Science.gov

Sample records for garcinia cambogia extract

  1. Acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis in a patient taking Garcinia cambogia extract successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott F; Godley, Robert W; Evron, Joshua M; Heider, Amer; Nicklas, John M; Thomas, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    A previously healthy 48-year-old woman was evaluated for lightheadedness and chest heaviness 2 weeks after starting the herbal supplement Garcinia cambogia. She was found to be hypotensive and had an elevated serum troponin level. The patient had a progressive clinical decline, ultimately experiencing fulminant heart failure and sustained ventricular arrhythmias, which required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Endomyocardial biopsy results were consistent with acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis (ANEM). High-dose corticosteroids were initiated promptly and her condition rapidly improved, with almost complete cardiac recovery 1 week later. In conclusion, we have described a case of ANEM associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia extract. PMID:25475477

  2. A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as

  3. Evaluation of the satiating properties of a nutraceutical product containing Garcinia cambogia and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Marcos A; Finlayson, Graham; Fischman, Daniela; de Paz, Carolina; Telleriarte, Martín R; Ferrero, Alejandro J; Bobillo, Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario E

    2014-04-01

    A nutraceutical product composed of a combination of Garcinia cambogia, l-carnitine and a seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum has been recently developed. The aim of the present study was to characterize its effects on subjective satiety sensations and food preferences in healthy volunteers. In a crossover design, 28 subjects (21 females and 7 males, aged 31 ± 5, BMI 22.6 ± 1.7) were randomly assigned to receive the active treatment (LIS) or placebo (PL) over one week. At the end of each treatment period, subjects were instructed to consume ad libitum a test meal. Food preferences and appetite sensations were evaluated by means of the Leeds Food Preferences Questionnaire and visual analog scales, before and after meal, over three hours. There were no differences in energy intake between study groups. LIS was associated with a reduction in subjective hunger sensations (p = 0.018) and to an increase in satiety (p = 0.02) and fullness (p = 0.01) ratings. The preference for high fat foods was reduced after consuming the test meal in both study groups. There was a significant effect of LIS treatment on food explicit liking and implicit wanting, as evidenced by an increase in preference for sweet foods (relative to savory foods; p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively), but no differences were observed regarding the preference for low or high fat foods (NS). These results provide proof of principle for the satiating properties of a nutraceutical containing Garcinia cambogia, Ascophyllum nodosum extract and l-carnitine and suggest that it might be useful as an appetite modulator. PMID:24563084

  4. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Schneider, Ricardo; Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Falavigna, Andressa; Piazza, Ivone; Rossetto, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n = 30) and control (n = 13) groups, received 2.4 g (800 mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p = 0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p = 0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia. PMID:24133059

  5. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 ± 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 ± 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (−12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as “tired eyes,” “blurry eyes,” “muscle pain/stiffness,” “early satiety,” “epigastralgia,” “dizziness,” “arthralgia” and “easily breaking into a sweat.” The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for “dizziness.” On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy. PMID:18385825

  6. Acute liver failure associated with Garcinia cambogia use.

    PubMed

    Corey, Rebecca; Werner, K Tuesday; Singer, Andrew; Moss, Adyr; Smith, Maxwell; Noelting, Jessica; Rakela, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Millions of Americans regularly use herbal supplements, but many are unaware of the potential hidden dangers. Numerous supplements have been associated with hepatotoxicity and, indeed dietary/herbal supplements represent an increasingly common source of acute liver injury. We report a case of acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia, a supplement widely promoted for weight loss. When patients present with acute hepatitis or liver failure from an unknown etiology, a careful history of supplement use should be performed. PMID:26626648

  7. Evaluation and Characterization of Malabar Tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Choppa, Tharachand; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel; Zachariah, Abraham

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical compounds present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Malabar tamarind fruits collected from NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur. The seeds yielded 46.5 % of oil. Parameters such as the peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, and acid value of the extracted Malabar tamarind seed oil were determined. These values were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters present in the oil. UV absorption spectroscopy of the oil showed hypsochromic shift, and the maximum absorbance was at 269 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum revealed the presence of olefin hydrogen and carbonyl group of ester compounds in the oil sample. The evaluation of the chemical compounds in the oil using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that, a total of five fatty acid methyl esters were present in the oil sample. Among the five fatty acid esters present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil, Methyl 16-methyl heptadecanoate (54.57 %) was found to be the predominant compound. This study also supports the presence of olefins in the long chain fatty acids from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. There is a significant correlation between the properties and the characteristic profile of the oil sample. This study is the first report that shows Malabar tamarind as a promising source of oil seeds. PMID:26345007

  8. Antioxidant and antiplatlet aggregation properties of bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anushi; Joseph, G S; Singh, R P

    2014-08-01

    The bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa, which are abundant in the Northeastern regions of India, were screened for their antioxidant and in vitro antiplatelet aggregating activities. By β-carotene linoleate model for antioxidant assay, acetone extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extracts of G. cowa exhibited higher antioxidant activity (86.47 and 66.94 % respectively, at 25 ppm) than other extracts. Similar pattern was observed for superoxide radical scavenging method for antioxidant assay. The ethyl acetate extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extract of G. cowa exhibited higher antiplatelet aggregation capacity towards ADP induced platelet aggregation (IC50 0.16 and 0.43 ug, respectively) than other extracts. PMID:25114359

  9. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  10. In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Garcinia hombroniana aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S K; Rasedee, A; Mohd Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2015-06-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G. hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p < 0.05), compared to the untreated control group. The possible mode of antitrypanosomal effect of the plant extract was also investigated on cultured T. evansi in HMI-9 medium with the addition of 25 µg/ml G. hombroniana aqueous extract. It was observed that the addition of G. hombroniana extract resulted in the inhibition of trypanosomal kinetoplast division, with no significant inhibitory effect on nuclear division. It is concluded from the current study that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has a potential antitrypanosomal activity through the inhibition of kinetoplast division, as one of the possible mechanisms of its antitrypanosomal effect. This plant could serve as a possible source of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:25818171

  11. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  12. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% α-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of α-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. PMID:23680732

  13. Comparison of the skin penetration of Garcinia mangostana extract in particulate and non-particulate form.

    PubMed

    Tachaprutinun, Amornset; Meinke, Martina C; Richter, Heike; Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to solve the water insolubility limitation of the medically and cosmetically interesting substance Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML) extract by encapsulation, and to evaluate and investigate the penetration efficacy of free and encapsulated GML in two different vehicles (water and cream) in porcine ear skin. The follicular penetration depth was determined in 50 hair follicles for each of the four formulations by means of fluorescence microscopy. Tape stripping was used to compare the distribution properties of GML with all formulations on the stratum corneum. The results showed that encapsulated and free GML in the cream base penetrated deeper into hair follicles than if applied in an aqueous base. In addition, encapsulated GML could be distributed more homogeneously on the stratum corneum than the free GML. In conclusion, it was found that encapsulated GML in a cream base had the most effective penetration level in porcine ear skin. PMID:24321393

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Biochemical Evaluations of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Garcinia kola

    PubMed Central

    Badmus, Jelili A.; Adedosu, Olaniyi T.; Adeleke, Emmanuel G.; Akinboro, Kehinde H.; Odeyemi, Bayonle I.; Ayoola, Bolanle I.; Hiss, Donavon C.

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) leaves have received limited scientific attention despite their traditionally acclaimed medicinal properties. The scavenging ability of the methanolic leaf extract (MLE) of G. kola was assayed for hydroxyl radical (OH•), superoxide anion (O2−), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+), and lipid peroxidation (LP) activity in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were also evaluated. Group I animals were given oral doses of water, whereas Group II and Group III animals received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) MLE, respectively, for 14 days. Plasma glucose, magnesium, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT/γGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), LP, and liver histopathological appearance were also assessed. The extract scavenged OH•, O2−, DPPH, and ABTS•+ and inhibited LP in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Furthermore, oral administration of the extract showed no adverse effects on hepatic and renal function tests. Increased hepatic GSH and nonsignificant changes in LP, GPx and SOD activities, and liver histology were observed. These results suggest that G. kola leaves have antioxidant activities which may have application in traditional medicine.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Biochemical Evaluations of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Garcinia kola.

    PubMed

    Badmus, Jelili A; Adedosu, Olaniyi T; Adeleke, Emmanuel G; Akinboro, Kehinde H; Odeyemi, Bayonle I; Ayoola, Bolanle I; Hiss, Donavon C

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) leaves have received limited scientific attention despite their traditionally acclaimed medicinal properties. The scavenging ability of the methanolic leaf extract (MLE) of G. kola was assayed for hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), superoxide anion (O2 (-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(•+)), and lipid peroxidation (LP) activity in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were also evaluated. Group I animals were given oral doses of water, whereas Group II and Group III animals received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) MLE, respectively, for 14 days. Plasma glucose, magnesium, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT/γGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), LP, and liver histopathological appearance were also assessed. The extract scavenged OH(•), O2 (-), DPPH, and ABTS(•+) and inhibited LP in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Furthermore, oral administration of the extract showed no adverse effects on hepatic and renal function tests. Increased hepatic GSH and nonsignificant changes in LP, GPx and SOD activities, and liver histology were observed. These results suggest that G. kola leaves have antioxidant activities which may have application in traditional medicine. PMID:27355075

  16. In vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sônia Aparecida; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; da Silva, Claudinei Alves; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2014-02-01

    The damaging effects of sunlight to the skin has triggered studies that involve the synthesis and extraction of organic compounds from natural sources that can absorb UV radiation, and studies on polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used as photochemopreventive agents for reducing skin damage. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract (GbEE). We evaluated the cell viability of L929 fibroblasts after UVB exposure using a quartz plate containing the extract solution or the GbEE formulation. The in vivo photoprotective effect of the GbEE formulation was evaluated by measuring the UVB damage-induced decrease in endogenous reduced glutathione (GSH), the increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The in vitro methodology using fibroblasts showed that the photoprotective properties of the GbEE solutions and 10% GbEE formulation were similar to the commercial sunscreen (SPF-15). In vivo results demonstrated of the GbEE formulation in decreasing UVB induced-damage such as GSH depletion, an increased in MPO activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The results showed that the extract has great potential for use as a sunscreen in topical formulations in addition to UV filters. PMID:24491421

  17. Antimicrobial activity of benzophenones and extracts from the fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Naldoni, F J; Claudino, A L R; Cruz, J W; Chavasco, J K; Faria e Silva, P M; Veloso, M P; Dos Santos, M H

    2009-04-01

    The pericarp and seeds from fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis were subjected to extraction with hexane and ethanol. The pericarp hexane extract (PHE) and seed ethanol extract (SEE) were purified by silica gel column chromatography, which permitted isolation of the prenylated benzophenones 7-epiclusianone (1) and guttiferone-A (2), respectively. The antimicrobial activity of PHE, SEE, and compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus cultures. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were established. The substances presented activity against S. aureus and B. cereus as follows: PHE, 4.0 microg/mL and 2.4 microg/mL; SEE, 10.0 microg/mL and 12.6 microg/mL; 7-epiclusianone, 1.2 microg/mL and 0.6 microg/mL; and guttiferone-A, 2.4 microg/mL and 2.4 microg/mL, respectively. The direct relationship between the lipophilic character of the structure and activity in Gram-positive bacteria was specifically observed. Therefore these extracts and prenylated benzophenones represent an interesting topic for further studies and open possibilities for an alternative control of diseases associated with Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:19459744

  18. Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Alfiah; Agustin, Melia Eka; Rokhimaningrum, Farida Ayu; Adro'i, Hasan; Darmanto, Win

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract on spermatogenics number, seminiferous tubules sized, profile protein of epididymal and testicular sperm, and fertility of mice (Mus musculus). Fourty two male mice strain BALB/C was divided equally into 7 groups. The control group was given 0.05 ml of 0.05% CMC solution. Three group were given mangosteen pericarp extract at various doses (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 7 days, while the other three groups were given the same extract dose for 35 days. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. The results showed that mangosteen pericarp extract at 75 and 100 mg/kg dose for 7 days had no effect on spermatogenics number and seminiferous tubule sizes, but the treatment dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days and all treatment (doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 35 days led to significant decrease on the number of spermatogenics and seminiferous tubule sizes; effect on protein profiles testicular and epididymal sperm; and lower fertilization.

  19. The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Sunday A; Ofusori, David A; Ojo, Gideon B; Ayoka, Oladele A; Abayomi, Taiwo A; Tijani, Adekilekun A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice. PMID:23569771

  20. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  1. Antiproliferative activities of Garcinia bracteata extract and its active ingredient, isobractatin, against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhong, Qing-Qing; Wang, Shu-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Ren, Dong-Mei; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    In our cell based screening of antitumor ingredients from plants, the EtOH extract of Garcinia bracteata displayed antiproliferative effect against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Phytochemical investigation of this active extract produced nine ingredients, and their structures were established by analysis of MS and NMR spectra. Antiproliferative evaluation of isolated ingredients on A549, MCF-7 and PC3 cells indicated that a xanthone named isobractatin (1) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against the above three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 2.90 to 4.15 μM. Treatment of PC3 cells with 1 led to an enhancement of the cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase cycle-related proteins analysis showed that the expressions of cyclins D1 and E were reduced by 1, whereas the protein level of cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor P21 was induced. Additionally, 1 enhanced PC3 cell apoptosis by activations of Bax, caspases 3 and 9, and by inhibition of Bcl-2. Our combined data illustrated that isobractatin (1) was the antiproliferative ingredient of G. bracteata against three human cancer cell lines, which exerted its antiproliferatrive effect via cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. PMID:23812779

  2. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A. P.; Brendel, Martin; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  3. Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Hanes, Justin; Kim, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn extract (GME) is a natural product that has received considerable attention in cancer therapy, and has the potential to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutics and improve efficacy. We formulated GME-encapsulated ethyl cellulose (GME-EC) and a polymer blend of ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose (GME-EC/MC) nanoparticles. We achieved high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency using a solvent-displacement method with particle sizes around 250 nm. Cellular uptake and accumulation of GME was higher for GME-encapsulated nanoparticles compared to free GME. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis showed effective anticancer activity of GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. GME-EC/MC nanoparticles showed approximately twofold-higher anticancer activity compared to GME-EC nanoparticles, likely due to their enhanced bioavailability. GME-encapsulated nanoparticles primarily entered HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficked through the endolysosomal pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanism of drug-loaded cellulose-based nanoparticles. In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles - GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles - successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity. PMID:25125977

  4. In vivo evaluation of interaction between aqueous seed extract of Garcinia kola Heckel and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Esimone, Charles O; Nwafor, Sunday V; Okoli, Charles O; Chah, Kennedy F; Uzuegbu, David B; Chibundu, Chinedu; Eche, Mike A; Adikwu, Micheal U

    2002-01-01

    The effect of Garcinia kola seed extract (100 mg/kg) on the pharmacokinetic and antibacterial effects of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (40 mg/kg) was studied. The results (mean +/- SEM) indicated that concurrent administration of both agents significantly (P < 0.05) decreased average serum concentration, peak serum concentration, and elimination rate of ciprofloxacin HCl, whereas the half-life and clearance rate were increased. The decrease in clearance rate was not significant. There was no difference in time to peak plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl in both groups (n = 5), which occurred at 1 hour. However, the peak plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl was 46.90 +/- 9.50 microg/mL in the group that received ciprofloxacin HCl alone as against 35.80 +/- 9.30 microg/mL noted in the group that received both agents (difference of 22.24%). At 2.5 hours and longer, the values were higher in the group that received both agents, but these were not statistically significant. The reciprocal serum inhibitory titer (SIT) was 33.33 and 50.00% higher in group that received ciprofloxacin HCl alone at 1 and 2.5 hours, respectively; the highest value for both groups being at 1 hour. In contrast, at 4 hours, the value of reciprocal SIT was 66.67% higher in the group that received both agents and at 24 hours, the value was zero for both groups. The observed pharmacokinetic and antibacterial interactions at various time interval indicate biphasic interaction. The interaction was antagonistic at 1 and 2.5 hours, but exhibited potentiation at 4 hours. The precise mechanism underlying the observed biphasic interaction is not fully understood. PMID:12115015

  5. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., α-mangostin, β-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) μg/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) μg/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) μg/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) μg/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) μg/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  6. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

  7. Isogarcinol Extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. Ameliorates Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-like Disease in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Hu; Zhang, Mu; Zhong, Youxiu; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wu, Hezhen; Yang, Yanfang; Wei, Qun

