, and Soxhlet extraction with benzene and ethanol. The composition of volatile compounds in the extracts was determined by gas chromatography, and the toxicity and antifeedant effects of the extracts on larvae of Colorado potato beetle were evaluated.Generally it is possible to claim

  2. Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lemuel W; Wilborn, Colin D; Harvey, Travis; Wismann, Jennifer; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional coffee beverage containing additional caffeine, green tea extracts, niacin and garcinia cambogia to regular coffee to determine the effects on resting energy expenditure (REE) and hemodynamic variables. Methods Subjects included five male (26 ± 2.1 y, 97.16 ± 10.05 kg, 183.89 ± 6.60 cm) and five female (28.8 ± 5.3 y, 142.2 ± 12.6 lbs) regular coffee drinkers. Subjects fasted for 10 hours and were assessed for 1 hour prior (PRE) and 3 hours following 1.5 cups of coffee ingestion [JavaFit™ Energy Extreme (JF) ~400 mg total caffeine; Folgers (F) ~200 mg total caffeine] in a double-blind, crossover design. REE, resting heart rate (RHR), and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure was assessed at PRE and 1, 2, and 3-hours post coffee ingestion. Data were analyzed by three-factor repeated measures ANOVA (p < 0.05). Results JF trial resulted in a significant main effect for REE (p < 0.01), SBP (p < 0.01), RER (p < 0.01), and VO2 (p < 0.01) compared to F, with no difference between trials on the RHR and DBP variables. A significant interaction for trial and time point (p < 0.05) was observed for the variable REE. The JF trial resulted in a significant overall mean increase in REE of 14.4% (males = 12.1%, females = 17.9%) over the observation period (p < 0.05), while the F trial produced an overall decrease in REE of 5.7%. SBP was significantly higher in the JF trial; however, there was no significant increase from PRE to 3-hours post. Conclusion Results from this study suggest that JavaFit™ Energy Extreme coffee is more effective than Folgers regular caffeinated coffee at increasing REE in regular coffee drinkers for up to 3 hours following ingestion without any adverse hemodynamic effects. PMID:17919327

  3. Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

    1999-01-01

    The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

  4. Evaluation of DNA and RNA Extraction Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C S Edwin Shiaw; M S Shiran; Y K Cheah; G C Tan; A R Sabariah; M Path

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method

  5. Air-assisted solvent extraction: towards a novel extraction process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Tarkan; J. A. Finch

    2005-01-01

    The air-assisted solvent extraction (AASX) concept uses a solvent-coated bubble to contact the organic and aqueous phases. Compared to conventional solvent extraction, a high contact area can be created using less solvent and the natural buoyancy provided by the air core promotes phase separation. A method of producing coated bubbles exploiting foaming properties of kerosene-based solvent is introduced. Coating thickness

  6. Endovascular extraction techniques for pacemaker and ICD lead extraction

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years, comprehensive endovascular techniques have been developed to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads. It is important that referring physician have knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results of the currently used endovascular extraction techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696690

  7. Entity extraction via ensemble semantics

    E-print Network

    Marco Pennacchiotti; Patrick Pantel

    2009-01-01

    Combining information extraction systems yields significantly higher quality resources than each system in isolation. In this paper, we generalize such a mixing of sources and features in a framework called Ensemble Semantics. We show very large gains in entity extraction by combining state-of-the-art distributional and patternbased systems with a large set of features from a webcrawl, query logs, and Wikipedia. Experimental results on a webscale extraction of actors, athletes and musicians show significantly higher mean average precision scores (29 % gain) compared with the current state of the art. 1

  8. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in...

  9. Comparing extractions of Sivers functions

    E-print Network

    M. Anselmino; M. Boglione; J. C. Collins; U. D'Alesio; A. V. Efremov; K. Goeke; A. Kotzinian; S. Menzel; A. Metz; F. Murgia; A. Prokudin; P. Schweitzer; W. Vogelsang; F. Yuan

    2005-11-02

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  10. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  11. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  12. DNA Extraction & Staging Laboratory (DESL)

    Cancer.gov

    As part of the Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR), the DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL) located in Frederick, MD, is responsible for the preparation of samples for investigators at NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

  13. Cartographic Feature Extraction George Vosselman

    E-print Network

    Vosselman, George

    of the stereo image pair. After this determination the 3D cursor snaps to the local terrain surface. ThusCartographic Feature Extraction George Vosselman Delft University of Technology Faculty of Civil

  14. Extracting information from informal communication

    E-print Network

    Rennie, Jason D. M. (Jason Daniel Malyutin), 1976-

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the problem of extracting information from informal communication. Textual informal communication, such as e-mail, bulletin boards and blogs, has become a vast information resource. However, such ...

  15. Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, T.; Shuler, M.L.

    1986-03-01

    A multimembrane reactor is described. Four layers (gas, cells, nutrient, and solvent) are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethyl alcohol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification removes the toxic effect of TBP on yeast metabolism. (Refs. 29).

  16. Hot water bitumen extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Rendall, J.S.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a method of extracting bitumen oils from tar-sands ore. It includes an initial conditioning step comprising crushing tar-sands ore to yield solid particles of a maximum size required by a log washer conditioner in a second conditioning step; a bitumen extraction step; a bitumen separation step; a solvent recovery step; a sand washing and water clarification step; and a sand solvent recovery step.

  17. Lima Bean Bacteria DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lana Hays

    2009-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from lima bean bacteria. This experiment requires the use of a centrifuge (not included in cost of materials). Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

  18. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  19. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  20. Pressurized liquid extraction as a green approach in food and herbal plants extraction: A review.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Arwa; Turner, Charlotta

    2011-10-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction is a "green" technology for the extraction of nutraceuticals from foods and herbal plants. This review discusses the extraction principles and the optimization of the extraction parameters that improves the extraction efficiency. The use of different solvent mixtures and other extraction additives to enhance the efficiency of the extraction are discussed. Dynamic mode of extraction in Pressurized liquid extraction, and the use of combined and hyphenated sample preparation and analytical techniques are presented. This work discusses how different studies used Pressurized liquid extraction to enrich phenolic compounds, lignans, carotenoids, oils and lipids, essential oils and other nutraceuticals from foods and herbal plants. PMID:21843670

  1. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that are regulated as food supplements but are intended to treat disease or maintain health. Antioxidants and beneficial lipid products are major examples in this category. The final major category consists of environmental applications, both as an extraction technique for environmental analysis, and as a possible remediation strategy for removing contaminants that would otherwise be too expensive to recover. Most of the work in this area has focused on non-polar compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), where non-polar supercritical (SC) CO2 offers high extraction efficiencies. Co-solvent systems combining CO2 with one or more modifiers extend the utility of SC CO2 to polar and even ionic compounds. Supercritical water can extract polar compounds, and it has the additional advantage of combining extraction and destruction of contaminants via the supercritical water oxidation (SUWOX) process. Supercritical fluids are also useful in various niche applications. Fuel extraction, conversion, and analysis is one such application. Extraction of metals from various matrixes is also an area of continuing interest. The application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to production of nano-structured materials is a new area likely to see rapid growth in the next few years.

  2. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  3. Extraction of anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia by pressurized hot water: Antioxidant activity of extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boonchai Pongnaravane; Motonobu Goto; Mitsuru Sasaki; Thitiporn Anekpankul; Prasert Pavasant; Artiwan Shotipruk

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of anthraquinones from Morinda citrifolia was evaluated by determining the capability of the extracts to scavenge the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in vitro, as compared with the extracts obtained by other conventional extraction methods such as ethanol extraction in stirred vessel, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that PHWE

  4. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Sovová; Jaromír Jez; Milena Bártlová; Jitka St'astová

    1995-01-01

    Oleoresin was extracted from ground black pepper with carbon dioxide at 28 MPa and 24 to 60 °C. The yield and contents of piperine in the extract were determined as a function of extraction time and the solvent amount. The concentration profile of piperine inside the fixed bed of pepper was also measured. The total extract contained piperine and essential

  5. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction · DNA was extracted from the ileo-cecal nodes of 475 Holstein cows from two herds using the Qiagen DNA extraction kit (Valencia, CA). 2) Map detection · Map and Jerome, Idaho, respectively. DNA was extracted from ileo-cecal lymph nodes using the Qiagen (Valencia, CA

  6. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  7. Neuroleptanalgesia and extracapsular cataract extraction.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, P R; Teye-Botchway, L; Morrell, A J; Fetherston, T J; Perthen, C; Brown, N E

    1992-01-01

    Peribulbar and retrobulbar anaesthesia are commonly used techniques in cataract extraction. They offer satisfactory analgesia and akinesia but serious complications although uncommon are consistently reported. Intravenous sedation combined with a facial nerve block offers an alternative method of anaesthesia. This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction using this technique between 1 January 1986 and 1 September 1990. The operating conditions were judged to be very suitable with minimal peroperative complications. The postoperative ocular complication rate was low (minimum follow-up 3 months) and no serious medical complications were noted: 93.8% of patients achieved 6/12 vision or better. This study demonstrates that it is possible to achieve satisfactory ocular analgesia and akinesia during cataract extraction under local anaesthesia without the use of a periocular injection. PMID:1540558

  8. Accurate extraction of the News

    E-print Network

    Shrirang S. Deshingkar

    2006-09-14

    We propose a new scheme for extracting gravitational radiation from a characteristic numerical simulation of a spacetime. This method is similar in conception to our earlier work but analytical and numerical implementation is different. The scheme is based on direct transformation to the Bondi coordinates and the gravitational waves are extracted by calculating the Bondi news function in Bondi coordinates. The entire calculation is done in a way which will make the implementation easy when we use uniform Bondi angular grid at $\\mathcal I^+$. Using uniform Bondi grid for news calculation has added advantage that we have to solve only ordinary differential equations instead of partial differential equation. For the test problems this new scheme allows us to extract gravitational radiation much more accurately than the previous schemes.

