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1

Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects.  

PubMed

(-) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants received either G. cambogia extract (1667.3 mg/day equivalent to 1000 mg HCA/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Compared to the placebo group, administration of the extract did not significantly alter the serum testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Similarly, hematology, serum triacylglycerol and serum clinical pathology parameters did not reveal any significant adverse effects. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that ingestion of G. cambogia extract at dose levels commonly recommended for human use does not affect serum sex hormone levels and blood parameters. PMID:18316163

Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Tomi, Hironori; Kaneko, Izuru; Shen, Manzhen; Soni, Madhu G; Yoshino, Gen

2008-06-01

2

Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorates visceral adiposity in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

The aim of present study is to evaluate the effects of Garcinia cambogia on the mRNA levels of the various genes involved in adipogenesis, as well as on body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and other biochemical markers of obesity in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Consumption of the Garcinia cambogia extract effectively lowered the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, blood and hepatic lipid concentrations, and plasma insulin and leptin levels in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. The Garcinia cambogia extract reversed the HFD-induced changes in the expression pattern of such epididymal adipose tissue genes as adipocyte protein aP2 (aP2), sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1c (SREBP1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). These findings suggest that the Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, probably by modulating multiple genes associated with adipogenesis, such as aP2, SREBP1c, PPARgamma2, and C/EBPalpha in the visceral fat tissue of mice. PMID:18603810

Kim, Keun-Young; Lee, Hye Nam; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Taesun

2008-07-01

3

Effect of exogenous histidine and Garcinia cambogia on histamine formation in skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) homogenates.  

PubMed

Histamine consumed with food gives rise to allergic reactions. Dark muscle fish, for example skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) has been shown to contain histamine. Studies using TLC (acetone: NH4OH, 80:20.5) on silica gel G60 plates and densitometry after spraying with ninhydrin, using a computerized densitometer, showed that freshly harvested skipjack has no detectable histamine (detection limit, 50 micrograms.g-1 fish). However, with time histamine (Rf 0.84) is formed > 1.5 mg.g-1 probably through microbial action. Skipjack contains high levels of free histidine at levels of > 10 mg.g-1 (Rf 0.41) but fish like seer (Scomberamous spp.), which are not reported to be allergenic, contain < 4 mg.g-1 histidine. Addition of exogenous histidine (50 mg.g-1) results in histamine formation in seer 2.2-fold that of skipjack under the same conditions. A type of herring (Amblygaster spp., sinhala-hurulla) is not a histamine former, but had been shown to cause allergenic reactions, resulting in a ninhydrin positive spot (Rf 0.79) on incubating for 24 hours. Addition of arginine and lysine to blended skipjack results in their loss probably by decarboxylation. Addition of the spice Garcinia cambogia (extracts 0.2 g ml-1) known as 'goraka' in Sri Lanka (sinhala) and 'kukum' in India (hindhi), to fresh skipjack incubates prevents histamine formation as a results of lowering pH to 3.2-3.6 whereas Avverhoea bilimbi (bilin) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) extracts did not prevent histamine formation. PMID:11820094

Thadhani, Vinita M; Jansz, E R; Peiris, Hemantha

2002-01-01

4

Garcinia Cambogia attenuates diet-induced adiposity but exacerbates hepatic collagen accumulation and inflammation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate long-term effects of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), weight-loss supplement, on adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese mice. METHODS: Obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The HFD contained 45 kcal% fat, 20 kcal% protein and 35 kcal% carbohydrate. They were given free access to food and distilled water, and food consumption and body weight were measured daily and weekly, respectively. Data were expressed as the mean ± SE. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package for the social science software program. Student’s t test was used to assess the differences between the groups. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in body weight and food intake between the groups. However, the supplementation of GC significantly lowered visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size via inhibition of fatty acid synthase activity and its mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue, along with enhanced enzymatic activity and gene expression involved in adipose fatty acid ?-oxidation. Moreover, GC supplementation resulted in significant reductions in glucose intolerance and the plasma resistin level in the HFD-fed mice. However, we first demonstrated that it increased hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and inflammatory responses (tumor necrosis factor-? and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) as well as plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, although HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was not altered. CONCLUSION: GC protects against HFD-induced obesity by modulating adipose fatty acid synthesis and ?-oxidation but induces hepatic fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:23922466

Kim, Young-Je; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Yong Bok; Kim, Sang Ryong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Un Ju

2013-01-01

5

Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML) or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 < 29) were randomly assigned to three groups and administered tablets containing EGML (2 g/day), GCE (2 g/day) or placebo (starch, 2 g/day) for 10 weeks. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition, plasma cholesterol and diet were assessed. Blood analysis was also conducted to examine plasma lipoproteins, triglycerides, adipocytokines and antioxidants. Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). EGML and GCE had no effect on triglycerides, non-HDL-C, adipocytokines or antioxidants when compared to placebo supplementation. However, HDL-C was higher in the EGML group (p < 0.001) after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group. Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:21936892

2011-01-01

6

Antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activities of Garcinia extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hexane and chloroform extracts from the fruit rinds of Garcinia cowa and Garcinia pedunculata on the growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus was studied using peanut powder as a model food system. The growth of A. flavus was completely inhibited by the hexane and chloroform extracts from G. cowa and chloroform extract from G. pedunculata at

G. S. Joseph; G. K. Jayaprakasha; A. T. Selvi; B. S. Jena; K. K. Sakariah

2005-01-01

7

Antioxidative and antimutagenic activities of the extracts from the rinds of Garcinia pedunculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with preventing mutagenesis and cancer and other health benefits. In the present study, hexane and chloroform extracts from the fruit rinds of Garcinia pedunculata were tested for their antioxidative and antimutagenic activities. Both the hexane and chloroform extracts showed antioxidant activity studied through ?-carotene–linoleate model system and ?, ?-diphenyl-?-picrylhadrazyl (DPPH) method

G. K. Jayaprakasha; P. S. Negi; B. S. Jena

2006-01-01

8

In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2012-01-01

9

Aqueous Extract of Garcinia Indica Choisy Restores Glutathione in Type 2 Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Significant depletion of glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was observed in type 2 diabetes due to oxidative stress. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate a drug which restores GSH along with its anti-diabetic activity. Aqueous extract of Garcinia indica at a dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg was given orally to streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats for a period of 4 weeks. At the end, parameters such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and GSH in blood were analyzed. Aqueous extract of G. indica significantly decreased both the fasting and postprandial blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. The extract also restored the erythrocyte GSH in type 2 diabetic rats. Drug at higher dose, i.e. 200 mg/kg, had a more pronounced effect. Restoring the erythrocyte GSH, an intracellular anti-oxidant in diabetes, will be beneficial specially by preventing the risk of developing complications. PMID:21042483

Kirana, H; Srinivasan, BP

2010-01-01

10

Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% ?-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of ?-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. PMID:23680732

Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

2013-08-16

11

Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3)?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9)?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7)?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1)?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7)?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6)ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-10-01

12

In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

13

Eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors: inhibitive action of ethanol extracts of Garcinia kola for the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the inhibitive effect of ethanol extracts of Garcinia kola (EXG) for the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 solutions. The study is another trial to find a cheap and environmentally safe inhibitor for mild steel corrosion. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The inhibition efficiency has been evaluated using the hydrogen evolution technique at 30-60°C. The mechanism

P. C. Okafor; V. I. Osabor; E. E. Ebenso

2007-01-01

14

Gastroprotective effects of extracts and guttiferone A isolated from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) against experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of seed, leaf, and branch methanolic extracts and guttiferone A obtained from Garcinia achachairu (Clusiaceae). Mice were used in all the models, and treatments were administered orally only in pylorus-ligated model of the extracts, and drugs were administered intraduodenally. Treatment with different extracts (500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the ethanol/HCl-induced model; however, the seed extract was most active. When tested in different doses (50, 250, or 500 mg/kg), the seed extract of G. achaicharu showed a dose-dependent effect with a percentage of inhibition of gastric lesions of 41, 49, and 85 %, respectively. The seed extract also significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the indomethacin/bethanechol-induced ulcer. In this model, the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 24, 58, and 90 %, respectively. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction of gastric juice volume and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. Considering that the seed extract was the most active, it was subjected to silica gel column chromatography, leading to the isolation of guttiferone A. The isolated compound and omeprazole were evaluated in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model. In this assay, both compounds at a dose of 30 mg/kg reduced the ulcerative lesions by about 75 %. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that extracts obtained from G. achachairu and guttiferone A produce gastroprotective effects, corroborating ethnomedicinal use of this plant. PMID:22926730

Niero, Rivaldo; Dal Molin, Marlova Manhabosco; Silva, Suellen; Damian, Natália Santos; Maia, Láis Orlof; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

2012-11-01

15

Xanthones and benzophenones from Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia mangostana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new polyisoprenylated benzophenone, guttiferone I, together with the known compounds cambogin, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia griffithii. The acetone extract of the heartwood of Garcinia mangostana contained one new diprenylated xanthone (mangoxanthone) and a new benzophenone (3?,6-dihydroxy-2,4,4?-trimethoxybenzophenone) as well as the known xanthones dulxanthone D, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-13,13-dimethyl-2H-pyran[7,6-b]xanthen-9-one. Their structures were established on

Nilar; Lien-Hoa D. Nguyen; Ganpathi Venkatraman; Keng-Yeow Sim; Leslie J. Harrison

2005-01-01

16

In vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer effects of Garcinia mangostana xanthones extract  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthones are a group of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds with remarkable pharmacological effects such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Methods A xanthones extract (81% ?-mangostin and 16% ?-mangostin), was prepared by crystallization of a toluene extract of G. mangostana fruit rinds and was analyzed by LC-MS. Anti-colon cancer effect was investigated on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-tumorigenicity, and effect on cell signalling pathways. The in vivo anti-colon cancer activity was also investigated on subcutaneous tumors established in nude mice. Results The extract showed potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration 6.5?±?1.0??g/ml), due to induction of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Three key steps in tumor metastasis including the cell migration, cell invasion and clonogenicity, were also inhibited. The extract and ?-mangostin up-regulate the MAPK/ERK, c-Myc/Max, and p53 cell signalling pathways. The xanthones extract, when fed to nude mice, caused significant growth inhibition of the subcutaneous tumor of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells. Conclusions Our data suggest new mechanisms of action of ?-mangostin and the G. mangostana xanthones, and suggest the xanthones extract of as a potential anti-colon cancer candidate. PMID:22818000

2012-01-01

17

Prenylated xanthones and tocotrienols from Garcinia virgata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two xanthones, namely virgataxanthone A and B, have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia virgata, together with two formylated tocotrienols and the known ?-tocotrienol, griffipavixanthone and 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (cotoin). Their structures were mainly established using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectroscopies. When sufficient material was available, the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts as well as the isolated

Joumaa Merza; Marie-Christine Aumond; David Rondeau; Vincent Dumontet; Anne-Marie Le Ray; Denis Séraphin; Pascal Richomme

2004-01-01

18

Prenylated xanthones and tocotrienols from Garcinia virgata.  

PubMed

Two xanthones, namely virgataxanthone A and B, have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia virgata, together with two formylated tocotrienols and the known delta-tocotrienol, griffipavixanthone and 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (cotoin). Their structures were mainly established using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectroscopies. When sufficient material was available, the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts as well as the isolated compounds were evaluated. PMID:15501261

Merza, Joumaa; Aumond, Marie-Christine; Rondeau, David; Dumontet, Vincent; Le Ray, Anne-Marie; Séraphin, Denis; Richomme, Pascal

2004-11-01

19

Novel cytotoxic polyprenylated xanthonoids from Garcinia gaudichaudii (Guttiferae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytotoxicity guided phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract of the Malaysian medicinal plant Garcinia gaudichaudii led to the isolation of 15 novel cytotoxic compounds, gaudichaudiones A - H (1,2,8 – 10 and 12), gaudichaudiic acids A - E (3 – 6), including the known morellic acid (7) and forbesione (11). All are mainly tetraprenylated xanthonoids but gaudichaudione H (12) is

Shu-Geng Cao; Valerie H. L. Sng; Xiao-Hua Wu; Keng-Yeow Sim; B. H. K. Tan; J. T. Pereira; S. H. Goh

1998-01-01

20

Anti-skin cancer properties of phenolic-rich extract from the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.).  

PubMed

Skin cancers are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy. This study examined the anti-skin cancer properties of crude ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp (MPEE) on human squamous cell carcinoma A-431 and melanoma SK-MEL-28 lines. Significant dose-dependent reduction in% viability was observed for these cell lines, with less effect on human normal skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk and keratinocyte HaCaT cell lines. Cell distribution in G(1) phase (93%) significantly increased after 10 ?g/ml of MPEE versus untreated SK-MEL-28 cells (78%), which was associated with enhanced p21(WAF1) mRNA levels. In A-431 cells, 10 ?g/ml MPEE significantly increased the sub G(1) peak (15%) with concomitant decrease in G(1) phase over untreated cells (2%). In A-431 cells, 10 ?g/ml MPEE induced an 18% increase in early apoptosis versus untreated cells (2%). This was via caspase activation (15-, 3- and 4-fold increased caspse-3/7, 8, and 9 activities), and disruption of mitochondrial pathways (6-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential versus untreated cells). Real-time PCR revealed increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cytochrome c release, and decreased Akt1. Apoptosis was significantly increased after MPEE treatment of SK-MEL-28 cells. Hence, MPEE showed strong anti-skin cancer effect on these two skin cancer cell lines, with potential as an anti-skin cancer agent. PMID:22705325

Wang, Jing J; Shi, Qing H; Zhang, Wei; Sanderson, Barbara J S

2012-09-01

21

Three xanthones from Garcinia subelliptica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new xanthones, 2,5-dihydroxy-1-methoxylxanthone, 1-O-methylsymphoxanthone and garciniaxanthone E, have been isolated along with the previously known symphoxanthone and subelliptenone A from the wood of Garcinia subelliptica. Their structures have been elucidated mainly on the basis of spectroscopic data and confirmed by converting them into the corresponding known compounds. Garciniaxanthone E is the second geranylated xanthone isolated from Garcinia species.

Hiroyuki Minami; Emi Takahashi; Mitsuaki Kodama; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama

1996-01-01

22

In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Garcinia or Hydroxycitric Acid: A Review  

PubMed Central

Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown “no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)” at levels up to 2800?mg/day, suggesting its safety for use. PMID:22924054

Chuah, Li Oon; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

2012-01-01

23

In vitro and in vivo toxicity of garcinia or hydroxycitric Acid: a review.  

PubMed

Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown "no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)" at levels up to 2800?mg/day, suggesting its safety for use. PMID:22924054

Chuah, Li Oon; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

2012-01-01

24

Cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven novel cytotoxic xanthones, gambogin, morellin dimethyl acetal, isomoreollin B, moreollic acid, gambogenic acid, gambogenin, isogambogenin, desoxygambogenin, gambogenin dimethyl acetal, gambogellic acid and hanburin were isolated together with four known xanthones, gambogic acid, isomorellin, morellic acid and desoxymorellin, from the dry latex of Garcinia hanburyi. The structures were elucidated by a detailed spectroscopic analysis.

Jun Asano; Kazuhiro Chiba; Masahiro Tada; Takao Yoshii

1996-01-01

25

Xanthones and triterpenoids from the bark of Garcinia vilersiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hexane extract of the bark of Garcinia vilersiana from Vietnam contained four triterpenoids (olean-12-ene-3?,11?-diol, lupeol, ?-amyrin and oleanolic acid), and six xanthones (globuxanthone, subelliptenone H, subelliptenone B, 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A, 1-O-methylglobuxanthone and symphoxanthone). The structure of 1-O-methylglobuxanthone, the only novel compound, was determined using 1D and 2D NMR techniques and by correlation with globuxanthone.

Lien Hoa D. Nguyen; Leslie J. Harrison

2000-01-01

26

Antileishmanial polyphenols from Garcinia vieillardii.  

PubMed

Seven xanthones, the new vieillardiixanthones B and C (1) and (7), pancixanthones A (2), B (3), 1,6-dihydroxyxanthone (6), pyranojacareubin and 5,6-O-dimethyl-2-deprenylrheediaxanthone together with two benzophenones, clusiachromene (4) and 3-geranyl-2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone (5) were isolated from the stem bark of the neocaledonian Garcinia vieillardii. 2, 5 and 6 showed a significant antileishmanial activity against the promastigote forms of Leishmania mexicana and L. infantum and against the amastigote forms of L. infantum. PMID:17826924

Hay, Anne-Emmanuelle; Merza, Joumaa; Landreau, Anne; Litaudon, Marc; Pagniez, Fabrice; Le Pape, Patrice; Richomme, Pascal

2008-01-01

27

Griffipavixanthone, a novel cytotoxic bixanthone from Garcinia griffithii and G. pavifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the extracts of the Malaysian plant Garcinia pavifolia and a phytochemical study of G. griffithii led to the discovery of griffipavixanthone (1), a novel cytotoxic bixanthone with cyclized prenyl groups providing the xanthone-xanthone linkage. Spectroscopic data and preparation of methylated derivatives allowed for the complete structural elucidation of 1.

Yuan-Jian Xu; Shu-Geng Cao; Xiao-Hua Wu; Yee-Hing Lai; B. H. K. Tan; J. T. Pereira; S. H. Goh; Ganapathi Venkatraman; Leslie J. Harrison; Keng-Yeow Sim

1998-01-01

28

Two new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

Two new xanthones, designated garcimangosxanthone F (1) and garcimangosxanthone G (2), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established as 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone, respectively, on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and MS data interpretation. PMID:25299822

Zhou, Xiaojun; He, Luan; Wu, Xinxing; Zhong, Yanxia; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Yuanxing; Wang, Bin; Xu, Zhifang; Qiu, Shengxiang

2015-01-01

29

Antioxidant Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of ongoing research on cancer chemopreventive agents from botanical dietary supplements, Garcinia mangostana L. (commonly known as mangosteen) was selected for detailed study. Repeated chromatography of a CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the pericarp led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated prenylated xanthones, 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G (1) and mangostingone (7-methoxy- 2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-3-butenyl)-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone, 2), together with 12 known xanthones, cudraxanthone G

Hyun-Ah Jung; Bao-Ning Su; William J. Keller; Rajendra G. Mehta; A. Douglas Kinghorn

2006-01-01

30

New cytotoxic guttiferone analogues from Garcinia virgata from New Caledonia.  

PubMed

There are thirteen endemic species belonging to the genus Garcinia in New Caledonia. Among them, G. virgata is an evergreen tree mainly growing in the rain forests of this island. Fractionation of the cyclohexane extract of the stem bark of this plant produced the known benzophenones guttiferone E and xanthochymol, together with two new guttiferone analogues, namely guttiferones I and J. The structures of these benzophenones were mainly elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Compounds and were weakly cytotoxic on the KB cell line with IC50 values of 4.70 and 5.0 microg/mL respectively. PMID:16450306

Merza, Joumaa; Mallet, Sabine; Litaudon, Marc; Dumontet, Vincent; Séraphin, Denis; Richomme, Pascal

2006-01-01

31

Regioselective Synthesis of the Bridged Tricyclic Core of Garcinia Natural  

E-print Network

Regioselective Synthesis of the Bridged Tricyclic Core of Garcinia Natural Products via ABSTRACT Two different routes to the tricyclic core of Garcinia-derived natural products are described of the genus Garcinia, has yielded an abundance of biologi- cally active and structurally intriguing natural

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

32

Therapeutic Discovery The Synthetic Caged Garcinia Xanthone Cluvenone Induces  

E-print Network

Therapeutic Discovery The Synthetic Caged Garcinia Xanthone Cluvenone Induces Cell Stress , and Emmanuel A. Theodorakis1 Abstract Several caged Garcinia xanthone natural products have potent bioactivity, but are also tumor selective and thus less toxic. The tropical trees of the genus Garcinia, found in low- land

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

33

Medicinal properties of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many tropical plants have interesting biological activities with potential therapeutic applications. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (GML) belongs to the family of Guttiferae and is named “the queen of fruits”. It is cultivated in the tropical rainforest of some Southeast Asian nations like Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Philippines, and Thailand. People in these countries have used the pericarp (peel, rind, hull or

José Pedraza-Chaverri; Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Marisol Orozco-Ibarra; Jazmin M. Pérez-Rojas

2008-01-01

34

Caged-Tetraprenylated Xanthones from Garcinia scortechinii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new caged tetraprenylated xanthones, named scortechinones A–C (1–3) were isolated from twigs of Garcinia scortechinii together with friedelin and stigmasterol. The scortechinone structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those of gaudichaudione H (4). The antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated.

Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul; Wanrudee Kaewnok; Sorwaporn Koysomboon; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Walter C. Taylor

2000-01-01

35

A new xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

A new prenylxanthone, garcimangostanol (1), was isolated from the EtOAc-soluble partition of the ethanol extract of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L., along with three known compounds, namely 8-deoxygartanin (2), 1-isomangostin (3), and garcinone C (4). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of its 1D, 2D NMR and MS data. Compounds 1-4 exhibited either significant o r moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, A549, Hep-G2 and CNEhuman cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 values from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 23.6+/- 1.5 microM by MTT colorimetric assay. PMID:24555285

Fu, Manqin; Qiu, Samuel X; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Chen, Yulong; Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng

2013-12-01

36

Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.  

PubMed

A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. ?-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1?g/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and ?-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25?g/mL. PMID:25110196

Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

2014-10-01

37

New cholinesterase inhibitors from Garcinia atroviridis.  

PubMed

A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge. PMID:24924287

Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Khaw, Kooi-Yeong; Vikneswaran, Murugaiyah

2014-09-01

38

Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidative properties of crude methanolic extract (CME) from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (family Guttiferae) using human breast cancer (SKBR3) cell line as a model system. SKBR3 cells were cultured in the presence of CME at various concentrations (0–50?g\\/ml) for 48h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by

Primchanien Moongkarndi; Nuttavut Kosem; Sineenart Kaslungka; Omboon Luanratana; Narongchai Pongpan; Neelobol Neungton

2004-01-01

39

Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (-)-HCA  

PubMed Central

Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (?)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. PMID:23990846

Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

2013-01-01

40

Phenolics from hull of Garcinia mangostana fruit and their antioxidant activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 70% MeOH, and then partitioned into the n-BuOH fractions. Furthermore, three major phenolic components related to their antioxidant activities were purified by silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 and then identified as P1 (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-2,8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)), P2 [1,3,6-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-2,8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) xanthone] and P3 (epicatechin) using UV–visible spectrophotometry, IR spectrophotometry and NMR spectroscopy,

Limei Yu; Mouming Zhao; Bao Yang; Qiangzhong Zhao; Yueming Jiang

2007-01-01

41

Phytochemicals content, antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of indigenous Garcinia parvifolia fruit.  

PubMed

Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1?mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0?mg ?-carotene equivalents (BC)/100?g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

2013-01-01

42

Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit  

PubMed Central

Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1?mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0?mg ?-carotene equivalents (BC)/100?g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

2013-01-01

43

Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones Oraphin Chantarasriwong,[a, b  

E-print Network

#12;Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones Oraphin Chantarasriwong,[a, b] Ayse. 2010, 16, 9944 ­ 99629944 DOI: 10.1002/chem.201000741 #12;Introduction The trees of the genus Garcinia the years Garcinia trees have retained considerable value as sources for medicines, pigments, gums, waxes

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

44

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Synthesis and evaluation of caged Garcinia xanthones  

E-print Network

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Synthesis and evaluation of caged Garcinia and potent bioactivities exhibited by several family members of the caged Garcinia xanthones, we developed pharmacophore. Introduction The Garcinia genus of tropical plants has yielded a structurally intriguing family

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

45

Mangostanol, a prenyl xanthone from Garcinia mangostana  

Microsoft Academic Search

During studies for identification of biologically active components from natural sources, a new polyoxygenated xanthone mangostanol was isolated from the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana, along with known xanthones, ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 8-deoxygartnin, 5,9-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-8-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-pyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6-one, garcinone E and 2-(?,?-dimethylallyl)-1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone and epicatechin. Spectroscopic analysis mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, established the structure of mangostanol {3,5,9-trihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-8-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-3,4-dihydropyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6-one} Mangostanol, and ?- and ?-mangostin

Nattaya Chairungsrilerd; Kazuya Takeuchi; Yasushi Ohizumi; Shigeo Nozoe; Tomihisa Ohta

1996-01-01

46

Antiplasmodial and other constituents from four Indonesian Garcinia spp.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of four Garcinia spp. from Indonesia, i.e. Garcinia griffithii T. Anderson, Garcinia celebica L., Garcinia cornea L. and Garcinia cymosa K. Schum (Clusiaceae), have resulted in the isolation of a xanthone, 1,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2,7-diprenylxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone, isoxanthochymol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside from the stem bark of G. griffithii; friedelin and 3beta-hydroxy-23-oxo-9,16-lanostadien-26-oic acid or garcihombronane D from leaves of G. celebica; 23-hydroxy-3-oxo-cycloart-24-en-26-oic acid and epicatechin from stem bark of G. cornea; (+/-)-morelloflavone, morelloflavone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside or fukugiside, the triterpene 3beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid and canophyllol from stem bark of G. cymosa. The xanthone and garcihombronane D displayed a selective activity against Plasmodium falciparum; isoxanthochymol and the triterpene beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal activity. PMID:19481231

Elfita, Elfita; Muharni, Muharni; Latief, Madyawati; Darwati, Darwati; Widiyantoro, Ari; Supriyatna, Supriyatna; Bahti, Husein H; Dachriyanus, Dachriyanus; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Foubert, Kenne; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc

2009-05-01

47

Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinia lucida Vesque (Clusiaceae) is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem, leading to high mortality. To identify the processes or the life stages that influence

Nicole Marie Guedje; Jean Lejoly; Bernard-Aloys Nkongmeneck; Wyb B. J. Jonkers

2003-01-01

48

Phenolic compounds from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dulcisxanthones C–F (1–4) and dulcinone (5) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The abilities of some of these compounds to act as radical scavengers and antibacterial agents were investigated.

S. Deachathai; W. Mahabusarakam; S. Phongpaichit; Y.-J. Zhang; C.-R. Yang

2006-01-01

49

Polyphenols from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit for breast and prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia and has long been reported to contain multiple health promoting properties. This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity. Herein we describe the anti-cancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic xanthones including ?-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the reported findings there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23805102

Li, Gongbo; Thomas, Stacey; Johnson, Jeremy J

2013-01-01

50

?-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana pericarps as a dual agonist that activates Both PPAR? and PPAR?.  