    2015-09-30

    Isogarcinol is a new immunosuppressant that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. In the present study, we elucidate its beneficial effect in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in mice -- a model for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in human. The oral administration of 60 mg/kg isogarcinol significantly reduced proteinuria, corrected the abnormal serum biochemical indicator, and decreased the amount of serum antibodies and lowered the renal histopathology score. In addition, isogarcinol alleviated the abnormal activation of CD4 T cells and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes and cytokines in the kidneys and peritoneal macrophages. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with downregulation of CD4 T cells and inflammatory effects. Therefore, we believe that isogarcinol may be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for future treatment of SLE. PMID:26330173

  8. Immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. against collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanxia; Zhou, Hailing; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wei, Qun

    2014-05-01

    Isogarcinol is a natural compound that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., and we were the first to report that it is a new immunosuppressant. In the present study, we investigated the immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explored its potential mechanism in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The oral administration of isogarcinol significantly reduced clinical scores, alleviated cartilage and bone erosion, and reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in CIA mice. Isogarcinol inhibited xylene-induced mouse ear edema in vivo. In vitro, isogarcinol decreased iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression and NO content by inhibiting NF-κB expression. Furthermore, isogarcinol decreased the activity of NFAT and inhibited IL-2 expression. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with down-regulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory reactions. PMID:24738849

  9. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  10. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  11. Anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Garcinia mangostana extract in hamster opisthorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Sriraj, Pranee; Songsri, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Boonyarat, Chantana; Rattanasuwan, Panaratana; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip

    2015-07-01

    Administration of praziquantel for treatment of liver fluke infection may affect the host, with mild and severe effects after treatment caused by host immune response. Therefore, we focused on the antioxidant property, inflammatory and anthelmintic effects of the traditional folk medicine, G. mangostana pericarp extract, in hamster opisthorchiasis. Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups: normal (control) (N); administered G. mangostana alone (GM); infected with Opisthorchis viverrini alone (OV); and infected with O. viverrini and administered G. mangostana extract for 1.5 months (OVGM). Hamster livers were collected 45 days after infection to determine histopathological changes, i.e. aggregation of inflammatory cells. The morphology of adult O. viverrini (body size and sizes of reproductive organs) was analyzed, as well as worm burden, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces. Toxicity was tested by kidney function (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine); the results demonstrated that G. mangostana had no renal toxic effect. ABTS radical-scavenging assay indicated that the extract had antioxidant property. Reduction in aggregation of inflammatory cells surrounding the hepatic bile duct, especially at the hilar region, was found in the OVGM group. Worm burden was similar in both infected groups (treated or untreated with G. mangostana), but the average size of adults in the OV group was larger than in the OVGM group; moreover, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces were also comparatively higher. The present study suggests that G. mangostana extract possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and can interfere with parasite development by affecting adult size and egg production. This may be useful for controlling the spread of OV infection and other parasites in endemic areas. PMID:25836376

  12. Antioxidant properties of xanthones extracted from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen): A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Quang, Duong Tuan; Bui, Ngoc Hoa Thi; Dao, Duy Quang; Nam, Pham Cam

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical study on antioxidant properties of fourteen xanthones extracted from the pericarp of G. Mangostana has been performed. Three main reaction mechanisms are investigated: hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer-proton transfer (SETPT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET). The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), proton affinity (PA) and electron transfer energy (ETE) parameters were computed in gas phase and water. The results show that HAT would be the most favorable mechanism for explaining antioxidant activity of xanthones in gas phase, whereas the SPLET mechanism is thermodynamically favored in water.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions from aerial parts of selected plants (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against some pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Melim, Carla; Guimarães, Karoliny; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Alves, Aurea Damaceno; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruza, Alexandre Bella; Niero, Rivaldo

    2013-11-01

    As part of the program of our research group to search for new and effective substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of four species from the Brazilian flora (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium) and Candida albicans (yeast). The extracts of R. niveus and M. velame showed promising antibacterial activity with MICs, ranging from 1000 to 125 microg/mL. Bio-guided fractionation of M. velame yielded four compounds, with the highest inhibition being observed for compound 3, with a MIC of 125 microg/mL against S. aureus. The combinations of fractions 2 and 4 showed beneficial effect against Gram-positive bacteria (additive effect), suggesting a possible synergistic effect. PMID:24427943

  14. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  15. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kaksha J; Panchasara, Ashwin K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Vadgama, Vishal K; Tripathi, C B

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  16. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  17. α-Mangostin Extraction from the Native Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and the Binding Mechanisms of α-Mangostin to HSA or TRF.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lu, Xiaowang; Wang, Hongzheng; Brodelius, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain the biological active compound, α-mangostin, from the traditional native mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), an extraction method for industrial application was explored. A high yield of α-mangostin (5.2%) was obtained by extraction from dried mangosteen pericarps with subsequent purification on macroporous resin HPD-400. The chemical structure of α-mangostin was verified mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The purity of the obtained α-mangostin was 95.6% as determined by HPLC analysis. The binding of native α-mangostin to human serum albumin (HSA) or transferrin (TRF) was explored by combining spectral experiments with molecular modeling. The results showed that α-mangostin binds to HSA or TRF as static complexes but the binding affinities were different in different systems. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and absorbance spectra. The association constant of HSA or TRF binding to α-mangostin is 6.4832×105 L/mol and 1.4652×105 L/mol at 298 K and 7.8619×105 L/mol and 1.1582×105 L/mol at 310 K, respectively. The binding distance, the energy transfer efficiency between α-mangostin and HSA or TRF were also obtained by virtue of the Förster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The effect of α-mangostin on the HSA or TRF conformation was analyzed by synchronous spectrometry and fluorescence polarization studies. Molecular docking results reveal that the main interaction between α-mangostin and HSA is hydrophobic interactions, while the main interaction between α-mangostin and TRF is hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals forces. These results are consistent with spectral results. PMID:27584012

  18. Four new cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhong-Yan; Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Qiao, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Chao; Shen, Guo-Rong; Cai, Mei-Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the twigs of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of four new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones C-F (1-4), and ten known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. PMID:25727735

  19. Pharmacokinetic characterization of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit extract standardized to α-mangostin in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Li, Gongbo; Ramaiya, Atulkumar; Kumar, Anoop; Gill, Ravinder K; Saksena, Seema; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we have reported the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of α-mangostin in mice. For this study, we evaluated the PK profile of α-mangostin using a standardized mangosteen extract in C57BL/6 mice. The primary objective was to determine the PK properties of α-mangostin when administered as an extract. This experiment was designed to test our primary hypothesis that α-mangostin in an extract should achieve a desirable PK profile. This is especially relevant as dietary supplements of mangosteen fruit are regularly standardized to α-mangostin. Mice received 100 mg/kg of mangosteen fruit extract orally, equivalent to 36 mg/kg of α-mangostin, and plasma samples were analyzed over a 24-hour period. Concentrations of α-mangostin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, we evaluated the stability in the presence of phase I and phase II enzymes in liver and gastrointestinal microsomes. Furthermore, we identified evidence of phase II metabolism of α-mangostin. Further research will be required to determine if less abundant xanthones present in the mangosteen may modulate the PK parameters of α-mangostin. PMID:24774070

  20. Xanthones with antimalarial activity from Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Likhitwitayawuid, K; Chanmahasathien, W; Ruangrungsi, N; Krungkrai, J

    1998-04-01

    Chromatographic separation of the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia dulcis (Guttiferae) furnished five xanthones, viz 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (2), 1-O-methylsymphoxanthone (3), symphoxanthone (4), and garciniaxanthone (5). These xanthones 1-5 showed inhibitory effects on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.96-3.88 micrograms/ml. In addition, revised 13C-NMR assignments of 3 and complete 13C-NMR assignments of 4 were obtained through analysis of their COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC spectra. PMID:9581528

  1. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  2. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  3. A new bixanthone derivative from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixiu; Jiang, Yuyang; Li, Jiong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    A new bixanthone derivative, garciobioxanthone (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia, together with 11 known compounds. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR and other spectroscopic analysis. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the references. PMID:24079308

  4. Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid

    PubMed Central

    Farombi, Ebenezer O.; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

  5. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of benzophenones and xanthones from edible fruits of Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Lyles, James T; Negrin, Adam; Khan, Shabana I; He, Kan; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones α-mangostin (15), β-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40 µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24 µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds. PMID:24963617

  6. Potent Schistosomicidal Constituents from Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Aline Pereira; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Pereira, Neusa Araújo; Anchieta, Naira Ferreira; Silva, Matheus Siqueira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira; Silva, Claudinei Alves; Barros, Giulliano Vilela; Souza, Raquel Lopes Martins; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Marques, Marcos José

    2015-06-01

    Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However, several strains of Schistosoma mansoni are resistant to praziquantel, making it necessary to discover new drugs that might be used for its treatment. With this in mind, the properties of a schistosomicidal ethanolic extract of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, the fractions obtained by partitioning this extract, including the hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fraction, and the aqueous fraction, and the isolated compounds 7-epiclusianone, a major component from these fractions, and fukugetin were tested in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Mortality, damage to membranes, and excretory system activity were observed at 100.0, 50.0, 75.0, and 14.0 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract of G. brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, its hexane fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction, and 7-epiclusianone, respectively. For 7-epiclusianone, these data were confirmed by fluorescent probe Hoechst 33 258 and resorufin. Additionally, the biocidal effect of 7-epiclusianone was even higher than the hexane fractions. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 7-epiclusianone on the egg laying of female adult S. mansoni worms was observed in cercariae and schistossomula. Thus, 7-epiclusianone is a promising schistosomicidal compound; however, more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the in vivo activity of this compound. PMID:25905590

  7. Study on Antibacterial Activity of the Bark of Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Nilutpal Sharma; Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Gogoi, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. is an important and endemic medicinal plant of Assam which has been used by various ethnic communities of Northeast India to treat various disorders like dysentery, dyspepsia, and biliousness. The plant is considered to be containing much medicinal value and is also eaten raw or made into pickles by the local people. Our present study has been focused on the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the bark of Garcinia lanceifolia which may lead us to a scientific evidence of the use of this plant in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. PMID:27437444

  8. Xanthones from Garcinia propinqua Roots.

    PubMed

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Machana, Theeraphan; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Garcinia propinqua roots led to the isolation and identification of a new xanthone, doitunggarcinone D (1), together with 15 known compounds (2-16). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 3, 6, 7, 14, 15 and 16 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with MIC values in the range of 1-4 µg/mL. Compounds 3, 7, 10 and 14 also showed good antibacterial activity against B. cereus TISTR 688 with MIC values ranging from 4-8 µg/mL. PMID:26996028

  9. c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase‑mediated anti‑inflammatory effects of Garcinia subelliptica in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Chang; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-03-01

    Garcinia plants have been traditionally used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as skin infections and pain, in many regions including South‑East Asia. Garcinia subelliptica, a plant of the Garcinia species widely distributed from Japan to Thailand, has been reported to contain components similar to other Garcinia plants that exhibit anti‑inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to explore the anti‑inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of Garcinia subelliptica (EGS) in macrophages, as there are no previous systemic studies that have investigated the effects of Garcinia subelliptica on inflammation. Non‑cytotoxic concentrations of EGS (≤200 µg/ml) were observed to reduce nitric oxide production by modulating iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The expression of cyclooxygenase‑2, the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2, was notably reduced by EGS. EGS treatment inhibited the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including IL‑6 and IL‑1β, however, not TNF‑α. Reduced production of inflammatory mediators by EGS was followed by reduced phosphorylation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) however, not of other mitogen‑activated protein kinases and nuclear factor‑κB. These results indicate that EGS selectively inhibits the excessive production of inflammatory mediators in LPS‑stimulated murine macrophages by reducing the activation of JNK, suggesting that EGS is a candidate for modulating severe inflammation. PMID:26781201

  10. Two new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojun; He, Luan; Wu, Xinxing; Zhong, Yanxia; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Yuanxing; Wang, Bin; Xu, Zhifang; Qiu, Shengxiang

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, designated garcimangosxanthone F (1) and garcimangosxanthone G (2), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established as 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone, respectively, on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and MS data interpretation. PMID:25299822

  11. (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone, a new gastrointestinal smooth muscle L-type calcium channel inhibitor, which underlies the spasmolytic properties of Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Balemba, Onesmo B; Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Patterson, Savannah; McMillan, John S; Mawe, Gary M; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia buchananii Baker stem bark extract (GBB) is a traditional medication of diarrhea and dysentery in sub-Saharan Africa. It is believed that GBB causes gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether GBB has spasmolytic actions and identify compounds underlying these actions. Calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging was used to analyze the effect of GBB on Ca(2+) flashes and Ca(2+) waves in guinea pig gallbladder and distal colon smooth muscle. Intracellular microelectrode recording was used to determine the effect of GBB, six fractions of GBB, M1-5 and M7, and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone, a compound isolated from M3 on action potentials in gallbladder smooth muscle. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of GBB, M3, and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone on action potentials in the circular muscle of mouse and guinea pig distal colons, and the effect of GBB and (2R,3S,2''R,3'' R)-manniflavanone on slow waves in porcine ileum. GBB inhibited Ca(2+) flashes and Ca(2+) waves. GBB, M3 and (2R,3 S,2''R,3''R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials. L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 increased the discharge of action potentials in mouse colon but did not trigger or increase action potentials in the presence of GBB and (2R,3S,2''R,3'' R)-manniflavanone. GBB and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials in the presence of Bay K 8644. GBB and (2R,3 S,2''R,3''R)-manniflavanone reduced the amplitude but did not alter the frequency of slow waves in the porcine ileum. In conclusion, GBB and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone relax smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca(2+) channels, thus have potential for use as therapies of gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasms, and arrhythmias. PMID:26081368

  12. (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a new gastrointestinal smooth muscle L-type calcium channel inhibitor, which underlies the spasmolytic properties of Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Balemba, Onesmo B.; Lösch, Sofie; Patterson, Savannah; McMillan, John S.; Hofmann, Thomas; Mawe, Gary M.; Stark, Timo D.