  9. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  10. Extracting Context To Improve Accuracy For HTML Content Extraction

    E-print Network

    pages has many applications, including cell phone and PDA browsing, speech rendering for the visually of an article, which distracts a user from actual content. Extraction of "useful and relevant" content from web with guides and menus attempting to improve the user's efficiency, but they often end up distracting from

  11. Catastrophic extraction of anomalous events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Ro, Sookwang; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we discuss extraction of anomalous events based on the theory of catastrophes, a mathematical theory of continuous geometrical manifolds with discrete singularities called catastrophes. Intelligence exploitation systems and technologies include such novel data mining techniques as automatic extraction of discrete anomalous events by software algorithms based on the theory of catastrophes, that can reduce complex problems to a few essential so-called state variables. This paper discusses mostly corank-1 catastrophes with only one state variable, for simplicity. As an example we discuss mostly avionics platforms and catastrophic failures that can be recorded by flight instruments.

  12. The Overview of Entity Relation Extraction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xian-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Jin

    The Information extraction can be defined as the task of extracting information of specified events or facts, and then stored in a database for the users' querying. Only with the correct relationship between the various entities, the database can be correctly store in. Entity relation extraction becomes a key technology of information Extraction system. In this paper, we analyze the status of entity relation extraction method; propose several problems for this field to be solved.

  13. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-02-01

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000?L of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. PMID:21190688

  14. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  15. In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

  16. In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-10-15

    Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

  17. Antioxidative activities of water extract and ethanol extract from field horsetail ( tsukushi) Equisetum arvense L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Nagai; Takao Myoda; Toshio Nagashima

    2005-01-01

    Water extract and ethanol extract from top and body portions of field horsetail (tsukushi) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity was investigated using four different methods. The contents of total phenolic components were richer in the ethanol extract fractions of each portion than in the water extracts. On the other hand, protein contents were much lower in ethanol extract fractions

  18. Pitch Extraction and Fundamental Frequency

    E-print Network

    Regina, University of

    Report TR-CS 2003-06 November, 2003 c David Gerhard Department of Computer Science University of Regina is to extract the fundamental frequency (f0) from a sound signal, which is usually the lowest frequency of Pitch The musical pitch of an audio signal is a perceptual feature, relevant only in the context

  19. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-06-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

  20. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, M.; Goma, G.

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dedecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used-a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacial area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35 degrees C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot-in classical processes-completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion. (Refs. 21).

  1. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, M.; Goma, G.

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used--a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacia area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35/sup 0/C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot--in classical processes--completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion.

  2. Optimal Memory Constrained Isosurface Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Saupe; Jürgen Toelke

    2001-01-01

    Efficient isosurface extraction from large volume data sets requires special algorithms and data struc- tures. Such algorithms typically either use a hier- archical spatial subdivision of the volume or they organize the scalar values attached to the cells of the volume, i.e., intervals, in some suitable data structures. Octrees, kd-trees, and interval trees are commonly applied. However, these data structures

  3. EXTRACTABLE FUNCTIONS FICTION OR REALITY?

    E-print Network

    Goldreich, Oded

    (BU) Alon Rosen (IDC) #12;Knowledge is Elusive (assuming P NP) Knowing () isn't like knowing Knowing isn't like knowing | Knowing how to prove isn't like knowing () 2 #12;ZK Proofs of Knowledge Extractable Functions Really Exist? What's Beyond KnowledgeAssumptions? Can We Construct Explicit Extractors

  4. Extracting Messages Masked by Chaos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Pérez; Hilda A. Cerdeira

    1995-01-01

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission: a digital one, where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal.

  5. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Onagel; Laurence J. Bement

    1989-01-01

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA\\/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to

  6. Integrated Schottky diode parameters extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Badila; Sorin Georgescu

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the integration of a Schottky diode into IC process for logic and analogic applications. The parameters extraction of the integrated Schottky diodes takes into account the layout and process aspects. The developed models allow significant device performances improvement.

  7. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  8. New methods of pitch extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAX MOHAN SONDHI

    1968-01-01

    Three new methods will be described for the extraction of the fundamental pitch from a speech signal. These are: 1) spectrum flattening followed by a minimum phase correction to synchronize harmonics 2) spectrum flattening followed by auto-correlation, and 3) nonlinear distortion followed by autocorrelation. The last two methods will be shown to be exceptionally rugged, in that they can tolerate

  9. Extracting DNA from a Banana

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Gallo, Ph.D.

    2012-01-01

    Learners extract DNA from a banana. The procedure requires only basic lab equipment (i.e. beaker, test tube) and chemicals (i.e. liquid soap, meat tenderizer, ethanol). This activity is most appropriate for learners in grades 5-8. With slight modifications, this activity is appropriate for younger learners as well.

  10. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

  11. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

  12. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

  13. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

  14. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

  15. Phenolic compounds from the fruit of Garcinia dulcis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Deachathai; W. Mahabusarakam; S. Phongpaichit

    2005-01-01

    Dulcinoside (1), dulcisisoflavone (2), dulcisxanthone A (3) and sphaerobioside acetate (6) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the green fruit of G. dulcis. Dulcisflavan (4), dulcisxanthone B (5) and isonormangostin (7) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the ripe fruit. Compounds 6 and 7 were synthetic known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The

  16. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  17. Electromembrane extraction: distribution or electrophoresis?

    PubMed

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Sønsteby, Marit Hovde; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents for the first time a phenomenological theoretical model for the time dependent distribution of analytes during electromembrane extraction (EME). The model was verified experimentally for a range of model drugs and peptides. Analytes were extracted from an acidified aqueous sample solution, through an organic supported liquid membrane (SLM), and into an acidified aqueous acceptor solution. Mass transfer was governed by an applied electric field across the SLM. A rapid depletion was seen in the sample during extractions, with a steady increase in the amount accumulated in the acceptor solution. This was in good accordance with the theoretical model. A deviation from the modeled behavior was seen for some of the peptides where trapping of analyte in the SLM was high. The results demonstrated for the first time that EME behaved like a distribution system, with voltage dependent distribution coefficients. In addition, electrokinetic migration was observed across the SLM, which added an electrophoretic component to the mass transfer. This improved theoretical understanding will be highly beneficial for future optimization and development of applications using EME. PMID:23255056

  18. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  19. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ambrisentan

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Namasani Santhosh; Rani, Avula Prameela; Visalakshi, Telu; Sekharan, Chandra Bala

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ambrisentan (ABS) is an antihypertensive drug used in the treatment of pulmonary atrial hypertension. The survey of literature for ABS revealed only two spectrophotometric methods for its quantification. The reported methods lack the sensitivity. This study is aimed at developing two sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ABS in bulk and in tablets. Methods: The proposed methods are based on the formation of colored chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of ABS with methylene blue (MB method) and safranine O (SO method) in buffered solution at pH 9.8. The extracted complexes showed maximum absorbance at 525 and 515 nm for methylene blue and safranine O, respectively. Results: In both the methods, the calibration curve was linear from 1–15 µg mL-1 of drug. Apparent molar absorpitivities were 1.7911 x 105, 2.3272 x 105 L mol-1 cm-1; Sandell’s sensitivities were 0.0215, 0.0162 µg cm-2; LOD were 0.182, 0.175 µg mL-1; LOQ were 0.551, 0.531 µg mL-1 for methods MB and SO, respectively. The relative standard deviation and percent recovery ranged from 0.206–1.310% and 99.0–101.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are sensitive, precise, accurate and inexpensive. These methods can easily be used for the assay of ABS in quality control laboratories. PMID:24312841

  20. Extraction parameters for metabolomics from cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ser, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojing; Tang, Ngoc Nu; Locasale, Jason W

    2015-04-15

    The successful extraction of metabolites is a critical step in metabolite profiling. By optimizing metabolite extraction, the range and quantitative capacity of metabolomics studies can be improved. We considered eight separate extraction protocols for the preparation of a metabolite extract from cultured mammalian cells. Parameters considered included temperature, pH, and cell washing before extraction. The effects on metabolite recovery were studied using a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) platform that measures metabolites of diverse chemical classes, including amino acids, lipids, and sugar derivatives. The temperature considered during the extraction or the presence of formic acid, a commonly used additive, was shown to have minimal effects on the measured ion intensities of metabolites. However, washing of samples before metabolite extraction, whether with water or phosphate-buffered saline, exhibited dramatic effects on measured intensities of both intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Together, these findings present a systematic assessment of extraction conditions for metabolite profiling. PMID:25613493