PubMed

We tested the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? agonistic activity of a Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to develop a treatment for the metabolic syndrome, and demonstrated ?-mangostin to be an active compound on the basis of a luciferase reporter gene assay. ?-Mangostin induced the expression of the uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) gene which is related to energy expenditure and fat metabolism in L6 cells. We showed that ?-mangostin is a dual agonist that activates both PPAR? and PPAR?. ?-Mangostin also induced the expression of acyl-CoA synthase and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A genes in HepG2 cells. These results suggest the potential of ?-mangostin as a preventive agent of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24317060

Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Gamo, Kanae; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kawada, Teruo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Akao, Yukihiro; Tosa, Hideki

2013-01-01

51

Polyphenols from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit for breast and prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia and has long been reported to contain multiple health promoting properties. This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity. Herein we describe the anti-cancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic xanthones including ?-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the reported findings there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23805102

Li, Gongbo; Thomas, Stacey; Johnson, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01

52

PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Evaluation of the pharmacophoric motif of the caged Garcinia xanthones  

E-print Network

of the caged Garcinia xanthones Oraphin Chantarasriwong,a,b Woo Cheal Cho,a Ayse Batova,*c Warinthorn Chavasiri Garcinia xanthones, led us to evaluate their pharmacophore. We have developed a Pd(0)-catalyzed method and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant leukemia cells. As such, the caged Garcinia

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

53

Unified synthesis of caged Garcinia natural products based on a site-selective Claisen DielsAlder  

E-print Network

Unified synthesis of caged Garcinia natural products based on a site-selective Claisen Diels April 29, 2004 (received for review March 19, 2004) A unified synthetic strategy toward caged Garcinia. The tropical trees and shrubs of the genus Garcinia (Guttif- erae) are widely known for their pigments and use

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

54

Evaluation of the pharmacophoric motif of the caged Garcinia xanthones.  

PubMed

The combination of unique structure and potent bioactivity exhibited by several family members of the caged Garcinia xanthones, led us to evaluate their pharmacophore. We have developed a Pd(0)-catalyzed method for the reverse prenylation of catechols that, together with a Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction cascade, provides rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues. Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activity of these compounds leads to the conclusion that the intact ABC ring system containing the C-ring caged structure is essential to the bioactivity. Studies with cluvenone (7) also showed that these compounds induce apoptosis and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant leukemia cells. As such, the caged Garcinia xanthone motif represents a new and potent pharmacophore. PMID:19907779

Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Cho, Woo Cheal; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Moore, Curtis; Rheingold, Arnold L; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

2009-12-01

55

Evaluation of the pharmacophoric motif of the caged Garcinia xanthones†  

PubMed Central

The combination of unique structure and potent bioactivity exhibited by several family members of the caged Garcinia xanthones, led us to evaluate their pharmacophore. We have developed a Pd(0)-catalyzed method for the reverse prenylation of catechols that, together with a Claisen/Diels–Alder reaction cascade, provides rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues. Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activity of these compounds leads to the conclusion that the intact ABC ring system containing the C-ring caged structure is essential to the bioactivity. Studies with cluvenone (7) also showed that these compounds induce apoptosis and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant leukemia cells. As such, the caged Garcinia xanthone motif represents a new and potent pharmacophore. PMID:19907779

Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Cho, Woo Cheal; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Moore, Curtis; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

2010-01-01

56

Antimalarial xanthones from Calophyllum caledonicum and Garcinia vieillardii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimalarial activity of 22 xanthones against chloroquino-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated. Natural caloxanthone C (1), demethylcalabaxanthone (2), calothwaitesixanthone (3), calozeyloxanthone (4), dombakinaxanthone (5), macluraxanthone (6), and 6-deoxy-?-mangostin (7) were isolated from Calophyllum caledonicum. 1,6-dihydroxyxanthone (8), pancixanthone A (9), isocudraniaxanthone B (10), isocudraniaxanthone A (11), 2-deprenylrheediaxanthone B (12) and 1,4,5-trihydroxyxanthone (13) were isolated from Garcinia vieillardii. Moreover, synthetic

Anne-Emmanuelle Hay; Jean-Jacques Hélesbeux; Olivier Duval; Medhi Labaïed; Philippe Grellier; Pascal Richomme

2004-01-01

57

Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn (Guttiferae) is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in Southeast Asia. Two xanthones, ?- and ?-mangostins, were isolated from the fruit hull of G. mangostana, and both significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The IC50 values for the inhibition of NO production by ?- and ?-mangostins

Lih-Geeng Chen; Ling-Ling Yang; Ching-Chiung Wang

2008-01-01

58

Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal evaluation of Garcinia mangostana pericarp and ?-mangostin, its major xanthone derivative.  

PubMed

Five xanthone derivatives and one flavanol were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Garcinia mangostana. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and the major xanthone (?-mangostin) were evaluated in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. The major constituent ?-mangostin was also checked for antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. cheleneoi, M. xenopi and M. intracellulare. Activity against P. falciparum (IC?? 2.7 ?g/mL) and T. brucei (IC?? 0.5 ?g/mL) were observed for the dichloromethane extract, however, with only moderate selectivity was seen based on a parallel cytotoxicity evaluation on MRC-5 cells (IC?? 9.4 ?g/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was inactive (IC?? > 30 µg/mL). The major constituent ?-mangostin showed rather high cytotoxicity (IC?? 7.5 µM) and a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity profile. This in vitro study endorses that the antiprotozoal and antimicrobial potential of prenylated xanthones is non-conclusive in view of the low level of selectivity. PMID:24002136

Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Basudan, Omer A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Farag, Mohamed; Assaf, Mahmoud H; El Tahir, Kamaleldin H; Maes, Louis

2013-01-01

59

Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii. PMID:23233817

Sosef, Marc S.M.; Dauby, Gilles

2012-01-01

60

Xanthones from Garcinia smeathmannii (Oliver) and their antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new xanthones, smeathxanthone A (1) (2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone) and smeathxanthone B (2) (5,7,10-trihydroxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methylpent-3-enyl)[2H, 6H]pyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6-one), have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia smeathmannii, and their structures elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. 1,3,5-Trihydroxyxanthone and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone were also obtained. The compounds showed only modest activity against a range of bacteria and yeasts.

Justin Komguem; A. L. Meli; R. N. Manfouo; David Lontsi; F. N. Ngounou; V. Kuete; Hippolyte W. Kamdem; Pierre Tane; Bonaventure T. Ngadjui; Beiban L. Sondengam; Joseph D. Connolly

2005-01-01

61

Noncytotoxic and Antitumour-Promoting Activities of Garcinia Acid Esters from Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae).  

PubMed

The in vitro antitumour-promoting, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of two ester derivatives of garcinia acid, that is, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl)-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide (1) and 1',1''-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate (2), that had been previously isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae), were examined. Based on the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation, compound 1 (IC(50): 70??M) showed much higher (8-fold) antitumour-promoting activity than compound 2 (IC(50): 560??M). In addition, both compounds were nontoxic towards CEM-SS (human T-lymphoblastic leukemia) cells (CD(50): >100??M), Raji (human B-lymphoblastoid) cells (CD(50): >600??M), and brine shrimp (LD(50): >300??M). Although the antitumour-promoting activity of compound 1 is moderate compared with the known antitumour promoter genistein, its non-toxicity suggests the potential of compound 1 and related structures as chemopreventive agents. The weak antioxidant activity displayed by both compounds also suggested that the primary antitumour-promoting mechanism of compound 1 did not involve oxidative-stress quenching. PMID:22685487

Mackeen, Mukram M; Mooi, Lim Y; Amran, Mohidin; Mat, Nashriyah; Lajis, Nordin H; Ali, Abdul M

2012-01-01

62

Noncytotoxic and Antitumour-Promoting Activities of Garcinia Acid Esters from Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae)  

PubMed Central

The in vitro antitumour-promoting, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of two ester derivatives of garcinia acid, that is, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl)-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide (1) and 1?,1??-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate (2), that had been previously isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae), were examined. Based on the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation, compound 1 (IC50: 70??M) showed much higher (8-fold) antitumour-promoting activity than compound 2 (IC50: 560??M). In addition, both compounds were nontoxic towards CEM-SS (human T-lymphoblastic leukemia) cells (CD50: >100??M), Raji (human B-lymphoblastoid) cells (CD50: >600??M), and brine shrimp (LD50: >300??M). Although the antitumour-promoting activity of compound 1 is moderate compared with the known antitumour promoter genistein, its non-toxicity suggests the potential of compound 1 and related structures as chemopreventive agents. The weak antioxidant activity displayed by both compounds also suggested that the primary antitumour-promoting mechanism of compound 1 did not involve oxidative-stress quenching. PMID:22685487

Mackeen, Mukram M.; Mooi, Lim Y.; Amran, Mohidin; Mat, Nashriyah; Lajis, Nordin H.; Ali, Abdul M.

2012-01-01

63

Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones  

PubMed Central

Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

2011-01-01

64

Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis  

PubMed Central

Background Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 ?g/ml?M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 ?g/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 ?g/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). Conclusions The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude extract from G. nobilis, O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis as well as some of their compounds, and mostly compound 2 (isolated from G. nobilis,) could be considered as interesting natural antibacterial products. PMID:23574627

2013-01-01

65

Evaluation of the protective and ameliorative properties of Garcinia kola on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

Background: Garcinia kola is popularly used in African traditional medicine for the relief of acute bronchoconstrictive episodes. Objective: In this study, we examined the anti-asthmatic and morphological effects of the ethanol extract of G. kola in animal model. Materials and Methods: Guinea pigs were sensitized with ovalbumin and then given doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg/day for 21 consecutive days. Theophylline (10 mg/kg/day) was used as a standard. At the end of the exposure, the animals were exposed to 0.2% histamine aerosol in a chamber. Lymphocyte count, bronchial histology and morphometry were done. Results: Compared with non-sensitized controls, 200 mg/kg/day dose of the extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time taken for onset of preconvulsive dyspnea while the dose of 400 mg/kg/day significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bronchial wall thickness. Lymphocytes counts were not significantly affected but the bronchi of extract-treated animals were histologically clearer of lesions visible in the sensitized. Conclusion: These protective and ameliorative properties lend credence to the use of G. kola in ethnomedicine. PMID:23225963

Ibulubo, Mina T.; Eze, Gerald I.; Ozolua, Raymond I.; Baxter-Grillo, Doroteo; Uwaya, Dickson O.

2012-01-01

66

Facultative Apomixis in Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae) and Effects of Different Pollination Regimes on Reproductive Success  

PubMed Central

Various aspects of the reproductive success of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. were studied. Controlled pollination experiments were carried out in an orchard located in Songkhla province, southern Thailand, from February to July 2003. Floral longevity, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability were examined before carrying out the experiments. Three pollination treatments were compared: open pollination, manual pollination with bags, and bags without pollination (apogamy). Although there was no significant difference in the initial fruit set, bagged and manual pollination produced a significantly greater fruit drop rate than apogamy or natural pollination at one week after the flowers had been pollinated. On the other hand, the apogamy treatment had a greater fruit drop rate than natural and manual pollination treatments before fruit maturation. In addition, unpollinated bagged flowers bore fewer and smaller fruit than naturally and manually cross-pollinated flowers. Although the fruits from unpollinated flowers were capable of asexual seed formation, they produced fewer seeds and had poorer seed quality (defined as average fresh weight and germination rate) than those from the other treatments. The occurrence of asexual and sexual reproduction was also studied using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by comparing the patterns of bands produced from DNA extracted from the offspring of the naturally cross-pollinated fruits. On average, 58% of the offspring had a genetic constitution identical to that of the maternal parent (ranging from 36% to 87%), indicating that some offspring were produced without prior fertilisation. However, the remainder showed polymorphism, demonstrating the occurrence of sexual reproduction. These findings indicate that facultative apomixis occurred in the study population. However, a residual sexuality was important for fruit production, fruit size, normal seed set and seed quality. PMID:24575182

Pangsuban, Sasithorn; Bamroongrugsa, Noparat; Kanchanapoom, Kamnoon; Nualsri, Charassri

2009-01-01

67

Bioactive Constituents Present in Garcinia Indica Choisy and its Potential Food Applications: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kokum (Garcinia indica Choisy), a tropical fruit, is a potential source of anthocyanin, which has a great potential as a natural colorant. The major acid present in it is hydroxy citric acid, which is used as an antiobesity ingredient in pharmaceutical industries. The fruit also contains garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative, which is an antioxidant and has a chelating activity.

Chetan A. Nayak; Navin K. Rastogi; K. S. M. S. Raghavarao

2010-01-01

68

Rapid in vitro multiplication and conservation of Garcinia indica: A tropical medicinal tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and efficient method has been developed for rapid regeneration of plantlets via adventitious bud differentiation on mature seeds of Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy, a medicinally important facultative apomictic tropical tree species. High frequency direct shoot proliferation was induced in seed segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with cytokinins (BAP, kinetin and TDZ) alone and in combination

S. K. Malik; R. Chaudhury; Rajwant K. Kalia

2005-01-01

69

Nitrosatable amines and nitrosamide formation in natural stimulants: Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three varieties of kola nut, Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola, of Nigerian origin, were analysed for their content of primary and secondary amines, and assessed for their relative methylating potential due to nitrosamide formation. Primary and secondary amines were determined as benzene sulfonamides by gas chromatography\\/thermal energy analysis (GC\\/TEA). Dimethylamine, methylamine, ethylamine and isopentylamine were detected in all

S. E. Atawodi; P. Mende; B. Pfundstein; R. Preussmann; B. Spiegelhalder

1995-01-01

70

Comparative study on the efficacy of Garcinia kola in reducing some heavy metal accumulation in liver of Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinia kola is regarded as an antidote and anti-hepatotoxic agent. We examined its protection ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. The ground seed was mixed with rat feed (5%, w\\/w) and fed to rats while Hg (10ppm), Cd (200ppm) and Pb (100ppm) was given in drinking water. Garcinia kola was administered either at

C. R. Nwokocha; D. U. Owu; C. S. Ufearo; M. O. E. Iwuala

2011-01-01

71

A MYB transcription factor regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit undergo rapid red colour development, both on the tree and after harvest, resulting in high anthocyanin production\\u000a in the pericarp. Here, we report the isolation of three full-length mangosteen MYB transcription factors (GmMYB1, GmMYB7 and GmMYB10) and all the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (GmPal to GmUFGT). Phylogenetic analysis at the protein level of the R2R3-MYB

Yossapol Palapol; Saichol Ketsa; Kui Lin-Wang; Ian B. Ferguson; Andrew C. Allan

2009-01-01

72

Determination of organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Desr.) by LC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Kokam) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major organic acid in leaves and rinds has been found to be (?)-hydroxycitric acid present to the extent of 4.1–4.6 and 10.3–12.7%, respectively, by isocratic elution with 8 mM sulfuric acid as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 ml\\/min using UV

G. K. Jayaprakasha; K. K. Sakariah

2002-01-01

73

New "hyphenated" CPC-HPLC-DAD-MS strategy for simultaneous isolation, analysis and identification of phytochemicals: application to xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) coupled online with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) is presented in this work. This strategy offers the possibility to obtain simultaneously CPC fractionation of natural extracts, the HPLC fingerprint of separated fractions and structural information on molecules contained in each fraction. This new approach was applied to the fractionation and purification of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (Clusiaceae) pericarp. A biphasic solvent system of heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (2:1:2:1, v/v) was used for the CPC separation of 175 mg crude ethanolic extract. The HPLC analysis was conducted with a reversed-phase monolithic column allowing fast and repeatable separation. This combined CPC-HPLC-DAD-MS method led to isolation of 33 mg ?-mangostin and 6 mg ?-mangostin at 98% and 98.5% purity, respectively, in 140 min. Furthermore, in the same time a total of 16 other xanthones were detected in the extract, and ten of them were identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra. PMID:23052874

Michel, Thomas; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Elfakir, Claire

2012-12-01

74

Comparative Analyses of the Moisture Isotherms, Proximate Compositions, Physical and Functional Properties of Dried Cola nitida and Garcinia kola Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried fruit kernels of Cola nitida and Garcinia kola were analysed and compared for proximate composition, physical, functional, and moisture isotherm characteristics. Their main differences were in appearance, fat and protein contents, carbohydrate composition as reflected in least gelation concentrations, water absorption capacity, monolayer moisture content, critical equilibrium moisture contents and the corresponding water activities for maintaining shelf-stability during storage.

Sunday S. Arogba

2000-01-01

75

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50<3?g\\/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem

L. Tona; R. K. Cimanga; K. Mesia; C. T. Musuamba; T. De Bruyne; S. Apers; N. Hernans; S. Van Miert; L. Pieters; J. Totté; A. J. Vlietinck

2004-01-01

76

Molecular docking studies and in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of chemical constituents of Garcinia hombroniana.  

PubMed

Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3?-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE. PMID:25219673

Jamila, Nargis; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Atlas, Amir; Khan, Imran; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah

2015-01-01

77

A-Ring Oxygenation Modulates the Chemistry and Bioactivity of Caged Garcinia Xanthones  

PubMed Central

Natural products of the caged Garcinia xanthones (CGX) family are characterized by a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities and promising pharmacological profiles. We have developed a Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction cascade that, in combination with a Pd(0)-catalyzed reverse prenylation, provide rapid and efficient access to the CGX pharmacophore, represented by the structure of cluvenone. To further explore this pharmacophore, we have synthesized various A-ring oxygenated analogues of cluvenone and have evaluated their bioactivities in terms of growth inhibition, mitochondrial fragmentation, induction of mitochondrial-dependent cell death and Hsp90 client inhibition. We found that installation of an oxygen functionality at various positions of the A-ring influences significantly both the site-selectivity of the Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction and the bioactivity of these compounds, due to remote electronic effects. PMID:23563530

Elbel, Kristyna M.; Guizzunti, Gianni; Theodoraki, Maria A.; Xu, Jing; Batova, Ayse; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

2013-01-01

78

Antibacterial activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (L.) and their structure-activity relationship studies.  

PubMed

Antibacterial activities of prenylated xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and their synthetic analogues were investigated, and their structure-activity relationships have been studied. ?-Mangostin has shown antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE) strains at MICs 3.13, 6.25, 6.25 and 6.25 µg mL(-1), respectively. In these experiments, gentamicin was used as the positive control. Further, some analogues of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin were synthesised and their activity was tested against MRSA and VRE strains. The analysis of the bioassay results above indicated that, the combination of C-6 and C-3 hydroxyl groups along with the prenyl side chain at C-2 in the 1,3,6,7-tetraoxygenated xanthones from G. mangostana is essential to have a high antibacterial activity. PMID:22494050

Dharmaratne, H R W; Sakagami, Yoshikazu; Piyasena, K G P; Thevanesam, Vasanthi

2013-01-01

79

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of seven EtOH extracts and twenty fractions from the partition of the initial ethanolic extracts from seven African medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) for the treatment of malaria was evaluated. The most active EtOH extracts (IC50 < 3 microg/ml) were those from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant. Their respective petroleum ether soluble fractions also exhibited an antiplasmodial activity with IC50 < 3 microg/ml. EtOH extracts from Vernonia amygdalina leaves (5 < IC50 < 10 microg/ml), Tetracera poggei leaves (10 < IC50 < 50 microg/ml) and Morinda morindoides leaves (50 < IC50 < 100 microg/ml) were less active, but their petroleum ether fractions exhibited a pronounced antiplasmodial activity (IC50 < 3 microg/ml). The same observation could also be made for the petroleum ether fraction from Cassia occidentalis, Euphorbia hirta, Garcinia kola and Phyllanthus niruri. Isoamyl alcohol fractions from Euphorbia hirta, Phyllanthus niruri and Vernonia amygdalina showed IC50) values less than 3 microg/ml, and from Cassia occidentalis, Garcinia kola, Morinda morindoides and Tetracera poggei between 10 and 50 microg/ml. The observed antiplasmodial activity may be related to the presence of terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones and anthraquinones. PMID:15182900

Tona, L; Cimanga, R K; Mesia, K; Musuamba, C T; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Hernans, N; Van Miert, S; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

2004-07-01

80

Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs  

PubMed Central

Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as an anti-cancer agent, and it is increasingly being realized that garcinol is a pleiotropic agent capable of modulating key regulatory cell signaling pathways. Here we have summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on garcinol and its observed biological activities. We have also provided an explanation of observed properties based on its chemical structure and provided an insight into the structure and properties of chalcones, the precursors of garcinol. The available data is promising but more detailed investigations into the various properties of this compound, particularly its anti-cancer activity are urgently needed, and it is our hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this nature's wonder agent. PMID:19725977

Padhye, Subhash; Ahmad, Aamir; Oswal, Nikhil; Sarkar, Fazlul H

2009-01-01

81

Apoptotic effects of ?-mangostin from the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana on human malignant glioma cells.  

PubMed

Gliomas are a common type of primary brain tumor with glioblastoma multiforme accounting for the majority of human brain tumors. In this paper, high grade human malignant glioblastomas (MGs) including U87 MG and GBM 8401 were used to evaluate the antitumor effects of ?-mangostin, a xanthone derivative isolated and purified from the hull of the tropical fruit Garcinia mangostana. The ?-mangostin showed potent antiproliferative activity toward MGs in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, flow cytometric analysis of cell morphology in the apoptotic cells revealed an increase in hypodiploid cells in ?-mangostin treated U87 MG and GBM 8401 cells, while significant enhancement of intracellular peroxide production was detected in the same ?-mangostin treated cells by DCHDA assay and DiOC(6)(3) stain. g-Mangostin induced apoptosis, which in turn mediates cytotoxicity in human MG cells was prevented by the addition of catalase. Naturally derived medicines and herbal therapies are drawing increasing attention in regard to the treatment of many health issues, and this includes the testing of new phytochemicals or nutrients for brain tumor patients. This has led to ?-mangostin being identified as a potential leading compound for the development of an anti-brain tumor agent. PMID:21139533

Chang, Hui-Fang; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Chen, Hui-Ju; Yang, Ling-Ling

2010-01-01

82

Mangostanaxanthones I and II, new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.  

PubMed

Two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (3) and II (5) were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, along with four known xanthones: 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (1), parvifolixanthone C (2), ?-mangostin (4), and rubraxanthone (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, UV, 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. Compounds 3 and 5 displayed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 12.07 and 14.12?M, respectively using DPPH assay. Compounds 4-6 had weak to moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while demonstrated promising action against Bacillus cereus with MICs 0.25, 1.0, and 1.0mg/mL, respectively. The tested compounds were inactive against Candida albicans. However, they showed selective antifungal potential toward Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 3 and 4 possessed quorum-sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. PMID:25128900

Mohamed, Gamal A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaaban, Mona I A; Ross, Samir A

2014-10-01

83

Apoptotic activity of caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the growth inhibitory mechanism of four caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) KKU-100 and KKU-M156 cells. METHODS: Four caged xanthones, selected on the basis of their anticancer potency and chemical structure diversities (i.e. isomorellin, isomorellinol, forbesione and gambogic acid) were used in this study. Growth inhibition of these caged xanthones was determined using the sulforhodamine B assay. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by observing cell morphology, ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation assay. Levels of apoptotic-related gene and protein expressions were determined by a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis, respectively. RESULTS: The compounds were found to inhibit growth of both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and also showed selective cytotoxicity against the cancer cells when compared with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Growth suppression by these compounds was due to apoptosis, as evidenced by the cell morphological changes, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and DNA ladder formation. At the molecular level, these compounds induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and survivin proteins with up-regulation of Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor proteins, leading to the activation of caspase-9 and -3 and DNA fragmentation. The functional group variations did not appear to affect the anticancer activity with regard to the two CCA cell lines; however, at a mechanistic level, isomorellinol exhibited the highest potency in increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio (120 and 41.4 for KKU-100 and KKU-M156, respectively) and in decreasing survivin protein expression (0.01 fold as compared to control cells in both cell lines). Other activities at the molecular level indicate that functional groups on the prenyl side chain may be important. CONCLUSION: Our findings for the first time demonstrate that four caged xanthones induce apoptosis in CCA cells which is mediated through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:20458760

Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Nasomyon, Tapanawan; Loilome, Watcharin; Namwat, Nisana; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra; Sripa, Banchob; Namwat, Wises; Reutrakul, Vichai

2010-01-01

84

Importance of Solvation in Understanding the Chiroptical Spectra of Natural Products in Solution Phase: Garcinia Acid Dimethyl Ester  

PubMed Central

The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (+)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed by comparison with the corresponding spectra predicted by quantum chemical methods for (2S,3S)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester. For solution-phase calculations the recently developed continuous surface charge polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used. It is found that gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level yield nearly mirror-image ECD spectra in the 190–250 nm region for the same absolute configuration and that gas-phase ECD predictions lead to incorrect absolute configuration. At the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, however, gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions of ECD in the 190–250 nm region are not so different, but PCM predictions provide better agreement with the experimental observations. For carbonyl stretching vibrations, the vibrational band positions predicted at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in gas-phase calculations differ significantly from the corresponding experimentally observed band positions, and this discrepancy has also been corrected by the use of PCM. In addition, the solution-phase VCD predictions provided better agreement (with experimental VCD observations) than gas-phase VCD predictions. These observations underscore the importance of including solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopic properties. PMID:21114277

Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Jeirath, Neha; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Habel, Deenamma; Nair, Divya Sadasivan; Haleema, Simimole

2013-01-01

85

Efficacy of Slim339 in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects.  

PubMed

A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on body weight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in body weight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559

Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander

2007-12-01

86

ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION  

E-print Network

The lesion of peptic ulcer disease is a disruption in the mucosal layer of the stomach or duodenum. Recent researchers have discovered a number of newer risk factors regulating the development of disease which are not addressed properly by the current clinical therapies. In this study polyherbal formulation was prepared consisting of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Garcinia cambogia, deglycyrrhizinated licorice extract and Azadirachta indica. Suitable extracts depending on effective chemical composition was prepared and studied on four antiulcer models, namely Naproxen induced ulcers, Histamine induced ulcers, Cysteamine induced ulcers and Ethanol induced ulcer models. This polyherbal formulation significantly reduces ulcer index and ulcer area and shows protection index around 80%, the formulation also shows good antioxidant activity. All results show that polyherbal formulation show gastric healing property by multiple mechanisms. These entire drugs target specific etiological and pathological step which take part in development of ulcers.

A. P Purohit; Richa Kushwaha

2013-01-01

87

Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement  

PubMed Central

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, some of the xanthones from mangosteen have been found to influence specific enzyme activities, such as aromatase, HIV-1 protease, inhibitor ?B kinase, quinone reductase, sphingomyelinase, topoisomerase and several protein kinases, and they also modulate histamine H1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding. Several synthetic procedures for active xanthones and their analogs have been conducted to obtain a better insight into structure-activity relationships for this compound class. This short review deals with progress made in the structural characterization of the chemical constituents of mangosteen, as well as the biological activity of pure constituents of this species and synthetic methods for the mangosteen xanthones. PMID:21562610

Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

2011-01-01

88

Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.  

PubMed

Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1. PMID:25128427

Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

2014-10-01

89

Object extraction Object extraction  

E-print Network

Object extraction #12;Object extraction · Extracting topographic objects from images · the main goal of aerial photogrammetry · object extraction consists of two steps · image interpretation extraction · Extracting topographic objects from images · identify all objects of a certain class · measure

Giger, Christine

90

Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.  

PubMed

Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

1999-12-15

91

Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage. PMID:19826463

Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

92

Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities · ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction · Image interpretation: extract information from images · but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities · Transform image to make

Giger, Christine

93

Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities ! � ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction ! � Image interpretation: extract information from images � but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities � Transform image to make

Giger, Christine

94

Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet(R) preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet  

PubMed Central

The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul

2012-01-01

95

Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.  

PubMed

Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril. PMID:23649258

Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

2013-01-01

96

In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 ?g/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 ?g/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum. PMID:18844256

Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

2009-01-01

97

In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum. PMID:18844256

Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

2009-03-01

98

Fruit pod extracts as a source of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components. PMID:23052712

Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina

2012-01-01

99

A review on botanical species and chemical compounds with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control.  