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia buchananii Baker stem bark extract (GBB) is a traditional medication of diarrhea and dysentery in sub-Saharan Africa. It is believed that GBB causes gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether GBB has spasmolytic actions and identify compounds underlying these actions. Calcium (Ca2+) imaging was used to analyze the effect of GBB on Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves in guinea pig gallbladder and distal colon smooth muscle. Intracellular microelectrode recording was used to determine the effect of GBB, six fractions of GBB, M1–5 and M7, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a compound isolated from M3 on action potentials in gallbladder smooth muscle. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of GBB, M3, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on action potentials in the circular muscle of mouse and guinea pig distal colons, and the effect of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on slow waves in porcine ileum. GBB inhibited Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves. GBB, M3 and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials. L-type Ca2+ channel activator Bay K 8644 increased the discharge of action potentials in mouse colon but did not trigger or increase action potentials in the presence of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials in the presence of Bay K 8644. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone reduced the amplitude but did not alter the frequency of slow waves in the porcine ileum. In conclusion, GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone relax smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels, thus have potential for use as therapies of gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasms, and arrhythmias. PMID:26081368

  13. Cytotoxic benzophenone and triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Kamal, Nik Nur Syazni Nik Mohamed; Osman, Hasnah; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of G. hombroniana. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of G. hombroniana yielded two new (1, 9) and thirteen known compounds which were characterized by the spectral techniques of NMR, UV, IR and EI/ESI-MS, and identified as; 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone(1), 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (2), 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (4), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (5),3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (7), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside (8), 18(13→17)-abeo-3β-acetoxy-9α,13β-lanost-24E-en-26-oic acid (9), garcihombronane B (10), garcihombronane D (11), friedelan-3-one (12), lupeol (13), stigmasterol (14) and stigmasterol glucoside (15). In the in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, DBTRG, U2OS and PC-3 cell lines, compounds 1 and 9 displayed good cytotoxic effects against DBTRG cancer cell lines. Compounds 1-8 were also found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Owing to these properties, this study can be further extended to explore more significant bioactive components of this plant. PMID:24813683

  14. A bioactive cycloartane triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Atlas; Khan, Sadiq Noor

    2016-06-01

    The dichloromethane bark extract of Garcinia hombroniana yielded one new cycloartane triterpene; (22Z,24E)-3β-hydroxycycloart-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (1) together with five known compounds: garcihombronane G (2), garcihombronane J (3), 3β acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,24-dien-26-oic acid (4), (22Z, 24E)-3β, 9α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (5) and 3β, 23α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-8,14,24-trien-26-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by the spectral techniques of NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds together with some previously isolated compounds; garcihombronane B (7), garcihombronane D (8) 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (9), volkensiflavone (10), 4''-O-methyll-volkensiflavone (11), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (12), volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (13), Morelloflavone (14), 3''-O-methyl-morelloflavone (15) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (16) were evaluated for cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. In these activities, compounds 1-9 showed good dual inhibition on both the enzymes while compounds 10-16 did not reasonably contribute to both the cholinesterases inhibitory effects. PMID:26158779

  15. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. PMID:25340468

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

    The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

  17. Polyphenolic Constituents of the Pericarp of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Morio; Ninomiya, Kana; Tagashira, Yukari; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki

    2015-09-01

    Three new polyphenols, together with 14 known compounds, were isolated from a hot water extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp, a plant that has been used medicinally in Southeast Asia. The three new polyphenols were characterized as a 4-aryl-2-flavanylbenzopyran derivative (tentatively named GM-1), 1, 3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxybenzophenone (GM-2), 2, and 2,3-dihydrochromone derivative (GM-3), 3 on the basis of NMR and MS data. The relative stereostructure of GM-1 was assigned to have 2,3-cis-3,4-trans- and 2″,3″-cis configurations on the basis of the coupling constants of heterocyclic ring protons in the (1)H NMR spectrum along with nuclear Overhauser effect correlations. The HPLC analysis indicated that major polyphenolic components in the hot water extract of mangosteen pericarp were epicatechin and procyanidin B2 (epicatechin dimer). PMID:26023815

  18. Constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Chang; Weng, Jing-Ru; Won, Shen-Jeu; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2005-07-01

    A new benzophenone, garcinielliptone FA (1), and a new benzoylphloroglucinol, garcinielliptone FB (2), along with six known compounds, were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and supported by computer-generated molecular modeling. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines. PMID:16038565

  19. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. PMID:24901833

  20. Isoprenylated xanthone and benzophenone constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia planchonii.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Duong Hoang; Ha, Ly Dieu; Tran, Phuong Thu; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa Dieu

    2014-12-01

    A new xanthone, planchoxanthone (1), together with six known compounds, garcinianone A (2), cowanin (3), rubraxanthone (4), f-mangostin (5), dulcisxanthone B (6), and guttiferone Q (7), were isolated from an n-hexane extract of the pericap of Garcinia planchonii. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds was tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. PMID:25632472

  1. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  2. Identification and characterization of anticancer compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy from Chinese native Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Xu, Naihan; Hu, Hui; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Gu, Yunzhi; Song, Zhijun; Cao, Peng; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. Active compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy are candidates for anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we collected Garcinia species from China and extracted them into water or ethanol fractions. Then, we performed a functional screen in search of novel apoptosis and autophagy regulators. We first characterized the anti-proliferation activity of the crude extracts on multiple cell lines. HeLa cells expressing GFP-LC3 were used to examine the effects of the crude extracts on autophagy. Their activities were confirmed by Western blots of A549 and HeLa cells. By using bioassay guided fractionation, we found that two caged prenylxanthones from Garcinia bracteata, neobractatin and isobractatin, can significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results suggest that different Garcinia species displayed various degrees of toxicity on different cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the use of a high content screening assay to screen natural products was an essential method to identify novel autophagy regulators. PMID:25478784

  3. Garcinia Cambogia-Induced Acute Hepatitis; Varenicline-Induced Parkinsonism; Resistant Hypocalcemia After Zoledronic Acid Administration; Zonisamide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury; Psychosis Associated with Guanfacine.

    PubMed

    Mancano, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Med Watch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to Med Watch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA's Med Watch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA Med Watch partner. PMID:26448666

  4. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. α-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 μg/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and β-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL. PMID:25110196

  5. Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2α-hydroxy-3β-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods. PMID:24392659

  6. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zeng; Huang, Lei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Gong-Kan; Lan, Wen-Jian; Li, Hou-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, named 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-xanthone (1) and 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), together with the five known compounds garcinones C (3) and D (4), gartanin (5), xanthone I (6), and γ-mangostin (7). Their structures were elucidated primarily based on MS and NMR data. Compounds 1-7 showed significant cytotoxic activities against various human cancer cell lines. PMID:24509722

  7. A new xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Fu, Manqin; Qiu, Samuel X; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Chen, Yulong; Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2013-12-01

    A new prenylxanthone, garcimangostanol (1), was isolated from the EtOAc-soluble partition of the ethanol extract of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L., along with three known compounds, namely 8-deoxygartanin (2), 1-isomangostin (3), and garcinone C (4). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of its 1D, 2D NMR and MS data. Compounds 1-4 exhibited either significant o r moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, A549, Hep-G2 and CNEhuman cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 values from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 23.6+/- 1.5 microM by MTT colorimetric assay. PMID:24555285

  8. Garcinia benzophenones inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells and synergize with sulindac sulfide and turmeric.

    PubMed

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Mighty, Jason; Kashiwazaki, Ryota; Figueroa, Mario; Jalees, Filza; Acuna, Ulyana Munoz; Le Gendre, Onica; Foster, David A; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that extracts and purified components from Garcinia species inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells. Garcinia benzophenones activate the expression of genes in the endoplasmic reticulum and cellular energy stress (mTOR) pathways. This study examines the growth inhibitory and synergistic effects of Garcinia benzophenones, alone or combined with chemopreventive agents, on human colon cancer cells. To find optimal combination treatments, HT29 colon cancer cells were treated with benzophenones alone, or combined with chemopreventive agents, and cell growth measured using the MTT assay. To reveal effects on signaling pathways, we assessed effects of the MEK inhibitor U0126 and the ER IP3 receptor antagonist heparin, as well as effects on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1 (mTOR pathway), using Western blot analysis. New and known benzophenones from Garcinia intermedia inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells; an alcohol extract of Garcinia xanthochymus, as well as purified guttiferones (guttiferone E and xanthochymol), preferentially inhibited the growth of colon cancer versus nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells. Guttiferone E exhibited synergy with the NSAID sulindac sulfide and xanthochymol, with the spice turmeric. Guttiferone A did not alter phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1, indicating that the mTORC1 pathway is not involved in its action. The effects of xanthochymol were enhanced by U0126, at low doses, and were blocked by heparin, indicating that the MEK pathway is involved, while the ER IP3 receptor is critical for its action. These studies indicate the potential of benzophenones, alone or combined with sulindac sulfide or turmeric, to prevent and treat colon cancer. PMID:23848206

  9. UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-Guided Dereplication of the Endangered Chinese Species Garcinia paucinervis to Identify Additional Benzophenone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Anandhi Senthilkumar, Harini; Figueroa, Mario; Wu, Shi-Biao; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chunlin

    2016-06-24

    A number of Garcinia species accumulate benzophenone derivatives that may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer. The dereplication of new benzophenone derivatives from Garcinia species is challenging due to the occurrence of multiple isomers and the known compounds found in their extracts. In the current study, a strategy is described using the UPLC-QTOFMS(E) technique to identify tentatively the known and uncharacterized benzophenones of interest based upon the characteristic fragmentation ions. Several UPLC-QTOFMS peaks (a-ee) appeared to contain benzophenone derivatives, and 12 of these peaks contained compounds with MS ionization profiles not consistent with previously identified compounds from the seeds of Garcinia paucinervis, an endangered Chinese species. The targeted isolation of unidentified compounds of interest afforded five new benzophenones, paucinones E-I (1-5), which were determined by MS and NMR analysis and ECD spectroscopy. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three breast cancer cell lines inclusive of MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, and MCF-7. These results indicate that the UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-guided isolation procedure is an efficient strategy for isolating new benzophenones from Garcinia species. PMID:27266714

  10. Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Composition of Garcinia lancifolia.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Saikia, S; Das, J; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L; Veer, V

    2012-05-01

    Garcinia lancifolia (Clusiaceae) is an unexplored medicinal plant used as stomachic, diuretic and its fruit is used to cure dysentery and diarrhoea. The acidic fruits are used to prepare juice, pickle and curries. The phytochemical analysis of different extracts of G. lancifolia leaf, stem and fruit revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. The high phenolic content was observed in the methanol extract of leaf followed by methanol extract of stem and dichloromethane extract of leaf. The G. lancifolia fruit juice exhibited high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus subtilis. The methanol extract of fruit pulp was also very effective against Gram-positive bacteria when compared with Gram-negative bacteria. The radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was highest in fruit juice followed by methanol extract of leaf and stem. All extracts showed concentration-dependent increase in the antioxidant activity. PMID:23439879

  11. Natural products from Garcinia brasiliensis as Leishmania protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ivan O; Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Maria A; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Barbieri, Clara L; do Sacramento, Luis V S; Marques, Marcos J; dos Santos, Marcelo H

    2011-06-01

    The infections by protozoans of the genus Leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. The drugs of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimonials, which cause renal and cardiac toxicity. As part of a search for new drugs against leishmaniasis, we evaluated the in vitro Leishmania protease inhibition activity of extracts (hexanic, ethyl-acetate, and ethanolic) and fukugetin, a bioflavonoid purified from the ethyl-acetate extract of the pericarp of the fruit of Garcinia brasiliensis, a tree native to Brazilian forests. The isolated compound was characterized by using spectral analyses with nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, ultraviolet, and infrared techniques. The ethyl-acetate extract and the compound fukugetin showed significant activity as inhibitors of Leishmania's proteases, with mean (±SD) IC(50) (50% inhibition concentration of protease activity) values of 15.0±1.3 μg/mL and 3.2±0.5 μM/mL, respectively, characterizing a bioguided assay. In addition, this isolated compound showed no activity against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis and mammalian cells. These results suggest that fukugetin is a potent protease inhibitor of L. (L.) amazonensis and does not cause toxicity in mammalian or Leishmania cells in vitro. This study provides new perspectives on the development of novel drugs that have leishmanicidal activity obtained from natural products and that target the parasite's proteases. PMID:21554130

  12. DNA-seq analysis of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Syuhaidah; Sampathrajan, Sureshkumar; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2016-03-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree mainly found in South East Asia and considered as "the queen of fruits". The asexually produced fruit is dark purple or reddish in color, with white flesh which is slightly acidic with sweet flavor and a pleasant aroma. The purple pericarp tissue is rich in xanthones which are useful for medical purposes. We performed the first genome sequencing of this commercially important fruit tree to study its genome composition and attempted draft genome assembly. Raw reads of the DNA sequencing project have been deposited to SRA database with the accession number SRX1426419. PMID:26981362

  13. DNA-seq analysis of Garcinia mangostana

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Syuhaidah; Sampathrajan, Sureshkumar; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2015-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree mainly found in South East Asia and considered as “the queen of fruits”. The asexually produced fruit is dark purple or reddish in color, with white flesh which is slightly acidic with sweet flavor and a pleasant aroma. The purple pericarp tissue is rich in xanthones which are useful for medical purposes. We performed the first genome sequencing of this commercially important fruit tree to study its genome composition and attempted draft genome assembly. Raw reads of the DNA sequencing project have been deposited to SRA database with the accession number SRX1426419. PMID:26981362

  14. Cytotoxic Polyisoprenyl Benzophenonoids from Garcinia subelliptica

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Chiou, Chun-Tang; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yang Kuo, Li-Ming; Liao, Chia-Chin; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2010-01-01

    Six new polyisoprenyl benzophenonoids, (±)-garcinialiptone A (1, 2), garcinialiptone B (3), (−)-cycloxanthochymol (4), garcinialiptone C (5), and garcinialiptone D (6), along with three known compounds, xanthochymol (7), isoxanthochymol (8), and cycloxanthochymol (9), were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures of 1–6 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Biological evaluation showed that all compounds 1–9 exhibited cytotoxic activity against a small panel of human tumor cell lines (A549, DU145, KB, vincristine-resistant KB). PMID:20232858

  15. A new xanthone from Garcinia nitida.

    PubMed

    Ee, G C L; Foo, C H; Jong, V Y M; Ismail, N H; Sukari, M A; Taufiq Yap, Y H; Awang, K

    2012-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the stem bark of Garcinia nitida has led to the isolation of five xanthones. They are 1,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6-dimethylpyrano[2',3':2,3]-xanthone (1), inophyllin B (2), osajaxanthone (3), 3-isomangostin (4) and rubraxanthone (5). The structures of these compounds were established using mainly 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HMBC and HMQC) while molecular masses were determined via MS techniques; 1 is a new compound. PMID:22044165

  16. A new prenylated biflavonoid from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Saelee, Arun; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2015-01-01

    A new prenylated biflavonoid, named dulcisbiflavonoid A, together with five biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by analysing their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR. PMID:25675112

  17. Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (−)-HCA

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (−)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. PMID:23990846

  18. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

  19. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Ah; Su, Bao-Ning; Keller, William J; Mehta, Rajendra G; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2006-03-22

    As part of ongoing research on cancer chemopreventive agents from botanical dietary supplements, Garcinia mangostana L. (commonly known as mangosteen) was selected for detailed study. Repeated chromatography of a CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the pericarp led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated prenylated xanthones, 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G (1) and mangostingone [7-methoxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-3-butenyl)-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone, 2], together with 12 known xanthones, cudraxanthone G (3), 8-deoxygartanin (4), garcimangosone B (5), garcinone D (6), garcinone E (7), gartanin (8), 1-isomangostin (9), alpha-mangostin (10), gamma-mangostin (11), mangostinone (12), smeathxanthone A (13), and tovophyllin A (14). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Except for compound 2, which was isolated as a minor component, the antioxidant activities of all isolates were determined using authentic and morpholinosydnonimine-derived peroxynitrite methods, and compounds 1, 8, 10, 11, and 13 were the most active. Alpha-mangostin (10) inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene-induced preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary organ culture assay with an IC50 of 1.0 microg/mL (2.44 microM). PMID:16536578

  20. Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Wei; Huang, A-Mei; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Weng, Jing-Ru; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2012-11-15

    Two new triterpenoids, garcinielliptones Q (1) and S (3), and a new phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone R (2), were isolated from the seed of Garcinia subelliptica. Their structures were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone FC (4) from this plant exhibited a significant increase of antiproliferative effect, while 4 combined with cisplatin significantly caused decrease of cell inhibition induced by cisplatin in NTUB1. Exposure of NTUB1 cells to 4 cotreated with cisplatin for significantly decreased the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than that of the total amount generated by 4 and cisplatin. These results suggested that 4 could protect the cisplatin toxicity through reduction of ROS in NTUB1. Phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones, A (5) and F (7), and garsubelline A (6), from this plant, revealed ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and 5 displayed an inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase. These finding showed that 5-7 may be used as antioxidants. PMID:22868169

  1. Phloroglucinols with prooxidant activity from Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Chang; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wei, Bai-Luh; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Won, Shen-Jen; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2008-02-01

    A new phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone HF ( 1), possessing an unprecedented skeleton, and the tautomeric pair of garcinielliptone FC ( 2/ 2a) were isolated from the heartwood and pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica, respectively. Their structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods. The ability of compounds 1 and 2/ 2a to induce DNA-cleavage activity was examined using supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA. In the presence of Cu(II), compounds 1 and 2/ 2a caused significant breakage of pBR322 DNA. The involvement of H2O2 and O2 (*-), and H2O2, O2 (*-), and OH (*) in 1- and 2/ 2a-mediated scission, respectively, was established by inhibition or no protection of DNA breakage by various oxygen radical scavengers. Thus, in the presence Cu(II), 1 and 2/ 2a may show a prooxidant effect on DNA and induce cell death. PMID:18166016

  2. Antimicrobial activity in cultures of endophytic fungi isolated from Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Rungjindamai, Nattawut; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Sakayaroj, Jariya