  1. Extraction of hemicelluloses from fiberized spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Shoaib; Henriksson, Gunnar; Theliander, Hans; Lindström, Mikael E

    2015-03-01

    A novel mechanical pre-treatment method was used to separate the wood chips into fiber bundles in order to extract high molecular weight wood polymers. The mechanical pre-treatment involved chip compression in a conical plug-screw followed by defibration in a fiberizer. The fiberized wood was treated with hot water at various combinations of time and temperature in order to analyze the extraction yield of hemicelluloses at different conditions. Nearly 6 mg/g wood of galactoglucomannan was obtained at 90 °C/120 min which was about three times more than what could be extracted from wood chips. The extracted carbohydrates had molecular weight ranging up to 60 kDa. About 10% of each of the extracted material had a molecular weight above 30 kDa. The extraction liquor could also be reused for consecutive extractions with successive increase in the extraction yield of hemicelluloses. PMID:25498604

  2. How to Extract DNA From Anything Living

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah

    2008-01-01

    In this genetics activity, learners discover how to extract DNA from green split peas. This resource guide includes a brief explanation of DNA and provides suggestions for ways to experiment with DNA extraction further.

  3. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

  4. Accelerated solvent extraction of petroleum contaminated sediments

    E-print Network

    Bauguss, Jeffery Lynn

    1997-01-01

    Attempts have been made in recent years to find acceptable alternatives to classical soxhlet extraction of petroleum contaminated sediments. One such method that is very promising is accelerated solvent extraction also referred to as high pressure...

  5. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  6. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents ...

  7. Extraction of skewed parton distributions from experiment

    E-print Network

    Andreas Freund

    1999-05-04

    In this paper we will discuss algorithms for extracting skewed parton distributions (SPD's) from experiment as well as the relevant process and experimental observable suitable for the extraction procedure.

  8. An Automated Algorithm for Extracting Website Skeleton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zehua Liu; Wee-Keong Ng; Ee-peng Lim

    2004-01-01

    The huge amount of information available on the Web has at- tracted many research efiorts into developing wrappers that extract data from webpages. However, as most of the systems for generating wrap- pers focus on extracting data at page-level, data extraction at site-level remains a manual or semi-automatic process. In this paper, we study the problem of extracting website skeleton,

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of dandelion leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Simándi; Sz. T. Kristo; Á. Kéry; L. K. Selmeczi; I. Kmecz; S. Kemény

    2002-01-01

    ?-Amyrin and ?-sitosterol were extracted from dandelion in preparative scale using supercritical carbon dioxide. A 32 full-factorial design was carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure and temperature (over the ranges 150–450 bar and 35–65°C, respectively) on the yields and recoveries of the active components. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared to Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane and

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction of Beauvericin from maize.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, P; Galvano, F; Fogliano, V; Logrieco, A; Fresa, R; Ritieni, A

    2004-02-27

    Beauvericin (BEA), a supercritical fluid extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide from maize was investigated. Extraction efficiencies under several different extraction conditions were examined. Pressure, temperature, extraction time, organic modifier and water matrix content (10%) were investigated. The best extraction conditions were at a temperature of 60 degrees C, 3200psi, for 30min static extraction time and methanol as modifier solvent. Extraction recovery of 36% without modifier by adding water to the matrix in the extraction vessel (reproducibility relative standard deviations (R.S.D.)=3-5%) were recorded. Extraction recovery of 76.9% with methanol as co-solvent (reproducibility R.S.D.=3-5%) was obtained. Data shows that SFE gives a lower BEA recovery compared to conventional extraction protocol with organic solvents while SFE with modifier and conventional extraction yields are comparable. BEA extract contents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) at 205nm and BEA peak confirmed by LC-MS. Acetonitrile-water as mobile phase and column C-18 were both tested. Instrumental and analytical parameters were optimized in the range linear interval from 1 to 500mgkg(-1) and reached a detection limit of 2ng. PMID:18969327

  11. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  12. MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF LIME PECTIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectin was extracted from lime flavedo, albedo and pulp by employing microwave assisted extraction (MAE) under pressure. Advantages of MAE over conventional heating methods in the extraction of pectin from citrus residues include 10 fold or better reduction in heating time, better control of extrac...

  13. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  14. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  15. Extractives of cork ( Quercus suber L.): chemical composition of dichloromethane and supercritical CO 2 extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Castola; Bruno Marongiu; Ange Bighelli; Constantino Floris; Joseph Casanova

    2005-01-01

    The polymeric matrix of the cork is mainly composed of suberin, lignin and polysaccharides and contains also extractives. Typical components of the extracted mixtures are triterpenes belonging to friedelane, lupane and steroid families and long chain alkanes and alkanols. Two extractive methods have been used, the conventional extraction with a solvent (SE) using dichloromethane (DCM) and the innovative method which

  16. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY; AWANG BONO

    Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic

  17. Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.

    PubMed

    Poiat?, Antonia; Tuchilu?, Cristina; Iv?nescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Laz?r, M I

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections. PMID:20191854

  18. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  19. Parameter extraction and transistor models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rykken, Charles; Meiser, Verena; Turner, Greg; Wang, QI

    1985-01-01

    Using specified mathematical models of the MOSFET device, the optimal values of the model-dependent parameters were extracted from data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Three MOSFET models, all one-dimensional were used. One of the models took into account diffusion (as well as convection) currents. The sensitivity of the models was assessed for variations of the parameters from their optimal values. Lines of future inquiry are suggested on the basis of the behavior of the devices, of the limitations of the proposed models, and of the complexity of the required numerical investigations.

  20. Plant tissue extraction for metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Roessner, Ute; Dias, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Plants are not only important producers of foods and energy storages (e.g., sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) in the form of grains, fruits, and vegetables, they also provide many valuable products to human existence including wood, fibers, oils, resins, pigments, antioxidants, and sources of medicine. Most importantly in light of this book, plants have been a source of therapeutic and health promoting compounds throughout history. This chapter describes several essential considerations for the extraction process when aiming to study plant metabolism or to characterize the chemical composition of plant originated samples using metabolomics technologies. PMID:23963900

  1. Extracting Information about Jane Austen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Anderson

    2009-11-30

    View a variety of web sources to learn more about the author Jane Austen and determine the sources' credibility. Learn how to extract and record information about Austen by using a variety of methods and then convey that information while avoiding plagiarism. GOAL This assignment will help you to gain more information about Jane Austen, whom you have been studying in your AP English class, as well as utilizing and extending your knowledge of the following: 1. Credibility of different sources 2. Note-taking methods 3. Using the MLA guidelines At the end of this assignment you will ...

  2. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  3. Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Koumpis, Konstantinos

    This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

  4. Enhanced extraction of polychlorinated organic compounds from soil samples by fluidized-bed extraction (FBE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gfrerer; M. Stadlober; B. M. Gawlik; T. Wenzl; E. Lankmayr

    2001-01-01

    Summary  The extraction and determination of polychlorinated organic compounds, like hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene\\u000a and polychlorinated biphenyls in soils and solid wastes continues to be a subject for study. In this work Soxhlet extraction\\u000a and a new extraction technique, fluidized-bed extraction, have been compared. The extraction of polychlorinated organic compounds\\u000a by this technique has been optimized using experiemental design procedures. The variation

  5. Solvent Extraction and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Pimenta dioica Merrill. Leaf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge A. Pino; Jorge Garcia; Marco A. Martinez

    1997-01-01

    Volatile compounds from Pimenta dioica Merrill, leaf were extracted by hexane and supercritical CO2. The yield obtained by solvent extraction was 5.67% and 0.80% with supercritical CO2 extraction. Sensory profiles and GC\\/MS analyses of both extracts were compared with those obtained by hydrodistillation. The difference in aroma of the extracts was quite nof iceable and was attributed to qualitative and

  6. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. ?-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked ?-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with ?-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used. PMID:25155095

  7. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  8. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

  9. Selective extraction of Cyclopia for enhanced in vitro phytoestrogenicity and benchmarking against commercial phytoestrogen extracts.