PubMed

As obesity has reached epidemic proportions, the management of this global disease is of clinical importance. The availability and popularity of natural dietary supplements for the treatment of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this paper was to review the effect of commonly available over the counter plant-derived supplements used to suppress appetite for obesity control and management. The data were obtained from the electronic databases PubMed, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE with full text (via EBSCOHost) and the databases were accessed during late 2012 - early January 2013. The botanical species discussed in this review include Camellia sinensis, Caralluma fimbriata, Citrus aurantium, Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia and Phaseolus vulgaris. This review found that many botanical species including crude extracts and isolated compounds from plants have been shown to provide potentially promising therapeutic effects including appetite control and weight loss. However, many of these crude extracts and compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms of action, long term safety, and potential side effects. PMID:23666454

Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q

2013-09-01

100

Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures. Our results suggest that the main photosensitisers from terrestrial plants are likely based on the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure and photosensitisers with other structures, if present, are present in minor amounts or are not as active as those with the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure. PMID:19647445

Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

2009-09-01

101

Hydroxycitric acid does not promote inflammation or liver toxicity  

PubMed Central

Garcinia cambogia extract (GC) with its active component consisting of hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is widely utilized for weight loss. Various HCA salts are available, including calcium, magnesium, potassium and mixtures of these. Experimentally, these salts exhibit different properties with some, but not all, improving glucose tolerance and blood pressure. Recently, obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The active arm reduced visceral fat, adipocyte size and serum glucose, yet purportedly also exhibited hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increased mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress. The latter findings are at odds with a large body of animal and human studies that have been conducted on the safety and efficacy of HCA. This literature shows HCA to be protective against the liver toxicity associated with ethanol and dexamethasone administration, and to maintain serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase at near normal levels. In both animal and clinical literature, elevated intakes of HCA per se have not led to signs of inflammation or hepatotoxicity. The compound has been found to reduce markers of inflammation in brain, intestines, kidney and serum. PMID:24307814

Clouatre, Dallas L; Preuss, Harry G

2013-01-01

102

In vivo toxicity and antitumor activity of mangosteen extract.  

PubMed

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) has been widely used in the traditional medicine of Thailand to treat various ailments, especially diseases of the digestive system and infections. Many reports show antiproliferation of crude extracts and active constituents from mangosteen against many cancer cell lines. Therefore, the current study is proposed to demonstrate in vivo evidence on the antitumor activity of mangosteen. Crude methanolic extract (CME) from mangosteen pericarp including 25.19 % ?-mangostin as an active xanthone was used in this study. The inhibition on tumor cell proliferation of CME was preliminarily evaluated against the murine colon cancer cell line NL-17 with an IC50 value of 17 and 84 ?g/ml based on WST-1 and LDH assays, respectively. The safety dose for animal application was assessed by in vivo toxicity studies using female BALB/c mice. Acute toxicity showed an LD50 value and approximate lethal dose at 1,000 mg/kg, whereas the suitable dose for short-term study should be ?200 mg/kg. The effective dose for antitumor activity of CME was found to be between 100 and 200 mg/kg, with a tumor size reduction of 50-70 %. Histological staining clearly illustrated a decrease of tumor cell density in the footpad in a dose-dependent manner. The median survival time and life span significantly increased in tumor-bearing mice with CME treatment. This study suggests that CME possesses a powerful antitumor activity. Therefore, it is worth undertaking further investigation to identify active compounds and obtain a deeper understanding of their mechanism, in order to acquire novel effective anticancer drugs. PMID:22622784

Kosem, Nuttavut; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Utsumi, Hideo; Moongkarndi, Primchanien

2013-04-01

103

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to plant biotechnology, learners extract DNA from fruit to investigate how it looks and feels. The procedure is similar to what scientists have to do before they can use information contained in this DNA. This lesson guide includes procedure and discussion questions to help learners reflect on the process and purpose of DNA extraction. Modifications for younger learners are included in a related PDF (see related resources).

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

104

Pharmacokinetic properties of pure xanthones in comparison to a mangosteen fruit extract in rats.  

PubMed

The xanthones ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin are the major bioactive compounds in Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) fruit extracts. Previously, we reported the pharmacokinetic properties of ?-mangostin in rats. The purpose of this follow-up study was to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in rats if administered as either a pure compound or as a component of a mangosteen fruit extract. The absolute bioavailability of ?-mangostin when administered as a pure compound was determined by giving male Sprague Dawley rats 2 mg/kg ?-mangostin intravenously or 20 mg/kg orally. A 160 mg/kg aliquot of mangosteen fruit extract was administered, containing ?- and ?-mangostin doses equal to 20 mg/kg and 4.5 mg/kg of each pure compound, respectively. Plasma samples were collected for both pharmacokinetic studies, and compound concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic of ?-mangostin after intravenous administration followed a two-compartment body model. The half-life of the distribution phase was 2.40 min, and that of the elimination phase was 1.52 h. After oral administration, both ?- and ?-mangostin underwent intensive first-pass metabolism, and both compounds were conjugated rapidly after oral administration. When given as an extract, the total absorption of ?- and ?-mangostin was not increased, but the conjugation was slower, resulting in increased free (unconjugated) compound exposure when compared to pure compound administration. Since reported beneficial biological activities of mangosteen xanthones are based on the free, unconjugated compounds, food supplements containing mangosteen fruit extracts should be preferred over the administration of pure xanthones. PMID:23673465

Li, Li; Han, Ah-Reum; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Frye, Reginald F; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

2013-05-01

105

Extractant composition  

DOEpatents

An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

106

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04

107

Histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos incubated in crude extracts of camellia seed and mangosteen pericarp.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

2013-10-01

108

Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp  

PubMed Central

The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

2013-01-01

109

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive, adapted from the University of Nebraska's Plant and Soil Science eLibrary, with reading material and animations to help students learn the basics of DNA extraction. The lesson is divided into and introduction and the four processes involved: cell lysis, dismantling the cell membrane, removing unwanted cell parts, and precipitating the DNA. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-07

110

IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.  

PubMed

IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14?weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30?min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500?kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26?±?2.37?kg compared with 0.56?±?2.34?kg for placebo (pU ?=?0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

2014-10-01

111

Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction

Janet Ayako Tamada; C. J. King

1989-01-01

112

ExtractEd from: Transforming higher  

E-print Network

ExtractEd from: Transforming higher educaTion Through Technology-enhanced learning EditEd by t.heacademy.ac.uk/technology isbn 978-1-907207-11-2 © the Higher Education academy december 2009 the Higher Education academy;TranSForming higher educaTion Through TechnoLogy-enhanced Learning 191 a BluePrinT for Transforma

Azzopardi, Leif

113

Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants  

SciTech Connect

This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

1989-01-01

114

Method of infusion extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

115

Uranium extraction process  

SciTech Connect

Uranium is extracted from wet process phosphoric acid by extraction with a mixture of a diorganophosphate and a neutral phosphorus compound, which is preferably a triorgano phosphine oxide, in the presence of nitrate to form an organic extract layer containing uranium and an aqueous acid layer, which are separated.

Rose, M.A.

1983-05-03

116

Synthesis of caged Garcinia xanthone analogues  

E-print Network

90 ºC for 4 hours. The dark reaction mixture was cooled to90 ºC for 4 hours. The dark reaction mixture was cooled todark black color indicated the formation of the 3-(2,3- dihydorxylphenoxy)propanenitrile 22. The reaction

Cho, Woo Cheal

2009-01-01

117

Onion DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from onion cells using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

118

Wheat Germ DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from wheat germ using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

119

Avatar Information Extraction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AVATAR Information Extraction System (IES) at the IBM Almaden Research Center enables high- precision, rule-based, information extraction from text-documents. Draw ing from our experience we propose the use of probabilistic database techniques as the formal under pinnings of information extrac- tion systems so as to maintain high precision while increasing recall. This involve s building a frame- work where

T. S. Jayram; Rajasekar Krishnamurthy; Sriram Raghavan; Shivakumar Vaithyanathan; Huaiyu Zhu

2006-01-01

120

Standardization of allergen extracts.  

PubMed

Allergens are molecules with the capacity to elicit IgE responses in humans. When stimulated with allergens, most allergic patients respond with production of IgE specific for several proteins/allergens in the source material. The standardization of allergen extracts is essential in order to control variability and to achieve consistency and reproducibility in a clinical setting. Because the IgE binding capacity of an allergen extract is related to the content of one or a few major allergens, it is important that the standardization procedure ensures consistency, not only in the overall IgE binding potency, but also in the content and ratio of individual major allergens. Owing to the complexity of allergen extracts, a key element in standardization of allergen extracts is the use of standards. This chapter describes the principles for standardization of allergen extracts to be used by research laboratories. Other chapters in this volume describe methods in detail. PMID:18612605

Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Dreborg, Sten

2008-01-01

121

Extracting the Max From a DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of all ages get a thrill out of actually seeing clumps or strands of DNA. The Biotechnology/Bioinformatics Discovery! Project, a professional development workshop offered to science teachers, has always included a DNA-extraction activity. Over the course of four years, as the authors conducted these workshops for scores of teachers, they extended and refined the DNA-extraction activity to make it relevant to middle school students. Although the protocol for this exercise is on their project website along with teaching tips, they describe here the use of oral directions to give teachers many opportunities to interact with their students, and to assess how well students can follow directions and stay focused on the task.

Marek, Edmund; Mulville, Charlotte; Bell, Don

2009-01-01

122

Pitfalls of sequential extraction  

SciTech Connect

Sequential extraction procedures consist of subjecting a given sediment sample to a series of increasingly strong reagents under specified conditions. The most carefully designed and most often followed method is that of Tessier et al. (1979). These procedures, which were conceived as an attempt to determine the particulate speciation of trade elements and radionuclides, have serious limitations. Despite several studies demonstrating the instability of published methods for sequential extraction to determine chemical entities definable by more than the analytical method itself. The purpose of the comment is to discourage the expanding uncritical use of sequential extractions for measuring the particulate speciation of trade elements. (Copyright (c) 1990 Pergamon Press plc.)

Nirel, P.M.V.; Morel, F.M.M.

1994-01-01

123

Threshold voltage extraction circuit  

E-print Network

A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

Hoon, Siew Kuok

2012-06-07

124

Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.  

PubMed

To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of the same cyanobacterial species, as showing by the varying effectiveness of the solvent systems investigated. Therefore, a sole method cannot be regarded as universal and superior for the extraction of endotoxins from cyanobacteria. Nevertheless, the ability of the novel HBW and HDW methods to utilize easily handled organic solvents that are less hazardous than phenol render them attractive alternatives to the standard HPW method. PMID:14758595

Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

2004-02-01

125

DNA Extraction Virtual Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual lab from the Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah provides a simple overview of DNA extraction, including what it's used for, illustrations, and an activity using cheek cells and laboratory equipment to isolate DNA. The lab is followed by a classroom activity that allows students and teachers to Extract DNA from Anything Living, using household items like spinach but not little sister's big toe.

2006-01-01

126

Beam Extraction and Transport  

E-print Network

This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.

Kalvas, T

2013-01-01

127

Thymus DNA Extractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can be extracted from a chunk of thymus (sweetbread) or liver. This experiment requires the use of a centrifuge (not included in cost of materials). Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

128

Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

E-print Network

heating or isothermal decompression to the gaseous state. 3. Supercritical fluids can be used to vaporize thermally labile non-volatile substances at moderate temperatures, at which they are non-distillable. At these conditions, the selectivity may... be too low for liquid extraction. 4. Nontoxic, nonhazardous supercritical carbon dioxide can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries without contaminating the product. Liquid extraction leaves residual toxic organic solvent in the product...

Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

1984-01-01

129

Epulis granulomatosa: extraction sequellae.  

PubMed

Epulis granulomatosa is a post-surgical lesion emanating from an extraction socket. It can be misdiagnosed with lesions of similar appearance, for example, foreign body or pyogenic granulomas, or as a herniation of the maxillary sinus. Based on clinical appearance and microscopic description, granulomas all appear to represent essentially the same lesion. However, pathonomonically, the epulis granulomatosa emanates only from an extraction socket; the other granulomas can be found anywhere in the body. PMID:9693538

Leong, R; Seng, G F

1998-01-01

130

Fruitful DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, learners get to see and touch the genetic material they extract from the cells of a kiwi fruit - no high tech equipment required! After extraction and precipitation, learners will be able to collect the DNA with a wire hook. A facilitator's guide is included for helping educators run the activity, and background information is provided about what's going on, discussion questions, and ideas for inquiry. Biochemistry has never been so accessible - and fun!

Kalamuck, Karen; Exploratorium

2000-01-01

131

An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.  

PubMed

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

2011-01-01

132

An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products  

PubMed Central

Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

2011-01-01

133

Tevatron extraction microcomputer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction in the fErmilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad extraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the bucker and pulse magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the QXR magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance.

Chapman, L.; Finley, D. A.; Harrison, M.; Merz, W.

1985-06-01

134

Phytoplasma plasmid DNA extraction.  

PubMed

Phytoplasma plasmids have generally been detected from DNA extracted from plants and insects using methods designed for the purification of total phytoplasma DNA. Methods include extraction from tissues that are high in phytoplasma titre, such as the phloem of plants, with the use of CsCl-bisbenzimide gradients that exploit the low G+C content of phytoplasma DNA. Many of the methods employed for phytoplasma purification have been described elsewhere in this book. Here we describe in detail two methods that are specifically aimed at isolating plasmid DNA. PMID:22987431

Andersen, Mark T; Liefting, Lia W

2013-01-01

135

Introduction to DNA Extractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab exercise, authored by Lana Hays of Access Excellence at the National Health Museum, giving instructions for the extraction of DNA from several different starting materials. The lab employs everyday material which can be found at your local grocery store. The exercise is designed for the 6-12 grade level.

Hays, Lana

2009-11-04

136

SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

137

Extracting concentrated guided light.  

PubMed

The maximum concentration of radiation is proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium in which it propagates. A medium with a high refractive index can also serve as a lightguide for concentrated radiation. However, if concentrated radiation is extracted from one medium, with a high refractive index, to another, whose index is lower (e.g., from fused silica into air), part of the radiation may be lost because of the total internal reflection at the interface. We present polygonal shapes suitable for efficient extraction of the concentrated radiation in a controllable way, without increasing the cross-section area (or diameter) of the lightguide. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the use of a secondary concentrator, followed by such a light extractor, both having a high refractive index, can provide considerably more power to a solar receiver with a specific aperture. PMID:18253285

Ries, H; Segal, A; Karni, J

1997-05-01

138

Extracting tag hierarchies  

E-print Network

Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

2014-01-01

139

[Skeleton extractions and applications].  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

Quadros, William Roshan

2010-05-01

140

Follicular unit extraction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to introduce the reader to the topic of follicular unit extraction (FUE) and to present an overview of the value of FUE to patients and physicians. In addition to this, the various methods and instrumentation for performing this method of graft harvest are discussed as well as some of the technique's inherent advantages and disadvantages. Topics unique to FUE, including body hair grafting, plug/minigrafts repair, and donor area management are addressed as well. PMID:24017979

Harris, James A

2013-08-01

141

Ancient DNA extraction from plants.  

PubMed

A variety of protocols for DNA extraction from archaeological and paleobotanical plant specimens have been proposed. This is not surprising given the range of taxa and tissue types that may be preserved and the variety of conditions in which that preservation may take place. Commercially available DNA extraction kits can be used to recover ancient plant DNA, but modifications to standard approaches are often necessary to improve yield. In this chapter, I describe two protocols for extracting DNA from small amounts of ancient plant tissue. The CTAB protocol, which I recommend for use with single seeds, utilizes an incubation period in extraction buffer and subsequent chloroform extraction followed by DNA purification and suspension. The PTB protocol, which I recommend for use with gourd rind and similar tissues, utilizes an overnight incubation of pulverized tissue in extraction buffer, removal of the tissue by centrifugation, and DNA extraction from the buffer using commercial plant DNA extraction kits. PMID:22237524

Kistler, Logan

2012-01-01

142

Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction

L. L. Martella; J. D. Navratil; W. F. Santiago

1978-01-01

143

Extracting Tag Hierarchies  

PubMed Central

Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover, recommendation systems could also benefit from a tag hierarchy. PMID:24391901

Tibely, Gergely; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas; Palla, Gergely

2013-01-01

144

Coal extraction - environmental prediction  

SciTech Connect

To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

2002-08-01

145

Coronary sinus lead extraction.  

PubMed

Complications are reported more frequently with the implantation of coronary sinus (CS) than other types of leads, and attempts to extract CS leads may also be associated with increased risks. The authors have performed nonthoracotomy lead extraction (LE) since 1981 and maintained a detailed database. By November 2001, 796 leads had been removed from 401 patients. We undertook review of our CS-LE experience to evaluate prevalence, safety, and efficacy. Of 14 patients referred for CS-LE, 7 were treated in the last year. In six the lead had been placed in the CS intentionally, and in eight inadvertently. One recent patient treated with biventricular pacing was septic and died before LE was undertaken. In nine men and four women (mean age 66 years) had one each CS lead and a total of 34 LEs (2.6/patient). Four CS leads had been in place for < 6 months (mean 1.5 month), whereas nine had been in place for between 6 months and 27 years. Several LE methods were used, from simple traction to the use of intraluminal locking stylets and powered sheaths. Complete removal of all leads was achieved in all patients. CS-LE required a mean of 13 minutes, including 1.8 minutes of fluoroscopy. There were no serious complications during the procedures, and the mean hospital stay was 4 days. PMID:12687883

Tyers, G Frank O; Clark, Jacquie; Wang, Yan; Mills, Pauline; Bashir, Jamil

2003-01-01

146

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

... 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction... MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the...

2014-07-01

147

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

... 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the...

2014-07-01

148

30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

... 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction... ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the...

2014-07-01

149

30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

... 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the...

2014-07-01

150

30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

... 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the...

2014-07-01

151

30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

... 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction... GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the...

2014-07-01

152

Adaptive feature extraction expert  

SciTech Connect

The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

Yuschik, M.

1983-01-01

153

An Extended Keyword Extraction Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

154

Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1997-10-01

155

Terminology Extraction from Log Files  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

156

Passive vapor extraction feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-06-30

157

Isoflavone extraction from okara using water as extractant.  

PubMed

We here report on the use of water as a 'green' extraction solvent for the isolation of isoflavones from okara, a by-product of soymilk production. At a low liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 to 1 and 20 °C, 47% of the isoflavones that can be extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol were extracted. The malonyl-glucosides were fully recovered with a ratio of 20 to 1, while ?-glucosides were recovered with an increased liquid-to-solid ratio of 40 to 1. The extraction of aglycones was better at higher ratios, but leveled off before reaching a 100% yield. Temperature hardly affected the total amount of isoflavones. At a 20 to 1 ratio, 20 °C, and pH 10, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between isoflavone extraction in water and in 70% aqueous ethanol. The results suggest that water may be used as a green alternative for separation of isoflavones from okara. PMID:24799251

Jankowiak, Lena; Kantzas, Nikolaos; Boom, Remko; van der Goot, Atze Jan

2014-10-01

158

Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction  

PubMed Central

Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

Manjon, Jose V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupe, Pierrick; Romero, Jose E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

2014-01-01

159

Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

Workman, R. L.

2011-09-01

160

Perceptual Grouping for Contour Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an algorithm that efficiently groups line segments into perceptually salient contours in complex images. A measure of affinity between pairs of lines is used to guide group formation and limit the branching factor of the contour search procedure. The extracted contours are ranked, and presented as a contour hierarchy. Our algo- rithm is able to extract salient

Francisco J. Estrada; Allan D. Jepson

2004-01-01

161

NAMED ENTITY EXTRACTION FROM SPEECH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results using a hidden Markov model to extract information from broadcast news. IdentiFinder™ was trained on the broadcast news corpus and tested on both the 1996 HUB-4 development test data and the 1997 HUB-4 evaluation test data with respect to the named entity (NE) task: extracting ? names of locations, persons, and organizations;

Francis Kubala; Richard Schwartz; Ralph Weischedel

162

Exploring DNA Extraction Erica Butts  

E-print Network

quantity) Known quant value: 52.44 ng/�L Ranges from 1500 ng to 100 ng Human epithelial cell lines*: 100 L of a cell suspension swabbed from Teflon tube (n=12 per quantity) Number of cells determined through flow to precipitate DNA � Rehydrated with 100 �L TE #12;Applied Genetics Blood Extracted DNA Cells Extraction

Perkins, Richard A.

163

Event extraction for DNA methylation  

PubMed Central

Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts including a representative sample of all PubMed citations relevant to DNA methylation, and introduce manual annotation for this corpus marking nearly 3000 gene/protein mentions and 1500 DNA methylation and demethylation events. We retrain a state-of-the-art event extraction system on the corpus and find that automatic extraction of DNA methylation events, the methylated genes, and their methylation sites can be performed at 78% precision and 76% recall. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that reliable extraction methods for DNA methylation events can be created through corpus annotation and straightforward retraining of a general event extraction system. The introduced resources are freely available for use in research from the GENIA project homepage http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GENIA. PMID:22166595

2011-01-01

164

Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants  

DOEpatents

A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Rome, IT)

1988-01-01

165

Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

1999-01-01

166

Extractive condensation: A new separation process  

SciTech Connect

A new highly selective vapor-phase extraction process is described. Hydrogen bonding between a scavenging extractant and the substance to be extracted results in a high-boiling complex forming fog droplets readily separable from the remaining vapor. The process is exemplified by the extraction of acetic acid from the predominantly aqueous vapor stream of furfural reactors. Triethylamine is used as the extractant.

Zeitsch, K.J.

1999-10-01

167

Reactive extraction of lactic acid with mixed tertiary amine extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixture of tripropylamine (TPA) and trioctylamine (TOA) dissolved in 1-octanol\\/n-heptane was used in the reactive extraction of (L+)lactic acid in aqueous solution. Maximum distribution coefficients were obtained in the range from 6:4 to 8:2 weight ratio of TPA\\/TOA at 5% (w\\/w) lactic acid in aqueous phase and their extraction efficiencies were above 90%. By introducing TPA into TOA, the

Yeon Ki Hong; Won Hi Hong

1999-01-01

168

Extraction of DNA from paleofeces.  

PubMed

Paleofeces are the nonmineralized remains of dung from extant and extinct fauna. They represent a surprisingly large proportion of fossil remains recovered from cave sites across the world. Paleofeces contain the DNA of the defecator as well as the DNA of ingested plant and animal remains. To successfully extract DNA from paleofeces, a balance must be achieved between the minimization of DNA loss during extraction and the removal of coeluates that would otherwise inhibit the Taq DNA polymerase during downstream applications. Here we present a simplified version of a protocol to extract DNA from paleofecal remains. PMID:22237519

Kuch, Melanie; Poinar, Hendrik

2012-01-01

169

Solid Phase Extraction of Solanesol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the concentration and clean-up of tobacco extract samples during solanesol\\u000a analysis was proposed in this work. A column (200 mm  4 mm i.d.) packed with 0.10 g silica gel (with particle size of 70 ?m,\\u000a porosity of 0.5 and surface area of 400 m2 g?1) was used as SPE cartridge. Several extraction parameters, such as sample loading flow (0.3–7 mL min?1), sample

De-Song Tang; Hui-Ling Liang; Lin Zhang; Huan-Lin Chen

2007-01-01

170

Sunscreen comprising a curcuma extract  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Sunscreen compositions containing an extract of Curcuma longa L. are provided, the sunscreens having an absorption that spans the UVA and UVB ranges in a manner that meets updated FDA recommendations without requiring the addition of titanium dioxide. The sunscreens can also include an extraction solvent that is at least substantially non-toxic and useful also as a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier in liquid dosage forms. Microemulsions and nanoemulsions are also provided to enhance the bioavailability and stability of the extracts in the sunscreens.

2014-08-26

171

Parallel algorithms for inductance extraction  

E-print Network

generalized approach for inductance extraction requires the solution of a large, dense, complex linear system that models mutual inductive effects among circuit elements. Iterative methods are used to solve the system without explicit computation of the system...

Mahawar, Hemant

2007-09-17

172

Extracting information from informal communication  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the problem of extracting information from informal communication. Textual informal communication, such as e-mail, bulletin boards and blogs, has become a vast information resource. However, such ...

Rennie, Jason D. M. (Jason Daniel Malyutin), 1976-

2007-01-01

173

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-print Network

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01

174

Extractive value Correspondence to Author:  

E-print Network

Bindens pilosa L. is a cosmopolitan weed, originally from South America and common in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is a small annual weed occurring all over the country. Roots, leaves and seeds have been reported to possess antibacterial, antidysentric, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and hypotensive activities. Extracts of this plant is used in southern Africa to cure malaria. In tropics also it is used on snakebite and malaria. It is used in traditional medicine as a remedy to treat glandular sclerosis, wounds, colds, flu and urinary tract infections. Leaf extracts in petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and distilled water were tested against five bacteria. Maximum zone of inhibition was produced by acetone and petroleum ether extract against Proteus vulgaris, and least activity by methanol and aqueous extract against bacillus subtilis. INTRODUCTION: Medicinal plants represent an alternative treatment in non-severe cases of infectious

M. J. Dagawal; D. S. Ghorpade; Mangesh J. Dagawal

175

DNA Extraction & Staging Laboratory (DESL)  

Cancer.gov

As part of the Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR), the DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL) located in Frederick, MD, is responsible for the preparation of samples for investigators at NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

176

A Simply Fruity DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners extract DNA from a strawberry and discover that DNA is in the food they eat. Learners use simple materials to break open the cells of a strawberry and see DNA with their very own eyes.

Workshop, Mission S.

2012-01-01

177

Coal Extraction and Preparation Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolving extraction, preparation, and transportation techniques receiving Department of Energy (DOE) support do not create new or substantially different environmental impacts from those of both previous and contemporaroy techniques. As the coal minin...

1979-01-01

178

Extracting Oil From Tar Sands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

1984-01-01

179

ECG Feature Extraction Using LCAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the commonly used tools to diagnose cardiac patients. Analysis of the ECG is extremely useful in the development of an intelligent diagnostic system. This paper illustrates an approach to analyze ECG and extract its features, useful for designing intelligent medical diagnostic system, using low-cost-access-cum-computing-device (LCAD). Significant features are extracted using LCAD. It deals with noise

Rajendra G. Sutar; A. G. Kothari; A. G. Keskar

2012-01-01

180

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOEpatents

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28

181

Pulsed electromembrane extraction: a new concept of electrically enhanced extraction.  

PubMed

In the present work, pulsed electromembrane extraction (PEME) is introduced for the first time as an efficient and inexpensive method for the extraction of ionizable compounds from different matrices. The setup proposed for electromembrane extraction (EME) provides a very stable system and satisfactory repeatability (RSDs<4.4) in comparison with existing methods. In this paper, PEME is conducted for the extraction of model analytes from biological fluids. The effective parameters such as extraction time, applied voltage and the duration of pulse and outage period are optimized using the experimental design. Preconcentration factors in the range of 100-140 and recoveries in the range of 95-108 were obtained in different biological matrices. The linear dynamic ranges of 5-200 ng mL(-1) (with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9955) and limits of detection of 1.0 ng mL(-1) were obtained for both of the drugs. The figures of merit of PEME were compared with the results from conventional EME, which proves the advantages of the proposed technique. PMID:22999198

Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Esrafili, Ali

2012-11-01

182

Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOEpatents

A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2007-11-06

183

AGS slow extracted beam improvement  

SciTech Connect

The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

1997-07-01

184

Symmetry constraint for foreground extraction.  