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen for antimicrobial activity in endophytic fungi isolated from surface sterilized leaves and branches of five Garcinia plants, G. atroviridis, G. dulcis, G. mangostana, G. nigrolineata and G. scortechinii, found in southern Thailand. Fermentation broths from 377 isolated fungi were tested for antimicrobial activity by the agar diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained for crude ethyl acetate extracts. Seventy isolates (18.6%) displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic microorganism, such as Staphylococcus aureus, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results revealed that 6-10%, 1-2% and 18% of the crude ethyl acetate extracts inhibited both strains of S. aureus (MIC 32-512 microg mL(-1)), Ca. albicans and Cr. neoformans (MIC 64-200 microg mL(-1)), and Microsporum gypseum (MIC 2-64 microg mL(-1)), respectively. Isolates D15 and M76 displayed the strongest antibacterial activity against both strains of S. aureus. Isolates M76 and N24 displayed strong antifungal activity against M. gypseum. Fungal molecular identification based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that isolates D15 (DQ480353), M76 (DQ480360) and N24 (DQ480361) represented Phomopsis sp., Botryosphaeria sp. and an unidentified fungal endophyte, respectively. These results indicate that some endophytic fungi from Garcinia plants are a potential source of antimicrobial agents. PMID:17052267

  3. Antimicrobial prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia goudotiana.

    PubMed

    Mahamodo, Sania; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel; Abedini, Amin; Ranarivelo, Heritiana; Duhal, Nathalie; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Lemoine, Amélie; Razafimahefa, Dorothée; Razanamahefa, Bakonirina; Bailleul, François; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina

    2014-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation using antimicrobial assay of the crude acetonic extract of Garcinia goudotiana leaves and of its five partitions led to the isolation of two new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, goudotianone 1 (1) and goudotianone 2 (2), in addition to two known compounds including one xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-isoprenylxanthone (3), and one triterpenoid, friedelin (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of different spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The crude acetonic extract, the methylene chloride and ethyl acetate partitions, and some tested compounds isolated from this species (1-3) demonstrated selective significant antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Enterococcus faecalis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The potential cytotoxic activities of these extracts and compounds were evaluated against human colon carcinoma HT29 and human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 cells. PMID:24690454

  4. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-07-25

    Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-γ plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24960143

  5. Antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory activities of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Asfour, Hani Z

    2016-07-01

    A prenylated xanthone, α-mangostin was separated from the alcoholic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp. Its structure was established by different spectroscopic analysis. The total methanolic extract (TME) and different fractions of G. mangostana pericarp as well as α-mangostin were assessed for their antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory effects (QSI). The TME, CHCl3 fraction, and α-mangostin exhibited strong activity against all tested strains. While, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and aqueous fractions showed moderate activity against some of the tested organisms. In addition TME, CHCl3, EtOAc, and α-mangostin showed promising QSI, while n-BuOH and aqueous fractions showed moderate activity. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for TME, CHCl3 fractions, and α-mangostin was also assessed. PMID:27592485

  6. Caged polyprenylated xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; He, Shiwen; Tang, Chu; Li, Jun; Yang, Guangzhong

    2016-03-01

    Five new caged polyprenylated xanthones (1a, 2a, 3, 10a and 10b), and 12 known related compounds were isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated in vitro. Most of xanthones showed modest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. PMID:26688377

  7. Phenolic compounds from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, S; Mahabusarakam, W; Phongpaichit, S; Taylor, W C; Zhang, Y-J; Yang, C-R

    2006-03-01

    Dulcisxanthones C-F and dulcinone together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The abilities of some of these compounds to act as radical scavengers and antibacterial agents were investigated. PMID:16325214

  8. Cytotoxic Properties and Complete Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Assignment of Isolated Xanthones from the Root of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Wahyuni, Fatma Sri; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Lajis, Nordin HJ; Hamidi, Dachriyanus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate compounds from the roots of Garcinia cowa and to evaluated their cytotoxic activity against breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145), and lung (H-460) cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ground air-dried root was sequentially macerated with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol. The DCM soluble extract was fractionated by vacuum liquid chromatography, column chromatography, and radial chromatography over silica gel with hexane, EtOAc and methanol as eluent in progressively increasing polarity manner; to yield three compounds. Their structures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic data and their comparison with those of the literature. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was carried out against human cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The extract was added at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml). The level of cytotoxicity was determined by calculating the level of IC50 that was based on the percentage of the cell death following the 24 h incubation with the extract. Results: Phytochemical study on the roots of G. cowa yielded rubraxanthone (3), cowanine (4) and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (5). Compound 4 with an IC50 value of 4.1 ± 1.0 μM, 5.4 ± 2.3 μM and 11.3 ± 10.0 μM against MCF-7, H-460, and DU-145, respectively while compound 3 was found to be in active. Conclusion: The results indicate that G. cowa roots could be important sources of natural cytotoxic compounds. SUMMARY Isolation of cytotoxic compounds from Garcinia cowaCowanine is the active constituent from the roots of Garcinia cowaComplete nuclear magnetic resonance assignment of isolated compoundsMS fragmentation of rubraxanthone. PMID:27041859

  9. Prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia with antienteroviral activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tao, Ling; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yang, Yi-Fu; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Da-Jian; Lu, Ai-Ping; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-04-25

    An acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia showed antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded 12 new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, oblongifolins J-U (1-12), and five known compounds. The structures of 1-12 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of a Mosher ester procedure carried out in NMR tubes and ECD calculations. Compared to ribavirin (IC50 253.1 μM), compounds 1, 4, and 13 exhibited significant anti-EV71 activity in vitro, with IC50 values of 31.1, 16.1, and 12.2 μM, respectively. In addition, the selectivity indices of these compounds were 1.5, 2.4, and 3.0 in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, respectively. PMID:24679044

  10. Bioassay-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and polycyclic acylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Liang, Shuang; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Shi-Lin; Wang, Xin-Hong; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2012-08-24

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones A (1) and B (2), three new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, nujiangefolins A-C (3-5), and 10 known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 3 and 4 are unusual polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols in which the enol hydroxy group forms a six-membered ring with a benzene ring carbon. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against 11 cancer cell lines and immortalized MIHA normal liver cells, and the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. Isojacareubin (6) was found to be the most potent cytotoxic compound of those tested. PMID:22871217

  11. Bioassay-guided isolation of xanthones and polycyclic prenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Feng, Chao; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Gang; Han, Quan-Bin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Chang, Donald C; Luo, Kathy Qian; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia has resulted in the isolation of three new xanthones, oblongixanthones A-C (1-3), three new polyprenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, oblongifolins E-G (4-6), and 12 known compounds. Oblongifolins I (5) and J (6) are the first natural products that have similar structural features to those of two known oxidation products of garcinol. The structures of the new compounds 1-6 were characterized by spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were assayed for their apoptosis-inducing effects against HeLa-C3 cells. Oblongifolin C (16) was found to be the most potent apoptotic inducer of the compounds evaluated. PMID:19113969

  12. Phenolic compounds from the seeds of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, Suwanna; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2008-01-01

    Dulcisxanthone G, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone, together with 13 known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The activities on antibacterial and antioxidation of the isolated compounds were examined. PMID:19023789

  13. Damnacanthal from the Congolese medicinal plant Garcinia huillensis has a potent preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dibwe, Dya Fita; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Screening of eight Congolese medicinal plants showed that the CHCl(3) and MeOH extracts of Aframomum melegueta (PC(50)  = 47.8 µg/mL and 13.8 µg/mL, respectively) and CHCl(3) extracts of Garcinia huillensis (PC(50)  = 17.8 µg/mL) and Securidaca longepedunculata (PC(50)  = 23.4 µg/mL) had preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells under nutrient-deprived conditions. The active constituents of the CHCl(3) extract of G. huillensis were examined and 12 known anthraquinones were identified. Among them, damnacanthal (1) caused preferential necrotic cell death of PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells under nutrient-deprived and serum-sensitive conditions (PC(50)  = 4.46 µm and 3.77 µm, respectively). PMID:22447631

  14. Anticancer Activity of Garcinia morella on T-Cell Murine Lymphoma Via Apoptotic Induction.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bhaswati; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Monisha, Javadi; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge (TK) based medicines have gained worldwide attention and presently the scientific community is focussing on proper pharmacological validation and identification of lead compounds for the treatment of various diseases. The North East region of India is the home of valuable traditional herbal remedies. Garcinia morella Desr. (Guttiferae) is one such medicinal plant used by traditional healers for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the leaf, bark and fruit of G. morella (GM) in different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The results of this study showed that GM methanol extracts possessed in vitro antioxidant and anticancer properties, where the fruit extract (GF) showed maximum activity. The anticancer activity was further confirmed by the results of in vivo administration of GF (200 mg/kg) for ten days to Dalton's lymphoma (DLA) induced mice. GF extract significantly increased the mean survival time (MST) of the animals, decreased the tumor volume and restored the hematological and biochemical parameters. The present study for the first time reported the anticancer property of GF on DLA. Further from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of GF on DLA, it can be concluded that GF exerts its anticancer effect through induction of caspases and DNA fragmentation that ultimately leads to apoptosis. However, further experimentation is required to elucidate the active principle and validate these findings in various in vivo settings. PMID:26858645

  15. UPLC-ESI-TOF MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of the Antioxidative Food Supplement Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Balemba, Onesmo B; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-08-19

    Comparative antioxidative analyses of aqueous ethanolic extracts from leaf, root, and stem of Garcinia buchananii revealed high activity of all three organs. To investigate the metabolite composition of the different parts of G. buchananii, an untargeted metabolomics approach using UPLC-ESI-TOF MS with simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-collision energy mass spectra (MS(e)) was performed. Unsupervised statistics (PCA) highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of the three organs. OPLS-DA revealed (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-1, (2R,3S)-morelloflavone, and (2R,3S)-volkensiflavone as the most decisive marker compounds discriminating leaf from root and stem extract. Leaves represent the best source to isolate GB-1, morelloflavone, and volkensiflavone. Root extract is the best organ to isolate xanthones and stem bark extract the best source to isolate (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone; the identified polyisoprenylated benzophenones are characteristic compounds for the leaf organ. Morelloflavone, volkensiflavone, and garcicowin C were isolated for the first time from G. buchananii, identified via MS, NMR, and CD spectroscopy, and showed in H2O2 scavenging, H/L-TEAC, and H/L-ORAC assays moderate to strong in vitro antioxidative activities. PMID:26226176

  16. Anticancer Activity of Garcinia morella on T-Cell Murine Lymphoma Via Apoptotic Induction

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Bhaswati; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Monisha, Javadi; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge (TK) based medicines have gained worldwide attention and presently the scientific community is focussing on proper pharmacological validation and identification of lead compounds for the treatment of various diseases. The North East region of India is the home of valuable traditional herbal remedies. Garcinia morella Desr. (Guttiferae) is one such medicinal plant used by traditional healers for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the leaf, bark and fruit of G. morella (GM) in different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The results of this study showed that GM methanol extracts possessed in vitro antioxidant and anticancer properties, where the fruit extract (GF) showed maximum activity. The anticancer activity was further confirmed by the results of in vivo administration of GF (200 mg/kg) for ten days to Dalton’s lymphoma (DLA) induced mice. GF extract significantly increased the mean survival time (MST) of the animals, decreased the tumor volume and restored the hematological and biochemical parameters. The present study for the first time reported the anticancer property of GF on DLA. Further from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of GF on DLA, it can be concluded that GF exerts its anticancer effect through induction of caspases and DNA fragmentation that ultimately leads to apoptosis. However, further experimentation is required to elucidate the active principle and validate these findings in various in vivo settings. PMID:26858645

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia species using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Lee, Stephanie; Choi, Franky Fung Kei; Xu, Gang; Liu, Xin; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-09-23

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a group of natural products isolated from different Garcinia species with a wide range of important biological activities. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to photodiode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF) method was developed to characterize 16 PPAPs in 10 Garcinia species. In source dissociation techniques based on cone voltage fragmentation were used to fragment the deprotonated molecules and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using ramping collision energy were used to further break down the resulting product ions. The resulting characteristic fragment ions were generated by cleavage of C1-C5 bond and C7-C8 bond through concerted pericyclic reaction, which is especially valuable for differentiating three types of PPAPs isomers. As such, two new PPAPs isomers present in minor amount in the extracts of Garcinia oblongifolia were tentatively characterized by comparing their tandem mass spectra to the known ones. In addition, an UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was validated for the quantitative determination of PPAPs. The method exhibited limits of detection from 2.7 to 21.4 ng mL(-1) and intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 3.7% and the recovery was in the range of 89-107% with RSD less than 9.0%. This UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method has successfully been applied to quantify 16 PPAPs in 32 samples of 10 Garcinia species, which were found to be a rich source of PPAPs. PMID:20869510

  18. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species. PMID:26773895

  19. Three new xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yating; Li, Dahong; Jia, Cuicui; Xue, Chunmei; Bai, Jiao; Li, Zhanlin; Hua, Huiming

    2016-04-01

    Three new prenylated xanthones, garcinexanthones G-I (1-3), together with fifteen known ones (4-18) were identified from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against HL-60 (human leukemia), A549 (human lung cancer), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Among them, compounds 7, 17, and 13 exhibited the most pronounced growth inhibitory activity against HL-60, A549, and MCF-7 cell lines with GI50 values of 1.68, 4.88, and 6.28 μM, respectively. PMID:26645396

  20. Cytotoxic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from the twigs of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Kan, Winnie L T; Zhou, Yan; Song, Jing-Zheng; Han, Quan-Bin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Cho, Chi-Hin; Rudd, John A; Lin, Ge; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-02-26

    An unusual polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol derivative unsubstituted at C-2 and C-6, garcicowin A (1), together with three other new (garcicowins B-D, 2-4) and nine known analogues, was isolated and characterized from the twigs of Garcinia cowa. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116) and against normal colon cells (CCD-18Co), and the results demonstrated their selective toxicity toward the cancer cells. PMID:20058933

  1. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    PubMed

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. PMID:21362142

  2. Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Cao, Peng; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1) and H (2), and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and immortalized HL7702 normal liver cells, whereby compounds 1, 5, 8, and 15-17 exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that 5 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, 1 and 16 at the G2/M phase, and 17 at the G1 phase, while 16 and 17 induced apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy analysis by GFP-LC3 puncta formation and western blotting suggested that 17 induced autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that these xanthones possess anticancer activities targeting cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy signaling pathways. PMID:26102071

  3. γ-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana pericarps as a dual agonist that activates Both PPARα and PPARδ.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Gamo, Kanae; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kawada, Teruo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Akao, Yukihiro; Tosa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    We tested the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ agonistic activity of a Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to develop a treatment for the metabolic syndrome, and demonstrated γ-mangostin to be an active compound on the basis of a luciferase reporter gene assay. γ-Mangostin induced the expression of the uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) gene which is related to energy expenditure and fat metabolism in L6 cells. We showed that γ-mangostin is a dual agonist that activates both PPARδ and PPARα. γ-Mangostin also induced the expression of acyl-CoA synthase and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A genes in HepG2 cells. These results suggest the potential of γ-mangostin as a preventive agent of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24317060

  4. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica Bedd.