    PubMed

    Mfenyana, Ciko; DeBeer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Louw, Ann

    2008-11-01

    Previous work established the phytoestrogenicity of "unfermented"Cyclopia (honeybush) extracts. The current study investigated the phytoestrogenicity of four Cyclopia harvestings (M6-9) for preparation of extracts with enhanced phytoestrogenicity for benchmarking against commercial preparations. Two extracts, from M6 (C. subternata) and M7 (C. genistoides), were identified as most phytoestrogenic using estrogen receptor binding, an estrogen receptor response element containing promoter reporter assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, and E-screen. M6 and M7 were sequentially and non-sequentially extracted with five solvents of differing polarities. Additionally, two extracts were prepared in the traditional way of preparing a cup of honeybush tea. The resultant 22 extracts were evaluated for estrogenicity. Select extracts were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The sequentially extracted M6 methanol extract (SM6Met) had the highest potency and the sequentially extracted M6 ethyl acetate extract (SM6EAc) had the highest efficacy of all the extracts. The HPLC results suggested enrichment of luteolin in SM6EAc and enrichment of an unidentified polyphenol in SM6Met. Benchmarking against four commercial phytoestrogenic preparations suggest that in terms of the assays used, Cyclopia extracts have comparable potency and efficacy to the commercial extracts and thus have potential as marketable phytoestrogenic nutraceuticals. PMID:18793725

  10. Evaluation of extraction method on the chemical composition in Apeiba tibourbou Aubl's extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the potential of Apeiba tibourbou Aubl, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of fatty acid, rosmarinic (Ra) and caffeic (Ca) acid from A. tibourbou. Materials and Methods: Determinations of residual moisture (Rm), proteins (Pt), lipids (Lp), total fiber (Tf), and carbohydrate (Cy) were performed in triplicate samples according assessment of antioxidant capacity. Extraction of fatty acids was carried out by two different methods: (i) By shoxlet and (ii) bligh and dyer. The optimized conditions were determined by surface response methodology (RSM), and the criterion of desirability was the maximum extraction of Ra and Ca. Results: The method of bligh and dyer was able to extraction more total Lp than the shoxlet. However, the extraction of fatty acid was different for the two methods. The optimized conditions to extract RA and Ca was calculated by RSM, 42°C, 30% (alcohol degree) and 24 min, this conditions maximize simultaneously the extraction of Ca (0, 04%) and Ry (1.89), Conclusion: It was observed that the extraction method alters the chemical composition of extract, and it is possible to extract Ca and Ra from A. tibourbou's leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction.

  11. High recall document content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

  12. Fast robust automated brain extraction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen M

    2002-11-01

    An automated method for segmenting magnetic resonance head images into brain and non-brain has been developed. It is very robust and accurate and has been tested on thousands of data sets from a wide variety of scanners and taken with a wide variety of MR sequences. The method, Brain Extraction Tool (BET), uses a deformable model that evolves to fit the brain's surface by the application of a set of locally adaptive model forces. The method is very fast and requires no preregistration or other pre-processing before being applied. We describe the new method and give examples of results and the results of extensive quantitative testing against "gold-standard" hand segmentations, and two other popular automated methods. PMID:12391568

  13. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects. PMID:23594449

  14. Advances in information extraction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, G.

    1982-01-01

    Sundry recent developments are presented which show some potential for affecting the automatic extraction of information from remotely sensed data. Pattern representations more abstract than Euclidean vector spaces offer some hope of unifying structural and decision theoretical approaches. The estimation of expected classification error rates is becoming more sophisticated and rigorous, but useful finite-sample results for nonparametric distributions appear unobtainable. Focus on computational complexity allows comparison of algorithms, while software engineering techniques reduce the effort necessary to develop and maintain complex image processing systems. Advances in computer systems architecture, commercial database technology, and man-machine communications should be closely monitored by the remote sensing community. A NASA-sponsored recommendation for research directions in mathematical pattern recognition are offered.

  15. Practical recommendations for mixing allergy immunotherapy extracts

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Critical aspects of formulating allergy immunotherapy vaccines include the selection, total number, and proportions of each allergen component in therapeutic mixtures. The immunotherapy prescription, determined by a medical provider, details the dosing and schedule for treatment as well as the specific composition of the treatment vials. Allergen extracts are composed of many components such as proteins, glycoproteins, and proteases. Some components in allergen extracts are cross-reactive, meaning that treatment with an extract from one species may confer partial protection against a triggering allergen from another species. Conversely, some allergen extracts are incompatible with other extracts when combined in a mixture for treatment, resulting in lowered therapeutic potential for the patient. Therefore, knowledge of allergen extract cross-reactivities and incompatibilities guides the preparation of subcutaneous immunotherapy prescriptions. In a clinical setting, an understanding of what can and can not be mixed is one critical element in improving treatment outcomes. PMID:25860164

  16. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of black pepper oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Perakis; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

    2005-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from ground black pepper, using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of process parameters, namely pressure (90,100,150bar) and temperature (40,50°C) of extraction, and solvent flow rate (1.1,2,3kg\\/h), on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments conducted in a bench scale apparatus.

  18. A Study of Terpeneless Lemon Extracts

    E-print Network

    Spilman, C. Clay

    1912-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection A Study of Terpeneless Lemon Extracts 1912 by C. Clay Spilman This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center... paper for credit as a Senior Thesis, such as is required of all applicants for a degree in the school of Engineering, Very respectfully submitted, 1. TERPENELESS LEMON EXTRACTS• There are two extracts which have the flavor of lemon and which have...

  19. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  20. Chemical extraction of arsenic from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Alam, G M; Tokunaga, S

    2006-01-01

    A series of batch extraction experiments were conducted using a fortified soil with different extracting solutions such as inorganic acids (hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), perchloric acid (HClO4), or nitric acid (HNO3)), organic acids (acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7)) and alkaline agent (NaOH). Various concentrations were used to investigate the removal efficiency and to optimise the concentration of each extractant. In the present investigation a Kuroboku soil contaminated with arsenite (As(III)) was used as a model soil. Arsenic was extracted most efficiently by 5% H3PO4 with a maximum of more than 99% from the model soil. Sulfuric acid also showed high percentage extraction efficiency. On the other hand, C2H4O2 and oxidizing acids such as HNO3 and HClO4 showed low efficiency of As extraction compared with C6H8O7. Although, NaOH also showed higher extraction efficiencies compared with organic and oxidizing acids but mainly arsenate (As(V)) was found to be the major component. A significant fraction of the As(III) was oxidized to As(V) during mineral acid and alkaline extraction and extraction efficiency also varied with the concentration of the acid and alkali solution. PMID:16779937

  1. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

  2. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  3. DNA Extraction and Quantitation for Forensic Analysts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web site is part of the President's DNA Initiative and is devoted to the methodology for the extraction and quantification of DNA obtained from crime scene evidence. The site is designed as an on-line short course. The site identifies potential obstacles in the collection, extraction, and amplification of DNA. Extraction methods covered are organic, Chelex, and other extraction procedures. The site reviews inhibitors of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process and suggests methods for separating these inhibitors from the sample DNA. The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used methods for DNA are reviewed. The user must register and secure a readily obtainable password prior to entering the site.

  4. Fungal metabolite extracts active against phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Okeke, B; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Buarque De Gusmão, N

    1994-10-14

    The effectiveness of some genetically engineered microorganisms in the control of plant disease pathogens is widely acknowledged. These biopesticides, so far, pose less danger to the environment. However, little attention has been paid to the potential benefit of the use of exometabolites of some microorganisms in spite of their known activity and high biodegradability. A total of 1108 fungal metabolite extracts obtained from different strains of micromycetes cultured in two different liquid media (malt extract and yeast saccharose) were tested for antifungal activity. The target organisms were Collectotrichum musae, Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Pyricularia oryzae, Drechslera oryzae and Gerlachia oryzae. Percentage mycelial growth inhibition activities varied widely with the different taxonomic groups. Extracts from Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. consistently showed the highest activity. A greater number of micromycetes produced active extracts in a liquid yeast extract saccharose medium than in a liquid malt extract medium. Mycelial growth inhibition diameters were also greater in assays with extracts from the yeast extract saccharose medium. The results generally demonstrated fungal metabolite extracts as potential sources of agricultural chemical input. PMID:7973617

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Satdive; P. Abhilash; Devanand P. Fulzele

    2003-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichiacoli.

  6. Penetrating keratoplasty combined with extracapsular cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Kramer, S G

    1985-07-15

    In my previous prospective study of 132 eyes, the incidence of clinically significant cystoid macular edema was 42% in aphakic penetrating keratoplasty, 33% in combined keratoplasty and cataract extraction with vitrectomy, and only 4% in combined keratoplasty and cataract extraction without vitrectomy. In the present study we added 26 aphakic and 11 pseudophakic keratoplasties and 17 procedures combining keratoplasty with extracapsular cataract extraction. Grafts were clear in 94% of patients, and 43% had visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Clinically significant cystoid macular edema occurred in 35% of aphakic and 27% of pseudophakic keratoplasties. Cystoid macular edema did not occur in combined keratoplasty and extracapsular cataract extraction. PMID:3893136

  7. Comparisons of soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction for environmental solids: recovery, selectivity and effects on sample matrix.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, S B; Grabanski, C B; Martin, E; Miller, D J