PubMed

Symmetry as an intrinsic shape property is often observed in natural objects. In this paper, we discuss how explicitly taking into account the symmetry constraint can enhance the quality of foreground object extraction. In our method, a symmetry foreground map is used to represent the symmetry structure of the image, which includes the symmetry matching magnitude and the foreground location prior. Then, the symmetry constraint model is built by introducing this symmetry structure into the graph-based segmentation function. Finally, the segmentation result is obtained via graph cuts. Our method encourages objects with symmetric parts to be consistently extracted. Moreover, our symmetry constraint model is applicable to weak symmetric objects under the part-based framework. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of our approach in extracting the foreground. Our method also shows improved results in segmenting objects with weak, complex symmetry properties. PMID:23797312

Fu, Huazhu; Cao, Xiaochun; Tu, Zhuowen; Lin, Dongdai

2014-05-01

185

Forest-Based Translation Rule Extraction  

E-print Network

Forest-Based Translation Rule Extraction EMNLP 2008 talk, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 2008 Haitao Mi #12;Forest-based Translation Rule Extraction Translation Rule Extraction · rule extraction ("syntax") from either or both sides · more informed translation thanks to syn. categories

Plotkin, Joshua B.

186

Automatic Glossary Extraction: Beyond Terminology Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for automatically extracting domain-specific glossaries from large document collections. We show that, compared with current text analysis methods for extracting technical terminology from text, our extracted glossaries more successfully support applications requiring knowledge of domain concepts. After presenting our methods, we illustrate the output of GlossEx, our glossary extraction tool, and present an informal evaluation

Roy J. Byrd; Branimir K Boguraev

2002-01-01

187

IEPAD: information extraction based on pattern discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research in information extraction (IE) regards the generation of wrappers that can extract particular information from semi- structured Web documents. Similar to compiler generation, the extractor is actually a driver program, which is accompanied with the generated extraction rule. Previous work in this field aims to learn extraction rules from users' training example. In this paper, we propose IEPAD,

Chia-Hui Chang; Shao-Chen Lui

2001-01-01

188

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of volatiles from spices. Comparison with simultaneous distillation-extraction.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) were used to extract the essential oils from three different spices (oregano, basil, and mint), and a comparative study of extracts obtained using SFE and SDE is presented. Temperature and pressure for the SFE extraction were optimized prior to the experimental extractions. The extracts obtained using the two methods were very similar in composition, but SFE yielded better relative standard deviations and avoided the thermal degradation or solvent contamination of samples. PMID:11873995

Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad; Cabezudo, M Dolores

2002-02-15

189

Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.  

PubMed

The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents. PMID:24088789

Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

2014-01-01

190

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

1998-01-01

191

Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.  

PubMed

A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000?L of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. PMID:21190688

Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke

2011-02-01

192

In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction  

PubMed Central

Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-01-01

193

In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction.  

PubMed

Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems. PMID:25379009

Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

2014-10-15

194

Antioxidative activities of water extract and ethanol extract from field horsetail ( tsukushi) Equisetum arvense L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water extract and ethanol extract from top and body portions of field horsetail (tsukushi) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity was investigated using four different methods. The contents of total phenolic components were richer in the ethanol extract fractions of each portion than in the water extracts. On the other hand, protein contents were much lower in ethanol extract fractions

Takeshi Nagai; Takao Myoda; Toshio Nagashima

2005-01-01

195

CONTROL OF MOLYBDENUM DURING LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF URANIUM USING AMINE EXTRACTANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the extraction of U from its ores using amine extractants ; is described in which the appearance of green, Mo-contalning interfacial solids ; in the amine extractant is prevented. Besides the usual steps of acid ; dissolution of the ore, amine extraction, and stripping of U, the process also ; includes a reducing step between the extraction

J. L. Drobnick; C. J. Lewis

1963-01-01

196

Lesson 10: Extraction of Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces quadratic equations and graphs. Equations of the form ax^2 + c = 0 are solved via extraction of roots. Later application problems involving volume and surface area and compound interest (problems of the form a(x - p)^2 = q ) are presented.

2011-01-01

197

IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

198

Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

Malmary, G.; And Others

1984-01-01

199

Recurrence Quantification Analysis for Extracting  

E-print Network

. 2000; Bukkapatnam et al., 1994, 2000) Recurrence Analysis Recurrence plots (Eckmann et al. 1987) PseudoRecurrence Quantification Analysis for Extracting Features in Complex Systems Satish T #12;10 State Portraits Structurally Stable Topologically Invariant #12;11 Time Delay Plots Ceramic

Bukkapatnam, Satish T.S.

200

Extracting DNA from a Banana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners extract DNA from a banana. The procedure requires only basic lab equipment (i.e. beaker, test tube) and chemicals (i.e. liquid soap, meat tenderizer, ethanol). This activity is most appropriate for learners in grades 5-8. With slight modifications, this activity is appropriate for younger learners as well.

Gallo, Mark; Ventresca, Shannon; Cordts, Marcia

2012-01-01

201

Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

2001-01-01

202

Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.  

PubMed

Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

2014-06-20

203

ECG Feature Extraction Based on  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we have developed and evaluated an electrocardiogram (ECG) feature extraction system based on the multi-resolution wavelet transform. ECG signals from Modified Lead II (MLII) are chosen for processing. The result of applying two wavelet filters (D4 and D6) of different length on the signal is compared. The wavelet filter with scaling function more closely to the shape

2005-01-01

204

Phenolic compounds from the fruit of Garcinia dulcis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dulcinoside (1), dulcisisoflavone (2), dulcisxanthone A (3) and sphaerobioside acetate (6) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the green fruit of G. dulcis. Dulcisflavan (4), dulcisxanthone B (5) and isonormangostin (7) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the ripe fruit. Compounds 6 and 7 were synthetic known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The

S. Deachathai; W. Mahabusarakam; S. Phongpaichit

2005-01-01

205

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2010-07-01

206

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2014-07-01

207

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2013-07-01

208

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2012-07-01

209

30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction...LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the...

2011-07-01

210

Antioxidant capacity of bioactives extracted from canola meal by subcritical water, ethanolic and hot water extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant compounds were extracted from canola meal by subcritical water extraction (SWE) at 110 and 160°C, hot water extraction (80°C) and ethanolic (95%, v\\/v) extraction. The highest extract yields were obtained with SWE at 160°C. The total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by the total phenolics assay (using Folin–Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent), the 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging

Majid Hassas-Roudsari; Peter R. Chang; Ronald B. Pegg; Robert T. Tyler

2009-01-01

211

Data Extraction from Form Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system capable of extracting textual information from images of structured documents. In particular\\u000a the model and the algorithms we described are used to process forms in which the information fields can not be located only\\u000a by their position on the page, but can also be identified after locating the corresponding instruction fields. The proposed

Francesca Cesarini; Marco Gori; Simone Marinai; Giovanni Soda

1995-01-01

212

Solvent Extraction of Transuranium Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steady-state and unsteady-state digital computer programs, processed on an IBM 7072 computer, were used to obtain the concentration profiles for hydrochloric acid, curium, americium, and europium for a 16-stage liquid-liquid extraction process which is the final purification step in the production of curium 244. The equilibrium data were in the form of empirical equations which were suitable for the computer

J. E. Agee; J. A. Roth

1967-01-01

213

Work extraction from microcanonical bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determine the maximal work extractable via a cyclic Hamiltonian process from a positive-temperature (T> 0) microcanonical state of a NGt1 spin bath. The work is much smaller than the total energy of the bath, but can be still much larger than the energy of a single bath spin, e.g. it can scale as {\\\\cal O}(\\\\sqrt{N\\\\ln N}) . Qualitatively the

A. E. Allahverdyan; K. V. Hovhannisyan

2011-01-01

214

Extraction of sucrose from molasses  

SciTech Connect

Sucrose is extracted from molasses by passing an aqueous molasses solution over an adsorbent, e.g., calcined Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported pyrolyzed C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Thus, 10 mL molasses (approximately 46% solids) was run through a column containing 70 cubic centimetres above adsorbent with sucrose retention volume 21.4 and selectivity for sucrose - betaine 23.8.

Landis, A.M.

1982-01-26

215

An Improved Watermarking Extraction Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echo hiding is one of the prevailing techniques in audio watermarking due to its good perceptual quality. However, the detection\\u000a ratio of this method is relatively low and its robustness against many common signal-processing operations is not satisfactory.\\u000a In this paper, an improved watermarking extraction algorithm, which is based on auto-power-cepstrum, is proposed. Computer\\u000a simulation results prove that the new

Ning Chen; Jie Zhu

216

Named Entity Extraction From Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results using a hidden Markov model to extractinformation from broadcast news. IdentiFinder^TM was trainedon the broadcast news corpus and tested on both the 1996HUB-4 development test data and the 1997 HUB-4 evaluationtest data with respect to the named entity (NE) task: extracting. names of locations, persons, andorganizations;. dates and times;. monetary amounts and percentages.Evaluation is based on automatic

Francis Kubala

1998-01-01

217

DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.  

PubMed

With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP). PMID:24415470

Drábková, Lenka Záveská

2014-01-01

218

Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ambrisentan  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Ambrisentan (ABS) is an antihypertensive drug used in the treatment of pulmonary atrial hypertension. The survey of literature for ABS revealed only two spectrophotometric methods for its quantification. The reported methods lack the sensitivity. This study is aimed at developing two sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ABS in bulk and in tablets. Methods: The proposed methods are based on the formation of colored chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of ABS with methylene blue (MB method) and safranine O (SO method) in buffered solution at pH 9.8. The extracted complexes showed maximum absorbance at 525 and 515 nm for methylene blue and safranine O, respectively. Results: In both the methods, the calibration curve was linear from 1–15 µg mL-1 of drug. Apparent molar absorpitivities were 1.7911 x 105, 2.3272 x 105 L mol-1 cm-1; Sandell’s sensitivities were 0.0215, 0.0162 µg cm-2; LOD were 0.182, 0.175 µg mL-1; LOQ were 0.551, 0.531 µg mL-1 for methods MB and SO, respectively. The relative standard deviation and percent recovery ranged from 0.206–1.310% and 99.0–101.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are sensitive, precise, accurate and inexpensive. These methods can easily be used for the assay of ABS in quality control laboratories. PMID:24312841

Kumar, Namasani Santhosh; Rani, Avula Prameela; Visalakshi, Telu; Sekharan, Chandra Bala

2013-01-01

219

Microwave assisted extraction of soy isoflavones.  

PubMed

A fast and reliable analytical method using microwave assisted extraction has been developed. Several extraction solvents (methanol (MeOH) and ethanol (EtOH), 30-70% in water and water), temperatures (50-150 degrees C), extraction solvent volume, as well as the sample size (1.0-0.1g) and extraction time (5-30 min) were studied for the optimization of the extraction protocol. The optimized extraction conditions for quantitative recoveries were: 0.5 g of sample, 50 degrees C, 20 min and 50% ethanol as extracting solvent. No degradation of the isoflavones was observed using the developed extraction protocol and a high reproducibility was achieved (>95%). PMID:17386821

Rostagno, Mauricio A; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

2007-04-11

220

How to Extract DNA From Anything Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics activity, learners discover how to extract DNA from green split peas. This resource guide includes a brief explanation of DNA and provides suggestions for ways to experiment with DNA extraction further.

Utah, University O.

2008-01-01

221

Beam transfer and extraction at LAMPF II  

SciTech Connect

Protons will be single-turn extracted from the LAMPF II synchrotron at 30 Hz. On alternate pulses they will be single-turn injected into a storage ring. Both processes utilize fast kickers and Lambertson septum magnets. Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow-extract the beam from the storage ring over a time spread of 1/15 s. The slow extraction occurs using electrostatic wire and iron septa.

Colton, E.P.

1983-01-01

222

Antibacterial activity on Citrullus colocynthis Leaf extract.  

PubMed

Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of inhibition measuring 14.0mm. The chloroform leaf extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the chloroform extract was 4.0mm for Escherichia coli. PMID:22557336

Gowri, S Shyamala; Priyavardhini, S; Vasantha, K; Umadevi, M

2009-07-01

223

Advances in Aqueous Extraction Processing of Soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extraction processing technologies, having advanced in recent years, may be a viable alternative to hexane extraction\\u000a to separate oil and protein from soybeans. Different extraction strategies incorporating various modes of comminution, extraction\\u000a buffers, and enzymes allow production of a range of oil and protein products, but also create different processing challenges.\\u000a Processes capable of achieving high free oil yields

K. A. CampbellC; C. E. Glatz; L. A. Johnson; S. Jung; J. M. N. de Moura; V. Kapchie; P. Murphy

2011-01-01

224

Supercritical fluid extraction of celery seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of oil from milled celery seeds, using CO2 as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of the process parameters — pressure and temperature of extraction, particle size of celery seeds and flow rate of CO2 — on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments. The results indicated a significant increase

I. Papamichail; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

2000-01-01

225

Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

Compton, L.

1982-01-01

226

Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

Krasnov, I. V.

1977-01-01

227

Current use of pressurised liquid extraction and subcritical water extraction in environmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review updates our knowledge about pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and subcritical water extraction (SWE), two sample preparation techniques which are increasingly used for the extraction of moderately and non-volatile organic pollutants from a variety of solid and semi-solid environmental matrices. Parameters influencing the extraction yield and selectivity are discussed. The results deriving from the analysis of several different classes

L Ramos; E. M Kristenson; U. A. Th Brinkman

2002-01-01

228

Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections. PMID:20191854

Poiat?, Antonia; Tuchilu?, Cristina; Iv?nescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Laz?r, M I

2009-01-01

229

RESONANT EXTRACTION PARAMETERS FOR THE AGS BOOSTER.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven's AGS Booster is the injector for the AGS. It is being modified to send resonant extracted heavy ions to a new beam line, the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The design of the resonant extraction system for BAF was described in [1]. This note will give a more detailed description of the system and describe the predicted resonant beam time structure. We will describe tune space manipulations necessary to extract the resonant beam at the maximum Booster rigidity, schemes for performing resonant extraction, and describe the modifications required to perform bunched beam extraction to the BAF facility.

BROWN,K.A.; CULLEN,J.; GLENN,J.W.; MAPES,M.; MARNERIS,I.; TSOUPAS,N.; SNYDSTRUP,L.; VAN ASSELT,W.

2001-06-18

230

Automatic extraction of planetary image features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

2013-01-01

231

Method of continuously extracting magnesium  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of continuously extracting magnesium by subjecting chloride electrolytes to electrolysis consists of enriching an electrolyte in magnesium chloride and refining the same, mixing the enriched electrolyte with the recycled electrolyte containing the magnesium extracted in electrolytic cells, separating the magnesium from the resultant electrolyte, dividing the electrolyte into two flows of which one is fed to be enriched, while the other is delivered to a bank of electrolytic cells series-connected by conduits, delivering the recycled electrolyte containing the extracted magnesium for mixing with the enriched electrolyte prior to the step of separation, accumulating the magnesium and withdrawing the same from the process. In a processing line used for practicing the above method preferably utilized is a multiple-cell flow apparatus comprising a chamber for enriching the electrolyte in magnesium chloride the wall of which having a passage for establishing communication with a chamber for separating magnesium from the electrolyte through a corresponding passage in the wall thereof as well as a chamber for dividing the electrolyte into flows, the chamber for dividing the electrolyte into flows being disposed between said chambers for enriching and separating the electrolyte. In the processing line practicing the method may preferably be used a multiple-cell flow apparatus comprising a chamber for enriching the electrolyte in magnesium chloride the upper part of the wall of the chamber has a passage for establishing communication with a chamber for separating magnesium from the electrolyte through a corresponding passage in the wall thereof as well as a chamber for dividing the electrolyte into flows, the chamber for dividing the electrolyte into flows is disposed between said chambers for enriching and separating the electrolyte.

1984-11-20

232

Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

Segall, P.

1989-01-01

233

Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

Noah, Etam

2014-02-01

234

Extracting Information about Jane Austen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

View a variety of web sources to learn more about the author Jane Austen and determine the sources' credibility. Learn how to extract and record information about Austen by using a variety of methods and then convey that information while avoiding plagiarism. GOAL This assignment will help you to gain more information about Jane Austen, whom you have been studying in your AP English class, as well as utilizing and extending your knowledge of the following: 1. Credibility of different sources 2. Note-taking methods 3. Using the MLA guidelines At the end of this assignment you will ...

Anderson, Mrs.

2009-11-30

235

Status of coal research: Solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

The early history of Solvent extraction in coal research has been reviewed by Van Krevelen. From the beginning, solvent extraction has been used to isolate and characterize both soluble and insoluble coal fractions. The recent studies covered in this report fall into four broad areas: (1) Improvement in extraction yields or selectivity; (2) Correlation of solvent swelling and extraction behavior to structural models for the insoluble organic portion of coal; (3) Analyses of extracts to identify and perhaps quantify organic compounds in the raw coal, and (4) Use of solvent extraction to predict or influence coal behavior in some other process such as liquefaction. To cover this active area in a brief Preprint, references were chosen to illustrate both the current status of the field and cite related studies. The availability of the pristine Argonne Premium Coal Samples has led to a significant improvement in the reproducibility of solvent extraction as an analytical tool. In 1984, Triolo and Child cautioned that solvent extraction may be an inherently unreproducible process. Based on studies of how weathering affects solvent extraction, that was a fair statement at the time. With the improvements and standardization of solvent extraction practices developed since then, it is now possible to obtain reproducible and reliable information from the solvent extraction of coal.

Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

236

Antioxidant-Rich Extract from Dehydrated Seabuckthorn Berries by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry oil having high nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and therapeutic activity has been extracted from dried seabuckthorn\\u000a (SBT) whole berry powder using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), a green process for extraction of bioactives. The SC-CO2 process was optimized using Box–Behnken design. Three SC-CO2 parameters namely extracting pressure, extracting temperature, and time of extraction were examined. The optimal SC-CO2

Lalit D. Kagliwal; Anuradha S. Pol; Sushant C. Patil; Rekha S. Singhal; Vandana B. Patravale

237

Valuable compounds in macroalgae extracts.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds present in ethanolic extracts from 18 macroalgae of the Portuguese coast were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the characterization of 14 compounds: proline, phloroglucinol, mannitol, 8 fatty acids and 3 sterols. A dose-dependent response against enzymes with biological significance (?-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) and free radicals (DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl) was found, Phaeophyta being the most promising group. A PCA analysis was performed and allowed the establishment of a correlation between the algae chemical composition and the biological activity. Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus are among the most active species, which is in accordance with their higher contents in phloroglucinol, mannitol, oleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, and fucosterol. The results point to the potential interest of the use of Phaeophyta species as food additives, due to their potent antiradical activities, and especially highlights the importance of F. spiralis in the food chain of Mediterranean countries. Moreover, the incorporation of the extracts of these species in food products, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations for human health should also be instigated, since they can suppress hyperglycemia and inhibit cholinesterases. PMID:23411314

Andrade, Paula B; Barbosa, Mariana; Matos, Rui Pedro; Lopes, Graciliana; Vinholes, Juliana; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

2013-06-01

238

Versatile document image content extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We offer a preliminary report on a research program to investigate versatile algorithms for document image content extraction, that is locating regions containing handwriting, machine-print text, graphics, line-art, logos, photographs, noise, etc. To solve this problem in its full generality requires coping with a vast diversity of document and image types. Automatically trainable methods are highly desirable, as well as extremely high speed in order to process large collections. Significant obstacles include the expense of preparing correctly labeled ("ground-truthed") samples, unresolved methodological questions in specifying the domain (e.g. what is a representative collection of document images?), and a lack of consensus among researchers on how to evaluate content-extraction performance. Our research strategy emphasizes versatility first: that is, we concentrate at the outset on designing methods that promise to work across the broadest possible range of cases. This strategy has several important implications: the classifiers must be trainable in reasonable time on vast data sets; and expensive ground-truthed data sets must be complemented by amplification using generative models. These and other design and architectural issues are discussed. We propose a trainable classification methodology that marries k-d trees and hash-driven table lookup and describe preliminary experiments.

Baird, Henry S.; Moll, Michael A.; Nonnemaker, Jean; Casey, Matthew R.; Delorenzo, Don L.

2006-01-01

239

Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE. PMID:23666412

Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; González, Mónica

2013-06-01

240

Extracting inorganics from scrap tires  

SciTech Connect

Scrap tires contain several inorganic moieties in abundances >0.5% which are impregnated into their carbonaceous matrix. These inorganic species are known to produce acid rain, toxic aerosols, and boiler scale and could produce unwanted catalytic effects as well. It is our position that the potential of recycling scrap tires would be considerably enhanced if the inorganics in question - S, Ca, and Zn - were removed prior to attempts to upgrade the carbonaceous matrix. Using non-mechanical methods, we are attempting to cleave the adherence between the co-polymer matrix and to extract the inorganics. The efficiency of our methods is being measured by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometry and by other methods.

Cummings, R.; Wertz, D.L. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

1995-12-31

241

Decision Boundary Feature Extraction for Nonparametric Classification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feature extraction has long been an important topic in pattern recognition. Although many authors have studied feature extraction for parametric classifiers, relatively few feature extraction algorithms are available for nonparametric classifiers. A new feature extraction algorithm based on decision boundaries for nonparametric classifiers is proposed. It is noted that feature extraction for pattern recognition is equivalent to retaining 'discriminantly informative features' and a discriminantly informative feature is related to the decision boundary. Since nonparametric classifiers do not define decision boundaries in analytic form, the decision boundary and normal vectors must be estimated numerically. A procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary for non-parametric classification is proposed. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm finds effective features for the nonparametric classifier with Parzen density estimation.

Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

1993-01-01

242

Supercritical CO 2 Extraction of Flax Lignans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignans, such as flaxseed secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have been implicated in the prevention of hormonally related\\u000a cancers and other prevalent diseases. Lignans are typically extracted using organic solvents, which must then be removed from\\u000a the extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is a non-toxic, inexpensive solvent, which, when combined with polar modifiers, can be used to extract polar phenolic compounds,\\u000a such

Lauren M. Comin; Feral Temelli; Marleny Aranda Saldaña

2011-01-01

243

Comparisons of Soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction for environmental solids: recovery, selectivity and effects on sample matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°C with pure CO2), and subcritical water (1 h at 250°C, or 30 min at 300°C). Although minor differences in recoveries

Steven B Hawthorne; Carol B Grabanski; Esther Martin; David J Miller

2000-01-01

244

Antidiabetic effects of extracts from Psidium guajava  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a screening of medicinal plants for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B), an extract from Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) leaves exhibited significant inhibitory effect on PTP1B. Thus, its antidiabetic effect on Leprdb\\/Leprdb mice was evaluated. Significant blood glucose lowering effects of the extract were observed after intraperitoneal injection of the extract at a dose of 10mg\\/kg in both 1- and

Won Keun Oh; Chul Ho Lee; Myung Sun Lee; Eun Young Bae; Cheon Bae Sohn; Hyuncheol Oh; Bo Yeon Kim; Jong Seog Ahn

2005-01-01

245

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

SciTech Connect

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1991-12-31

246

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-print Network

, .. ~ REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN,EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION A. C. Saxena V. A. Bhandari Polysar Limited Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Abstract Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C. hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower.... Prior to the development work to be described, the pressure in the extraction tower was controlled at a fixed value. The tower pressure-boilup control loop did not behave satisfactorily in the presence of non-condensables which entered with the feed...

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

247

METAL - A Tool for Extracting Attack Manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As manual analysis of attacks is time consuming and requires expertise, we developed a partly automated tool for extracting\\u000a manifestations of intrusive behaviour from audit records, METAL (Manifestation Extraction Tool for Analysis of Logs). The\\u000a tool extracts changes in audit data that are caused by an attack. The changes are determined by comparing data generated during\\u000a normal operation to data

Ulf Larson; Emilie Lundin Barse; Erland Jonsson

2005-01-01

248

Entity Profile Extraction from Large Corpora? ? ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information Extraction (IE) has two anchor points: (i) entity-centric information leads to an Entity Profile (EP); (ii) action-centric information leads to an Event Scenario. Based on a pipelined architecture which involves both document-level IE and corpus-level IE, a multi-level modular approach to EP extraction from large corpora is described: (i) named entity tagging; (ii) three-level pattern matching for extracting the

Wei Li; Rohini Srihari; Cheng Niu; Xiaoge Li

249

Extraction of Rice Bran Extract and Some Factors Affecting Its Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase Activity and Browning in Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w\\/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction

Kunnikar Boonsiripiphat; Chockchai Theerakulkait

2009-01-01

250

DNA Extraction and Quantitation for Forensic Analysts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is part of the President's DNA Initiative and is devoted to the methodology for the extraction and quantification of DNA obtained from crime scene evidence. The site is designed as an on-line short course. The site identifies potential obstacles in the collection, extraction, and amplification of DNA. Extraction methods covered are organic, Chelex, and other extraction procedures. The site reviews inhibitors of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process and suggests methods for separating these inhibitors from the sample DNA. The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used methods for DNA are reviewed. The user must register and secure a readily obtainable password prior to entering the site.

2011-05-18

251

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

252

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

253

Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

2010-05-03

254

Extraction Of Emissivities From Thermal Infrared Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents evaluation of two techniques for processing multispectral data. One technique for extraction of emissivity data called "model emittance calculation." Other technique called "thermal log residuals."

Hook, Simon J.; Kahle, Anne B.

1994-01-01

255

Extraction of antimony with tertiary amines.  

PubMed

The extractability of antimony(III) and (V) with tridodecylamine from various aqueous solutions is reported. Extraction from nitric and hydrofluoric acid solutions is low, but extraction from sulphuric, hydrochloric and hydrobromic solutions is high. Antimony-(III) can be separated from antimony(V) in 7M nitric acid or 0.64M hydrobromic acid. The extraction of antimony from hydrochloric acid solutions in methanol, ethanol, and acetone-water mixtures is greater than from pure aqueous solutions of the same acidity. The elements from which antimony can be separated with tertiary amines are given. PMID:18960147

Alian, A; Sanad, W

1967-06-01

256

[DNA extraction from hard dental tissues].  

PubMed

Two different standard ways of DNA extraction (salting out and phenol-chloroform methods) were assayed in order to recovery nucleic acids from dental tissues. The DNA extracted was tested for purity by means of transverse alternating field electrophoresis (TAFE) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes as markers. Both extraction methods give similar qualitative and quantitative results being a DNA yield from hard dental tissues approximately 30% of those extracted from the whole tooth. Our results indicate salting out as a preferable method due to its rapidity and usefulness. PMID:8510614

Avitabile, M; Dell'Osso, G; Rasá, R; Tripi, F; Campagna, N E; Magrí, G A; Sciacca, G; Rasá, A

1993-01-01

257

Comparisons of soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction for environmental solids: recovery, selectivity and effects on sample matrix.  