    PubMed

    Aravind, A P Anu; Asha, K R T; Rameshkumar, K B

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica, a hitherto uninvestigated endemic species to the Western Ghats of south India, resulted in isolation and characterisation of the polyisoprenylated benzophenones 7-epi-nemorosone (1) and garcinol (2) along with biflavonoids GB-1a (3), GB-1 (4), GB-2 (5), morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside or fukugiside (7). The compounds were identified using various spectroscopic techniques, mainly through NMR and MS. The methanol extract and the biflavonoids 3, 4, 5 and 7 showed potential in vitro antioxidant activities. The IC50 value of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of compound 7 was 8.34 ± 2.12 μg/mL, comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid (3.2 ± 0.50 μg/mL). In the superoxide radical scavenging assay, compound 7 gave IC50 value of 6.95 ± 1.33 μg/mL close to standard ascorbic acid with IC50 value of 5.8 ± 0.25 μg/mL. Validated HPTLC estimation revealed G. travancorica as a rich source of morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside (7.12% dry wt. leaves). PMID:25982126

  5. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterisation of the anti-Listeria components of Garcinia kola seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, D; Basson, K A; Mayekiso, B; Buwa, L; Okoh, I A

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption chromatography was used to separate the bioactive constituents of the crude n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds. The silica gel 60 column fractions were eluted using the solvent combination of benzene: ethanol : ammonium hydroxide (BEA) in the ratio combination of 36 : 4 : 0.4 v/v. The fractions were tested for anti-Listeria activities by determining their MIC50, MIC90 or MIC against 4 Listeria isolates. The fractions were labelled BEA1 to BEA5 and 3 out of the 5 fractions eluted were active against the test Listeria species with MIC's ranging from MIC 0.57 mg/mL to MIC50 0.625 mg/mL. The most active fractions, BEA2 and BEA3, were subjected to gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify their composition. Fraction BEA2 constituted of 18 compounds mostly sterols and the BEA3 fraction contained 27 compounds with the most abundant compounds being fatty acids derivatives. The BEA2 fraction's interactions with antibiotics proved to be 100% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin whilst it exhibited 50% additivity and 50% synergism with penicillin G. However, all the interactions of the BEA2 fraction with each of the conventional antibiotics used were synergistic against the human listeriosis causative bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:25757343

  6. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively. PMID:25460314

  7. Xanthones with quinone reductase-inducing activity from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).

    PubMed

    Chin, Young-Won; Jung, Hyun-Ah; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-02-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a dichloromethane-soluble extract of Garcinia mangostana fruits has led to the isolation and identification of five compounds, including two xanthones, 1,2-dihydro-1,8,10-trihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-9-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3,2-a]xanthen-11-one (1) and 6-deoxy-7-demethylmangostanin (2), along with three known compounds, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (3), mangostanin (4), and alpha-mangostin (5). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined from analysis of their spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds in the present study together with eleven other compounds previously isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen, were tested in an in vitro quinone reductase-induction assay using murine hepatoma cells (Hepa 1c1c7) and an in vitro hydroxyl radical antioxidant assay. Of these, compounds 1-4 induced quinone reductase (concentration to double enzyme induction, 0.68-2.2microg/mL) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells and gamma-mangostin (6) exhibited hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (IC50, 0.20microg/mL). PMID:17991497

  8. Recent research on bioactive xanthones from natural medicine: Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Jia, Buyun; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Xuerui; Zhu, Guangyu; Chen, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Garcinia hanburyi, a tropical plant found in south Asia, has a special long history in the development of both medicine and art. This review mainly focuses on the pharmacy research of the bioactive compounds from the plant in recent years. Preparative and analysis separation methods were introduced. Moreover, the chemical structure of the isolated compounds was included. The studies of biological activities of the caged xanthones from the plant, including antitumor, anti-HIV-1, antibacterial, and neurotrophic activities, were reviewed in detail. Furthermore, the mechanisms of its antitumor activity were also reviewed. As mentioned above, some of the xanthones from G. hanburyi can be promising drug candidates, which is worth studying. However, we still need much evidence to prove their efficacy and safety. So, further research is critical for the future application of xanthones from G. hanburyi. PMID:26152816

  9. Anti-inflammatory phloroglucinols and terpenoids from Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ru; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Wang, Jih-Pyang; Wu, Ru-Rong; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2004-11-01

    Three new phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones K (1), L (2), and M (3), and two new terpenoids, garcinielliptones N (4) and O (5), have been isolated from the seeds of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures of 1-5 including their relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and supported by computer-generated molecular modeling. Compounds 2 and 3 showed potent inhibitory effects on the release of beta-glucuronidase, and on beta-glucuronidase and histamine, respectively, from peritoneal mast cells stimulated with p-methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine (compound 48/80) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compounds 2 and 3 showed potent effects on NO production in culture media of RAW 264.7 cells in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Compound 2 also showed a potent effect on NO production in culture media of N9 cells in response to LPS/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). PMID:15568764

  10. New depsidones and xanthone from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Siripong, Pongpun; Khumkratok, Suttira; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2016-06-01

    Two new depsidones, schomburgdepsidones A and B (1 and 2), and one new xanthone, schomburgxanthone A (3), together with eight known compounds (4-11) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all 11 compounds was evaluated against the KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7 and Hep G2 human cancer cell lines. Compound 7 performed a good cytotoxicity against the KB, Hela S-3 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 3.17-6.07μM. Compound 3 exhibited a good cytotoxicity against the KB cell line only, with an IC50 value of 8.14μM. PMID:27102610

  11. Complete NMR assignments of bioactive rotameric (3 → 8) biflavonoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-07-01

    The genus Garcinia is reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Garcinia hombroniana in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to isolate the chemical constituents from the bark of G. hombroniana and explore their possible pharmacological potential. Ethyl acetate extract afforded one new (1) and six (2-7) known 3 → 8 rotameric biflavonoids. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy together with electron ionization/ESI mass spectrometric techniques and were identified as (2R, 3S) volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (1), volkensiflavone (2), 4″-O-methyl-volkensiflavone (3), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), morelloflavone (5), 3″-O-methyl-morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (7). The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned by circular dichroism spectroscopy as 2R, 3S. The coexistence of conformers of isolated biflavonoids in solution at 25 °C in different solvents was confirmed by variable temperature NMR studies. At room temperature (25 °C), compounds 1-7 exhibited duplicate NMR signals, while at elevated temperature (90 °C), a single set of signals was obtained. Compound 5 showed significant in vitro antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. The antibacterial studies showed that compounds 5 and 6 are the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3 and 6 also showed moderate antituberculosis activity against H38 Rv. Based on the research findings, G. hombroniana could be concluded as a rich source of flavanone-flavone (3 → 8) biflavonoids that exhibit rotameric behaviour at room temperature and display significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24700704

  12. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal evaluation of Garcinia mangostana pericarp and α-mangostin, its major xanthone derivative.

    PubMed

    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Basudan, Omer A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Farag, Mohamed; Assaf, Mahmoud H; El Tahir, Kamaleldin H; Maes, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Five xanthone derivatives and one flavanol were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Garcinia mangostana. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and the major xanthone (α-mangostin) were evaluated in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. The major constituent α-mangostin was also checked for antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. cheleneoi, M. xenopi and M. intracellulare. Activity against P. falciparum (IC₅₀ 2.7 μg/mL) and T. brucei (IC₅₀ 0.5 μg/mL) were observed for the dichloromethane extract, however, with only moderate selectivity was seen based on a parallel cytotoxicity evaluation on MRC-5 cells (IC₅₀ 9.4 μg/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was inactive (IC₅₀ > 30 µg/mL). The major constituent α-mangostin showed rather high cytotoxicity (IC₅₀ 7.5 µM) and a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity profile. This in vitro study endorses that the antiprotozoal and antimicrobial potential of prenylated xanthones is non-conclusive in view of the low level of selectivity. PMID:24002136

  13. Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 μg/ml M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 μg/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). Conclusions The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude

  14. Novel and anti-inflammatory constituents of Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ru; Lin, Chun-Nan; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Wang, Jih-Pyang

    2003-05-01

    Four novel phloroglucinol derivatives, garcinielliptones A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), a novel triterpenoid, garcinielliptone E (5), and three known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data. Known compounds garsubellin A (6) and garcinielliptin oxide (7) showed potent inhibitory effects on the release of beta-glucuronidase, and beta-glucuronidase and histamine, respectively, from peritoneal mast cells stimulated with compound 48/80 in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 15.6+/-2.5, and 18.2+/-3.6 and 20.0+/-2.7 microM, respectively. Compound 7 showed potent inhibitory effects on the release of beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme from neutrophils stimulated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe(fMLP)/cytochalasin B (CB) in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 15.7+/-3.0 and 23.9+/-3.2 microM, respectively. Compound 7 also showed potent inhibitory effect on superoxide formation from neutrophils stimulated with fMLP/CB also in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 17.9+/-1.5 microM. PMID:12740842

  15. Antioxidant compounds from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Tong, Woei-Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah

    2016-08-01

    A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml). PMID:26999039

  16. An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX) for weight management.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Rao, C V S; Garis, R; Bramble, J D; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a safe, natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, a key enzyme which facilitates the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides. Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated the superior bioavailability of a novel calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax). Greater bioavailability of HCA-SX was observed when taken on an empty stomach. HCA-SX was also shown to exhibit concentration-dependent release of serotonin in isolated rat brain cortex, which may explain its appetite suppressive action. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, primary eye irritation and 90-day chronic toxicity studies, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation and mouse lymphoma tests, were assessed to determine the safety of HCA-SX. In the 90-day toxicity study, dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX were assessed on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathology in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. No remarkable toxicity results were detected, demonstrating the safety of HCA-SX. Furthermore, clinical studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HCA-SX over a period of eight weeks were conducted in 60 human volunteers. Subjects were given a 2,000 kcal diet/day, participated in a 30 min walking exercise program 5 days/week and given an oral dose of placebo or 4666.7 mg HCA-SX (providing 2,800 mg HCA) in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals, Body weight, BMI, lipid profiles, serum leptin, serotonin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites were determined at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Food intake, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced, while

  17. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L).

    PubMed

    Paengkoum, P; Phonmun, T; Liang, J B; Huang, X D; Tan, H Y; Jahromi, M F

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  18. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L)

    PubMed Central

    Paengkoum, P.; Phonmun, T.; Liang, J. B.; Huang, X. D.; Tan, H. Y.; Jahromi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  19. Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana Inhibit Advanced Glycation Endproducts Formation: Effect on Amadori Products, Cross-Linked Structures and Protein Thiols.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; El-Bassossy, Hany; Mohamed, Gamal A; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alshali, Khalid Z; Banjar, Zainy M

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) in body tissues plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Here, the inhibitory effect of bioactive metabolites isolated from fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana on AGE formation was investigated through bio-guided approach using aminoguanidine (AG) as a positive control. Including G. mangostana total methanol extract (GMT) in the reaction mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose or ribose inhibited the fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner. The bioassay guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of four bioactive constituents from the bioactive fraction; which were identified as: garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-glucopyranoside (2), epicatechin (3), and 2,3',4,5',6-pentahydroxybenzophenone (4). All the tested compounds significantly inhibited fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner whereas compound 3 (epicatechin) was found to be the most potent. In search for the level of action, addition of GMT, and compounds 2-4 inhibited fructosamine (Amadori product) and protein aggregation formation in both glucose and ribose. To explore the mechanism of action, it was found that addition of GMT and only compound (3) to reaction mixture increased protein thiol in both glucose and ribose while compounds 1, 2 and 4 only increased thiol in case of ribose. In conclusion, phenolic compounds 1-4 inhibited AGEs formation at the levels of Amadori product and protein aggregation formation through saving protein thiol. PMID:26907243

  20. Kolaviron, Biflavonoid Complex from the Seed of Garcinia kola Attenuated Angiotensin II- and Lypopolysaccharide-induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Nitric Oxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Adedapo, Adeolu Alex; Yakubu, Momoh Audu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid extract from Garcinia kola seeds has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, cardio-protective, nephro-protective and other arrays of chemopreventive capabilities but the mechanism of action is still not completely understood. Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative potential of KV in cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs). Effects of KV (25-100 μg/mL) on VSMC proliferation alone or following treatments with mitogen and proinflammatory agents Angiotensin II (Ag II, 10-6 M) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/mL) and effects on NO production were determined. Cellular proliferations were determined by MTT assay, nitric oxide (NO) level was determined by Griess assay. KV dose-and time dependently attenuated VSMC growth. Results: Treatment of VSMCs with Ag II and LPS significantly enhanced proliferation of the cell which was significantly attenuated by the treatment with KV. Treatment of VSMC with LPS significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) level in the media which was attenuated by KV. These results demonstrated anti-proliferative anti-inflammatory properties of KV as it clearly inhibited cellular proliferation induced by mitogens as well as LPS-induced inflammatory processes. Conclusion: Therefore, KV may mitigate cardiovascular conditions that involve cell proliferation, free radical generation and inflammatory processes such as hypertension, diabetes and stroke. However, the molecular mechanism of action of KV needs to be investigated. SUMMARY Angiotensin-induced cell proliferationKolaviron mitigates angiotensin-induced cell proliferationKolaviron ameliorates nitric oxide productionKolaviron offers antioxidant activity. Abbreviations Used: VSMCs: Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Ag II: Angiotensin II, KV: Kolaviron, LPS: lypopolysaccharide, NO: Nitric Oxide, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, MTT

  1. A new megastigmane sulphoglycoside and polyphenolic constituents from pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thu Huong; Le Huyen, Tram; Tran, Thi Minh; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Pham, Thanh Binh; Nguyen Tien, Dat

    2016-07-01

    A megastigmane sulphoglycoside together with three phenolic compounds were isolated from the water-soluble fraction of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana. The structure of the new compound was determined as 4-O-sulpho-β-d-glucopyranosyl abscisate (1) by spectroscopic data. Proanthocyanidin A2 (2) showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and DPPH scavenging activities with IC50 values of 3.46 and 11.6 μM, respectively. PMID:26727880

  2. Inhibition of human lipoprotein oxidation by morelloflavone and camboginol from Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Kongkachuay, Suyanee; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2007-06-01

    A biflavonoids, morelloflavone (1) and a prenyltated xanthone, camboginol (2), isolated from the fruits of Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz., exhibited strong antioxidation effects in both Fe2+ -mediated and non-metal induced human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidations. However, a well-known antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), was found less potent than both compounds based on the same test systems. PMID:17613824

  3. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Penduka, D; Buwa, L; Mayekiso, B; Basson, A K; Okoh, A I

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through MIC determination and only Benz2 and Benz3 were found to be active with MIC's ranging from 0.625 to 2.5 mg/mL. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed Benz2 to have 9 compounds whilst Benz3 had 7 compounds, with the major compounds in both fractions being 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3. β .) and 9,19-Cyclolanostan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3. β .). The Benz2 fraction was found to have mainly indifferent interactions with ampicillin and penicillin G whilst mainly additive interactions were observed with ciprofloxacin. The Benz3 fraction's interactions were found to be 50% synergistic with penicillin G and 25% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. A commercially available 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3. β .) was found not to exhibit any antiListerial activities at maximum test concentrations of 5 mg/mL, suggesting that the compound could be acting in synergy with the other compounds in the eluted fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. PMID:24527056

  4. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, D.; Buwa, L.; Mayekiso, B.; Basson, A. K.; Okoh, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through MIC determination and only Benz2 and Benz3 were found to be active with MIC's ranging from 0.625 to 2.5 mg/mL. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed Benz2 to have 9 compounds whilst Benz3 had 7 compounds, with the major compounds in both fractions being 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.β.) and 9,19-Cyclolanostan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3.β.). The Benz2 fraction was found to have mainly indifferent interactions with ampicillin and penicillin G whilst mainly additive interactions were observed with ciprofloxacin. The Benz3 fraction's interactions were found to be 50% synergistic with penicillin G and 25% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. A commercially available 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.β.) was found not to exhibit any antiListerial activities at maximum test concentrations of 5 mg/mL, suggesting that the compound could be acting in synergy with the other compounds in the eluted fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. PMID:24527056

  5. Chemistry of α-mangostin. Studies on the semisynthesis of minor xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Carlo F; Biagiotti, Marco; Pappalardo, Valeria M; Rabuffetti, Marco; Speranza, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    α-Mangostin is the major prenylated xanthone from Garcinia mangostana and it has been used also in recent times as starting material for the semisynthetic preparation of various biologically active derivatives. Its structure is characterised by the presence of few functional groups amenable to chemical manipulations, but present in the molecule in multiple instances (three phenolic hydroxyl groups, two prenyl chains and two unsubstituted aromatic carbons). This study represents a first approach to the systematic investigation of the reactivity of α-mangostin and describes the semisynthesis of some minor xanthones isolated from G. mangostana. PMID:25482370

  6. Xanthones from Garcinia paucinervis with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Hong; Li, Chen-Xi; Jia, Cui-Cui; Sun, Ya-Ting; Xue, Chun-Mei; Bai, Jiao; Hua, Hui-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Zhan-Lin

    2016-02-01

    Three new xanthones, paucinervins H-J (1-3), as well as eleven known compounds (4-14), were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis. The structures of the new compounds (1-3) were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and HR ESIMS. In vitro antiproliferative activity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells was tested, among which, compounds 2, 5, 6 and 7 exhibited strong growth inhibitory effects with GI50 values ranging from 1.30 to 9.08 μM, respectively. Preliminary SARs were also discussed. PMID:26659874

  7. Two Unusual Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols, Including a Pair of Enantiomers from Garcinia multiflora.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Min; Yi, Ping; Li, Yang; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Gu, Wei; Ma, Yuan; Huang, Lie-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yang, Chong-Lin; Li, Yan; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Two polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, garcimulins A and B ((±)-1 and 2), including a pair of enantiomers with the unique caged tetracyclo[5.4.1.1(1,5).0(9,13)]tridecane skeleton were isolated from Garcinia multiflora. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines in vitro (IC50 3.42-13.23 μM). The acidification of lysosomes in HeLa cell was obviously affected by compound 2. PMID:25867714