    2000-09-15

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100 degrees C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150 degrees C with pure CO2), and subcritical water (1 h at 250 degrees C, or 30 min at 300 degrees C). Although minor differences in recoveries for some PAHs resulted from the different methods, quantitative agreement between all of the methods was generally good. However, the extract quality differed greatly. The organic solvent extracts (Soxhlet and PLE) were much darker, while the extracts from subcritical water (collected in toluene) were orange, and the extracts from SFE (collected in CH2Cl2) were light yellow. The organic solvent extracts also yielded more artifact peaks in the gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-flame ionization detection chromatograms, especially compared to supercritical CO2. Based on elemental analysis (carbon and nitrogen) of the soil residues after each extraction, subcritical water, PLE, and Soxhlet extraction had poor selectivity for PAHs versus bulk soil organic matter (approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of the bulk soil organic matter was extracted along with the PAHs), while SFE with pure CO2 removed only 8% of the bulk organic matrix. Selectivities for different compound classes also vary with extraction method. Extraction of urban air particulate matter with organic solvents yields very high concentrations of n- and branched alkanes (approximately C18 to C30) from diesel exhaust as well as lower levels of PAHs, and no selectivity between the bulk alkanes and PAHs is obtained during organic solvent extraction. Some moderate selectivity with supercritical CO2 can be achieved by first extracting the bulk alkanes at mild conditions, followed by stronger conditions to extract the remaining PAHs, i.e., the least polar organics are the easiest organics to extract with pure CO2. In direct contrast, subcritical water prefers the more polar analytes, i.e., PAHs were efficiently extracted from urban air particulates at 250 degrees C, with little or no extraction of the alkanes. Finally, recent work has demonstrated that many pollutant molecules become "sequestered" as they age for decades in the environment (i.e., more tightly bound to soil particles and less available to organisms or transport). Therefore, it may be more important for an extraction method to only recover pollutant molecules that are environmentally-relevant, rather than the conventional attempts to extract all pollutant molecules regardless of how tightly bound they are to the soil or sediment matrix. Initial work comparing SFE extraction behavior using mild to strong conditions with bioremediation behavior of PAHs shows great promise to develop extraction methodology to measure environmentally-relevant concentrations of pollutants in addition to their total concentrations. PMID:11045502

  8. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  9. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  10. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  11. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  12. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  13. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  14. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  15. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  16. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  17. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  18. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  19. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  20. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  1. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  2. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  3. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  4. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  5. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  6. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  7. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  8. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  9. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  10. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  11. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  12. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  13. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  14. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  15. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  16. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  17. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  18. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  19. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  20. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  1. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  2. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  3. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  4. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  5. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  6. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  7. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  8. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  9. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  10. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  11. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  12. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  13. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  14. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  15. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  16. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  17. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  18. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  19. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  20. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  1. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  2. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  3. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  4. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  5. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  6. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  7. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

  8. Extraction of methyl red from industrial wastewater using xylene as an extractant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Muthuraman; Tjoon Tow Teng

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory study on the liquid–liquid extraction system has been carried out for the removal and recovery of methyl red from aqueous solutions using xylene as an extractant. The concentration of methyl red has been studied in the range of 1.72×10?4 to 1.72×10?3molL?1. The efficiency of dye extraction increased with increasing time of extraction. Distribution ratio is reasonably high (D=49)

  9. Batch Extraction Studies of Cationic and Anionic Heavy Metallic Species by a Mixed Solvent Extraction System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chilukuri; Zhi-Fa Yang; K. K. Sirkar

    1998-01-01

    Removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewaters and their recovery is a challenging problem. Simultaneous and synergistic batch extraction from water of copper present as a cation (Cu) and Cr present as an anion (HCr2O) into a mixed solvent extraction system have been studied. The mixed solvent extraction system consists of the diluent kerosene, the cation exchanger LIX 84, and

  10. Effect of different extraction protocols on anticancer and antioxidant activities of Berberis koreana bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Syed Abdul; Kwon, Min Chul; Han, Jae Gun; Ha, Ji He; Chung, Hyang Suk; Ahn, Juhee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure extraction and ultrasonification extraction techniques were employed to extract bioactive compounds from Berberis koreana. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonification in a high pressure process on the extraction yield, and the anticancer and antioxidant activities of the B. koreana bark extract. The effect of high-pressure extraction time when carried out for 5 and 15 min (HP5 and HP15) was also investigated. The best extraction yield with maximum percentage of phenolic compounds was obtained using high pressure with sonification (HPWS) extraction method. Experimental results indicated that HPWS altered the antioxidant activities, including the scavenging capacity of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase. HP5 and HP15 with conventional extraction have almost similar bioactivity, but showed lower antioxidant and anticancer activities compared to HPWS. The results showed that the application of ultrasonification improved the extraction efficiency for bioactive compounds and, as deduced from chromatographic profiles, it may have allowed the release of new compounds. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed evidence of rupturing of the tissue surface treated with HPWS, in contrast to conventional extraction, HP5, and HP15. The HPWS extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active compounds of hard plant tissues. PMID:19269602

  11. Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

    1969-01-01

    Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

  12. REALTIME MINUTIAE EXTRACTION IN FINGERPRINT IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Juan, Alfons

    REAL­TIME MINUTIAE EXTRACTION IN FINGERPRINT IMAGES J C Amengual, A Juan, J C P'erez, F Prat, S S of the most important tasks in an Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), Mehtre and Chatterjee (3). The characteris­ tics to be extracted in a given fingerprint image can be divided into two main categories: global

  13. Testbed for information extraction from deep web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Yamada; Nick Craswell; Tetsuya Nakatoh; Sachio Hirokawa

    2004-01-01

    Search results generated by searchable databases are served dynamically and far larger than the static documents on the Web. These results pages have been referred to as the Deep Web. We need to extract the target data in results pages to integrate them on different searchable databases. We propose a test bed for information extraction from search results. We chose

  14. Data Extraction from Deep Web Pages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jufeng Yang; Guangshun Shi; Yan Zheng; Qingren Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel model to extract data from Deep Web pages. The model has four layers, among which the access schedule, extraction layer and data cleaner are based on the rules of structure, logic and application. In the experiment section, we apply the new model to three intelligent system, scientific paper retrieval, electronic ticket ordering and

  15. Subprime Refinancing: Equity Extraction and Mortgage Termination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Pennington-Cross; Souphala Chomsisengphet

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the choice of borrowers to extract wealth from housing in the high-cost (subprime) segment of the mortgage market and assesses the prepayment and default performance of these cash-out refinance loans relative to the rate of refinance loans. Consistent with survey evidence, the propensity to extract equity is sensitive to the relative interest rates of other forms of

  16. Genotoxicity of Organic Extracts from Atmospheric Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. A. Courtois; S. Min; C. Lachenal; J. M. Jacquot-Deschamps; F. Callais; B. Festy

    1988-01-01

    Experiments to evaluate the genotoxic potentialities of urban air particles sampled in Paris (France) after organic solvent extraction have been carried out using four in vitro genotoxicity tests. The two bacterial tests (the Ames test and the SOS Chromotest) demonstrate the genotoxicity of the organic extracts of atmospheric particles; two additional tests (induction of 6-thioguanine mutants and sister chromatid exchanges),

  17. Soil moisture by extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merek, E. L.; Carle, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    To determine moisture content of soils rapidly and conveniently extract moisture with methanol and determine water content of methanol extract by gas chromatography. Moisture content of sample is calculated from weight of water and methanol in aliquot and weight of methanol added to sample.

  18. Extracting Semistructured Information from the Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hammer; H. Garcia-Molina; J. Cho; R. Aranha; Arturo Crespo

    1997-01-01

    We describe a configurable tool for extracting semistructured data from a set of HTML pages and for converting the extracted information into database objects. The input to the extractor is a declarative specification that states where the data of interest is located on the HTML pages, and how the data should be \\

  19. Alignment-HMM-based Extraction of Abbreviations

    E-print Network

    Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

    definitions anti-sperm antibodies were studied by indirect mixed anti-globulin reaction test (MAR) 1 MAR of multiple abbreviations · "anti-sperm (ASA), anti-phospholipid (APA), and antizonal (AZA) antibodies" #12;Extraction Method · Parse text and extract candidate definitions anti-sperm antibodies were studied

  20. Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

  1. A Survey of Web Information Extraction Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-hui Chang; Mohammed Kayed; Moheb Ramzy Girgis; Khaled F. Shaalan

    2006-01-01

    The Internet presents a huge amount of useful information which is usually formatted for its users, which makes it difficult to extract relevant data from various sources. Therefore, the availability of robust, flexible Information Extraction (IE) systems that transform the Web pages into program-friendly structures such as a relational database will become a great necessity. Although many approaches for data

  2. Rapid and reliable protein extraction from yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitaly V. Kushnirov

    2000-01-01

    The methods currently used for protein extraction from yeast are either laborious or insufficiently reliable. Here I report a method for protein extraction for electrophoretic analysis that is both easy and reliable. In this method, yeast cells are subjected to mild alkali treatment and then boiled in a standard electrophoresis loading buffer. The method was tested for different strains of

  3. Comparison of the chemical composition of extracts from Scutellaria lateriflora using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction versus standard hot water or 70% ethanol extraction.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Chantal; Gafner, Stefan; Clausen, Edgar; Carrier, Danielle J