PubMed

Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100 degrees C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150 degrees C with pure CO2), and subcritical water (1 h at 250 degrees C, or 30 min at 300 degrees C). Although minor differences in recoveries for some PAHs resulted from the different methods, quantitative agreement between all of the methods was generally good. However, the extract quality differed greatly. The organic solvent extracts (Soxhlet and PLE) were much darker, while the extracts from subcritical water (collected in toluene) were orange, and the extracts from SFE (collected in CH2Cl2) were light yellow. The organic solvent extracts also yielded more artifact peaks in the gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-flame ionization detection chromatograms, especially compared to supercritical CO2. Based on elemental analysis (carbon and nitrogen) of the soil residues after each extraction, subcritical water, PLE, and Soxhlet extraction had poor selectivity for PAHs versus bulk soil organic matter (approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of the bulk soil organic matter was extracted along with the PAHs), while SFE with pure CO2 removed only 8% of the bulk organic matrix. Selectivities for different compound classes also vary with extraction method. Extraction of urban air particulate matter with organic solvents yields very high concentrations of n- and branched alkanes (approximately C18 to C30) from diesel exhaust as well as lower levels of PAHs, and no selectivity between the bulk alkanes and PAHs is obtained during organic solvent extraction. Some moderate selectivity with supercritical CO2 can be achieved by first extracting the bulk alkanes at mild conditions, followed by stronger conditions to extract the remaining PAHs, i.e., the least polar organics are the easiest organics to extract with pure CO2. In direct contrast, subcritical water prefers the more polar analytes, i.e., PAHs were efficiently extracted from urban air particulates at 250 degrees C, with little or no extraction of the alkanes. Finally, recent work has demonstrated that many pollutant molecules become "sequestered" as they age for decades in the environment (i.e., more tightly bound to soil particles and less available to organisms or transport). Therefore, it may be more important for an extraction method to only recover pollutant molecules that are environmentally-relevant, rather than the conventional attempts to extract all pollutant molecules regardless of how tightly bound they are to the soil or sediment matrix. Initial work comparing SFE extraction behavior using mild to strong conditions with bioremediation behavior of PAHs shows great promise to develop extraction methodology to measure environmentally-relevant concentrations of pollutants in addition to their total concentrations. PMID:11045502

Hawthorne, S B; Grabanski, C B; Martin, E; Miller, D J

2000-09-15

258

Comparison of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of the Artemisia sp. Recovered by Different Extraction Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts obtained by classical, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extractions from dry aerial parts of two Artemisia species (Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia campestris) were compared. Ultrasound positively affected the yield of extractive substance and the kinetics of extraction, but the extract obtained by the classical extraction showed the highest antioxidant activities and contained

Ivana Karabegovi?; Milena Nikolova; Dragan Veli?kovi?; Saša Stoji?evi?; Vlada Veljkovi?; Miodrag Lazi?

2011-01-01

259

The effect of extraction temperature, time and number of steps on the antioxidant capacity of methanolic banana peel extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solvent extraction method was developed to obtain methanolic extracts rich in antioxidants from banana peel. Central composite design “23+star” and response surface methodology were used in order to optimise the number of extraction steps, extraction temperature and extraction time. The number of extractions was statistically the most significant factor in scavenging activity against both DPPH and ABTS+ radicals and

Rafaela González-Montelongo; M. Gloria Lobo; Mónica González

2010-01-01

260

University of California, Irvine-Pathology Extraction Pipeline: The pathology extraction pipeline for information extraction from pathology reports.  

PubMed

We describe Pathology Extraction Pipeline (PEP)-a new Open Health Natural Language Processing pipeline that we have developed for information extraction from pathology reports, with the goal of populating the extracted data into a research data warehouse. Specifically, we have built upon Medical Knowledge Analysis Tool pipeline (MedKATp), which is an extraction framework focused on pathology reports. Our particular contributions include additional customization and development on MedKATp to extract data elements and relationships from cancer pathology reports in richer detail than at present, an abstraction layer that provides significantly easier configuration of MedKATp for extraction tasks, and a machine-learning-based approach that makes the extraction more resilient to deviations from the common reporting format in a pathology reports corpus. We present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for information extraction in a real-world task, demonstrating performance improvement due to our approach for increasing extractor resilience to format deviation, and finally demonstrating the scalability of the pipeline across pathology reports for different cancer types. PMID:25155030

Ashish, Naveen; Dahm, Lisa; Boicey, Charles

2014-12-01

261

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

262

30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

263

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

264

30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

265

30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

266

30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

267

30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

268

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

269

30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

270

30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

271

30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

272

30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

273

30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

274

30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

275

30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

276

30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

277

30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

278

30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

279

30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

280

30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

281

30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

282

30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

283

30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2011-07-01

284

30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false...for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...

2010-07-01

285

Preparation and the functional properties of water extract and alkaline extract of royal jelly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water extract (WSR) and an alkaline extract (ASR) were prepared from fresh royal jelly from Chinese bees. The yields were about 8.3 and 6.3% on a dry weight basis, respectively. On SDS–PAGE analysis, the protein patterns of the two extracts were very similar, but not identical. Antioxidant activities, in both extracts, increased, depending on the concentration of the sample. The

Takeshi Nagai; Reiji Inoue

2004-01-01

286

A Comparison Between the Oil, Hexane Extract and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extract of Juniperus communis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile compounds from the berries of common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) were isolated by hydrodistillation, hexane extraction and supercritical CO2 extraction. The hydrodistillation yield was 2.17%, the hexane extraction yield 5.31 % and supercritical CO2 extraction yield 0.96%. Their compositions were compared using GC\\/M S as the method of analysis. Analyses reveal that samples differ quantitatively and qualitatively. The concentrations

Biljana M. Damjanovic; Dejan Skala; Dusanka Petrovic-Djakov; Josip Baras

2003-01-01

287

Work extraction from microcanonical bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the maximal work extractable via a cyclic Hamiltonian process from a positive-temperature (T> 0) microcanonical state of a NGt1 spin bath. The work is much smaller than the total energy of the bath, but can be still much larger than the energy of a single bath spin, e.g. it can scale as {\\cal O}(\\sqrt{N\\ln N}) . Qualitatively the same results are obtained for those cases, where the canonical state is unstable (e.g., due to a negative specific heat) and the microcanonical state is the only description of equilibrium. For a system coupled to a microcanonical bath the concept of free energy does not generally apply, since such a system —starting from the canonical equilibrium density matrix ?T at the bath temperature T— can enhance the work exracted from the microcanonical bath without changing its state ?T. This is impossible for any system coupled to a canonical thermal bath due to the relation between the maximal work and free energy. But the concept of free energy still applies for a sufficiently large T. Here we find a compact expression for the microcanonical free-energy and show that in contrast to the canonical case it contains a linear entropy instead of the von Neumann entropy.

Allahverdyan, A. E.; Hovhannisyan, K. V.

2011-09-01

288

Upper incisors' positions after extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

2014-01-01

289

Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to modify the Mehlich 2 (M2) extractant to include Cu among the extractable nutrients, retain or enhance the wide range of soils for which it is suitable and minimize it's corrosive properties. The substitution of nitrate for chloride anions and the addition of EDTA accomplished those objectives. The new extracting solution, already designated Mehlich

A. Mehlich

1984-01-01

290

Repeat silica extraction: a simple technique for the removal of PCR inhibitors from DNA extracts  

E-print Network

this compound as part of the DNA extraction process. We also describe a method for demonstrating the presence to inhibit PCR (for an excellent review see [4]), but those commonly co-extracted with aDNA from teeth, bones- dicated by a discolored DNA extract, usually tinted yellowish- to reddish-brown [13,28,29]. Inhibited DNA

Kemp, Brian M.

291

Factors Influencing Phase Disengagement Rates in Solvent Extraction Systems Employing Tertiary Amine Extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase disengagement rate is a critical property in determining the usefulness of a particular solvent extraction system in hydro-metallurgy. A survey of a number of commercial tertiary amine extractants of the type used in uranium extraction hydrometallurgy has been carried out to suggest whether structural factors influence phase disengagement behavior and to provide a useful comparison of different amines with

B. A. Mover; W. J. Mc Dowell

1981-01-01

292

Insulinotropic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit extracts.  

PubMed

Infusions of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) fruits are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries, but to our knowledge no studies have been undertaken so far to determine the possible mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic properties of the fruit. The present study was designed to investigate whether these fruits possess insulinotropic effects. For this purpose, different extracts of Citrullus colocynthis seed components were obtained: RN II (crude extract), RN VI (hydro-alcoholic extract), RN X (purified extract) and RN XVII (beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine), the major free amino acid present in the seeds. The insulin secretory effects of these different extracts were evaluated in vitro in the isolated rat pancreas and isolated rat islets in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. All tested extracts, when perfused for 20 min at 0.1 mg/ml, immediately and significantly stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was transient. In addition, the purified extract (RN X) provoked a clear dose-dependent increase in insulin release from isolated islets. Moreover, a significant and persistant increase in pancreatic flow rate appeared during RN VI, RN X and RN XVII perfusions. In conclusion, our results show that different Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts have an insulinotropic effect which could at least partially account for the antidiabetic activities of these fruits. PMID:10909260

Nmila, R; Gross, R; Rchid, H; Roye, M; Manteghetti, M; Petit, P; Tijane, M; Ribes, G; Sauvaire, Y

2000-06-01

293

EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME III  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume is the third of a three-volume report documenting the results of an evaluation of ground-water extraction remedies at hazardous waste sites. It consists of a collection of 112 data base reports presenting general information on sites where ground-water extraction sys...

294

EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

295

Extraction and purification of solanesol from tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanesol, a main polyprenol occurred in tobacco, has gained the attention of biochemists because of its value as a source of isoprene units for the synthesis of metabolically active quinones and vitamin K analogs. This article deals with extraction and purifyication of solanesol. Ground tobacco leaf was extracted with petroleum ether in 50°C water bath under reflux for 2h, and

De-Song Tang; Lin Zhang; Huan-Lin Chen; Yue-Rong Liang; Jian-Liang Lu; Hui-Ling Liang; Xin-Qiang Zheng

2007-01-01

296

Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

1999-01-01

297

Road Grid Extraction and Verification Keith Price  

E-print Network

1 Road Grid Extraction and Verification Keith Price Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems for most urban areas, there are many locations where the information is not accurate, it may be out of date in automated cartography. One of them is the extraction of a street grid in an urban environment. Much

Southern California, University of

298

ON EXTRACTING ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY FROM THE VACUUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generators and batteries do not furnish any of their internal energy to their external circuit, but only dissipate it internally to perform work on their own internal charges to form a source dipole. Once formed, the dipole's broken symmetry extracts observable energy from the virtual particle exchange between dipole charges and active vacuum. The extracted observable energy is reradiated as

Thomas E. Bearden

299

IN SITU SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is designed to physically remove volatile compounds, generally from the vadose or unsaturated zone. t is an in situ process employing vapor extraction wells alone or in combination with air injection wells. acuum blowers supply the motive force, induci...

300

ECG Feature Extraction using Time Frequency Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed algorithm is a novel method for the feature extraction of ECG beats based on Wavelet Transforms. A combination of two well-accepted methods, Pan Tompkins algorithm and Wavelet decomposition, this system is implemented with the help of MATLAB. The focus of this work is to implement the algorithm, which can extract the features of ECG beats with high accuracy.

Mahesh A. Nair

2010-01-01

301

DECA: Dimension Extracting Coevolutionary Algorithm Track: Coevolution  

E-print Network

DECA: Dimension Extracting Coevolutionary Algorithm Track: Coevolution Edwin D. de Jong Institute Algorithm (DECA) is compared to several recent reliable coevolution algorithms on a Num- bers game problem extraction, underlying objectives, DECA 1. INTRODUCTION Test-based coevolution algorithms (Barricelli, 1962

Pollack, Jordan B.

302

REALTIME MINUTIAE EXTRACTION IN FINGERPRINT IMAGES  

E-print Network

REAL­TIME MINUTIAE EXTRACTION IN FINGERPRINT IMAGES J C Amengual, A Juan, J C P'erez, F Prat, S S of the most important tasks in an Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), Mehtre and Chatterjee (3). The characteris­ tics to be extracted in a given fingerprint image can be divided into two main categories: global

Juan, Alfons

303

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACEROLA PECTIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pectic substances are responsible by fouling in the ultrafiltration process (Prato, 2003). In order to explain this fouling, the pectic substances were extracted and characterised in several clarification process stages, estimating yet their utilisation as thickness of fruit juice. In this work, the pectic substances were extracted according to MacCready (1952) and analyses of total sugar (Dubois et al.,

A. M. Prato; E. S. Mendes; S. T. D. Barros; S. C. Costa

304

Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

1969-01-01

305

Biomedical Relation Extraction: From Binary to Complex  

PubMed Central

Biomedical relation extraction aims to uncover high-quality relations from life science literature with high accuracy and efficiency. Early biomedical relation extraction tasks focused on capturing binary relations, such as protein-protein interactions, which are crucial for virtually every process in a living cell. Information about these interactions provides the foundations for new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, more interests have been shifted to the extraction of complex relations such as biomolecular events. While complex relations go beyond binary relations and involve more than two arguments, they might also take another relation as an argument. In the paper, we conduct a thorough survey on the research in biomedical relation extraction. We first present a general framework for biomedical relation extraction and then discuss the approaches proposed for binary and complex relation extraction with focus on the latter since it is a much more difficult task compared to binary relation extraction. Finally, we discuss challenges that we are facing with complex relation extraction and outline possible solutions and future directions.

Zhong, Dayou

2014-01-01

306

Testbed for information extraction from deep web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search results generated by searchable databases are served dynamically and far larger than the static documents on the Web. These results pages have been referred to as the Deep Web. We need to extract the target data in results pages to integrate them on different searchable databases. We propose a test bed for information extraction from search results. We chose

Yasuhiro Yamada; Nick Craswell; Tetsuya Nakatoh; Sachio Hirokawa

2004-01-01

307

Data Extraction from Deep Web Pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel model to extract data from Deep Web pages. The model has four layers, among which the access schedule, extraction layer and data cleaner are based on the rules of structure, logic and application. In the experiment section, we apply the new model to three intelligent system, scientific paper retrieval, electronic ticket ordering and

Jufeng Yang; Guangshun Shi; Yan Zheng; Qingren Wang

2007-01-01

308

Summary of Topic1 Fusion Power Extraction  

E-print Network

and design concepts for fusion nuclear components worldwide (focus on power extraction and tritium fuel cycleSummary of Topic1 Fusion Power Extraction and Tritium Fuel Cycle Mohamed Abdou with Takeo Muroga and Neil Morley 1st IAEA DEMO Workshop UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA October, 2012 #12;Topic 1: Fusion Power

Abdou, Mohamed

309

Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans  

SciTech Connect

Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

1990-10-01

310

REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

311

Extracting decision trees from trained neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a methodology for extracting decision trees from input data generated from trained neural networks instead of doing it directly from the data. A genetic algorithm is used to query the trained network and extract prototypes. A prototype selection mechanism is then used to select a subset of the prototypes. Finally, a standard induction method like

R. Krishnan; G. Sivakumar; P. Bhattacharya

1999-01-01

312

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids.  

PubMed

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. PMID:18555324

Kertes, A S; King, C J

1986-02-01

313

Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.  

PubMed

Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods. PMID:22237527

Hofreiter, Michael

2012-01-01

314

Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.  

PubMed

A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum). PMID:10374253

Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

1999-05-01

315

Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

2012-05-01

316

Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract  

PubMed Central

An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from chicory extract administered orally at 70, 350, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Since there were no observed adverse effects of chicory extract in these studies, the NOAEL for the extract is 1000 mg/kg/g administered orally for 28 days. PMID:17306431

Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

2013-01-01

317

[Extraction characteristics of sequential accelerated solvent extraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental mediums].  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two soils, two sediments and an shale from the Pearl River Delta were extracted by sequential accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. PAHs in the first extract accounts for more than half of their total contents, and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four employed solvents. For a given sample the source diagnostic ratios of PAHs in sequential ASE with each solvent are very similar, suggesting the validity of those ratios in source judgement by different extraction methods. PMID:20187409

Ma, Xiao-xuan; Ran, Yong

2009-12-01

318

Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines  

SciTech Connect

The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

2011-10-17

319

Current use of pressurised liquid extraction and subcritical water extraction in environmental analysis.  

PubMed

This review updates our knowledge about pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and subcritical water extraction (SWE), two sample preparation techniques which are increasingly used for the extraction of moderately and non-volatile organic pollutants from a variety of solid and semi-solid environmental matrices. Parameters influencing the extraction yield and selectivity are discussed. The results deriving from the analysis of several different classes of compounds in a variety of matrices are compared with a reference method, e.g., Soxhlet extraction. PLE and SWE are both promising techniques due to the short extraction times and low solvent consumption. In addition, SWE offers a wide range of polarities by changing the temperature and can easily provide class-selective extraction by temperature programming and/or the addition of modifier(s). This indicates that, even though many applications have already been reported, more can be expected. PMID:12458746

Ramos, L; Kristenson, E M; Brinkman, U A Th

2002-10-25

320

Highly efficient extraction separation of lanthanides using a diglycolamic acid extractant.  

PubMed

Liquid-liquid extraction of lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) using N,N-dioctyldiglycolamic acid (DODGAA) was comprehensively investigated, together with fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of the resulting extracted complexes in the organic phase. DODGAA enables the quantitative partitioning of all Ln(3+) ions from moderately acidic solutions, while showing selectivity for heavier lanthanides, and provides remarkably high extraction separation performance for Ln(3+) compared with typical carboxylic acid extractants. Furthermore, the mutual separation abilities of DODGAA for light lanthanides are higher than those of organophosphorus extractants. Slope analysis, loading tests, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry measurements demonstrated that the transfer of Ln(3+) with DODGAA proceeded through a proton-exchange reaction, forming a 1:3 complex, Ln(DODGAA)3. The stripping of Ln(3+) from the extracting phase was successfully achieved under acidic conditions. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the extracted Eu(3+) ions were completely dehydrated by complexation with DODGAA. PMID:24521914

Shimojo, Kojiro; Aoyagi, Noboru; Saito, Takumi; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Fukiko; Goto, Masahiro; Naganawa, Hirochika

2014-01-01

321

Smooth light extraction in lighting optical fibre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in LED technology have relegated the use of optical fibre for general lighting, but there are several applications where it can be used as scanners lighting systems, daylight, cultural heritage lighting, sensors, explosion risky spaces, etc. Nowadays the use of high intensity LED to inject light in optical fibre increases the possibility of conjugate fibre + LED for lighting applications. New optical fibres of plastic materials, high core diameter up to 12.6 mm transmit light with little attenuation in the visible spectrum but there is no an efficient and controlled way to extract the light during the fibre path. Side extracting fibres extracts all the light on 2? angle so is not well suited for controlled lighting. In this paper we present an extraction system for mono-filament optical fibre which provides efficient and controlled light distribution. These lighting parameters can be controlled with an algorithm that set the position, depth and shape of the optical extraction system. The extraction system works by total internal reflection in the core of the fibre with high efficiency and low cost. A 10 m length prototype is made with 45° sectional cuts in the fibre core as extraction system. The system is tested with a 1W white LED illuminator in one side.

Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; Garcia-Botella, A.; Martinez-Anton, J. C.; Bernabeu, E.

2011-10-01

322

Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T. [LPGP, University Paris-Sud 11, bat 210, 15 rue G. Clemenceau-Orsay, F91405 (France)

2012-06-01

323

Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ? -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

324

Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L. [National Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

325

Barley ?-glucans extraction and partial characterization.  

PubMed

Barley is rarely used in the food industry, even though it is a main source of ?-glucans, which have important health benefits and a technological role in food. This work evaluated the humid extraction of barley ?-glucans and partially characterized them. The extraction was studied using surface response methodology with both temperature and pH as variables. The extracted ?-glucans were characterized by chemical and rheological analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect on extraction of linear and quadratic terms of pH and temperature corresponding to the regression model was significant, and we obtained a maximum concentration of 53.4% at pH 7.56 and temperature 45.5°C, with protein and mainly starch contamination. The extracted ?-glucans presented a higher apparent viscosity than the commercial ones, the behavior of the commercial and extracted samples can be described as Newtonian and pseudoplastic, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were characteristic of commercial ?-glucans, indicating that this method is efficient for extracting ?-glucans. PMID:24518319

Limberger-Bayer, Valéria M; de Francisco, Alicia; Chan, Aline; Oro, Tatiana; Ogliari, Paulo J; Barreto, Pedro L M

2014-07-01

326

Subcritical water extraction of trace metals from petroleum source rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of trace metals from petroleum source rock by superheated water was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that no significant extraction was attained at 100°C but the extraction was enhanced at higher temperatures. The optimum temperature for superheated water extraction of the metals from petroleum source rocks was 250°C. Extraction yields increased

Akinsehinwa Akinlua; Roger M. Smith

2010-01-01

327

Extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil by mechanical shaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shaking extraction method for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was developed and compared to Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet extraction is an EPA-approved method for volatile and semivolatile organic contaminants from solid materials, but it has many disadvantages including long extraction periods and potential loss of volatile compounds. When field-moist soils are used, variability in subsamples is higher, and the extraction of

A. P. Schwab; J. Su; S. Wetzel; S. Pekarek; M. K. Banks

1999-01-01

328

Supercritical fluid extraction of wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work was to optimize the extraction of wormwood oil by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of growth-controlled plant material. Different extraction conditions, two growth techniques and various crops were tested and the evolution of the extracted oil composition was screened chromatographically. A comparison with conventional techniques such as hydrodistillation (HD) or organic solvent extraction (OSE) was also

L. Martín; A. M. Mainar; A. González-Coloma; J. Burillo; J. S. Urieta

2011-01-01

329

Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.  

PubMed

Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

1999-01-01

330

Antidiabetic effects of Gymnema yunnanense extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated anti-hyperglycemic effect and body weight reduction activity of Gymnema yunnanense extract in obese ob\\/ob and diabetic db\\/db mice. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of the extract 100mg\\/kg for 12 days. On Day 5, the extract-treated ob\\/ob mice had significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels compared to vehicle-treated mice (161±14.5mg\\/dl versus 238±21.5mg\\/dl, P<0.01). On Day 12,

Jing-Tian Xie; Anbao Wang; Sangeeta Mehendale; Jian Wu; Han H. Aung; Lucy Dey; Shengxiang Qiu; Chun-Su Yuan

2003-01-01

331

Feigel effect: Extraction of momentum from vacuum?  

PubMed

The Green-function formalism for the electromagnetic field in a magnetoelectric (ME) medium is constructed as a generalization of conventional Casimir theory. Zero temperature is assumed. It is shown how the formalism predicts electromagnetic momentum to be extracted from the vacuum field, just analogous to how energy is extracted in the Casimir case. The possibility of extracting momentum from vacuum was discussed recently by Feigel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 020404 (2004)]. In contrast to Feigel's approach, we assume that the ME coupling occurs naturally, rather than being produced by external strong fields. We also find the same effect qualitatively via another route by considering one single electromagnetic mode. PMID:18233935

Birkeland, Ole Jakob; Brevik, Iver

2007-12-01

332

Nondispersive extraction for recovering lactic acid  

SciTech Connect

A nondispersive extraction process for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is being developed. The criteria for selection of solvent, distribution of lactic acid between the aqueous and solvent phases, and the effect of presence of other compounds in the broth, are discussed. Working with a simulated fermentation broth (without cells), a hydrophobic membrane module has been evaluated for its effectiveness as extractor. Back extraction and its role has been demonstrated. A theoretical comparison of this process with electrodialysis shows membrane extraction to be more desirable.

Wang, C.J.; Bajpai, R.K.; Iannotti, E.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1991-12-31

333

Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city.  

PubMed

The sale of nonprescription weight-loss products accounts for millions of dollars spent by Americans trying to lose weight, yet there is little evidence for effectiveness and there are multiple safety concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine what products, and ingredients within products, were available at retail outlets in a metropolitan area. A purposive sampling strategy identified 73 retail outlets. An audit form was used to collect information from product labels. The audit identified 402 products containing 4,053 separate ingredients. The mean number of ingredients per product was 9.9+/-8.96 (range = 1 to 96). A database search was conducted regarding evidence for effectiveness, safety precautions, and side effects for the 10 ingredients that appeared most often across products. Modest evidence of effectiveness exists for green tea (Camellia sinensis), chromium picolinate, and ma huang (Ephedra major). For the remaining seven (ginger root [Zingiber officinale], guarana [Paullinia cupana], hydroxycitric acid [Garcinia cambogia], white willow [Salix alba], Siberian ginseng [Eleutherococcus senticosus], cayenne [Capsicum annuum], and bitter orange/zhi shi [Citrus aurantium]), inadequate or negative evidence exists. Although precautions and contraindications were found for all 10 ingredients, the strongest concerns in the literature appear for ma huang, bitter orange, and guarana. Our audit revealed numerous weight-loss products available to consumers, yet there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of the top 10 ingredients identified and many potential adverse reactions; therefore, food and nutrition professionals should discuss dietary supplement use with their clients. PMID:17126636

Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Conway, Joan M; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Dobre, Mirela

2006-12-01

334

Institut Franais de Pondichry, 1994 ISSN 0971 -3107  

E-print Network

Melastomataceae Memecylon talbottanum ............. 44 4-aperturate 4-porate - echinate Clusiaceae Garcinia Clusiaceae Garcinia gummi-gutta ................... 12 Garcinia morella ............................ 12 Garcinia travancorica ................... 13 5-colpate - echinate Icacinaceae Nothapodytes foetida

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

335

Uvulo-glossopharyngeal dimensions in non-extraction, extraction with minimum anchorage, and extraction with maximum anchorage.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate upper respiratory airway dimensions in non-extraction and extraction subjects treated with minimum or maximum anchorage. Lateral cephalograms of 39 Class I subjects were divided into three groups (each containing 11 females and 2 males) according to treatment procedure: group 1, 13 patients treated with extraction of four premolars and minimum anchorage; group 2, 13 cases treated non-extraction with air-rotor stripping (ARS); and group 3, 13 bimaxillary protrusion subjects treated with extraction of four premolars and maximum anchorage. The mean ages of the patients were 18.1 ± 3.7, 17.8 ± 2.4, and 15.5 ± 0.88 years, respectively. Tongue, soft palate, hyoid position, and upper airway measurements were made on pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms and the differences between the mean measurements were tested using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Superior and middle airway space increased significantly (P < 0.05) in group 1. In group 2, none of the parameters showed a significant change, while in group 3, middle and inferior airway space decreased (P < 0.01). The findings show that extraction treatment using maximum anchorage has a reducing effect on the middle and inferior airway dimensions. PMID:21118911

Germec-Cakan, Derya; Taner, Tulin; Akan, Seden

2011-10-01

336

Optimization of microwave-assisted solvent extraction for volatile organic acids in tobacco and its comparison with conventional extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a new method using microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) technique followed directly GC analysis was developed for the extraction of volatile organic acids (VOAs) in tobacco. The MASE conditions (heating time, volume of extracting solvent and extraction temperature) were optimized by means of an orthogonal array design (OAD) procedure. The results suggested that extractant, temperature and heating

Xiaolan Zhu; Qingde Su; Jibao Cai; Jun Yang

2006-01-01

337

Comparison of subcritical CO2 extraction with conventional methods of extraction to isolate the flower fragrance from Michelia champaca Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of champa flowers by conventional methods and compared with the subcritical CO2 extraction. The headspace volatile composition of living flowers and after plucking was determined by solid phase micro extraction on PDMS fiber for comparison. Solvent extraction of fresh flowers of Michelia champaca with pentane yields 1.5 ± 0.05 % concrete. The concrete was extracted with subcritical CO2

P. K. Rout; R. C. Maheshwari; S. N. Naik; Y. R. Rao

338

Development of multi-stage countercurrent extraction technology for the extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice ( Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-stage countercurrent extraction (MCE) technique has been developed for the extraction of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, a particular plant species of licorice. The effects of extraction stage numbers, temperature, extraction time and solvent to licorice ratio on the extraction yield of GA were investigated in detail. The process conditions of MCE were optimized using orthogonal array experimental

Qiao-e Wang; Shaomei Ma; Boqiang Fu; Frank S. C. Lee; Xiaoru Wang

2004-01-01

339

A comparative study of dental arch widths: extraction and non-extraction treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the pre- and post-treatment width changes in the canine, premolar and molar regions in subjects treated with extraction of four first premolars, non-extraction, and non-extraction with rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Pre- and post-treatment orthodontic study models of 60 females (13.83 +/- 2.77 years) and 24 males (14.33 +/- 2.67 years) who underwent comprehensive orthodontic therapy were evaluated. Forty-two were treated non-extraction with fixed appliance therapy, 15 non-extraction with RME, and 27 with extraction of the first premolars. In addition to standard descriptive statistical calculations, one way ANOVA was used for comparison of the groups, and the post hoc Tukey multiple comparison test for comparison of the subgroups. The results revealed that the distance between the upper canines was not affected by the treatment modality. Upper premolar and molar arch widths increased more in the non-extraction subjects when compared with those with extractions, with the greatest increase in patients with RME. In the lower canine area the extraction group showed the widest arch width at the end of treatment. There was also a 0.60 mm decrease in the lower canine width in the non-extraction group. A decrease was found in lower inter-premolar and molar distances due to consolidation of the extraction spaces. When making a decision between non-extraction with maxillary expansion and extraction treatment modalities in borderline cases where there is constriction in the upper inter-premolar distance, apart from taking profile values into consideration, it should be borne in mind that expansion treatment can be helpful in achieving a wider arch form. PMID:16257988

I?ik, Fulya; Sayinsu, Korkmaz; Nalbantgil, Didem; Arun, Tülin

2005-12-01

340

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

341

Cataract Extraction and Risk of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To prospectively examine the association between cataract extraction and breast cancer risk among 66,782 postmenopausal women who were 50 years or older in the Nurses' Health Study cohort from 1984 to 1998.