  8. [A new flavone from stems of Garcinia bracteata and its anti-TMV activity].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-mei; Zhou, Jun; Lou, Jie; Wang, Yue-de; Zhou, Kun; Dong, Wei; Gao, Xue-mei; Hu, Qiu-fen; Jiang, Zhi-yong

    2015-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the stems of Garcinia bracteata collected from Xishuangbanna resulted in the isolation of a new flavone. By analysis of the HRESIMS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, the structure of the new compound was determined as 7-methoxy-4',6-dihydroxy-8-isobutyryl-flavone(1). Compound 1 was also tested for its anti-tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) activity. Results suggested the 1 possessed remarkable anti-TMV activity, with an inhibition rate of 28.2%. PMID:27071257

  9. Diagnostic filtering to screen polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia oblongifolia by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Dan; Li, Hao-Hao; Wang, Hui; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-03-17

    A novel multistage MS approach, insource collision-induced dissociation (CID) combined with Time Aligned Parallel (TAP) fragmentation, was established to study the fragmentation behavior of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), which could provide a more reliable fragmentation relationship between precursor and daughter ions. The diagnostic ions for different subtypes of PPAPs and their fragmentation behaviors have been summarized. Moreover, a new and reliable multidimensional analytical workflow that combines ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), data-independent mass spectrometry (MS(E)), and tandem MS with ion mobility (IM) has been optimized and established for the analysis of PPAPs in the plant Garcinia oblongifolia by diagnostic filtering. Diagnostic fragment ions were used to selectively screen PPAPs from extracts, whereas IM coupled to MS was used to maximize the peak capacity. Under the optimized UHPLC-IM-MS(E) and UHPLC-IM-MS/MS method, 140 PPAPs were detected from the crude extract of G. oblongifolia, and 10 of them were unambiguously identified by comparing them to the reference compounds. Among those PPAPs, 7 pairs of coeluting isobaric PPAPs that were indistinguishable by conventional UHPLC-HRMS alone, were further resolved using UHPLC-IM-MS. It is anticipated that the proposed method will be extended to the rapid screening and characterization of the other targeted or untargeted compounds, especially these coeluting isomers in complex samples. PMID:26920776

  10. The co-pigmentation of anthocyanin isolated from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia Mangostana L.) as Natural Dye for Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munawaroh, H.; adillah, G. F.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Hanif, Q. A.; Hidayat, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2016-02-01

    Study of color stability of anthocyanin from extract mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) with co-pigmentation method has been conducted. Malic acid and ascorbic acid used as a co-pigment to stabilize the anthocyanin structure through formation of new binding between anthocyanin. Anthocyanin from mangosteen pericarp were isolated by several steps, including maceration, extraction, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The anthocyanin separation was conducted by TLC, while the identification of functional groups of those compound, were used FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for spectra analysis. Ultraviolet- visible absorption spectra have represented differences absorbance and color intensity in various pH. Copigmentation with malic acid and ascorbic acid in many composition and temperature were also well described. Meanwhile, anthocyanin-malic acid and anthocyanin-ascorbic acid have color retention higher than that of pure anthocyanin. Maximum color retention has been achieved at a ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 for ascorbic acid and malic acid, respectively. Therefore, the addition of ascorbic acid and malic acid as a copigment shows the ability to protect color retention of anthocyanin (mangosteen pericarp) from degradation process. The better efficiency of DSSC (η) have been achieved, whereas n of controlled anthocyanin, anthocyanin-ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin-malic acid were 0,1996%, 0,2922%, 0,3029%, respectively.

  11. Fingerprinting and validation of a LC-DAD method for the analysis of biflavanones in Garcinia kola-based antimalarial improved traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Tshibangu, P Tshisekedi; Kapepula, P Mutwale; Kapinga, M J Kabongo; Lupona, H Kabika; Ngombe, N Kabamba; Kalenda, Dibungi T; Jansen, O; Wauters, J N; Tits, M; Angenot, L; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Marini, R D; Frédérich, M

    2016-09-01

    African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ensuring the health of population and in order to advance towards improved traditional medicines (ITMs). In this paper chromatographic methods were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of a per os antimalarial ITM containing Garcinia kola. The identified analytical markers were used to establish TLC and HPLC fingerprints. G. kola seeds were analysed by HPLC to confirm the identity of the extract used by the Congolese manufacturer in the ITM. The main compounds (GB1, GB2, GB-1a and Kolaflavanone) were isolated by preparative TLC and identified by UPLC-MS and NMR. For the quantification of the major compound GB1, a simple and rapid experimental design was applied to develop an LC method, and then its validation was demonstrated using the total error strategy with the accuracy profile as a decision tool. The accurate results were observed within 0.14-0.45mg/mL range of GB1 expressed as naringenin. The extracts used in several batches of the analysed oral solutions contained GB1 (expressed as naringenin) within 2.04-2.43%. Both the fingerprints and the validated LC-DAD were found suitable for the quality control of G. kola-based raw material and finished products, respectively. PMID:27343901

  12. Comparative study on the efficacy of Garcinia kola in reducing some heavy metal accumulation in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, C R; Owu, D U; Ufearo, C S; Iwuala, M O E

    2011-05-17

    Garcinia kola is regarded as an antidote and anti-hepatotoxic agent. We examined its protection ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. The ground seed was mixed with rat feed (5%, w/w) and fed to rats while Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. Garcinia kola was administered either at the same time with the metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Garcinia kola could not reverse the weight reduction in the heavy metal exposed groups although it offers more protection and aid greater elimination of heavy metals from the liver. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection by Garcinia kola to Cd (72.4%) and Pb (56.2%) accumulation when compared to Hg (40%) at week 2 which was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2. At week 6, the percentage protection to both Hg (64.2%) and Cd (62.2%) were comparable to each other while protection to Pb (49.9%) accumulation was significantly (P<0.01) reduced. The percentage protection was time-dependent in some groups but treatment during and after the exposure provided a greater protection. Garcinia kola has the highest hepatoprotective effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection against Pb toxicity in rats and its administration is beneficial in reducing heavy metal accumulation in the liver. PMID:21458555

  13. Identification of hepatoprotective xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, guided with tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in HL-7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Qianyu; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Lin, Ligen

    2015-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative damage in human normal hepatocytes (HL-7702), led to the identification of 10 known xanthones. Among them, γ-mangostin (γ-Man) exhibited the most potent activity to attenuate t-BHP induced hepatocyte injury. γ-Man significantly ameliorated t-BHP induced reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cell nuclei morphology change in HL-7702 cells. t-BHP decreased the intracellular levels of key enzymes including glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was totally reversed by γ-Man. Moreover, γ-Man significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione, resulting in the alleviation of oxidative stress. The above results suggest γ-Man is a potential hepatoprotective agent against t-BHP induced oxidative injury, which may benefit the further application of G. mangostana as a health food. PMID:26189454

  14. Antimicrobial effects of three tropical plant extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Okigbo, R N; Mmeka, E C

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of Cymbopogon citatrus (lemongrass) and Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and the seed extracts of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) were carried out. G. kola had effect only on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with no inhibition on Candida albicans. Ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Cymbopogon citratus showed inhibition on the three organism but G. kola ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts only inhibited S. aureus and E. coli with no inhibition on Candida albicans. The organism's susceptibility varied with more inhibition to S. aureus and least to Candida albicans. PMID:20161941

  15. New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lin, Li-Gen

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. This condition, and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be a promising source for developing effective and safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree, and its fruit, mangosteen, is called 'Queen of Fruit'. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medicinal agent for treatment of various diseases. Products derived from mangosteen are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. This review summarizes the recent chemical and pharmacological studies related to G. mangostana, including weight reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activity. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing and treating obesity, which should encourage more interest in the development of relevant therapeutic methods. PMID:25520256

  16. Mangostanaxanthones I and II, new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaaban, Mona I A; Ross, Samir A

    2014-10-01

    Two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (3) and II (5) were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, along with four known xanthones: 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (1), parvifolixanthone C (2), α-mangostin (4), and rubraxanthone (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, UV, 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. Compounds 3 and 5 displayed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 12.07 and 14.12 μM, respectively using DPPH assay. Compounds 4-6 had weak to moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while demonstrated promising action against Bacillus cereus with MICs 0.25, 1.0, and 1.0mg/mL, respectively. The tested compounds were inactive against Candida albicans. However, they showed selective antifungal potential toward Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 3 and 4 possessed quorum-sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. PMID:25128900

  17. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic Myrothecium spp. isolated from Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella.

    PubMed

    Ruma, Karmakar; Sunil, Kumar; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy

    2015-11-01

    Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella, medicinal plants are endemic to Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Sixteen Myrothecium isolates were obtained from the tissues of bark and twigs of these plants. The purpose of this study was to explore the antimicrobial activity and genetic variability of the endophytic Myrothecium isolates. The antimicrobial activity as well as the genetic diversity of endophytic Myrothecium species was investigated through RAPD, ISSR and ITS sequence analysis. Myrothecium isolates were genotypically compared by RAPD and ISSR techniques, 510 and 189 reproducible polymorphic bands were obtained using 20 RAPD and ten ISSR primers respectively. The isolates grouped into four main clades and subgroups using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis. rDNA ITS sequence analysis presented better resolution for characterising the isolates of Myrothecium spp. The clustering patterns of the isolates were almost similar when compared with RAPD and ISSR dendograms. The results signify that RAPD, ISSR and ITS analysis can be employed to distinguish the genetic diversity of the Myrothecium species. The endophytic and pathogenic strains were compared by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour joining methods. One isolate (JX862206) amongst the 16 Myrothecium isolates exhibited potent antibacterial and as well as anti-Candida activity. PMID:26409457

  18. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Desmond N; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J; Lipke, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis. PMID:26195512

  19. Anti-biofilm activity of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia mangostana L.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong T M; Vo, Bac H; Tran, Nhung T; Van, Quyen D

    2015-11-01

    This study was carried out to further examine the anti-biofilm activity of α-mangostin (αMG) isolated from Garcinia mangostana L. grown in Vietnam, against a strongly biofilm producing Streptococcus mutans, a major causative agent of dental caries. The obtained data indicated that topical applications (twice-daily, 60 s exposure each) of 150 μM αMG during biofilm formation on the surfaces of hydroxyapatite disks (sHA) by S. mutans UA159 resulted in 30.7% reduction in biofilm accumulation after 68 h of growth. The treatment did not affect the viability of S. mutans cells in the biofilms. The surface activities of two key enzymes responsible for biofilm formation, i.e. the glycosyltransferases GtfB and GtfC, were reduced by 20 and 35%, respectively (vs. vehicle control, P < 0.05). Interestingly, αMG specifically targeted S. mutans in mixed biofilms, resulting in the decrease of the S. mutans population and total biofilm biomass. αMG was also found to accumulate within the biofilm of S. mutans up to 4.5 μg/biofilm, equal to a concentration of >10 μM/biofilm. In conclusion, this study confirmed anti-biofilm activity of αMG against S. mutans. A brief exposure to αMG may suppress biofilm formation by targeting key enzymes imvolved in biofilm formation. PMID:26618571

  20. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) Presents Genotoxic Effects in Different Cells of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, Peterson Menezes; de Souza Marques, Eduardo; Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; Andrade, Sergio Faloni; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2013-01-01

    Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans. PMID:24250785

  1. Morelloflavone from Garcinia dulcis as a novel biflavonoid inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Tuansulong, Ku-Aida; Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Pinkaew, Decha; Fujise, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid from Garcinia dulcis previously shown to have hypocholesterolemic activity, was examined for its effect on HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. By using the catalytic domain of house mouse HMG-CoA reductase, morelloflavone was found to inhibit the enzyme activity by competing with HMG-CoA whereas it was non-competitive towards NADPH. The inhibition constants (K(i)) with respect to HMG-CoA and NADPH were 80.87 ± 0.06 µm and 103 ± 0.07 µm, respectively. Both flavonoid subunits of this compound, naringenin and luteolin, equally competed with HMG-CoA with K(i) of 83.58 ± 4.37 µm and 83.59 ± 0.94 µm, respectively, and were also non-competitive with NADPH (K(i) of 182 ± 0.67 µm and 188 ± 0.14 µm, respectively). Due to these findings, we suggest that each subunit of morelloflavone would occupy the active site of the enzyme, thereby blocking access of its substrate. The present study thus demonstrates the ability of morelloflavone from G. dulcis to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase in vitro. As a result, this biflavonoid might serve as a new candidate for the future development of hypocholesterolemic agents. PMID:20734327

  2. Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus

    PubMed Central

    Sunkar, Swetha; Nachiyar, C Valli

    2012-01-01

    Objective To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity. PMID:23593575

  3. Effect of dehusked Garcinia kola seeds on the overall pharmacokinetics of quinine in healthy Nigerian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Igbinoba, Sharon I; Onyeji, Cyprian O; Akanmu, Moses A; Soyinka, Julius O; Pullela, Srirama Sarma V V; Cook, James M; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of concurrent ingestion of Garcinia kola seed on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy Nigerian volunteers were assigned into 2 groups (A and B; n = 12 per group) on the basis of G. kola dose orally ingested. Each subject received 600 mg quinine sulfate before and after ingesting 12.5 g of G. kola once daily for 7 days (group A) or 12.5 g twice daily for 6 days and once on the seventh day (group B). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma quinine and its metabolite (3-hydroxyquinine) using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. Concurrent administration of quinine with G. kola reduced quinine tmax by 48% (group A), mean Cmax by 19% and 26% in groups A and B, respectively, and slight reduction in mean AUC0- ∞ of quinine in both groups. 3-hydroxyquinine Cmax also reduced by 29% and 32%; AUC0-∞ by 13% and 9%, respectively. The point estimates of the T/R ratio of the geometric means for all Cmax obtained and only the AUC0-∞ at a higher dose of G. kola were outside the 80%-125% bioequivalence range. In conclusion, an herb-drug interaction was noted with concurrent quinine and G. kola administration. PMID:25328082

  4. Nitrosatable amines and nitrosamide formation in natural stimulants: Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Mende, P; Pfundstein, B; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1995-08-01

    Three varieties of kola nut, Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola, of Nigerian origin, were analysed for their content of primary and secondary amines, and assessed for their relative methylating potential due to nitrosamide formation. Primary and secondary amines were determined as benzene sulfonamides by gas chromatography/thermal energy analysis (GC/TEA). Dimethylamine, methylamine, ethylamine and isopentylamine were detected in all kola nut varieties, while pyrrolidine, piperidine and isobutylamine were detected in one or more varieties. Estimated average total daily intake of aliphatic amines by a typical kola nut chewer varied from 260 to 1040 micrograms/day for secondary amines and from 2430 to 9710 micrograms/day for primary amines. Methylating activity of the nitrosated kola nuts, expressed as N-nitroso-N-methylurea equivalents, was also determined by GC/TEA. Methylating activity was significantly higher in kola nuts (170-490 micrograms/kg) than has ever been reported for a fresh plant product. These data suggest that the possible role of kola nut chewing in human cancer aetiology should be explored in countries where kola nuts are widely consumed as stimulants. PMID:7672735

  5. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Desmond N.; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis. PMID:26195512

  6. Natural Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana with Multifunctional Activities for the Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Nan; Li, Qian; Jing, Ming-Hua; Alba, Espargaró; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Sabaté, Raimon; Han, Yi-Fan; Pi, Rong-Biao; Lan, Wen-Jian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Jing-Kao

    2016-07-01

    Natural xanthones have diversity pharmacological activities. Here, a series of xanthones isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana Linn, named α-Mangostin, 8-Deoxygartanin, Gartanin, Garciniafuran, Garcinone C, Garcinone D, and γ-Mangostin were investigated. Biological screening performed in vitro and in Escherichia coli cells indicated that most of the xanthones exhibited significant inhibition of self-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and also β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, acted as potential antioxidants and biometal chelators. Among these compounds, α-Mangostin, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin showed better antioxidant properties to scavenge Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical than Trolox, and potent neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death partly by up-regulating HO-1 protein level and then scavenging reactive oxygen species. Moreover, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin could be able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. These findings suggest that the natural xanthones have multifunctional activities against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and could be promising compounds for the therapy of AD. PMID:27038926