    2005-04-20

    The aqueous extract of American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L. (S. lateriflora), Lamiaceae) has been traditionally used by North American Indians as a nerve tonic and for its sedative and diuretic properties. Recent reports stated that flavonoids and possibly amino acids are responsible for the anxiolytic activity. As a part of our search for environmentally friendly solvents to extract the active components from medicinal plants, we used S. lateriflora in a comparison of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using water, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 and 10% EtOH as modifier, at different temperatures. Flavonoids and amino acids were quantified by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS, respectively. The flavonoid content was compared with conventional extraction methods (hot water extraction and 70% ethanol). The use of ASE at 85 degrees C with water as solvent gave the best results for flavonoid glycosides and amino acids, whereas SFE gave higher yields of flavonoid aglycones. However, the results obtained for total flavonoids were not significatively superior to hot water extraction or 70% aqueous EtOH extract. PMID:15826062

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction. Principles and practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. McHugh; V. J. Krukonis

    1986-01-01

    The authors cover virtually every facet of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology: the history of SCF extraction, its underlying thermodynamic principles, process principles, industrial applications, and analysis of SCF research and development efforts. A review of 75 major SCF extraction patents provides an important source of technical and business information. Computer programs that can be used to calculate critical mixture and

  5. Web Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Web Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory Online market intelligence (OMI), and especially competitive intelligence for product pricing, is a very extraction and processing of massive amounts of data in a short period of time. Online market intelligence

  6. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

  7. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

  8. Adaptive traffic road sign panels text extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. VÁZQUEZ REINA; R. J. LÓPEZ SASTRE; S. LAFUENTE ARROYO; P. GIL JIMÉNEZ

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to the detection and extraction of text in road sign panels. Text strings, indicators and signs extraction is efficiently performed so OCR algorithms can recognize different characters that may be present on the traffic plane. In a first step, basic color segmentation and shape classification is done for the purpose of detecting possible

  9. Automatic Extraction of Knowledge from Web Documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harith Alani; Sanghee Kim; David E. Millard; Mark J. Weal; Paul H. Lewis; Nigel Shadbolt

    2003-01-01

    A large amount of digital information available is written as text documents in the form of web pages, reports, papers, emails, etc. Extracting the knowledge of interest from such documents from multiple sources in a timely fashion is therefore crucial. This paper provides an update on the Artequakt system which uses natural language tools to automatically extract knowledge about artists

  10. SURVEY OF WATER EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS IN MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-extractable phosphorus (P) in manure is strongly related to dissolved P in runoff from soils receiving recent additions of manure. A survey of water-extractable P concentrations in manures submitted to Penn State University's Agricultural Analytical Services Laboratory was conducted. Results r...

  11. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  12. Product Feature Extraction with a Combined Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhixing Li

    2010-01-01

    Product review mining is the process of extracting opinions of customers in reviews which are expressed by natural language. As the first phrase of product review mining, product feature extraction decides the quality of subsequent phrases. In this paper, we build a combined approach based on bootstrapping and ID3, ID3 is used as a feature selection algorithm in the iteration

  13. Apparatus for California Waste Extraction Test

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.

    1991-06-10

    An apparatus has been designed that is suitable for performing the extraction test mandated by the state of California for the characterization of solid and semisolid hazardous waste. The apparatus enables mixing of the waste with the extraction fluid in the absence of air, and all parts contacting the waste mixture are either fluoropolymer or glass.

  14. Information Extraction Using Hidden Markov Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Robert Leek

    1997-01-01

    This thesis shows how to design and tune a hidden Markov model to extract factual information from a corpus of machine-readable English prose. In particular, the thesis presents a HMM that classifies and parses natural language assertions about genes being located at particular positions on chromosomes. The facts extracted by this HMM can be inserted into biological databases. The HMM

  15. IN SITU SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is designed to physically remove volatile compounds, generally from the vadose or unsaturated zone. t is an in situ process employing vapor extraction wells alone or in combination with air injection wells. acuum blowers supply the motive force, induci...

  16. TEXT EXTRACTION FROM STREET LEVEL IMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fabrizio; M. Cord; B. Marcotegui

    2009-01-01

    We offer in this article, a method for text extraction in images issued from city scenes. This method is used in the French iTowns project (iTowns ANR project, 2008) to automatically enhance cartographic database by extracting text from geolocalized pictures of town streets. This task is difficult as 1. text in this environment varies in shape, size, color, orientation... 2.

  17. Extraction of phenolic compounds from soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the composition and amount of phenolic inputs from plants is important for studies of soil organic matter formation and nutrient cycling. However, some phenolic compounds, including tannins, can sorb or complex with the soil making them difficult to extract. We extracted soils with a...

  18. Comparison of endmember extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipar, John J.; Meidunas, Eduardo C.; Bassett, Edward M., III

    2002-08-01

    Image pixels represent either distinct materials (end members) that are present in the image, or mistures of two or more of these pure materials. Estimates of pure end member spectra are needed for spectral libraries and for input into pixel unmixing codes. We investigate three algorithms for estimating end member spectra: (1) the convex hull method in which an n-dimensional surface is shrink- wrapped around the data cloud; (2) a pixel-by-pixel search method in which pixels that have sufficiently different spectral angles are declared end members; (3) a pixel-by- pixel search method using Euclidean distance as a measure, followed by clustering to improve the estimate of the spectra. The convex hull technique should provide an estimate of pure end member spectra while the pixel-by-pixel search methods should find both distinct end members and distinct mixtures. Each method requires user-set thresholds to find distinct spectra, which can be expressed in spectral angle degrees or image-dependent units for Euclidean distance. Estimates for the lower threshold (below which two spectra are considered to be the same material) and the upper threshold (above which two spectra are definitely different materials) are derived empirically. Low-altitude AVIRIS data will be used to demonstrate the utility of these end member extraction methods. We will illusxtrate how well each technique compare to the other, and compare how well individual algorithms work across adjacent scenes.

  19. Extracting entanglement from identical particles

    E-print Network

    N. Killoran; M. Cramer; M. B. Plenio

    2014-04-22

    Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

  20. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

  1. Solvent extraction kinetics of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Gao, J; Peng, B; Fan, H; Kang, J

    1996-10-01

    The kinetics of solid-liquid extraction of rare earth elements (RE) (La, Ce, Sm, Dy and Yb) were studied with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) at 60 degrees C using paraffin wax as a diluent. The rate of extraction is first order with respect to metal ion and hydrogen ion in the aqueous phase and second order with respect to the extractant in the organic phase. The rate-determining step is the formation of an [RE(PAN)(2)](+) complex between RE(3+) and PAN in the aqueous phase. The rate constant for the extraction was found to be about 10(11) 1 mol(-1) s(-1). The temperature dependence of extraction rate was determined and the activation parameters were calculated. PMID:18966658

  2. Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction in natural products analyses.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluids (SCFs) are increasingly replacing the organic solvents, e.g., n-hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, or methanol, that are conventionally used in industrial extraction, purification, and recrystallization operations because of regulatory and environmental pressures on hydrocarbon and ozone-depleting emissions. In natural products extraction and isolation, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), especially employing supercritical CO(2), has become a popular choice. Sophisticated modern technologies allow precise regulation of changes in temperature and pressure, and thus manipulation of solvating property of the SCF, which helps the extraction of natural products of a wide range of polarities. This chapter deals mainly with the application of the SFE technology in the natural products extraction and isolation, and outlines various methodologies with specific examples. PMID:22367893

  4. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  5. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  6. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from chicory extract administered orally at 70, 350, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Since there were no observed adverse effects of chicory extract in these studies, the NOAEL for the extract is 1000 mg/kg/g administered orally for 28 days. PMID:17306431

  8. Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed. PMID:25421494

  9. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  10. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium. PMID:16924586

  11. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. PMID:25442573

  12. Extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by mechanical shaking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Schwab; J. Su; S. Wetzel; S. Pekarek; M. K. Banks

    1999-01-01

    A shaking extraction method for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was developed and compared to Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet extraction is an EPA-approved method for volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants from solid materials, but it has many disadvantages including long extraction periods and potential loss of volatile compounds. When field-moist soils are used, variability in subsamples is higher, and the extraction of

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Martín; A. M. Mainar; A. González-Coloma; J. Burillo; J. S. Urieta

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the work was to optimize the extraction of wormwood oil by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of growth-controlled plant material. Different extraction conditions, two growth techniques and various crops were tested and the evolution of the extracted oil composition was screened chromatographically. A comparison with conventional techniques such as hydrodistillation (HD) or organic solvent extraction (OSE) was also

  14. Evaluating the efficiency of DNA extraction methods from different substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy J. Verdon; R. John Mitchell; Roland A. H. van Oorschot

    The efficiency of extracting DNA directly from substrates varies according to a range of factors including the type of substrate and the extraction technique. Two routinely used DNA extraction methodologies (automated DNA IQ and manual Chelex) were texts on their efficiency to extract DNA from a range of blood volumes (0.1–30?L) on plastic and cotton. The efficiency of extracting DNA

  15. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  16. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  17. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  18. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  19. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  20. Solvent extraction and quantification of capsaicinoids from Capsicum chinense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari S. Chinn; Ratna R. Sharma-Shivappa; Jacqueline L. Cotter

    2011-01-01

    Capsaicinoid extraction from peppers is typically performed using organic solvents, however, the extraction efficiencies can vary with peppers, their parts and pre-extraction processing. In the absence of in depth information on capsaicinoid extraction from habañero peppers, this work was undertaken to examine the processing parameters for solvent extraction of capsaicinoids from whole habañero peppers (Capsicum chinense) and their various parts.