Shumin M. Zhang; Walter C. Willett; Frank B. Hu; Edward L. Giovannucci; JoAnn E. Manson; Graham A. Colditz; Susan E. Hankinson

2004-01-01

342

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto...spice oleoresins under applicable food additive regulations in parts 170...extract may be safely used for coloring foods generally, in amounts...

2012-04-01

343

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto...spice oleoresins under applicable food additive regulations in parts 170...extract may be safely used for coloring foods generally, in amounts...

2013-04-01

344

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

...in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto...spice oleoresins under applicable food additive regulations in parts 170...extract may be safely used for coloring foods generally, in amounts...

2014-04-01

345

ECG Feature Extraction Techniques - A Survey Approach  

E-print Network

ECG Feature Extraction plays a significant role in diagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. One cardiac cycle in an ECG signal consists of the P-QRS-T waves. This feature extraction scheme determines the amplitudes and intervals in the ECG signal for subsequent analysis. The amplitudes and intervals value of P-QRS-T segment determines the functioning of heart of every human. Recently, numerous research and techniques have been developed for analyzing the ECG signal. The proposed schemes were mostly based on Fuzzy Logic Methods, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and other Signal Analysis techniques. All these techniques and algorithms have their advantages and limitations. This proposed paper discusses various techniques and transformations proposed earlier in literature for extracting feature from an ECG signal. In addition this paper also provides a comparative study of various methods proposed by researchers in extracting the feature from ECG signal.

Karpagachelvi, S; Sivakumar, M

2010-01-01

346

Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W  

E-print Network

ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

Brinker, J. L.

2004-01-01

347

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vanilla oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin...vanilla flavoring”, as appropriate. If the article contains two or more units of vanilla constituent, the name of the...

2010-04-01

348

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vanilla oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin...vanilla flavoring”, as appropriate. If the article contains two or more units of vanilla constituent, the name of the...

2011-04-01

349

21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...extractants listed in paragraph (a)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section: (i) Alkaline aqueous solution, alkaline propylene glycol, ethyl alcohol or alkaline solutions thereof, edible vegetable oils or fats, mono- and diglycerides...

2010-04-01

350

Extracting secret keys from integrated circuits  

E-print Network

Modern cryptographic protocols are based on the premise that only authorized participants can obtain secret keys and access to information systems. However, various kinds of tampering methods have been devised to extract ...

Lim, Daihyun, 1976-

2004-01-01

351

Antimicrobial activity of extractives of Solidago microglossa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from Solidago microglossa roots, essential oil from its aerial part and some isolated compounds was investigated. The oil exhibited concentration-dependent activity against all the tested bacteria and yeasts.

A. F. Morel; G. O. Dias; C. Porto; E. Simionatto; C. Z. Stuker; I. I. Dalcol

2006-01-01

352

Extracting trace substances from biological fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus is used as aid in extraction of trace amounts of volatile organics from biological fluids. "Transervaporator" makes it possible to prepare violate fraction for analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography.

Zlatkis, A.

1980-01-01

353

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

354

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

1984-07-06

355

21 CFR 73.530 - Spirulina extract.  

...Spirulina extract may be safely used for coloring candy and chewing gum at levels consistent with good manufacturing practice...safely used for coloring confections (including candy and chewing gum), frostings, ice cream and frozen desserts,...

2014-04-01

356

Cartilage Extract to Treat Lung Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, researchers are studying the ability of AE-941 (Neovastat®), a liquid extract of shark cartilage, to improve the survival of patients with unresectable NSCLC when given in combination with traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

357

Antileishmanial properties of tropical marine algae extracts.  

PubMed

Aqueous and organic extracts of twenty-seven species of marine algae (14 species of Rhodophyta, 5 species of Phaeophyta and 8 species of Chlorophyta) collected from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) were evaluated for their antileishmanial in vitro activity against Leishmania mexicana promastigote forms. The cytotoxicity of these extracts was also assessed using brine shrimp. Organic extracts from Laurencia microcladia (Rhodophyta), Dictyota caribaea, Turbinaria turbinata and Lobophora variegata (Phaeophyta) possessed promising in vitro activity against L. mexicana promastigotes (LC(50) values ranging from 10.9 to 49.9 microg/ml). No toxicity of algal extracts against Artemia salina was observed with LC50 ranging from 119 to >or=1000 microg/ml. Further studies on bio-guided fractionation, isolation and characterization of pure compounds from these species as well as in vivo experiments are needed and are already in progress. PMID:18504078

Freile-Pelegrin, Y; Robledo, D; Chan-Bacab, M J; Ortega-Morales, B O

2008-07-01

358

Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

2011-01-01

359

ROSE Process Offers Energy Savings for Solvent Extraction  

E-print Network

Kerr-McGee has developed and commercialized an energy-efficient solvent extraction process known as ROSE (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) in which the extraction solvent is recovered as a supercritical fluid. The energy requirement...

Gearheart, J. A.; Nelson, S. R.

1983-01-01

360

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF WASTEWATERS FROM ACETIC-ACID MANUFACTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent extraction was evaluated as a potential treatment method for wastewaters generated during the manufacture of acetic acid. Possible goals for an extraction process were considered. For the wastewater samples studied, extraction appeared to be too expensive to be practical ...

361

Predicting Accuracy of Extracting Information from Unstructured Text Collections  

E-print Network

, named entities and relations between entities are crucial for effective question answering and other world information extraction tasks, Named Entity recognition and Relation Extraction. Categories Terms Algorithms, Experimentation. Keywords Language modeling, information extraction, named entity

Cucerzan, Silviu

362

Dental extraction in patients on warfarin treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Warfarin is one of the most common oral anticoagulants used to prevent thromboembolic episodes. The benefits of discontinuation of this drug before simple surgical procedures are not clear and this approach could be associated with complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of bleeding in a series of 35 patients (in cases where the international normalized ratio [INR] is less than 4) following simple tooth extraction without modification of the warfarin dose given to patients. Methods Thirty-five patients taking warfarin who had been referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Department, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, for dental extractions were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included patients with an INR of ?4 or with a history of liver disease or coagulopathies. No alteration was made in warfarin dose, and the CoaguChek System was used to identify the INR on the same day of dental extraction. Bleeding from the extraction site was evaluated and recorded immediately after extraction until the second day. Results A total of 35 patients (16 women and 19 men) aged between 38 and 57 years (mean =48.7) were included in the present study. All patients underwent simple one-tooth extraction while undergoing warfarin treatment. Oozing, considered mild bleeding and which did not need intervention was seen in 88.6% of patients. Moderate bleeding occurred in 11.4% of all cases. The INR of the patients ranged from 2.00 to 3.50, with 77.2% of patients having INR between 2.0 and 2.5 on the day of extraction. No severe bleeding which needed hospital management was encountered after any of the extractions. The patients who suffered moderate bleeding were returned to the clinic where they received local treatment measures to control bleeding. Moderate bleeding occurred only in four patients, where three had INR between 3.1 and 3.5, and one with INR less than 3. Conclusion In the present study, we have shown that simple tooth extraction in patients on warfarin treatment can be performed safely without high risk of bleeding, providing that the INR is equal or less than 3.5 on the day of extraction. A close follow-up and monitoring of patients taking warfarin is mandatory after dental extraction. PMID:25170281

Abdullah, Walid Ahmed; Khalil, Hesham

2014-01-01

363

Chemical Extraction of Arsenic from Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of batch extraction experiments were conducted using a fortified soil with different extracting solutions such as inorganic acids (hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), perchloric acid (HClO4), or nitric acid (HNO3)), organic acids (acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7)) and alkaline agent (NaOH). Various concentrations were used to investigate the removal efficiency and to optimise

M. G. M. ALAM; S. TOKUNAGA

2006-01-01

364

Device for Extracting Flavors and Fragrances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machine for making coffee and tea in weightless environment may prove even more valuable on Earth as general extraction apparatus. Zero-gravity beverage maker uses piston instead of gravity to move hot water and beverage from one chamber to other and dispense beverage. Machine functions like conventional coffeemaker during part of operating cycle and includes additional features that enable operation not only in zero gravity but also extraction under pressure in presence or absence of gravity.

Chang, F. R.

1986-01-01

365

Separation of dimethylnaphthalene isomers by extractive crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed to develop and evaluate extractive crystallization processes for separating 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, a starting material for high performance engineering plastics and liquid crystallization polymers, from 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene. At first, the solubility of 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene in three solvents, i.e. ethyl acetate, ethanol, and hexane, was studied. Secondly, two extractive crystallization processes, called process 1 and process 2, for separating

I. Dewa Gede Arsa Putrawan; Tatang Hernas Soerawidjaja

2004-01-01

366

Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study focuses on defining and comparing response features that can be used for structural dynamics model validation studies.\\u000a Features extracted from dynamic responses obtained analytically or experimentally, such as basic signal statistics, frequency\\u000a spectra, and estimated timeseries models, can be used to compare characteristics of structural system dynamics. By comparing\\u000a those response features extracted from experimental data and numerical

Mayuko Nishio; Francois Hemez; Keith Worden; Nobuo Takeda; Charles Farrar

2010-01-01

367

Extracting differential pair distribution functions using MIXSCAT  

SciTech Connect

Differently weighted experimental scattering data have been used to extract partial or differential structure factors or pair distribution functions in studying many materials. However, this is not done routinely partly because of the lack of user-friendly software. This paper presents MIXSCAT, a new member of the DISCUS program package. MIXSCAT allows one to combine neutron and X-ray pair distribution functions and extract their respective differential functions.

Wurden, Caroline; Page, Katharine; Llobet, Anna; White, Claire E.; Proffen, Thomas (LANL)

2010-08-27

368

ECG Feature Extraction using Time Frequency Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The proposed algorithm is a novel method for the feature extraction of ECG beats based on Wavelet Transforms. A combination\\u000a of two well-accepted methods, Pan Tompkins algorithm and Wavelet decomposition, this system is implemented with the help of\\u000a MATLAB. The focus of this work is to implement the algorithm, which can extract the features of ECG beats with high accuracy.

Mahesh A. Nair

2009-01-01

369

ECG Feature Extraction using Time Frequency Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed algorithm is a novel method for the feature extraction of ECG beats based on Wavelet Transforms. A combination of two well-accepted methods, Pan Tompkins algorithm and Wavelet decomposition, this system is implemented with the help of MATLAB. The focus of this work is to implement the algorithm, which can extract the features of ECG beats with high accuracy. The performance of this system is evaluated in a pilot study using the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.

Nair, Mahesh A.

370

ECG Feature Extraction Techniques - A Survey Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

ECG Feature Extraction plays a significant role in diagnosing most of the\\u000acardiac diseases. One cardiac cycle in an ECG signal consists of the P-QRS-T\\u000awaves. This feature extraction scheme determines the amplitudes and intervals\\u000ain the ECG signal for subsequent analysis. The amplitudes and intervals value\\u000aof P-QRS-T segment determines the functioning of heart of every human.\\u000aRecently, numerous

S. Karpagachelvi; M. Arthanari; M. Sivakumar

2010-01-01

371

Plant extracts as modulators of genotoxic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity\\u000a of environmental genotoxicants. The property of preventing carcinogenesis has been reported in many plant extracts. The observation\\u000a of a close association between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis has extended the survey to include plant extracts and plant\\u000a products able to modify the process of

Debisri Sarkar; Archana Sharma; Geeta Talukder

1996-01-01

372

Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution  

DOEpatents

An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2003-01-01

373

Extracted Structural Features for Image Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method that extracts structural features of images. The method is based on both a region-based analysis and a\\u000a contour-based analysis. The image is first segmented, based on its pixels’ information. Color information of each segmented\\u000a region is performed by using the hue-saturation-value color space. Area of each region is also extracted by counting the number\\u000a of bound

Pornchai Mongkolnam; Thanee Dechsakulthorn; Chakarida Nukoolkit

374

Phase extraction in disordered isospectral shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase of the electronic wave function is not directly measurable but, quite remarkably, it becomes accessible in pairs of isospectral shapes, as recently proposed in the experiment by Moon [ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1151490 319, 782 (2008)]. The method is based on a special property, called transplantation, which relates the eigenfunctions of the isospectral pairs, and allows us to extract the phase distributions, if the amplitude distributions are known. We numerically simulate such a phase extraction procedure in the presence of disorder, which is introduced both as Anderson disorder and as roughness at edges. With disorder, the transplantation can no longer lead to a perfect fit of the wave functions, however we show that a phase can still be extracted—defined as the phase that minimizes the misfit. Interestingly, this extracted phase coincides with (or differs negligibly from) the phase of the disorder-free system, up to a certain disorder amplitude, and a misfit of the wave functions as high as ˜5%, proving a robustness of the phase extraction method against disorder. However, if the disorder is increased further, the extracted phase shows a puzzle structure, no longer correlated with the phase of the disorder-free system. A discrete model is used, which is the natural approach for disorder analysis. We provide a proof that discretization preserves isospectrality and the transplantation can be adapted to the discrete systems.

?olea, Mugurel; Ostahie, Bogdan; Ni??, Marian; ?olea, Felicia; Aldea, Alexandru

2012-03-01

375

Chemical characterisation of Hoodia gordonii extract.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of a solvent extract of Hoodia gordonii termed 'H.gordonii extract' has been characterised by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. The extract consists of a mixture of steroid glycosides, fatty acids, plant sterols and polar organic material. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultra violet (UV) and mass spectrometric (MS) detection was used to quantify and confirm the identity of a number of steroid glycosides (73.7% w/w) present in the extract. Gas chromatography (GC) with MS and flame ionisation detection (FID) was applied to determine the fatty acid (3.12% w/w) sterol (0.39% w/w) and alcohol (0.03% w/w) content of a saponified sample of the extract. Polar organic material was quantified by gravimetric methodology using C(18) SPE separation and was determined to be a minimum of 3% w/w. Moisture content was measured by Karl Fischer coulometric titration (0.81% w/w). The protein content was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with SYPRO Ruby staining and a negative result was determined with a limit of detection of <0.001%w/w of protein per band. The chemical composition of the extract remained stable for 19 months when stored in re-sealable plastic bags at ambient (21-24°C) temperature and <60% relative humidity. PMID:22410262

Russell, P J; Swindells, C

2012-01-01

376

Facial Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial feature extraction is one of the most important processes in face recognition, expression recognition and face detection. The aims of facial feature extraction are eye location, shape of eyes, eye brow, mouth, head boundary, face boundary, chin and so on. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic facial feature extraction system, which is able to identify the eye location, the detailed shape of eyes and mouth, chin and inner boundary from facial images. This system not only extracts the location information of the eyes, but also estimates four important points in each eye, which helps us to rebuild the eye shape. To model mouth shape, mouth extraction gives us both mouth location and two corners of mouth, top and bottom lips. From inner boundary we obtain and chin, we have face boundary. Based on wavelet features, we can reduce the noise from the input image and detect edge information. In order to extract eyes, mouth, inner boundary, we combine wavelet features and facial character to design these algorithms for finding midpoint, eye's coordinates, four important eye's points, mouth's coordinates, four important mouth's points, chin coordinate and then inner boundary. The developed system is tested on Yale Faces and Pedagogy student's faces.

Hung, Nguyen Viet

377

Extractive ultrafiltration. [Removal of contaminants from water  

SciTech Connect

Extractive ultrafiltration is a separation process by which liquid extraction in series with ultrafiltration removes contaminants from water. The toxin is extracted into an organic-in-water emulsion which is then separated by an ultrafilter. The ultrafilter thus replaces the settler in a conventional mixer-settler process; the extraction and emulsification allow ultrafiltration to remove much smaller molecules than is indicated by the nominal molecular weight cut-off of the membrane. In the present study, the toxins, toluene and monochlorobenzene, were individually extracted from water into heptane and hexane, respectively, reducing their concentration in the permeate water five to ten fold, at fluxes in excess of 60% of the pure water flux for the membrane. The operating temperature, organic to water ratio, and amount of surfactant used to stabilize the emulsion, were independently varied to determine the optimum values of each quantity, consistent with highest possible permeate flux through the membrane and maximum removal of the contaminant. General conclusions drawn were that the optimum permeate was obtained 1. at ambient temperature 2. when surfactant concentration was a minimum 3. when a minimum amount of extraction solvent was used.

Watters, J.C.; Miller, D.A.; Le, T.T.; Murrer, D.G.

1989-01-01

378

Near-critical extraction of sage, celery, and coriander seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-critical extraction of coriander seed, Dalmatian sage, and celery was performed on a pilot-scale extraction apparatus. Sage and celery were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide to obtain oleoresins. Coriander seed was extracted at 250 bar and 40°C. Coriander extract was fractionated into triglycerides and essential oils by using two separation stages at different pressures. Extractions were carried out using a

Bruce M. Smallfield; J GREY

1996-01-01

379

Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

Blank, A.B.

1985-09-01

380

A User's Guide to extract R. Clint Whaley  

E-print Network

tell came from extract. Dept. of Computer Science, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (@abort) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.11 Printing extract messages (@print

Whaley, R. Clint

381

Antioxidative activity of green tea catechin extract compared with that of rosemary extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the antioxidative activity of green tea catechin (GTC) extract with that of rosemary extract in canola\\u000a oil, pork lard, and chicken fat. The GTC extract was obtained from jasmine and longjing green teas and mainly consisted of\\u000a four epicatechin isomers including (?)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (?)epigallocatechin (EGC), (?)epicatechin (EC), and\\u000a (?)epicatechin gallate (ECG). The oxidation was conducted at

Zhen-Yu Chen; Li-Ya Wang; Ping Tim Chan; Zesheng Zhang; Hau Yin Chung; Chao Liang

1998-01-01

382

Methods for extracting the taste compounds from water soluble extract of Jinhua ham  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main taste compounds of the water-soluble extract (WSE) of dry-cured ham are free amino acids (FAAs) and small peptides.\\u000a At present there are many extraction methods for the WSE with pure water, HCl–ethanol, ethanol, alkaline and boiled water\\u000a as solvent. These methods were studied on the basis of the extraction of FAAs, recovery of peptides and the volatile compounds

Ya Li Dang; Zhang Wang; Shi Ying Xu

2008-01-01

383

Pilot Scale Study of Vegetable Oil Extraction by Surfactant-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of aqueous extraction processes (AEP) have been studied as substitutes for hexane in oilseed extraction. In our previous batch-scale work, we have shown that the aqueous surfactant-based method could effectively extract up to 95% peanut and canola oils at 25°C. The goal of this work is to perform a semi-continuous pilot-scale study of the aqueous surfactant-based method for

Linh D. Do; David A. Sabatini

2011-01-01

384

Supercritical fluid extraction of tobacco leaves: A preliminary study on the extraction of solanesol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanesol is a long-chain terpenoid alcohol mainly existing in tobacco leaves. It is a useful starting material for the synthesis of high-value biochemicals. It can be extracted with supercritical CO2, but nicotine is co-extracted, which may be hazardous. In this work, operating conditions to obtain a solanesol-rich extract from tobacco leaves with high solanesol\\/nicotine ratios were optimized. The ranges of

Alejandro Ruiz-Rodriguez; Maria-Rosário Bronze; Manuel Nunes da Ponte

2008-01-01

385

Review of third phase formation in extraction of actinides by neutral organophosphorus extractants  

SciTech Connect

Data are reviewed on the information of third phase in the extraction of actinide(IV,VI) nitrates by neutral organophosphorus extractants, mainly tributyl phosphate. The data are critically evaluated and the effect of variables on the third phase formation is discussed. The variables are the concentrations of nitric acid and the extractant, temperature, the nature of diluent, addition of modifiers and the ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Also discussed are systems involving two extracted actinide ions. 42 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Rao, P.R.V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Kolarik, Z. [Inst. of Nuclear Waste Management, Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-11-01

386

Extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membranes using TOPO as extractant.  

PubMed

Experimental results for the extraction of chromium (VI) from multicomponent acidic solutions by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) using trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as extractant are presented. The membrane phase consists of kerosene as diluent, TOPO as extractant, ECA 4360J (a nonionic polyamine) as surfactant and (NH(4))(2)CO(3) solution as stripping phase. Effects of various parameters such as mixing speed, type and concentration of stripping solution, surfactant and extractant concentrations, and volume ratio of the membrane phase to internal stripping phase on Cr (VI) extraction were studied and optimum conditions were determined. Results show that with proper adjustment of experimental conditions for the extraction of Cr (VI) can be enhanced to a great extent. This study also examined the effects of concentrations of acid and metal ions in the feed phase for the extraction of Cr (VI) ions. The results also showed that by appropriate selection of the extraction and stability conditions, nearly all of the Cr (VI) ions (100-500 mg/L) present in the acidic feed solution containing 1000 mg/L from each of Cu (II), Zn (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cd (II) ions were extracted within a few minutes. Concentration variations of Cr (VI) and other ions in the acidic solutions were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:19250744

Ali Kumbasar, Recep

2009-08-15

387

Extracting fumonisins from maize: efficiency of different extraction solvents in multi-mycotoxin analytics.  

PubMed

The complete extraction of analytes is of utmost importance when analyzing matrix samples for mycotoxins. Mycotoxins consist of substances with widely different physicochemical properties; therefore, the loss of toxins that occurs in multi-mycotoxin methods due to compromises in the extraction solvent is currently a topic under discussion. With regard to fumonisins, several extractants from recently published multi-mycotoxin methods were investigated when analyzing unprocessed and processed maize matrices. All extractants were tested in a validated on-site method and the extraction yields were compared to those of an HPLC-FLD reference method (EN 14352). Most of the compared multi-mycotoxin methods that have been published were only for analyzing fumonisins in maize or maize-meal; we have applied the extractants of these methods to processed, complex maize matrices for the first time. Our results show that, for extractions with aqueous acetonitrile mixtures with the addition of acid, e.g. MeCN/H2O/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v), higher extraction yields are obtained than with MeCN/H2O (80/20, v/v), in both spiked and naturally contaminated maize matrices. But compared to the results of the reference method EN 14352, the two extractants did not show a similar extraction efficiency. Overall, the extractant MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v) turned out to be the most appropriate extractant applied in all experiments, obtaining the best and most comparable extraction yields and recoveries. Furthermore, our investigations showed that, with some of the tested extraction solvents, e.g. MeCN/H2O (75/25) containing 50 mmol/l formic acid, stark differences occur when analyzing spiked and naturally contaminated matrices. With spiked matrices, recoveries of approximately 80-110% were obtained, but with naturally contaminated matrices no results comparable to the EN method have been achieved. In contrast, a double extraction with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (80/19,9/0,1, v/v/v), followed by a second polar extraction step with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (20/79,9/0,1, v/v/v), led, for most naturally contaminated samples, to comparable results with the EN method. However, for spiked samples, the same extractant led to raised recoveries of between 120 and 140 %. For some processed matrices, like taco-chips, all tested extractants showed a poor extraction efficiency for fumonisins. By extending the extraction time from 1 to 15 min, a result comparable to that of the reference method could also be obtained for the extractant using MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v). As this extractant has been used in our recently published method (Trebstein et al. Mycotoxin Res 25:201, 2009), this work also presents an update on this method with respect to the extended extraction time. PMID:23436221

Marschik, Stefanie; Hepperle, Julia; Lauber, Uwe; Schnaufer, Renate; Maier, Susanne; Kühn, Caren; Schwab-Bohnert, Gabriele

2013-05-01

388

In-line pressurized-fluid extraction–solid-phase extraction for determining phenolic compounds in grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of pressurized-fluid extraction coupled in-line with solid-phase extraction has been used for the extraction of phenolic compounds from grapes. The full extraction method is performed under an inert atmosphere. Five different solvents have been assayed using different extraction pressures and temperatures. Using two extraction stages with two different solvents, water and methanol, quantitative recovery for most of

Miguel Palma; Zulema Piñeiro; Carmelo G Barroso

2002-01-01

389

Simple, miniaturized blood plasma extraction method.  

PubMed

A rapid plasma extraction technology that collects a 2.5 ?L aliquot of plasma within three minutes from a finger-stick derived drop of blood was evaluated. The utility of the plasma extraction cards used was that a paper collection disc bearing plasma was produced that could be air-dried in fifteen minutes and placed in a mailing envelop for transport to an analytical laboratory. This circumvents the need for venipuncture and blood collection in specialized vials by a phlebotomist along with centrifugation and refrigerated storage. Plasma extraction was achieved by applying a blood drop to a membrane stack through which plasma was drawn by capillary action. During the course of plasma migration to a collection disc at the bottom of the membrane stack blood cells were removed by a combination of adsorption and filtration. After the collection disc filled with an aliquot of plasma the upper membranes were stripped from the collection card and the collection disc was air-dried. Intercard differences in the volume of plasma collected varied approximately 1% while volume variations of less than 2% were seen with hematocrit levels ranging from 20% to 71%. Dried samples bearing metabolites and proteins were then extracted from the disc and analyzed. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D was quantified by LC-MS/MS analysis following derivatization with a secosteroid signal enhancing tag that imparted a permanent positive charge to the vitamin and reduced the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 1 pg of collected vitamin on the disc; comparable to values observed with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a venipuncture sample. A similar study using conventional proteomics methods and spectral counting for quantification was conducted with yeast enolase added to serum as an internal standard. The LOQ with extracted serum samples for enolase was 1 ?M, linear from 1 to 40 ?M, the highest concentration examined. In all respects protein quantification with extracted serum samples was comparable to that observed with serum samples obtained by venipuncture. PMID:24156552

Kim, Jin-Hee; Woenker, Timothy; Adamec, Jiri; Regnier, Fred E

2013-12-01

390

Phenolic-compound-extraction systems for fruit and vegetable samples.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE) can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process. PMID:21131901

Garcia-Salas, Patricia; Morales-Soto, Aranzazu; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

2010-01-01

391

Extraction optimization of carbohydrate compound from Huangqi using orthogonal design.  