  7. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs

    PubMed Central

    Padhye, Subhash; Ahmad, Aamir; Oswal, Nikhil; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as an anti-cancer agent, and it is increasingly being realized that garcinol is a pleiotropic agent capable of modulating key regulatory cell signaling pathways. Here we have summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on garcinol and its observed biological activities. We have also provided an explanation of observed properties based on its chemical structure and provided an insight into the structure and properties of chalcones, the precursors of garcinol. The available data is promising but more detailed investigations into the various properties of this compound, particularly its anti-cancer activity are urgently needed, and it is our hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this nature's wonder agent. PMID:19725977

  8. Effect of dehusked Garcinia kola seed on the overall pharmacokinetics of quinine in healthy Nigerian volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Igbinoba, Sharon I.; Onyeji, Cyprian O.; Akanmu, Moses A.; Soyinka, Julius O.; Pullela, Srirama Sarma V.V; Cook, James M.; Nathaniel, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of concurrent ingestion of Garcinia kola seed on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy Nigerian volunteers were assigned into two groups (A and B; n = 12 per group) on the basis of G. kola dose orally ingested. Each subject received 600mg quinine sulphate before and after ingesting 12.5g of G. kola once daily for seven days (Group A) or 12.5g twice daily for six days and once on the seventh day (Group B). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma quinine and its metabolite, (3-hydroxyquinine) using a validated HPLC method. Concurrent administration of quinine with G. kola reduced quinine tmax by 48% (group A), mean Cmax by 19% and 26% in groups A and B, and slight reduction in mean AUC0–∞ of quinine in both groups. 3-hydroxyquinine Cmax also reduced by 29% and 32%; AUC0–∞ by 13% and 9% respectively. The point estimates of the T/R ratio of the geometric means for all Cmax obtained and only the AUC0–∞ at a higher dose of G. kola were outside the 80–125% bioequivalence range. In conclusion, an herb-drug interaction was noted with concurrent quinine and G. kola administration. PMID:25328082

  9. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex of Garcinia kola seeds modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Ayepola, Omolola R; Cerf, Marlon E; Brooks, Nicole L; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is a complex disease that involves increased production of free radicals which is a strong stimulus for the release of pro-inflammatory factors. We evaluated the renal protective effect of kolaviron (KV) - a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of 5 flavonoids, in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: untreated controls (C); normal rats treated with kolaviron (C+KV); untreated diabetic rats (D); kolaviron treated diabetic rats (D+KV). A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg) was used for the induction of diabetes. Renal function parameters were estimated in a clinical chemistry analyzer. Markers of oxidative stress in the kidney homogenate were analyzed in a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader and Bio-plex Promagnetic bead-based assays was used for the analysis of inflammatory markers. The effect of kolaviron on diabetes-induced apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay. In the diabetic rats, alterations in antioxidant defenses such as an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were observed. There was no difference in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Diabetes induction increased apoptotic cell death and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α with no effect on IL-10. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation and increased ORAC and GSH concentration in renal tissues. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats also suppressed renal IL-1β. The beneficial effects of kolaviron on diabetes-induced kidney injury may be due to its inhibitory action on oxidative stress, IL-1β production and apoptosis. PMID:25481391

  10. Apoptosis-mediated antiproliferative activity of friedolanostane triterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Garcinia celebica against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    SUBARNAS, ANAS; DIANTINI, AJENG; ABDULAH, RIZKY; ZUHROTUN, ADE; NUGRAHA, PATRIA A.; HADISAPUTRI, YUNI E.; PUSPITASARI, IRMA M.; YAMAZAKI, CHIHO; KUWANO, HIROYUKI; KOYAMA, HIROSHI

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of Garcinia celebica strongly inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. The present study focused on investigating the active anticancer and antiproliferative compound from the G. celebica leaves and assessing its mechanism of action. Ethanol extracts of G. celebica were fractionated based on their polarity using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water. The antiproliferative properties were tested in vitro against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The active compound was subsequently isolated using column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance. The characterized compound was also tested for its antiproliferative properties and the mechanism by which it induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by western blot analysis of the activated apoptotic proteins. This resulted in the isolation of a friedolanostane triterpenoid, which was determined to be methyl-3α, 23-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanstan-8,14,24-trien-26-oat. This compound inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 82 and 70 µM for the 24 and 48 h treatments, respectively. Furthermore, the western blot analysis suggested that the compound exerted its anticancer activities by promoting apoptosis through the inhibition of the oncogenic protein Akt, thereby increasing the expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. These results suggest that methyl-3α,23-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanstan-8,14,24-trien-26-oat is the anticancer compound found in G. celebica, providing a basis for its potential use in cancer disease management. PMID:26870339

  11. Dataset of SSR markers for ISSR-Suppression-PCR to detect genetic variation in Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we present 15 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers with the motifs (AC)n, (GA)n, and (AC)n(AG)n using a ISSR-Suppression-PCR technique in order to discriminate Garcinia mangostana from diverse geographical origins in Peninsular Malaysia. A few loci showed differences between 3 and 6 bp in allele size, indicating that there are some polymorphisms between individuals correlating to the number of SSR repeats that may be useful for differentiate of genotypes. Collectively, these data show that the ISSR-Suppression-PCR is a valuable method to illustrate genetic variation of selected G. mangostana in Malaysia. PMID:27617279

  12. Cylindroxanthones A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Ersam, Taslim; Fatmawati, Sri; Siripong, Pongpun; Aree, Thammarat; Tip-pyang, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Three new xanthones, cylindroxanthones A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The molecular structure of 1 was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These three xanthones were evaluated regarding their cytotoxicity against KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7, and Hep G2 cancer cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 value of 2.36 μM. PMID:26611370

  13. Effectiveness of primate seed dispersers for an "oversized" fruit, Garcinia benthamii.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Kim R; Brockelman, Warren Y; Saralamba, Chanpen; Nathalang, Anuttara

    2015-10-01

    The largest fruits found in tropical forests may depend on complementary seed dispersal strategies. These fruits are dispersed most effectively by megafauna, but populations can persist where megafauna are absent or erratic visitors. Smaller animals often consume these large fruits, but their capacity to disperse these seeds effectively has rarely been assessed. We evaluated the contributions of gibbons (Hylobates lar) and other frugivores in the seed dispersal of the megafaunal fruit Garcinia benthamii, using the SDE (seed dispersal effectiveness) landscape. Gibbons preferentially consumed G. benthamii fruits and were the main seed disperser that we observed. However, gibbons became satiated when availability was high, with 57% of fruits falling to the ground unhandled. Recruitment of seedlings from gibbon-dispersed seeds was also very low. Elephants consumed G. benthamii fruit, but occurred at low density and were rare visitors to the trees. We suggest that gibbons might complement the seed dispersal role of elephants for G. benthamii, allowing limited recruitment in areas (such as the study site) where elephants occur at low density. Fruit availability varied between years; when availability was low, gibbons reliably consumed most of the crop and dispersed some seeds that established seedlings, albeit at low numbers (2.5 seedlings per crop). When fruit availability was high, the fruit supply overwhelmed the gibbons and other arboreal frugivores, ensuring a large abundance of fruit available to terrestrial seed dispersers. Although gibbons effectively dispersed more seeds at these times (20.7 seedlings per crop), there was the potential for elephants to move many more seeds. Complementary seed dispersal strategies may be important for megafaunal fruit, because they ensure that very large fruits are able to benefit from megafaunal dispersal but also persist where this dispersal becomes erratic. However, our data suggest that smaller seed dispersers might not be

  14. Efficacy of Slim339 in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects.

    PubMed

    Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on body weight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in body weight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559

  15. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity. PMID:26090459

  16. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity. PMID:26090459

  17. New Dietary Supplements for Obesity: What We Currently Know.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and its associated cardiometabolic alterations currently are considered an epidemic; thus, their treatment is of major importance. The cornerstone for such treatment involves therapeutic lifestyle changes; however, the vast majority of cases fail and/or significant weight loss is maintained only in the short term because of lack of compliance. The popularity of dietary supplements for weight management has increased, and a wide variety of these products are available over the counter. However, the existing scientific evidence is insufficient to recommend their safe use. Hence, the purpose of this article is to review the clinical effects, proposed mechanism of action, and safety profile of some of the new dietary supplements, including white bean extract, Garcinia cambogia, bitter orange, Hoodia gordonii, forskolin, green coffee, glucomannan, β-glucans, chitosan, guar gum, and raspberry ketones. PMID:27053066

  18. Natural products: a safest approach for obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Neeru; Yadav, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize adverse reactions associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The use of natural products as medicine has been documented for hundreds of years in various traditional systems of medicines throughout the world. This review focuses on the medicinal plants such as Achyranthus aspera, Camellia sinensis, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, etc., being used traditionally in Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Chinese, etc., systems of medicine. The review also highlights recent reported phytochemicals such as escins, perennisosides, dioscin, gracillin, etc., and the various extracts of the plants like Nelumbo nucifera, Panax japonicas, Cichorium intybus, Cyperus rotundus, Paeonia suffruticosa, etc., which have been successfully identified for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22821661

  19. Screening of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia species using precursor ion discovery (PID) scan and ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Song, Jing-Zheng; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Li, Song-Lin; Han, Quan-Bin; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2009-10-01

    A strategy was newly developed to rapidly screen polycyclic polyprenylated acyl-phloroglucinols (PPAPs) from the plant matrices of nine Garcinia species using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with comprehensive mass spectrometric approaches including precursor ion discovery (PID) and tandem mass (MS/MS) scans. The PPAPs share the same diagnostic product ion at m/z 177.02 in positive MS/MS scan, which may be increased as the base peak by ramping the cone voltage from 45 to 100 V. With this ramping cone voltage PID scan, it is feasible to selectively screen the PPAPs from 29 samples of nine Garcinia species. This approach has proven to be a powerful, highly selective, and sensitive tool for rapid screening and detection of nontargeted components in natural products before the purification and structural elucidation process. PMID:19643632

  20. Anti-obesity Effect of Yogurt Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 in Diet-induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of yogurt fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 in diet-induced obese rats. To examine the effects, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on six different diets, as follows: Group A was fed an ND and orally administrated saline solution; Group B, an HFD and orally administrated saline solution; Group C, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt fermented by ABT-3 and L. plantarum Q180; Group D, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt with added Garcinia cambogia extract, fermented by ABT-3 and L. plantarum Q180; Group E, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt fermented by L. plantarum Q180; and Group F, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt with added Garcinia cambogia extract, fermented by L. plantarum Q180 for eight weeks. After eight weeks, the rate of increase in bodyweight was 5.14%, 6.5%, 3.35% and 10.81% lower in groups C, D, E and F, respectively, compared with group B; the epididymal fat weight of groups E and F was significantly lower than that of group B; and the level of triglyceride and leptin was significantly reduced in groups C, D, E and F compared to group B. In addition, the level of AST was reduced in group C compared to the other groups. To examine the effects of yogurt on the reduction of adipocyte size, the adipocyte sizes were measured. The number of large-size adipose tissue was less distributed in groups A, C, D, E and F than in group B. PMID:27499667

  1. Kolaviron, a Garcinia biflavonoid complex ameliorates hyperglycemia-mediated hepatic injury in rats via suppression of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia-induced liver injury. Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds have been shown to possess anti- inflammatory properties which has not been explored in diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of KV on pro-inflammatory proteins in the liver of diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Kolaviron (100 mg/kg) was administered orally five times a week for six weeks. The concentrations of cytokines and chemokine were measured using Bio-plex Pro™ magnetic bead-based assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). Plasma glucose and serum biomarkers of liver dysfunction were analyzed with diagnostic kits in an automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Insulin concentration was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Result Kolaviron (100mg/kg) treatment significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction. Serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes were significantly reduced in kolaviron treated diabetic rats. Kolaviron prevented diabetes induced increase in the hepatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the hepatoprotective effects of kolaviron in diabetic rats may be partly associated with its modulating effect on inflammatory responses. PMID:24359406

  2. Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, some of the xanthones from mangosteen have been found to influence specific enzyme activities, such as aromatase, HIV-1 protease, inhibitor κB kinase, quinone reductase, sphingomyelinase, topoisomerase and several protein kinases, and they also modulate histamine H1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding. Several synthetic procedures for active xanthones and their analogs have been conducted to obtain a better insight into structure-activity relationships for this compound class. This short review deals with progress made in the structural characterization of the chemical constituents of mangosteen, as well as the biological activity of pure constituents of this species and synthetic methods for the mangosteen xanthones. PMID:21562610

  3. Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. We found that the position and intensity of characteristic peaks at 3600-3100 cm(-) (1) in IR spectra allowed discrimination of G. mangostana from different locations. Further principal component analysis (PCA) of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan (South) were clustered together in one group while samples from Perak, Kedah, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu (North and East Coast) were in another clustered group. PMID:27257614

  4. A new benzoylphloroglucinol derivative with an adamantyl skeleton and other constituents from Garcinia multiflora: effects on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung

    2012-01-01

    A novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative, garcimultiflorone D (1), with an unusual adamantyl-caged skeleton was isolated from the fruits of Garcinia multiflora, together with four known compounds. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D/2D-NMR and mass-spectrometric analyses. Garcimultiflorone D (1) exhibited inhibitory activities with IC(50) values of 7.21±1.07 and 6.01±0.37 μg/ml against fMLP/CB-induced superoxide anion generation and elastase release, respectively. PMID:22253107

  5. Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

    1999-12-15

    Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

  6. Neuroprotective effects of xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2014-08-01

    Lead poisoning is a common environmental toxicity and low level of lead exposure is responsible for neurobehavioral or intelligence defects. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetycholinesterase (AChE) dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice. ICR mice were exposed to lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1%) with or without xanthone co-administration (100 and 200mg/kgBW/day) for 38days. Xanthone possesses a high phenolic content, which is positive correlation with its antioxidant activity (R(2)=0.98). The IC50 of xanthone on scavenging free radical activities, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in cell-free system were 0.48±0.08, 1.88±0.09, 2.20±0.03 and 0.98±0.40mg/mL, respectively. We found that Pb induced AChE dysfunction and memory deficit in a dose dependent manner, indicated by in vitro and in vivo studies. However, xanthone significantly restored AChE activity in the blood and brains of mice and prevented Pb-induced neurobehavioral defect indicators with Forced Swimming and Morris water maze tests. Xanthone treatment improved all indicators compared to the Pb-treated group. In conclusion, xanthone alleviates Pb-induced neurotoxicity, in part, by suppression of oxidative damage and reversing AChE activity with a reduction in learning deficit and memory loss. PMID:24795231

  7. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation. PMID:17566886

  8. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Nigerian chewing sticks.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, O; Xu, H X; Lee, S F

    1999-12-01

    Ten aqueous extracts from wooden chewing sticks widely used in Nigeria for teeth cleaning were studied for antibacterial activities against 25 different bacteria using an agar diffusion assay. The extracts from five sticks, namely Garcinia kola, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens, Sorindeia warneckei and Vitex doniana, exhibited strong activities against a wide spectrum of bacteria including medically and dentally relevant bacteria. Notably, these five chewing stick extracts showed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from Vernonia amygdalina, Fagara zanthoxyloides and Massularia acuminata also showed activities against bacteria significant to periodontal disease. Methanol extracts prepared from G. kola, A. leiocarpus and V. doniana were further fractionated by solvent extraction. Results showed that the antibacterial activities were distributed into different fractions suggesting that the sticks contain different active antibacterial principles. In conclusion, the results showed that most of the Nigerian chewing sticks do contain antibacterial activities which may contribute to the reported anticaries effect of chewing sticks. These sticks may be sources for new lead antibacterial agents for therapeutic or preventive applications. PMID:10594937

  9. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Voravuthikunchai, S P; Kitpipit, L

    2005-06-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of ten traditional Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their ability to inhibit 35 hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nine medicinal plants displayed activity against all isolates tested. Ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria were most effective, with MICs for MRSA isolates of 0.05-0.4, 0.2-0.4 and 0.2-0.4 mg/mL, respectively, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively. MBCs for MRSA isolates were 0.1-0.4, 1.6-3.2 and 0.4-1.6 mg/mL, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 were 0.4, 3.2 and 1.6 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:15882206