  1. Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T. [LPGP, University Paris-Sud 11, bat 210, 15 rue G. Clemenceau-Orsay, F91405 (France)

    2012-06-01

    The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  2. Alkaline extraction of wastewater activated sludge biosolids.

    PubMed

    García Becerra, Flor Y; Acosta, Edgar J; Allen, D Grant

    2010-09-01

    Activated sludge produced by wastewater treatment facilities are a sub-utilized by-product whose handling and disposal represent significant costs to these facilities. In this work, we introduced a simple and effective alkaline extraction technique that extracts up to 75% of the sludge's organic matter into a liquor containing potentially useful organic material (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.). The results suggest that at pH 11 and above, cell lysis occurs, liberating substantial quantities of organic material into the alkaline solution. When compared to a cation exchange resin (CER) extraction developed for analytical purposes, the alkaline extraction recovered 3x more organic material. The alkaline extract was highly surface active, despite containing a relatively small fraction of lipids. At pH 12 and above the lipid fraction was enriched with C15-C16 fatty acid residues, likely associated with cell membrane phospholipids as suggested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P NMR). Size exclusion chromatography studies show that the extract is enriched with biopolymers or assemblies of molecular weights in the order of tens of thousands of Daltons. Potential uses for the extract are discussed. PMID:20435473

  3. Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T.

    2012-06-01

    The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code—ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)]—is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  4. [A novel spectrum feature extraction method].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Ru; Feng, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yong-Jun; Lu, Yu

    2011-10-01

    The present focuses on the celestial spectra feature extraction problem, which is a key procedure in automatic spectra classification. By extracting features, the authors can reduce redundancy, alleviate noise influence, and improve accuracy and efficiency in spectra classification. The authors introduced a novel feature analysis framework STP (space transformation and partition), which focuses on four essential components in feature extraction: decompose and reorganize spectrum components, reorganize, alleviate noise influence and eliminate redundancy. Based on STP, we can analyze most of the available feature extraction methods, for example, the unsupervised methods principal component analysis (PCA), wavelet transform, the supervised methods support vector machine (SVM), relevance vector machine (RVM), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), etc. We introduced a novel feature analysis framework and proposed a novel feature extraction method. The outstanding characteristics of the proposed method are its simplicity and efficiency. Researches show that it is sufficient to extract features by the proposed method in some cases, and it is not necessary to use the sophisticated methods, which is usually more complex in computation. The proposed method is evaluated in classifying Galaxy and QSO spectra, which is disturbed by red shift and is representative in automatic spectra classification research. The results are practical and helpful to gain novel insight into the traditional feature extraction methods and design more efficient spectrum classification method. PMID:22250571

  5. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ?-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  6. Extraction of Tissue Antigens for Functional Assays

    PubMed Central

    Necula, Andra; Chand, Rochna; Albatat, Batool; Mannering, Stuart I.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the antigen targets of adaptive immune response, recognized by B and T cells, have not been defined 1. This is particularly true in autoimmune diseases and cancer2. Our aim is to investigate the antigens recognized by human T cells in the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes 1,3,4,5. To analyze human T-cell responses against tissue where the antigens recognized by T cells are not identified we developed a method to extract protein antigens from human tissue in a format that is compatible with functional assays 6. Previously, T-cell responses to unpurified tissue extracts could not be measured because the extraction methods yield a lysate that contained detergents that were toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Here we describe a protocol for extracting proteins from human tissues in a format that is not toxic to human T cells. The tissue is homogenized in a mixture of butan-1-ol, acetonitrile and water (BAW). The protein concentration in the tissue extract is measured and a known mass of protein is aliquoted into tubes. After extraction, the organic solvents are removed by lyophilization. Lyophilized tissue extracts can be stored until required. For use in assays of immune function, a suspension of immune cells, in appropriate culture media, can be added directly to the lyophilized extract. Cytokine production and proliferation by PBMC, in response to extracts prepared using this method, were readily measured. Hence, our method allows the rapid preparation of human tissue lysates that can be used as a source of antigens in the analysis of T-cell responses. We suggest that this method will facilitate the analysis of adaptive immune responses to tissues in transplantation, cancer and autoimmunity. PMID:22986305

  7. Extraction of tissue antigens for functional assays.

    PubMed

    Necula, Andra; Chand, Rochna; Albatat, Batool; Mannering, Stuart I

    2012-01-01

    Many of the antigen targets of adaptive immune response, recognized by B and T cells, have not been defined (1). This is particularly true in autoimmune diseases and cancer(2). Our aim is to investigate the antigens recognized by human T cells in the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes (1,3,4,5). To analyze human T-cell responses against tissue where the antigens recognized by T cells are not identified we developed a method to extract protein antigens from human tissue in a format that is compatible with functional assays (6). Previously, T-cell responses to unpurified tissue extracts could not be measured because the extraction methods yield a lysate that contained detergents that were toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Here we describe a protocol for extracting proteins from human tissues in a format that is not toxic to human T cells. The tissue is homogenized in a mixture of butan-1-ol, acetonitrile and water (BAW). The protein concentration in the tissue extract is measured and a known mass of protein is aliquoted into tubes. After extraction, the organic solvents are removed by lyophilization. Lyophilized tissue extracts can be stored until required. For use in assays of immune function, a suspension of immune cells, in appropriate culture media, can be added directly to the lyophilized extract. Cytokine production and proliferation by PBMC, in response to extracts prepared using this method, were readily measured. Hence, our method allows the rapid preparation of human tissue lysates that can be used as a source of antigens in the analysis of T-cell responses. We suggest that this method will facilitate the analysis of adaptive immune responses to tissues in transplantation, cancer and autoimmunity. PMID:22986305

  8. Continuous extraction of organic materials from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

    1971-01-01

    A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

  9. Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

  10. Modulation of cytokine expression by hypericum extract.

    PubMed

    Thiele, B; Brink, I; Ploch, M

    1994-10-01

    The effect of hypericum extract LI 160 on the stimulated cytokine expression was investigated in vitro in a whole blood culture system. Blood samples were taken from five healthy volunteers and four depressive patients. The release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was measured quantitatively after an incubation time of 24 hours on microtiter plates. A massive suppression of the interleukin-6 release was found for PHA-stimulated hypericum extract. Possible relations to the antidepressive effects of hypericum extract are discussed. PMID:7857513

  11. 3D Feature Extraction for Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Visualization techniques provide tools that help scientists identify observed phenomena in scientific simulation. To be useful, these tools must allow the user to extract regions, classify and visualize them, abstract them for simplified representations, and track their evolution. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This article explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and those from Finite Element Analysis.

  12. Features of power extraction in EOIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhenin, Andrey V.; Azyazov, Valeriy N.

    2015-02-01

    The single-frequency two-level (SFTL) generation model was applied to predict the power extraction efficiency in electrically driven oxygen-iodine laser (EOIL). The analysis of the calculated and published experimental data showed that power extraction from the cw EOIL is limited by the rate of energy transfer from singlet oxygen molecules O2(1?) to iodine atoms I(2P3/2) and about half of the produced singlet oxygen molecules were carried out from the resonator. To increase power extraction efficiency it will be necessary to substantially extend concentrations of singlet oxygen molecules and iodine atoms in the active medium of EOIL.

  13. Copper leaching, solvent extraction, and electrowinning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jergensen, G.V. II [ed.

    1999-07-01

    This volume recognizes the growing role of solvent extraction and electrowinning technology in the global copper business. This process is an efficient and cost effective way to extract copper. This proceedings documents the present status of the SX-EW business. It represents a substantial body of historical, scientific, engineering, and commercial information regarding the growth and application of the technology. Sections include: the business and technology of SX-EW, theory and practice of copper leaching, theory and practice of tankhouse operations, and theory and practice of solvent extraction.

  14. Optimization of extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Sumaira; Ali, Muhammad; Mahmood, Asif

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves using response surface methodology (RSM). A user-defined design was applied to determine the effects of extraction time (min), extraction temperature ((o)C) and ethanol concentration (%), on total phenolic content (TPC) from Moringa oleifera leaves dried by three methods (oven, sunlight and ambient air). The RSM was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of TPC of Moringa oleifera leaves. The optimum conditions that maximize the extraction of TPC were extraction time, 60 min; extraction temperature, 90(o)C and % of methanol, 50 % (v/v). TPC extracted under these conditions were 12.28, 12.65 and 13.14 mg GAE/g DW for samples dried by different methods. Significant difference between drying methods was found (p<0.001). Pair wise significant difference was found only between oven and ambient air drying methods (p<0.001). PMID:22713938

  15. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

  16. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

  17. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

  18. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

  19. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is...

  20. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

  1. ForPeerReview Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated

    E-print Network

    Durfee, William K.