PubMed

The effect of extraction time, extraction temperature and time on the yield of Huangqi carbohydrate compound (HQCC) was investigated using single factor and orthogonal experiment design. The influence by the parameters on the extraction yields of carbohydrate compound decreased in the order of: C (extraction number)>A (extraction time)>B (extraction temperature) according to the R values. Based on this analysis, and considering the carbohydrate compound extraction efficiency, the cost of energy and the feasibility of experiment, the optimum conditions of extraction were therefore determined as follows: extraction time 120min, extraction temperature 80°C, and extraction number 4. Oral administration of HQCC reduced lipid peroxidation level and enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities in gastric mucosa. In addition, HQCC reduced the serum IL-8 and TNF-? levels. In conclusion, these data reveal that HQCC promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antioxidative mechanism. PMID:23541555

Zhou, Shen-kang; Bi, Tie-Nan; Xu, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Rui-Li; Yang, Mei-Juan

2013-07-01

392

[Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].  

PubMed

Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin. PMID:20518317

Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

2010-01-01

393

Maximizing net extraction using an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer.  

PubMed

In this study, we examine the maximum net extraction rate from the novel arrangement of an injection-extraction well pair in a coastal aquifer, where fresh groundwater is reinjected through the injection well located between the interface toe and extraction well. Complex potential theory is employed to derive a new analytical solution for the maximum net extraction rate and corresponding stagnation-point locations and recirculation ratio, assuming steady-state, sharp-interface conditions. The injection-extraction well-pair system outperforms a traditional single extraction well in terms of net extraction rate for a broad range of well placement and pumping rates, which is up to 50% higher for an aquifer with a thickness of 20 m, hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, and fresh water influx of 0.24 m(2) /d. Sensitivity analyses show that for a given fresh water discharge from an inland aquifer, a larger maximum net extraction is expected in cases with a smaller hydraulic conductivity or a smaller aquifer thickness, notwithstanding physical limits to drawdown at the pumping well that are not considered here. For an extraction well with a fixed location, the optimal net extraction rate linearly increases with the distance between the injection well and the sea, and the corresponding injection rate and recirculation ratio also increase. The analytical analysis in this study provides initial guidance for the design of well-pair systems in coastal aquifers, and is therefore an extension beyond previous applications of analytical solutions of coastal pumping that apply only to extraction or injection wells. PMID:22880816

Lu, Chunhui; Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T; Robinson, Neville I; Luo, Jian

2013-03-01

394

Fern spore extracts can damage DNA  

PubMed Central

The carcinogenicity of the vegetative tissues of bracken fern (Pteridium) has long been established. More recently, the carcinogenic effects of the spores of bracken have also been recognized. Both vegetative tissues and spores of bracken can induce adducts in DNA in animal tissues, but the possible genotoxic or carcinogenic effects of spores from fern species other than bracken are unknown. The single-cell gel electrophoresis (‘comet’) assay was used to investigate whether fern spores can cause DNA damage in vitro. Extracts of spores from six fern species were administered to cultured human premyeloid leukaemia (K562) cells. Spore extracts of five fern species: Anemia phyllitidis, Dicksonia antarctica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pteris vittata and Sadleria pallida, induced significantly more DNA strand breaks than those in the control groups. Only in one species, Osmunda regalis, was the effect no different from that in the control groups. Using extracts from A. phyllitidis and P. vittata, the extent of DNA damage was increased by increasing the original dose 10 times, whereas an experiment in which exposure times were varied suggested that the highest levels of strand breaks appear after 2 h exposure. Simultaneous incubation with human S9 liver enzyme mix ablated the damaging effect of the extracts. Our data show that fern spore extracts can cause DNA damage in human cells in vitro. Considering the strong correlation between DNA damage and carcinogenic events, the observations made in this report may well have some implications for human health. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10883670

Siman, S E; Povey, A C; Ward, T H; Margison, G P; Sheffield, E

2000-01-01

395

Fern spore extracts can damage DNA.  

PubMed

The carcinogenicity of the vegetative tissues of bracken fern (Pteridium) has long been established. More recently, the carcinogenic effects of the spores of bracken have also been recognized. Both vegetative tissues and spores of bracken can induce adducts in DNA in animal tissues, but the possible genotoxic or carcinogenic effects of spores from fern species other than bracken are unknown. The single-cell gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay was used to investigate whether fern spores can cause DNA damage in vitro. Extracts of spores from six fern species were administered to cultured human premyeloid leukaemia (K562) cells. Spore extracts of five fern species: Anemia phyllitidis, Dicksonia antarctica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pteris vittata and Sadleria pallida, induced significantly more DNA strand breaks than those in the control groups. Only in one species, Osmunda regalis, was the effect no different from that in the control groups. Using extracts from A. phyllitidis and P. vittata, the extent of DNA damage was increased by increasing the original dose 10 times, whereas an experiment in which exposure times were varied suggested that the highest levels of strand breaks appear after 2 h exposure. Simultaneous incubation with human S9 liver enzyme mix ablated the damaging effect of the extracts. Our data show that fern spore extracts can cause DNA damage in human cells in vitro. Considering the strong correlation between DNA damage and carcinogenic events, the observations made in this report may well have some implications for human health. PMID:10883670

Simán, S E; Povey, A C; Ward, T H; Margison, G P; Sheffield, E

2000-07-01

396

Feature Extraction Based on Decision Boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, a novel approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. We note that feature extraction is equivalent to retaining informative features or eliminating redundant features; thus, the terms 'discriminantly information feature' and 'discriminantly redundant feature' are first defined relative to feature extraction for classification. Next, it is shown how discriminantly redundant features and discriminantly informative features are related to decision boundaries. A novel characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that usually only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is therefore introduced. Next, a procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary is proposed. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: (1) It predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and (2) it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal class means or equal class covariances as some previous algorithms do. Experiments show that the performance of the proposed algorithm compares favorably with those of previous algorithms.

Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

1993-01-01

397

Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.  

PubMed

Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4?mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515?nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. PMID:22294387

Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

2012-09-01

398

Visual Architecture based Web Information Extraction  

E-print Network

Abstract--- The World Wide Web has more online web database which can be searched through their web query interface. Deep Web contents are accessed by queries submitted to Web databases and the returned data records are enwrapped in dynamically generated Web pages. Extracting structured data from deep Web pages is a challenging task due to the underlying complicate structures of such pages. Until now, a large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem, but all of them have inherent limitations because they are Web-pageprogramming-language dependent. As the popular twodimensional media, the contents on Web pages are always displayed regularly for users to browse. This motivates us to seek a different way for deep Web data extraction to overcome the limitations of previous works by utilizing some interesting common visual features on the deep Web pages. In this paper, a novel vision-based approach that is Webpage programming- language-independent is proposed. This approach primarily utilizes the visual features on the deep Web pages to implement deep Web data extraction, including data record extraction and data item extraction.

S. Oswalt Manoj; Nisha Soms; N. V. Shibu

399

Extraction de formules à partir de documents mathématiques Formulas extraction from mathematical documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for the automatic extraction of formulas from images of mathematical documents without using optical character recognition system. Formula extraction is first done by location of its most significant symbols, then extension to adjoining symbols using contextual rules until delimitation of the whole formula space. Mathematical symbols labelling is realised from models created at the learning

A. KACEM; A. BELAID; M. BEN AHMED

400

Coordination and extraction of mercury(II) with an ionic liquid-based thione extractant.  

PubMed

A neutral thione extractant, 1,3-diethylimidazole-2-thione (C2C2ImT), was prepared from an ionic liquid (IL), 1,3-diethylimidazolium acetate, and used within a hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide ([C2mim][NTf2]), to extract Hg(II) from aqueous solutions of HgCl2 or Hg(OAc)2. Investigations of the extraction mechanism, spectroscopic analyses of the extracted species, and crystallographic studies of the interactions of C2C2ImT with Hg(II) are reported, including the first structurally characterized Hg-NTf2 coordination compound, Hg(C2C2ImT)2(NTf2)2. Coordination complexes of the thione ligand with Hg(II) show variability in coordination numbers and geometries with stoichiometry, suggesting that the extraction mechanism is dependent on the speciation of mercury in aqueous solution. HgCl2 can form neutral, extractable complexes with the thione in aqueous solution. Hg(OAc)2 dissociates on dissolution in water and Hg(II) is extracted through a cation exchange mechanism involving [Hg(C2C2ImT)2](2+) ions. The precipitation of neutral mercury complexes from the IL following the extraction of excess mercury suggests a simple and unusual way to recycle the IL. PMID:23636488

Lu, Wenjuan; Barber, Patrick S; Kelley, Steven P; Rogers, Robin D

2013-09-28

401

Gravitational wave extraction based on Cauchy-characteristic extraction and characteristic evolution  

E-print Network

We implement a code to find the gravitational news at future null infinity by using data from a Cauchy code as boundary data for a characteristic code. This technique of Cauchy-characteristic Extraction (CCE) allows for the unambiguous extraction of gravitational waves from numerical simulations.

Maria Babiuc; Bela Szilagyi; Ian Hawke; Yosef Zlochower

2005-01-04

402

Extracting the Geometry of Buildings from Satellite Images Extracting the Geometry  

E-print Network

) and image processing. The goal is to create a CAAD system that detects buildings from satellite images and satellite images in image processing has been researched and developed since the 1980's and the applicationExtracting the Geometry of Buildings from Satellite Images 1 Extracting the Geometry of Buildings

403

Mathematical modeling of supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining extracts from vetiver root  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical modeling study for extraction of oil from vetiver root using supercritical carbon dioxide was performed in this study. Mass transfer is based on local equilibrium between solvent and solid. The equilibrium constant between solid and solvent was determined by fitting theoretical extraction yield with experimental constant velocity data. The model was solved numerically. Model estimation was validated with constant

M. A. A. Melreles; G. Zahedi; T. Hatami

2009-01-01

404

Extraction efficiencies for pesticides in crops: 14C-benomyl extraction from mustard green and radishes.  

PubMed

14C-labeled benomyl [methyl 1-(butylcarbamoyl)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate] suspended in a commercial benomyl formulation was sprayed on mustard greens and radishes. At 3 intervals after application, the crops were extracted with methanol, acetonitrile, or acetone. Crops were either blended and leached or repetitively blended followed by Soxhlet extraction. Essentially all of the extractable radioactivity was removed by blending. The 14C was more difficult to extract from radishes than from mustard greens as time increased. Respective percentages of 14C extracted at 1, 7, and 14 days were 99, 98, and 97 from mustard greens and 96, 88, and 79 from radishes. Methanol exhibited the highest extraction efficiency, and the blend-Soxhlet process was better than the blend-leach process. Thin layer chromatography of the organic-soluble extracts indicated that the majority of 14C was recovered as methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate (MBC), a breakdown product of benomyl. Acid hydrolysis of the extracted tissues released 30--50% of the residual 14C. PMID:7451392

Wheeler, W B; Thompson, N P; Andrade, P; Krause, R T

1980-11-01

405

Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction  

PubMed Central

Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

Dejoye, Celine; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

2011-01-01

406

Extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds constitute a major class of plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and show a large structural diversity. These compounds occur as aglycones or glycosides, as monomers or constituting highly polymerized structures, or as free or matrix-bound compounds. Furthermore, they are not uniformly distributed in the plant and their stability varies significantly. This greatly complicates their extraction and isolation processes, which means that a single standardized procedure cannot be recommended for all phenolics and/or plant materials; procedures have to be optimized depending on the nature of the sample and the target analytes, and also on the object of the study. In this chapter, the main techniques for sample preparation, and extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds have been reviewed-from classical solvent extraction procedures to more modern approaches, such as the use of molecularly imprinted polymers or counter-current chromatography. PMID:22367907

Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Dueñas, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Paramas, Ana M

2012-01-01

407

Genotoxicity of organic extracts from atmospheric particles  

SciTech Connect

Experiments to evaluate the genotoxic potentialities of urban air particles sampled in Paris (France) after organic solvent extraction have been carried out using four in vitro genotoxicity tests. The two bacterial tests (the Ames test and the SOS Chromotest) demonstrate the genotoxicity of the organic extracts of atmospheric particles; two additional tests (induction of 6-thioguanine mutants and sister chromatid exchanges), carried out on V79 Chinese hamster cells, also confirm these potentialities. These results show clearly that particulate organic extracts induce point mutations in both bacteria and mammalian cells, or the cellular response (SOS repair) to these mutations in bacteria; likewise, they are responsible for clastogenic effects in mammalian cells. Genotoxicity is due either to direct genotoxic chemicals or to active metabolic products of the action of microsomal enzymes. The optimalization of testing procedures is discussed in order to appreciate the contribution of genotoxicity tests to the study of atmospheric pollution.

Courtois, Y.A.; Min, S.; Lachenal, C.; Jacquot-Deschamps, J.M.; Callais, F.; Festy, B.

1988-01-01

408

Microtubule assembly in meiotic extract requires glycogen  

PubMed Central

The assembly of microtubules during mitosis requires many identified components, such as ?-tubulin ring complex (?-TuRC), components of the Ran pathway (e.g., TPX2, HuRP, and Rae1), and XMAP215/chTOG. However, it is far from clear how these factors function together or whether more factors exist. In this study, we used biochemistry to attempt to identify active microtubule nucleation protein complexes from Xenopus meiotic egg extracts. Unexpectedly, we found both microtubule assembly and bipolar spindle assembly required glycogen, which acted both as a crowding agent and as metabolic source glucose. By also reconstituting microtubule assembly in clarified extracts, we showed microtubule assembly does not require ribosomes, mitochondria, or membranes. Our clarified extracts will provide a powerful tool for activity-based biochemical fractionations for microtubule assembly. PMID:21737678

Groen, Aaron C.; Coughlin, Margaret; Mitchison, Timothy J.

2011-01-01

409

Progress in crystal extraction and collimation  

E-print Network

Recent IHEP Protvino experiments show efficiencies of crystal-assisted slow extraction and collimation of 85.3+-2.8%, at the intensities of the channeled beam on the order of 10^12 proton per spill of 2 s duration. The obtained experimental data well follows the theory predictions. We compare the measurements against theory and outline the theoretical potential for further improvement in the efficiency of the technique. This success is important for the efficient use of IHEP accelerator and for implementation of crystal-assisted collimation at RHIC and slow extraction from AGS onto E952, now in preparation. Future applications, spanning in the energy from order of 1 GeV (scraping in SNS, slow extraction from COSY and medical accelerators) to order of 1 TeV and beyond (scraping in Tevatron, LHC, VLHC), can benefit from these studies.

Afonin, A G; Baranov, V T; Chepegin, V N; Chesnokov, Yu A; Kotov, V I; Terekhov, V; Troyanov, E F; Guidi, V; Martinelli, G; Stefancich, M; Vincenzi, D; Ivanov, Y; Trbojevic, D; Scandale, Walter; Breese, M

2001-01-01

410

Crystal experiments on efficient beam extraction  

E-print Network

Silicon crystal was channeling and extracting 70-GeV protons from the U-70 accelerator with efficiency of 85.3+-2.8% as measured for a beam of 10^12 protons directed towards crystals of 2 mm length in spills of 1-2 s duration. The experimental data follow very well the prediction of Monte Carlo simulations. This success is important to devise a more efficient use of the U-70 accelerator in Protvino and provides a crucial support for implementation of crystal-assisted collimation of gold ion beam in RHIC and slow extraction from AGS onto E952, now in preparation at Brookhaven Nat'l Lab. Future applications, spanning in the energy from sub-GeV (medical) to order of 1 GeV (scraping in the SNS, extraction from COSY) to order of 1 TeV and beyond (scraping in the Tevatron, LHC, VLHC), can benefit from these studies.

Afonin, A G; Baranov, V T; Chepegin, V N; Chesnokov, Yu A; Kotov, V; Terekhov, V; Troyanov, E F; Guidi, V; Martinelli, G; Stefancich, M; Vincenzi, D; Ivanov, Y; Trbojevic, D; Scandale, Walter; Breese, M; Ivanov, Yu.

2001-01-01

411

Crystal experiments on efficient beam extraction  

E-print Network

Silicon crystal was channeling and extracting 70-GeV protons from the U-70 accelerator with efficiency of 85.3+-2.8% as measured for a beam of 10^12 protons directed towards crystals of 2 mm length in spills of 1-2 s duration. The experimental data follow very well the prediction of Monte Carlo simulations. This success is important to devise a more efficient use of the U-70 accelerator in Protvino and provides a crucial support for implementation of crystal-assisted collimation of gold ion beam in RHIC and slow extraction from AGS onto E952, now in preparation at Brookhaven Nat'l Lab. Future applications, spanning in the energy from sub-GeV (medical) to order of 1 GeV (scraping in the SNS, extraction from COSY) to order of 1 TeV and beyond (scraping in the Tevatron, LHC, VLHC), can benefit from these studies.

A. G. Afonin; V. M. Biryukov; V. T. Baranov; V. N. Chepegin; Y. Chesnokov; V. Kotov; V. Terekhov; E. Troyanov; V. Guidi; G. Martinelli; M. Stefancich; D. Vincenzi; Yu. Ivanov; D. Trbojevic; W. Scandale; M. Breese

2001-12-06

412

Progress in crystal extraction and collimation  

E-print Network

Recent IHEP Protvino experiments show efficiencies of crystal-assisted slow extraction and collimation of 85.3+-2.8%, at the intensities of the channeled beam on the order of 10^12 proton per spill of 2 s duration. The obtained experimental data well follows the theory predictions. We compare the measurements against theory and outline the theoretical potential for further improvement in the efficiency of the technique. This success is important for the efficient use of IHEP accelerator and for implementation of crystal-assisted collimation at RHIC and slow extraction from AGS onto E952, now in preparation. Future applications, spanning in the energy from order of 1 GeV (scraping in SNS, slow extraction from COSY and medical accelerators) to order of 1 TeV and beyond (scraping in Tevatron, LHC, VLHC), can benefit from these studies.

A. G. Afonin; V. M. Biryukov; V. T. Baranov; V. N. Chepegin; Yu. A. Chesnokov; V. I. Kotov; V. Terekhov; E. Troyanov; V. Guidi; G. Martinelli; M. Stefancich; D. Vincenzi; Yu. Ivanov; D. Trbojevic; W. Scandale; M. Breese

2001-11-12

413

Extracting temporal information from electronic patient records.  

PubMed

A method for automatic extraction of clinical temporal information would be of significant practical importance for deep medical language understanding, and a key to creating many successful applications, such as medical decision making, medical question and answering, etc. This paper proposes a rich statistical model for extracting temporal information from an extremely noisy clinical corpus. Besides the common linguistic, contextual and semantic features, the highly restricted training sample expansion and the structure distance between the temporal expression & related event expressions are also integrated into a supervised machine-learning approach. The learning method produces almost 80% F- score in the extraction of five temporal classes, and nearly 75% F-score in identifying temporally related events. This process has been integrated into the document-processing component of an implemented clinical question answering system that focuses on answering patient-specific questions (See demonstration at http://hitrl.cs.usyd.edu.au/ICNS/). PMID:23304326

Li, Min; Patrick, Jon

2012-01-01

414

Soil vapor extraction enhanced by oscillatory flow  

SciTech Connect

The rate of contaminant removal by soil vapor extraction becomes low when diffusion limits the transfer of vapor from the soil to the channels in the soil where air preferentially flows. This paper suggests that adding an oscillatory component to the pressure and velocity of the subsurface air may increase the transport to the channels of flow, and thereby increase the rate of extraction, when the diffusion limit occurs. Three physical mechanisms by which oscillatory flow may increase the transport are described. Algebraic expressions and numerical estimates are given for the penetration of oscillatory pressure into various soils. Exploratory experiments with a laboratory soil column indicate enhanced extraction when an oscillatory component is superimposed upon nonequilibrium steady flow. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Neeper, D.A.

1991-01-01

415

Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

2006-06-07

416

Antimicrobial activity of selected herbal extracts.  

PubMed

METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF OLEORESINS OF ARAUCARIA BIDWILLI HOOK: and aerial parts of Cytisus scoparius Linn. Were screened for antimicrobial activity against two bacterial strains-Bacillus subtilis (Gram Positive) and Escherichia coli (Gem negative), and two fungal strains - Candida albicans and crytococcus neoformans by two-fold serial dilution technique. The results showed that all the microorganisms used were sensitive to the extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for A. bidwilli were found to be 31.25 ?g/ml for Bacillus subtilis and 500 ?g/ml for all other organisms used in the study. In case of C. Scoparius, the MIC values were 250 ?g/ml for B. Subtilis and 500 ?g/ml for allthe other strains used. However, in comparison the ampicillin (MIC: 62.5 ?g/ml), and Amphotericin-B (MIC: 125 ?g/ml ), the activities of both the extracts were less except A. bidwilli against B.Subtilis. PMID:22557052

Gowthamarajan, K; Kulkarni, T Giriraj; Mahadevan, N; Santhi, K; Suresh, B

2002-01-01

417

Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

2010-11-16

418

Interferonogenic and antiviral effect of extracts from Erodium cicutarium.  

PubMed

Extracts from Erodium cicutarium L. Herit were tested for antiviral and interferon inducing properties. Both water extract and methanol extract as well as its fractions were observed to exert antiviral effect in relation to myxoviruses, Herpes virus type 1, Vesicular stomatitis and vaccinia virus. None of these extracts did induce interferon in a suspension of human leukocytes. PMID:3128960

Zieli?ska-Jenczylik, J; Sypu?a, A; Budko, E; Rzadkowska-Bodalska, H

1987-01-01

419

Modeling of supercritical fluid extraction from herbaceous matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results of supercritical fluid extraction from various herbaceous matrices are presented. In optimal extraction conditions, the use of a fractional separation technique allows a nearly complete separation of the extract in cuticular waxes and essential oil. The modeling of these results is proposed starting from the description of the mass transfer from a single spherical particle. The simultaneous extraction

Ernesto Reverchon; Giorgio Donsi; Libero Sesti Osseo

1993-01-01

420

Subcritical Water Extraction of Nutraceutical Compounds from Citrus Pomaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water (SCW) extraction of citrus pomaces (CPs) was carried out, and antioxidant activity and nutraceutical compound levels of the SCW extracts were evaluated in detail. At first, CP samples were subjected to the SCW extraction under various conditions focusing on the extraction temperature and time. Consequently, the highest total phenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power were found

Jong-Wan Kim; Tatsuya Nagaoka; Yasuyuki Ishida; Tatsuya Hasegawa; Kuniyuki Kitagawa; Seung-Cheol Lee

2009-01-01

421

2 Extracting and trapping biogenic 3 volatile organic compounds stored  

E-print Network

, Subcritical water extraction; UAE, Ultrasound-assisted extraction 36 1. Introduction Plants release2 Extracting and trapping biogenic 3 volatile organic compounds stored 4 in plant species 5 Elena are weakly synthesized. These BVOCs can be studied directly through traditional extraction 18 techniques (e

Goldstein, Allen

422

Extraction of bioactive components from Centella asiatica using subcritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive components, asiatic acid and asiaticoside, were extracted from Centella asiatica using subcritical water as an extraction solvent. Extraction yields of asiatic acid and asiaticoside were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at temperatures from 100 to 250°C and pressures from 10 to 40MPa. As temperature or pressure increased, the extraction yield of asiatic acid and asiaticoside increased. At the

Wan-Joo Kim; Jaehoon Kim; Bambang Veriansyah; Jae-Duck Kim; Youn-Woo Lee; Seong-Geun Oh; Raymond R. Tjandrawinata

2009-01-01

423

Hydrotropic Extraction of Reserpine From Rauwolfia vomitoria Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulfonate give quantitative and faster extraction of reserpine fromRauwolfia vomitoria as compared to the extraction using methanol. The extraction rate is influenced by intraparticle diffusion and increases with increasing temperature and hydrotrope concentration. The dynamic extraction data were fitted in a mass transfer model to evaluate diffusion coefficient of reserpine in the solid plant matrix.

Richa Ashok Sharma; Vilas Gajanan Gaikar

2012-01-01

424

A Quick and Safe Method for Fungal DNA Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of methods have been developed for genomic DNA extraction from fungal tissues. In general, DNA extraction methods consist of several steps, such as preparation of starting materials, generation of cell lysates, elimination of contaminants, and collection of DNA. Conventional fungal DNA extraction methods that are derived from plant genomic DNA extraction methods (Rogers and Bendich, 1985) require fresh

Myoung-Hwan Chi; Sook-Young Park; Yong-Hwan Lee

2009-01-01

425

Arsenic fractionation in soils using an improved sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment of contaminants requires simple, meaningful tools to obtain information on contaminant pools of differential lability and bioavailability in the soil. We developed and tested a sequential extraction procedure (SEP) for As by choosing extraction reagents commonly used for sequential extraction of metals, Se and P. Tests with alternative extractants that have been used in SEPs for P and

Walter W. Wenzel; Natalie Kirchbaumer; Thomas Prohaska; Gerhard Stingeder; Enzo Lombi; Domy C. Adriano

2001-01-01

426

Subcritical Water Extraction of Barley to Produce a Functional Drink  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of various temperatures between 150 and 280 C during subcritical water extraction of barley to make a barley tea-like extract, a popular summer beverage in Japan. Each barley extract was analyzed for sensory properties, antioxida- tive activity, and the amount of residual matter, which revealed 205 C to be the best extraction parameter. 5- Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde was

Aditya KULKARNI; Tadashi YOKOTA; Shin’ichi SUZUKI; Hideo ETOH

2008-01-01

427

Extracting laboratory test information from biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Background: No previous study reported the efficacy of current natural language processing (NLP) methods for extracting laboratory test information from narrative documents. This study investigates the pathology informatics question of how accurately such information can be extracted from text with the current tools and techniques, especially machine learning and symbolic NLP methods. The study data came from a text corpus maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, containing a rich set of information on laboratory tests and test devices. Methods: The authors developed a symbolic information extraction (SIE) system to extract device and test specific information about four types of laboratory test entities: Specimens, analytes, units of measures and detection limits. They compared the performance of SIE and three prominent machine learning based NLP systems, LingPipe, GATE and BANNER, each implementing a distinct supervised machine learning method, hidden Markov models, support vector machines and conditional random fields, respectively. Results: Machine learning systems recognized laboratory test entities with moderately high recall, but low precision rates. Their recall rates were relatively higher when the number of distinct entity values (e.g., the spectrum of specimens) was very limited or when lexical morphology of the entity was distinctive (as in units of measures), yet SIE outperformed them with statistically significant margins on extracting specimen, analyte and detection limit information in both precision and F-measure. Its high recall performance was statistically significant on analyte information extraction. Conclusions: Despite its shortcomings against machine learning methods, a well-tailored symbolic system may better discern relevancy among a pile of information of the same type and may outperform a machine learning system by tapping into lexically non-local contextual information such as the document structure. PMID:24083058

Kang, Yanna Shen; Kayaalp, Mehmet

2013-01-01

428

Fractured Geothermal Growth Induced by Heat Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Field testing of a hydraulically stimulated, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal system at the Fenton Hill site in northern New Mexico indicated that significant reservoir growth occurred as energy was extracted. Tracer, microseismic, and geochemical measurements provided the primary quantitative evidence for the increases in accessible reservoir volume and fractured rock surface area that were observed during energy extraction operations that caused substantial thermal drawdown in portions of the reservoir. These temporal increases suggest that augmentation of reservoir hear-production capacity in an HDR system may be possible. [DJE 2005

Tester, J.W.; Murphy, H.D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Potter, R.M.; Robinson, B.A.

1989-02-01

429

Stabilized Hollow Ions Extracted in Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

K x rays emitted from 2.1 keV/uN{sup 6+} ions passed through a thin Ni microcapillary foil were measured in coincidence with the exit charge states. Ions with a K hole but with several electrons in outershells, i.e., hollow ions formed above a surface (in the first generation), were successfully extracted in vacuum. It was found that a considerable fraction of extracted hollow ions had extremely long lifetimes of the order of ns. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Ninomiya, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Azuma, T.; Komaki, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153 (Japan)] [Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo 153 (Japan); Koike, F. [Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 (Japan)] [Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 (Japan); Masuda, H. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-03 (Japan)] [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-03 (Japan); Kuroki, K. [National Research Institute of Police Science, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100 (Japan)] [National Research Institute of Police Science, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100 (Japan); Sekiguchi, M. [Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tanashi, Tokyo 18 (Japan)] [Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tanashi, Tokyo 18 (Japan)

1997-06-01

430

The extraction of uranium by amidoximated orlon.  

PubMed

The nitrile groups in polyacrylonitrile (Orlontrade mark) fabric were converted to amidoxime groups to produce an amidoximated orlon fabric. The amidoximated fabric was evaluated for its ability to extract uranium from aqueous solution with a wide range of temperature and pH values. The conversion of nitrile groups to amidoxime groups was simple and relatively inexpensive. In general, the modified orlon fabric showed superior extractability of uranium at all temperatures and pH values tested when compared to untreated Orlontrade mark fabric. PMID:18967000

Katragadda, S; Gesser, H D; Chow, A

1997-12-19

431

Allelopathic potential of Rapanea umbellata leaf extracts.  

PubMed

The stressful conditions associated with the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) environment were supposed to favor higher levels of allelochemicals in Rapanea umbellata from this ecosystem. The allelopathic potential of R. umbellata leaf extracts was studied using the etiolated wheat coleoptile and standard phytotoxicity bioassays. The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation, which allowed identifying lutein (1) and (-)-catechin (2) as potential allelochemicals. Finally, the general bioactivity of the two compounds was studied, which indicated that the presence of 1 might be part of the defense mechanisms of this plant. PMID:23939802

Novaes, Paula; Imatomi, Maristela; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Lacret, Rodney; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

2013-08-01

432

Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions  

DOEpatents

A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

433

General-Purpose Element-Extracting Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed ore-refining or element-extracting process nonspecific: decomposes any ore or other raw material into constituent elements, regardless of composition. Enables conversion of ores into elements and recombination of elements into usefulmaterials as necessary. Effected on small scale to supplement such other mineral-refining processes as fluidized-bed reduction or carbochlorination. Alternatively, effected on large scale to produce wide range of materials. Conceived to provide materials for self-sufficient lunar base from such local ores as anorthite, ilmenite, and olivine. Proves useful on Earth in recovery or extraction of scarce, valuable, or hazardous materials.

Curreri, Peter A.

1993-01-01

434

Extracting knowledge from the World Wide Web  

PubMed Central

The World Wide Web provides a unprecedented opportunity to automatically analyze a large sample of interests and activity in the world. We discuss methods for extracting knowledge from the web by randomly sampling and analyzing hosts and pages, and by analyzing the link structure of the web and how links accumulate over time. A variety of interesting and valuable information can be extracted, such as the distribution of web pages over domains, the distribution of interest in different areas, communities related to different topics, the nature of competition in different categories of sites, and the degree of communication between different communities or countries. PMID:14745041

Henzinger, Monika; Lawrence, Steve

2004-01-01

435

On statistical methods of structure function extraction  

E-print Network

Several methods of statistical analysis are proposed and analyzed in application for a specific task -- extraction of the structure functions from the cross sections of deep inelastic interactions of any type. We formulate the method based on the orthogonal weight functions and on an optimization procedure of errors minimization as well as methods underlying common $\\chi^2$ minimization. Effectiveness of these methods usage is analyzed by comparison of the statistical parameters such as bias, extraction variance etc., for sample deep inelastic scattering data set.

S. N. Sevbitov; T. V. Shishkina; I. L. Solovtsov

2007-11-29

436

Large datasets: Segmentation, feature extraction, and compression  

SciTech Connect

Large data sets with more than several mission multivariate observations (tens of megabytes or gigabytes of stored information) are difficult or impossible to analyze with traditional software. The amount of output which must be scanned quickly dilutes the ability of the investigator to confidently identify all the meaningful patterns and trends which may be present. The purpose of this project is to develop both a theoretical foundation and a collection of tools for automated feature extraction that can be easily customized to specific applications. Cluster analysis techniques are applied as a final step in the feature extraction process, which helps make data surveying simple and effective.

Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

1996-07-01

437

Microwave-assisted extraction of solanesol from tobacco leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanesol is the starting material for many high-value biochemicals, including co-enzyme Q10 and Vitamin K analogues. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique has been developed for the fast extraction of solanesol from tobacco leaves. Compared to heat-reflux extraction, MAE reduced extraction time and obtained higher percentage extracted of solanesol. The effect of microwave on cell destruction of

Hua-Ying Zhou; Chun-Zhao Liu

2006-01-01

438

Extraction and identification of antioxidants from the spice Aframomum danielli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successive extractions with diethyl ether and methanol of the whole seeds of the spice Aframomum danielli yielded diethyl ether extract (ADEE), 13.9%, and methanol extract (ADM), 3.4%, respectively. Similarly, reextraction of the\\u000a defatted seeds of A. danielli successively with diethyl ether and methanol yielded extracts DFADEE (7.9%) and DFADM (6.7%), respectively. When these extracts\\u000a were added to refined peanut oil

G. O. Adegoke; A. G. Gopala Krishna

1998-01-01

439

Separation of lactic acid from fermented broth by reactive extraction.  

PubMed

The separation of lactic acid from complex fermentation broth was examined. Liquid-liquid extraction using reversible chemical complexation for reactive extraction was chosen to be the separation method. Over 50% yield of lactic acid was obtained from fermented broth in a single extraction step, when using the tertiary amine as the extractant, 1-dekanol as the diluent and trimethylamine (TMA) as the stripping solution. The effect of complex media on the extraction behaviour has hardly been examined previously. PMID:11105245

Järvinen, M; Myllykoski, L; Keiski, R; Sohlo, J

2000-01-01

440

Extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger ( Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil: Studies of extraction kinetics and thermodynamic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger (Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil was conducted to determine the extraction kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. Two extraction models were proposed: mass transfer kinetic model and reaction kinetic model. It was found that both of mass transfer and reaction kinetic control the extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp waste using palm oil.

Akdes Dewi Handayani; Sutrisno; Nani Indraswati; Suryadi Ismadji

2008-01-01

441

Extracting protein interactions from text with the unified AkaneRE event extraction system.  

PubMed

Currently, relation extraction (RE) and event extraction (EE) are the two main streams of biological information extraction. In 2009, the majority of these RE and EE research efforts were centered around the BioCreative II.5 Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) challenge and the "BioNLP event extraction shared task." Although these challenges took somewhat different approaches, they share the same ultimate goal of extracting bio-knowledge from the literature. This paper compares the two challenge task definitions, and presents a unified system that was successfully applied in both these and several other PPI extraction task settings. The AkaneRE system has three parts: A core engine for RE, a pool of modules for specific solutions, and a configuration language to adapt the system to different tasks. The core engine is based on machine learning, using either Support Vector Machines or Statistical Classifiers and features extracted from given training data. The specific modules solve tasks like sentence boundary detection, tokenization, stemming, part-of-speech tagging, parsing, named entity recognition, generation of potential relations, generation of machine learning features for each relation, and finally, assignment of confidence scores and ranking of candidate relations. With these components, the AkaneRE system produces state-of-the-art results, and the system is freely available for academic purposes at http://www-tsujii.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/satre/akane/. PMID:20671316

Saetre, Rune; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Miwa, Makoto; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Kano, Yoshinobu; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

2010-01-01

442

Consequences of an increased extraction of  

E-print Network

and pollutants 16 6 Greenhouse gases 21 7 Biodiversity 26 8 Can we increase extraction of forest fuel without is a summary of the conclusions reached in a research synthesis on environmental effects of forest biofuel. This report covers the subsection "Forest fuel and environmental effects", which ran between 2007 and 2011

443

Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

1983-01-01

444

Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material  

DOEpatents

Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

1983-07-26

445

Fast Capacitance Extraction Using Inexact Factorization  

E-print Network

1 Fast Capacitance Extraction Using Inexact Factorization Shu Yan, Vivek Sarin, and Weiping Shi@ee.tamu.edu Vivek Sarin, Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, Tel: 979-458-2214, Fax: 979-847- 9578, sarin@cs.tamu.edu Weiping Shi, Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas A

Shi, Weiping "Peter"

446

Extracting Periodic Signals From Irregularly Sampled Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Successive approximations formed in Fourier space. Algorithm extracts periodic signals from sparse, irregularly sampled sets of measurement data. Pertains to data processed via fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). Data represents signal components with initially unknown frequencies spanning large spectral range and includes frequencies not integer multiples of minimum FFT frequency.

Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.

1995-01-01

447

The extraction of uranium by amidoximated orlon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrile groups in polyacrylonitrile (Orlon™) fabric were converted to amidoxime groups to produce an amidoximated orlon fabric. The amidoximated fabric was evaluated for its ability to extract uranium from aqueous solution with a wide range of temperature and pH values. The conversion of nitrile groups to amidoxime groups was simple and relatively inexpensive. In general, the modified orlon fabric

S. Katragadda; H. D. Gesser; A. Chow

1997-01-01

448

EXTRACTING PROTOSTRONGYLID NEMATODE LARVAE FROM UNGULATE FECES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTIIA( T: A major weakness of the Baermann funnel technique for extracting nematode larvae from feces is the funnel. As umny as 67% of Parclaphostrongylus temiis first-stage larvae lodged on the sloping surface of glass Baermann funnels. The number of larvae collected after 24 hr was not significantly correlated with total numbers in the samples, whether feces were supported over

Sean G. Forrester; Murray W. Lankester

449

An Extract From. . . Facing the Future  

E-print Network

1 An Extract From. . . Facing the Future: Evolutionary Possibilities for Human-Machine Creativity: Evolutionary Possibilities for Human- Machine Creativity, in P. Machado and J. Romero (eds.) The Art of Artificial Evolution: a handbook, pp. 417-451, Springer, 2008. To see the full chapter you'll need

McCormack, Jon

450

BERYLLIUM EXTRACTED BY THE FLUORIDE PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steps used in producing high-purity BeO and beryllium metal, ; including recent modifications to production processes, are described. ; Particular emphasis is placed on the fluoride extraction process in which ; beryllium is attacked preferentially, and beryllium oxide is converted into a ; water-soluble form of beryllium fluoride so that no additional chemicals are ; required to react with

S. J. Morana; G. F. Simons

1962-01-01

451

Extracting information from shadows in SAR imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of speckle noise presents considerable challenges in interpreting SAR imagery. Despite the very high resolution that is on offer with modern SAR systems, the extraction of reliable intelligence from SAR imagery in an automated and robust manner has faced considerable difficulties. Shadow regions in SAR imagery are unique in terms of absence of speckle and any distortion from

M. Jahangir; D. Blacknell; C. P. Moate; R. D. Hill

2007-01-01

452

Universal extraction method for gastrointestinal pathogens.  

PubMed

A universal stool extraction method for recovery of nucleic acids (NAs) from gastrointestinal pathogens was developed to support rapid diagnostics for the London 2012 Olympics. The method involved mechanical disruption (bead beating) of the stools, followed by automated extraction and detection using real-time PCR. This method had been used extensively in the Second Infectious Intestinal Disease Study (IID2) for the isolation of NA from bacteria and parasites (and was effective for the robust recovery of Cryptosporidium spp.) but had not been used for enteric viruses. To ensure this method was universally suitable, panels of samples known to contain target bacteria, viruses or parasites were processed in triplicate using the pre-treatment method routinely used for each target and the new extraction method (bead beating). The extracts were tested using real-time PCR and the cycle threshold values were compared. The results from this study showed that bead beating improved yields for the bacterial and parasitic targets and was suitable for the viral targets. The implementation of this universal method should confer cost- and time-saving benefits and streamline the processes required for the characterization of an array of pathogens from faecal samples. PMID:23831766

Halstead, Fenella D; Lee, Adele V; Couto-Parada, Xose; Polley, Spencer D; Ling, Clare; Jenkins, Claire; Chalmers, Rachel M; Elwin, Kristin; Gray, Jim J; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Wain, John; Clark, Duncan A; Bolton, Frederick J; Manuel, Rohini J

2013-10-01

453

FACT SHEET: Human Trafficking Data Extraction  

E-print Network

FACT SHEET: Human Trafficking Data Extraction: Many CCICADA partner researchers have been working Human Trafficking focuses on finding underage prostitutes and working with law enforcement to eradicate-first century. Under the general caption of `human trafficking', the CCICADA research partners from

454

Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction  

DOEpatents

Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY)

2007-07-17

455

Attribute extraction from mixed-mode data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rough set theory, discretization is a new feature extraction process, and reduction is an attribute selection process. The global discretization problem assumes that all conditional attributes of the decision table are continuous, while the reduct problem assumes that all conditional attributes are discrete. In this paper we firstly point out that under the context of mixed-mode data, these

Fan Min; Shi-Ling Zhang; Xiao-Bin Wang; Hong-Bin Cai

2005-01-01

456

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. Waste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. The use of steam enhances the stripping of...

457

Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils  

E-print Network

The Texas Agricultural Extension Service (TAEX) Soil Testing Laboratory currently utilizes a single phosphorus (P) extractant consisting of 1.43 M NH4OAc, 1. 0 M HCl, and 0.025 M EDTA-PH 4.2 to estimate plant available P for all soils in Texas...

Byrd, Robert Claude

2012-06-07

458

Extracting events and event descriptions from Twitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods for automatically detecting events involving known entities from Twitter and understanding both the events as well as the audience reaction to them. We show that NLP techniques can be used to extract events, their main actors and the audience reactions with encouraging results.

Ana-Maria Popescu; Marco Pennacchiotti; Deepa Arun Paranjpe

2011-01-01

459

Recent developments in stir bar sorptive extraction.  

PubMed

As a crucial step in qualitative and quantitative analysis, sample pretreatment is commonly used to isolate the target analytes, concentrate them, or convert them into the forms tailored to the instrumental analysis. In recent years, there has been a trend for sample pretreatment techniques to become more miniaturized and more environmentally friendly. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), which was developed in 1999, is such an environmentally friendly microextraction technique. Compared with other microextraction techniques, including solid phase microextraction and liquid phase microextraction, SBSE provides a higher extraction efficiency and better reproducibility owing to the much greater amount of the extraction phase, and no special skills are required. However, there are some problems associated with SBSE, such as the limited applicable coatings, coating abrasion of the laboratory-made stir bar, and the difficulty in automation, which restrict the further improvement and application of SBSE. This review focuses on the development of SBSE in the past decade, in terms of coating preparation, automated systems, novel extraction modes, its use with various instruments, and applications in food, environmental, and biological samples. PMID:24136250

He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

2014-03-01

460

Ginkgo biloba extract: Mechanisms and clinical indications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:, Ginkgo biloba may have a role in treating impairments in memory, cognitive speed, activities of daily living (ADL), edema, inflammation, and free-radical toxicity associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, vasoocclusive disorders, and aging. The purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the mechanisms of action, clinical indications, and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract.Data

Bruce J. Diamond; Samuel C. Shiflett; Nancy Feiwel; Robert J. Matheis; Olga Noskin; Jennifer A. Richards; Nancy E. Schoenberger

2000-01-01

461

Extraction and Analysis of Facebook Friendship Relations  

E-print Network

Chapter 12 Extraction and Analysis of Facebook Friendship Relations Salvatore Catanese, Pasquale De and Social scientists. We present our long-term research effort in analyzing Facebook, the largest and arguably most successful OSN today: it gathers more than 500 million users. Access to data about Facebook

Ferrara, Emilio

462

Energy extraction from flexible slender bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long slender structures such as underwater cables may develop instabilities that can lead to large amplitude oscillations, chaotic behaviour invariably leading to failure. Whilst the norm is to avoid such regimes, here we examine the converse problem of energy extraction from flexible slender bodies in a fluid. We derive the terms for this fluid-structure interaction problem paying specific attention to

Kiran Singh; Sebastien Michelin; Emmanuel de Langre

2010-01-01

463

Object Extraction for Video Indexing Jianping Fan  

E-print Network

Object Extraction for Video Indexing Jianping Fan Department of Computer Science University-based image segmentation Jianping Fan, a novel color edge detection algorithm, Pattern Recognition Letters;3. How to detect video object? b. Similarity-based region growing Jianping Fan, Automatic image

Fan, Jianping

464

ECG feature extraction via waveform segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the ECG signal is widely used for detecting a variety of cardiac pathologies. Most of the clinically useful information embedded in the ECG is related to the duration and amplitude of its individual components. Producing algorithms for the automatic extraction of the ECG features is complicated due to the time-varying nature of the signal resulting of variable

Antonio Espiritu-Santo-Rincon; Cuauhtemoc Carbajal-Fernandez

2010-01-01

465

ECG feature extraction using optimal mother wavelet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main advantage related to wavelet transforms is that they are localized both in the frequency and time domains. This paper presents an algorithm, based on the wavelet transform, for feature extraction from an electrocardiograph (ECG) signal and recognition of abnormal heartbeats. A method for choosing an optimal mother wavelet from a set of orthogonal and bi-orthogonal wavelet filter bank

B. Castro; D. Kogan; A. B. Geva

2000-01-01

466

Extraction and monitoring of phytoecdysteroids through HPLC.  

PubMed

The size of the phytoecdysteroids family is rapidly growing. Recent data shows over 250 ecdysteroid analogs have been identified so far in plants. It is theorized that there are over 1000 possible structures, which might occur in nature, but it is a fact that ecdysteroids usually occur in plants as a complex cocktail of structurally different compounds. Among these compounds, the major component is usually the common ecdysteroid-like 20-hydroxyecdysone. Ecdysteroids are polar steroids, almost sugar-like in their solubility properties. Extraction and purification of ecdysteroids (polyhydroxy steroids) is complicated by their polar nature and poor crystallizing properties. These properties make them difficult to separate from other polar plant constituents. Besides, this plant extract is very often processed by multistep procedures to isolate the major and minor ecdysteroids from the new or existing sources. A simplified scheme consisting of a few extraction steps for the purification of ecdysteroid from plants is in great demand. A quantitative approach through high-performance liquid chromatography has been initiated for developing an easy method for the extraction of ecdysteroids from Ipomoea hederacea (kaladana) seeds. PMID:16599407

Ghosh, Dipankar; Laddha, K S

2006-01-01

467

Adaptive Extraction of Time-Varying Isosurfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for adaptively extracting and render- ing isosurfaces from compressed time-varying volume datasets. Tetrahedral meshes defined by longest edge bisection are used to create a multiresolution representation of the volume in the spatial domain that is adapted over time to approximate the time- varying volume. The reextraction of the isosurface at each time step is accelerated with

Benjamin F. Gregorski; Joshua G. Senecal; Mark A. Duchaineau; Kenneth I. Joy

2004-01-01

468

Transposon extraction protocol Maitreya Dunham November 2006  

E-print Network

Transposon extraction protocol Maitreya Dunham November 2006 modification of the Qiagen HSE preparation and digestion Prep DNA from 100 ml culture using the Qiagen Genomic DNA kit. Measure starting DNA, mix 500­2000 ng of pooled restriction digested DNA, 15 µl HSE buffer (Qiagen), 1.5 µl probe mix

Dunham, Maitreya

469

ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF INONOTUS OBLIQUUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble melanin complexes were extracted with hot water from Inonotus obliquus fungus. They were characterized before and after reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid. The organic components as products of degradation of melanin complexes were separated by column chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS method.

WITOLD MAZURKIEWICZ

2006-01-01

470

Analysis of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Water-soluble melanin complexes were extracted with hot water from Inonotus obliquus fungus. They were characterized before and after reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid. The organic components as products of degradation of melanin complexes were separated by column chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS method. PMID:17438866

Mazurkiewicz, Witold

2006-01-01

471

SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in increasing numbers due to many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. VE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport are quite c...

472

SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

473

Standardized extracts stinging and biting insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in insect allergy before 1973 consisted of obtaining a history, sometimes performing skin tests with one or more insect whole body extracts (WBEs), and, if convinced of the veracity of the history, treating the patient with WBE. Although some allergists, especially Dr. Mary Loveless, 1 challenged this practice and suggested that venom and not insect

Donald R. Hoffman; David B. K. Golden

1987-01-01

474

Optimization of light extraction from OLEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many methods were developed to improve the efficiency of an OLED. In this paper, we investigate the effects of some main factors contributing to the extraction efficiency. These factors include the polarization of the source, the distance between the source and the metal, and the thickness of the layers. We will also discuss the effect of periodic

Moxi Cui; H. Paul Urbach; Dick K. G. de Boer

2007-01-01

475

Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material  

DOEpatents

Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15.degree. and about 70.degree. C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Avgerinos, George C. (Newton Center, MA)

1983-01-01

476

Optimization of a Solvent Extraction Desalination Plant  

E-print Network

. Solvent Extraction Desalination Plant Page 106 3 ~ Solubility of Methyldiethylamine. Selectivity of Methyldiethyl amine Solubility of Methyldiethylamine and Salt Vapor Liquid Equilibria . . . . . . . . ~ Heat of Solution of Methyldiethylamine... showed that secondary and tertiary amines were the best suited solvents available. The preliminary cost estimate was based on incomplete data with tertiary octylamine chosen 1' or the solvent (4). The resulting operating cost and total plant...

Beighle, Phillip Lew

2012-06-07

477

Solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction.  

PubMed

In this research, a novel extraction technique termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (SADSPE) was developed for the first time. The new method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample to maximize the contact surface. In this method, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by injecting a solution of the sorbent into the aqueous sample. Thereby, a cloudy solution formed. The cloudy state resulted from the dispersion of the fine particles of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifugation and the enriched analyte in the sedimented phase could be determined by instrumental methods. The performance of SADSPE was illustrated with the determination of the trace amounts of cobalt(II) as a test analyte in food and environmental water samples by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry detection. Some key parameters for SADSPE, such as sorbent selection and amount, type and volume of dispersive solvent, pH, chelating agent concentration, and salt concentration, were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, good limit of detection (as low as 0.2 µg L(-1)) and repeatability of extraction (RSD below 2.2%, n=10) was obtained. The accuracy of the method was tested with standard reference material (SRM-1643e and SRM-1640a) and spiked addition. The advantages of SADSPE method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, high recovery, and enrichment factor. PMID:24148429

Jamali, Mohammad Reza; Firouzjah, Ahmad; Rahnama, Reyhaneh

2013-11-15

478

Named Entity Extraction using AdaBoost  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Named Entity Extraction (NEE) system for the CoNLL 2002 competition. The two main sub-tasks of the problem, recognition (NER) and classification (NEC), are performed sequentially and independently with separate modules. Both modules are machine learning based systems, which make use of binary AdaBoost classifiers

Xavier Carreras; Lluís Màrquez; Lluís Padró

2002-01-01

479

INFORMATION EXTRACTION AND SPEECH RECOGNITION Ralph Grishman  

E-print Network

) includes five tasks applied to English text: named entities, template elements, template relations Entity 1 In addition, the parallel MET evaluation is per­ forming multilingual named entity extraction --- for Japanese, Chinese, and Thai. The four tasks we shall examine form a hierarchy, with the named entity task

480

OBJECT EXTRACTION FOR DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC WORKSTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the state and with promising directions of automated object extraction for digital photogrammetric workstations (DPW). A review of the state of the art shows that there are only few success stories. Therefore, important areas for a practical success are identified. A solid and most important powerful theoretical background is the basis. Here, we advocate particularly statistical

Helmut Mayer

481

Info-margin maximization for feature extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel method of linear feature extraction with info-margin maximization (InfoMargin) from information theoretic viewpoint. It aims to achieve a low generalization error by maximizing the information divergence between the distributions of different classes while minimizing the entropy of the distribution in each single class. We estimate the density of data in each class with Gaussian kernel Parzen

Xipeng Qiu; Lide Wu

2009-01-01

482

Measuring and extracting proximity graphs in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring distance or some other form of proximity between objects is a standard data mining tool. Connection subgraphs were recently proposed as a way to demonstrate proximity between nodes in networks. We propose a new way of measuring and extracting proximity in networks called \\

Yehuda Koren; Stephen C. North; Chris Volinsky

2007-01-01

483

Characterization of Isopropanol Extracted Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of crushed seeds and grains of fourteen vegetables-Zea mays, Penisettum americanum, Sorghum bicolor, Citrullus lanatus, Citrullus coloncythis, Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis, Sesame indica, Theobroma cacao, Arachis hypogea, Butyrospermum paradoxum, Telefaria occidentalis, Mangifera indica and Irvingia gabonensis were extracted for their oils using isopropanol as solvent. The oils obtained were characterized by determining their physicochemical properties. The results obtained were:

F. O. Oyedeji; R. A. Oderinde

2006-01-01

484

Statistical parsing with an automatically extracted tree  

E-print Network

6 Statistical parsing with an automatically extracted tree adjoining grammar David Chiang 6, and Khalil Sima'an. Copyright c # 2004, CSLI Publications. #12; 2 / David Chiang NP NNP John S NP# VP VB, Resnik 1992). We in­ troduce a variant of probabilistic TAG that captures the same bilexical dependencies

Chiang, David

485

Statistical parsing with an automatically extracted tree  

E-print Network

6 Statistical parsing with an automatically extracted tree adjoining grammar David Chiang 6, and Khalil Sima'an. Copyright c 2004, CSLI Publications. #12;2 / David Chiang NP NNP John S NP VP VB leave that these models are in fact closely related to probabilistic lexicalized TAG (Schabes 1992, Resnik 1992). We in

Chiang, David

486

Selenium speciation in soils after alkaline extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A speciation method for selenium in soils was developed to evaluate the distribution of Se species by using as an example a seleniferous soil from Ireland. First, a water extraction was applied in order to evaluate the Se fraction directly available to plants. Results have shown that only 2% of the total selenium was water soluble and this fraction contained

F. Séby; M. Potin Gautier; G. Lespés; M. Astruc

1997-01-01

487

Extracting Objects from Range and Radiance Images  

E-print Network

Extracting Objects from Range and Radiance Images Yizhou Yu, Andras Ferencz, Student Member, IEEE for editing a real scene captured with both cameras and laser range scanners. We develop automatic algorithms to segment the geometry from range images into distinct surfaces, register texture from radiance images

Malik, Jitendra

488

Facial feature extraction based on GSLDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a general and efficient facial feature extraction approach, global search linear discriminant analysis (GSLDA), is presented. It is designed to solve the puzzle of standard linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for small sample size problems (SSSP). Compared with PCA-LDA, in GSLDA, raw data dimension can be greatly decreased without discarding important discriminant information. In this process, all basis

Li Meng; Yong Cai; Yuanxing Li; Min Wang