    ForPeerReview Only Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated Quadriceps Muscle Extracting Mechanical Energy from Electrically Stimulated Quadriceps Muscle Abstract OBJECTIVE: To measure the energy that can be extracted from the electrically stimulated quadriceps muscle during leg lifts

  2. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

  3. 21 CFR 73.1100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.1100 Section...CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity...specifications. (1) The color additives cochineal extract and carmine shall conform...

  4. 21 CFR 73.100 - Cochineal extract; carmine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cochineal extract; carmine. 73.100 Section...CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.100 Cochineal extract; carmine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive cochineal extract is the concentrated...

  5. Automatically generating extraction patterns from untagged text

    SciTech Connect

    Riloff, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Many corpus-based natural language processing systems rely on text corpora that have been manually annotated with syntactic or semantic tags. In particular, all previous dictionary construction systems for information extraction have used an annotated training corpus or some form of annotated input. We have developed a system called AutoSlog-TS that creates dictionaries of extraction patterns using only untagged text. AutoSlog-TS is based on the AutoSlog system, which generated extraction patterns using annotated text and a set of heuristic rules. By adapting AutoSlog and combining it with statistical techniques, we eliminated its dependency on tagged text. In experiments with the MUC-4 terrorism domain, AutoSlog-TS created a dictionary of extraction patterns that performed comparably to a dictionary created by AutoSlog, using only preclassified texts as input.

  6. Extracting Information from the Electrical Activity of

    E-print Network

    Clancy, Ted

    Institute Presentation Overview · Brief background: ­ Muscle electrical activity (EMG) · Engineering models, methods for extracting "EMG amplitude" · Applications of EMGamp: ­ Prosthesis control, gait biofeedback, EMG- torque, EMG-impedance · Surface EMG arrays ( newest stuff !!) Introduction EAC06­056 #12

  7. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  8. 21 CFR 73.530 - Spirulina extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...restrictions. Spirulina extract may be safely used for coloring confections (including candy and chewing gum), frostings, ice cream and frozen desserts, dessert coatings and toppings, beverage mixes and powders, yogurts, custards, puddings,...

  9. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  10. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...million. (c) Use and restrictions. Logwood extract may be safely used to color nylon 66 (the copolymer of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid), nylon 6 (the polymer of e -caprolactam), or silk non-absorable sutures for use...

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  17. Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W

    E-print Network

    Brinker, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

  18. Extraction Route Trials on Sensitive Sites

    E-print Network

    the Solway coast, covers an area of 350 ha and prior to afforestation was an upland raised bog with deep peat that assessed extraction route formations on deep peat sites. Information is provided on the evaluation of route

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  20. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...solutions thereof, edible vegetable oils or fats, mono- and diglycerides...glycerolysis of edible vegetable oils or fats. The alkaline alcohol...acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from... Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom,...

  1. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...solutions thereof, edible vegetable oils or fats, mono- and diglycerides...glycerolysis of edible vegetable oils or fats. The alkaline alcohol...acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from... Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom,...

  2. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...solutions thereof, edible vegetable oils or fats, mono- and diglycerides...glycerolysis of edible vegetable oils or fats. The alkaline alcohol...acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from... Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom,...

  3. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...solutions thereof, edible vegetable oils or fats, mono- and diglycerides...glycerolysis of edible vegetable oils or fats. The alkaline alcohol...acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from... Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom,...

  4. Lead extractions: indications, procedural aspects, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika M; Pretorius, Victor G

    2014-05-01

    As a result of more cardiac implantable electronic devices being placed, a trend toward increasing device infections, and concerns regarding lead malfunction, there is an increased need for lead extraction skills and comprehensive lead management programs. This review discusses the current indications for lead extractions as well as the training requirements and tools and technology needed to create the foundation for a successful lead management program. PMID:24793797

  5. Extraction of antioxidant compounds from energy crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching S. Lau; Danielle Julie Carrier; Luke R. Howard; Jackson O. Lay; Jean A. Archambault; Edgar C. Clausen

    2004-01-01

    Energy crops offer enormous opportunities for increasing the sustain ability of agriculture and energy production in the United\\u000a States. Nevertheless, opportunities for sustaining biomass energy production may well hinge on producing energy and extracting\\u000a high-value products from the same crop. Seven potential energy crops (mimosa, sericea, kudzu, arunzo, switchgrass, velvetbean,\\u000a and castor) were extracted and assayed for the presence of

  6. Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

    1980-01-01

    Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

  7. Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2006-08-11

    Uncaria tomentosa ("Uña de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines. PMID:16569487

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

  9. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  10. DNA profiling by different extraction methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Barbaro; N. Staiti; P. Cormaci; L. Saravo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of different validated methods for DNA extraction using commercial kits. DNA extraction was performed on fresh liquid blood, old bloodstains, cigarettes butts, semen stains and hairs. Samples were quantified by the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System. Amplification was carried out by GeneAmp 2400 and 9700 Thermal Cyclers using the AmpFlSTR

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Esclapez; J. V. García-Pérez; A. Mulet; J. A. Cárcel

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is an interesting process to obtain high valuable compounds and could contribute to\\u000a the increase in the value of some food by-products when used as sources of natural compounds. The main benefits will be a\\u000a more effective extraction, thus saving energy, and also the use of moderate temperatures, which is beneficial for heat-sensitive\\u000a compounds. For a successful

  12. Key frames extraction in athletic video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa; Russo, Stefano

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we present an effective framework for features extraction from an athletic sport sequence. We analyze both forward and backward motion vectors from MPEG 2 video sequences for camera movements detection. Features like the beginning and the end of the race and the type of competition are strictly connected to the camera motion. Our algorithm is able to extract the frame number of the investigated feature with very high accuracy.

  13. Multilingual collocation extraction with a syntactic parser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Violeta Seretan; Eric Wehrli

    2009-01-01

    An impressive amount of work was devoted over the past few decades to collocation extraction. The state of the art shows that\\u000a there is a sustained interest in the morphosyntactic preprocessing of texts in order to better identify candidate expressions;\\u000a however, the treatment performed is, in most cases, limited (lemmatization, POS-tagging, or shallow parsing). This article\\u000a presents a collocation extraction

  14. Microwave-assisted extraction of felodipine tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Sparr Eskilsson; Erland Björklund; Lennart Mathiasson; Lars Karlsson; Arne Torstensson

    1999-01-01

    A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was developed to determine felodipine and its degradation product H152\\/37 in tablets. These substances were present at different concentration levels, differing with a factor of ca 600. The choice of extraction solvent was found to be of great importance. The optimized solvent consisted of 5% methanol in acetonitrile. Methanol was capable of dissolving the outer

  15. Extracting differential pair distribution functions using MIXSCAT

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, Caroline; Page, Katharine; Llobet, Anna; White, Claire E.; Proffen, Thomas (LANL)

    2010-08-27

    Differently weighted experimental scattering data have been used to extract partial or differential structure factors or pair distribution functions in studying many materials. However, this is not done routinely partly because of the lack of user-friendly software. This paper presents MIXSCAT, a new member of the DISCUS program package. MIXSCAT allows one to combine neutron and X-ray pair distribution functions and extract their respective differential functions.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of millingtonia hortensis leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Jetty, A; Iyengar, D S

    2000-01-01

    Polar extracts of the leaves of Millingtonia hortensis showed good antimicrobial activity. Twenty different bacterial strains and two yeast cultures were used. The aqueous alcohol extract showed good activity against all microbes tested, particularly Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium , both Gram-negative bacteria, with MIC values of 6.25 µg/ml. The activity is compared with known antibiotics such as gentamycin and nystatin. PMID:21214454

  17. Antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunhuan He; Xiaowen Ji; Yingming Pan; Hengshan Wang; Kai Wang; Min Liang; Lizhu Yang

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonically assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction using 95% ethanol were performed to obtain ultrasonically assisted\\u000a extract of Agrimonia pilosa (UEA) and Soxhlet extract of Agrimonia pilosa (SEA). The effects of the different extracting methods on the total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) content of the\\u000a extracts from Agrimonia pilosa were investigated. The findings showed that UEA contained higher TP

  18. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  19. Oil extraction from algae: A comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh Derakhshan, Mehrab; Nasernejad, Bahram; Abbaspour-Aghdam, Farzin; Hamidi, Mohammad

    2014-07-16

    In this article, various methods including soxhlet, Bligh & Dyer (B&D), and ultrasonic-assisted B&D were investigated for the extraction of lipid from algal species Chlorella vulgaris. Relative polarity/water content and impolar per polar ratios of solvents were considered to optimize the relative proportions of each triplicate agent by applying the response surface method (RSM). It was found that for soxhlet, hexane-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with total lipid extraction of 14.65% and chloroform-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with the extraction of 19.87% lipid were the best set of triplicate where further addition of acetone to the first group and ethanol to the second group did not contributed to further extraction. In B&D, however, chloroform-methanol-water (50%-35%-15%, respectively) reached the all-time maximum of 24%. Osmotic shock as well as ultrasonication contributed to 3.52% of further extraction, which is considered to promote the total yield up to almost 15%. From the growth data and fatty acid analysis, the applied method was assessed to be appropriate for biodiesel production with regard to selectivity and extraction yield. PMID:25040906

  20. Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hada?, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals. PMID:19050923