  10. A new NMR approach for structure determination of thermally unstable biflavanones and application to phytochemicals from Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Salger, Mathias; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Previous activity-guided phytochemical studies on Garcinia buchananii stem bark, which is traditionally used in Africa to treat various gastrointestinal and metabolic illnesses, revealed xanthones, polyisoprenylated benzophenones, flavanone-C-glycosides, biflavonoids, and/or biflavanones as bioactive key molecules. Unequivocal structure elucidation of biflavonoids and biflavanones by means of NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the hindered rotation of the monomers around the C-C axis (atropisomerism), resulting in a high spectral complexity. In order to facilitate an unrestricted rotation, NMR spectra are usually recorded at elevated temperatures, commonly over 80 °C, which effects in a single set of resonance signals. However, under these conditions, one of the target compounds of this investigation, (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone (1), undergoes degradation. Therefore, we demonstrated in the present study that the 1,1-ADEQUATE could be successfully used as a powerful alternative approach to confirm the C-C connectivities in 1, avoiding detrimental conditions. However, a moderate increase in temperature up to 50 °C was sufficient to deliver sharp signals in the proton NMR experiment of (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-isomanniflavanone (2) and (2″R,3″R)-preussianone (3). In addition, two new compounds could be isolated, namely (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-2 7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone-7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), and whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. The aforementioned compounds exhibited high anti-oxidative capacity in the H2O2 scavenging, hydrophilic Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (H-TEAC) and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC) assays. PMID:26195084

  11. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-Dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  12. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  13. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-12-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

  14. Stability of cough linctus (streptol) formulated from named medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Iwu, Maurice; Okunji, Christopher; Tchimene, Michel; Anele, Ngozi; Chah, Kennedy; Osonwa, Uduma; Akpa, Paul Achile; Onunkwo, Godswill Chukwunweike

    2009-03-01

    Extracts of named medicinal herbs (Garcinia kola, Zingiber oificinale, Aframonum melequeta and Ocimum viride) were formulated into an antitussive preparation to alleviate cough. Some physical properties of the cough syrup formulation evaluated were: specific gravity, pH, viscosity, content uniformity, and shelf life. The specific gravity and viscosity of the formulations were stable on storage, with glycerin-based formulations having higher values. The pH of the formulation varied from 4.2 to 5.3 and was also stable on storage. Glycerin-based formulations had lower pH values. The total flavonoids content of Streptol was calculated based on GB1 and found to be 46 mg. The estimated shelf life of the Streptol cough syrup was 4.5 years. PMID:19252311

  15. Antitumor and apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.) in YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LEE, HAE NIM; JANG, HYE YEON; KIM, HYEONG JIN; SHIN, SEONG AH; CHOO, GANG SIK; PARK, YOUNG SEOK; KIM, SANG KI; JUNG, JI YOUN

    2016-01-01

    α-mangostin is a dietary xanthone which has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-allergic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects in various types of human cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin on YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells. The results from MTT assays revealed that cell proliferation significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the cells treated with α-mangostin. DAPI staining illustrated that chromatin condensation in the cells treated with 15 µM α-mangostin was far greater than that in the untreated cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that α-mangostin suppressed YD-15 cell viability by inducing apoptosis and promoting cell cycle arrest in the sub-G1 phase. Western blot analysis of various signaling molecules revealed that α-mangostin targeted the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways through the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. α-mangostin also increased the levels of Bax (pro-apoptotic), cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), whereas the levels of the anti-apoptotic factors, Bcl-2 and c-myc, decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The anticancer effects of α-mangostin were also investigated in a tumor xenograft mouse model. The α-mangostin-treated nude mice bearing YD-15 tumor xenografts exhibited a significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor weight due to the potent promoting effects of α-mangostin on cancer cell apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL assay. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the level of cleaved caspase-3 increased, whereas the Ki-67, p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 levels decreased in the α-mangostin-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of our study indicate that α-mangostin induces the apoptosis of YD-15 tongue carcinoma cells through the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26951885

  16. Inhibition of CHOP accentuates the apoptotic effect of α-mangostin from the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-10-10

    The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit has been a popular food in Southeast Asia for centuries and is increasing in popularity in Western countries. We identified α-Mangostin as a primary phytochemical modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer cells and propose that α-Mangostin is responsible for exerting a biological effect in prostate cancer cells. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with α-Mangostin and evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blot, fluorescent microscopy and siRNA transfection to evaluate ER stress. Next, we evaluated α-Mangostin for microsomal stability, pharmacokinetic parameters, and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. α-Mangostin significantly upregulated ER stress markers in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, α-Mangostin did not promote ER stress in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) from prostate cancer patients. CHOP knockdown enhanced α-Mangostin-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. α-Mangostin significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Our study suggests that α-Mangostin is not the only active constituent from the mangosteen fruit requiring further work to understand the complex chemical composition of the mangosteen. PMID:25261723

  17. Screening of mammalian DNA polymerase and topoisomerase inhibitors from Garcinia mangostana L. and analysis of human cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takefumi; Takenaka, Yukiko; Kozaki, Sachiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    We purified and identified eight xanthones from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and investigated whether these compounds inhibited the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases (Pols) and human DNA topoisomerases (Topos). β-Mangostin was the strongest inhibitor of both mammalian Pols and human Topos among the isolated xanthones, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.4-39.6 and 8.5-10 µM, respectively. Thermal transition analysis indicated that β-mangostin did not directly bind to double-stranded DNA, suggesting that this compound directly bound the enzyme protein rather than the DNA substrate. β-Mangostin showed the strongest suppression of human cervical cancer HeLa cell proliferation among the eight compounds tested, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 27.2 µM. This compound halted cell cycle in S phase at 12-h treatment and induced apoptosis. These results suggest that decreased proliferation by β-mangostin may be a result of the inhibition of cellular Pols rather than Topos, and β-mangostin might be an anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26781450

  18. Griffipavixanthone from Garcinia oblongifolia champ induces cell apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer H520 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Min; Huang, Hui-Juan; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Li, Xu-E

    2014-01-01

    Griffipavixanthone (GPX) is a dimeric xanthone which was isolated in a systematic investigation of Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. In this study, we investigate the effect of GPX on cell proliferation and apoptosis on human Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and determine the mechanisms of its action. GPX inhibited the growth of H520 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, with IC50 values of 3.03 ± 0.21 μM at 48 h. The morphologic characteristics of apoptosis and apoptotic bodies were observed by fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope. In addition, Annexin V/PI double staining assay revealed that cells in early stage of apoptosis were significantly increased upon GPX treatment dose-dependently. Rh123 staining assay indicated that GPX reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. DCFH-DA staining revealed that intracellular ROS increased with GPX treatment. Moreover, GPX cleaved and activated caspase-3. In summary, this study showed that GPX inhibited H520 cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner. Further mechanistic study indicated that GPX induced cell apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway accompanying with ROS production. Our results demonstrate the potential application of GPX as an anti-non-small cell lung cancer agent. PMID:24473206

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 1,3,5,7-Tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone Isolated from Twigs of Garcinia esculenta on Stimulated Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Hong; Lao, Yuan-zhi; Wu, Rong; Xu, Jin-wen; Murad, Ferid; Bian, Ka; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia Linn. plants having rich natural xanthones and benzophenones with anti-inflammatory activity attracted a great deal of attention to discover and develop them as potential drug candidates. Through screening targeting nitric oxide accumulation in stimulated macrophage, we found that 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone (TIE) had potential anti-inflammatory effect. To understand how TIE elicits its anti-inflammatory activity, we uncovered that it significantly inhibits the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In further study, we showed that TIE reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), two key molecules responsible for the production of NO and PGE2 during inflammation progress. Additionally, TIE also suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. TIE-led suppression in iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines production were probably the consequence of TIE's capability to block ERK and p38MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, TIE blocked activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as NF-κB regulation of miR155 expression. Our study suggests that TIE may represent as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26538826

  20. In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 μg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 μg/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced

  1. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-03-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically

  2. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  3. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

  4. A review on botanical species and chemical compounds with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control.

    PubMed

    Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-09-01

    As obesity has reached epidemic proportions, the management of this global disease is of clinical importance. The availability and popularity of natural dietary supplements for the treatment of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this paper was to review the effect of commonly available over the counter plant-derived supplements used to suppress appetite for obesity control and management. The data were obtained from the electronic databases PubMed, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE with full text (via EBSCOHost) and the databases were accessed during late 2012 - early January 2013. The botanical species discussed in this review include Camellia sinensis, Caralluma fimbriata, Citrus aurantium, Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia and Phaseolus vulgaris. This review found that many botanical species including crude extracts and isolated compounds from plants have been shown to provide potentially promising therapeutic effects including appetite control and weight loss. However, many of these crude extracts and compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms of action, long term safety, and potential side effects. PMID:23666454

  5. Nutrition Supplements to Stimulate Lipolysis: A Review in Relation to Endurance Exercise Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial. The present review will describe the effectiveness of lipolytic supplements in fat metabolism and as an ergogenic aid for increasing endurance exercise capacity. There are a number of lipolytic supplements available on the market, but this review focuses on natural ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, L-carnitine, Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid), capsaicin, ginseng, taurine, silk peptides and octacosanol, all of which have shown scientific evidence of enhancing fat metabolism associated with improving endurance performance. We excluded some other supplements owing to lack of data on fat metabolism or endurance capacity. Based on the data in this review, we suggest that a caffeine and green tea extract improves endurance performance and enhances fat oxidation. Regarding other supplements, the data on their practical implications needs to be gathered, especially for athletes. PMID:27465721

  6. Dose-Independent ADME Properties and Tentative Identification of Metabolites of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana in Mice by Automated Microsampling and UPLC-MS/MS Methods.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Yon; You, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Yu Chul; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    The information about a marker compound's pharmacokinetics in herbal products including the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) is closely related to the efficacy/toxicity. Also dose range and administration route are critical factors to determine the ADME profiles. Since the supply of a sufficient amount of a marker compound in in vivo study is still difficult, pharmacokinetic investigations which overcome the limit of blood collection in mice are desirable. Thus, we have attempted to investigate concurrently the ADME and proposed metabolite identification of α-mangostin, a major constituent of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L, in mice with a wide dose range using an in vitro as well as in vivo automated micro-sampling system together. α-mangostin showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses of 5-20 mg/kg and oral doses of 10-100 mg/kg. The gastrointestinal absorption of α-mangostin was poor and the distribution of α-mangostin was relatively high in the liver, intestine, kidney, fat, and lung. α-mangostin was extensively metabolized in the liver and intestine. With regards to the formation of metabolites, the glucuronidated, bis-glucuronidated, dehydrogenated, hydrogenated, oxidized, and methylated α-mangostins were tentatively identified. We suggest that these dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics of α-mangostin in mice provide an important basis for preclinical applications of α-mangostin as well as mangosteen. In addition, these experimental methods can be applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice. PMID:26176540

  7. Dose-Independent ADME Properties and Tentative Identification of Metabolites of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana in Mice by Automated Microsampling and UPLC-MS/MS Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Chul; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    The information about a marker compound's pharmacokinetics in herbal products including the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) is closely related to the efficacy/toxicity. Also dose range and administration route are critical factors to determine the ADME profiles. Since the supply of a sufficient amount of a marker compound in in vivo study is still difficult, pharmacokinetic investigations which overcome the limit of blood collection in mice are desirable. Thus, we have attempted to investigate concurrently the ADME and proposed metabolite identification of α-mangostin, a major constituent of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L, in mice with a wide dose range using an in vitro as well as in vivo automated micro-sampling system together. α-mangostin showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses of 5–20 mg/kg and oral doses of 10–100 mg/kg. The gastrointestinal absorption of α-mangostin was poor and the distribution of α-mangostin was relatively high in the liver, intestine, kidney, fat, and lung. α-mangostin was extensively metabolized in the liver and intestine. With regards to the formation of metabolites, the glucuronidated, bis-glucuronidated, dehydrogenated, hydrogenated, oxidized, and methylated α-mangostins were tentatively identified. We suggest that these dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics of α-mangostin in mice provide an important basis for preclinical applications of α-mangostin as well as mangosteen. In addition, these experimental methods can be applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice. PMID:26176540

  8. Different Ways to On-Line Hyphenate Centrifugal Partition Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry: Application to Prenylated Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Destandau, Emilie; Michel, Thomas; Toribio, Alix; Elfakir, Claire

    2015-11-01

    Centrifugal partition chromatography is a liquid-liquid separation method well adapted for the fractionation or purification of natural compounds from plant extracts. However, following the preparative isolation, the fractions collected must be analysed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography to evaluate their composition and/or their purity. These additional steps are time-consuming and increase the risk of compound degradation. In order to get an instantaneous analysis of fraction content with structural information on the phytochemicals eluted, it is possible to hyphenate on-line centrifugal partition chromatography with mass spectrometry. Depending on the complexity of the extract, two different kinds of centrifugal partition chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling can be performed: centrifugal partition chromatography-mass spectrometry or centrifugal partition chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling. In the first case, one part of the centrifugal partition chromatography effluent is directly introduced in the mass spectrometry ionisation source to identify the eluted compounds, while in the second case, it is directed to a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system where compounds are first separated thanks to high-performance liquid chromatography and then identified using mass spectrometry. PMID:25615274

  9. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts of Seven Fruits Found in the Southern Brazilian Flora.

    PubMed

    Bagattoli, P C D; Cipriani, D C; Mariano, L N B; Correa, M; Wagner, T M; Noldin, V F; Filho, V Cechinel; Niero, R

    2016-01-01

    Methanol extracts of seven edible fruits found in southern Brazil: Garcinia achachairu, Rubus imperialis, Rubus rosaefolius, Solanum quitoense, Solanum sessiliflorun, Diospyros inconstans and Plinia glomerata, were evaluated for their total phenol content and antioxidant activity in different in vitro free radical scavenging models. In addition, studies were performed on cell viability of extracts of the seeds of G. achachairu against murine melanoma cells. The fruits peel and seeds of G. achachairu were very promising in terms of total phenol content (data in gallic acid equivalent per gram), as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with values of 9.70±3.2 and 8.40±1.1, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay showed that the fruit pulp and peel of P. glomerata presented the best profile, with values of the 16.3±1.8 and 15.9±2.4 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract and guttiferone A from G. achachairu, we have observed that both inhibit the growth of B16F10 tumor cells, with calculated IC50 values of 49.6±2.1 mg/ml and 48.6±5.4 mM, respectively. PMID:27168679

  10. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts of Seven Fruits Found in the Southern Brazilian Flora

    PubMed Central

    Bagattoli, P.C.D.; Cipriani, D. C.; Mariano, L.N.B.; Correa, M.; Wagner, T. M.; Noldin, V. F.; Filho, V. Cechinel; Niero, R.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol extracts of seven edible fruits found in southern Brazil: Garcinia achachairu, Rubus imperialis, Rubus rosaefolius, Solanum quitoense, Solanum sessiliflorun, Diospyros inconstans and Plinia glomerata, were evaluated for their total phenol content and antioxidant activity in different in vitro free radical scavenging models. In addition, studies were performed on cell viability of extracts of the seeds of G. achachairu against murine melanoma cells. The fruits peel and seeds of G. achachairu were very promising in terms of total phenol content (data in gallic acid equivalent per gram), as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with values of 9.70±3.2 and 8.40±1.1, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay showed that the fruit pulp and peel of P. glomerata presented the best profile, with values of the 16.3±1.8 and 15.9±2.4 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract and guttiferone A from G. achachairu, we have observed that both inhibit the growth of B16F10 tumor cells, with calculated IC50 values of 49.6±2.1 mg/ml and 48.6±5.4 mM, respectively. PMID:27168679

  11. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  12. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  13. (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid Nourishes Protein Synthesis via Altering Metabolic Directions of Amino Acids in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Ningning; Li, Longlong; Peng, Mengling; Ma, Haitian

    2016-08-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress body weight gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the underlying mechanism of (-)-HCA has not fully understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of long-term supplement with (-)-HCA on body weight gain and variances of amino acid content in rats. Results showed that (-)-HCA treatment reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in rats. The content of hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen, and serum T4 , T3 , insulin, and Leptin were increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Protein content in liver and muscle were significantly increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Amino acid profile analysis indicated that most of amino acid contents in serum and liver, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were higher in (-)-HCA treatment groups. However, most of the amino acid contents in muscle, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were reduced in (-)-HCA treatment groups. These results indicated that (-)-HCA treatment could reduce body weight gain through promoting energy expenditure via regulation of thyroid hormone levels. In addition, (-)-HCA treatment could promote protein synthesis by altering the metabolic directions of amino acids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145492

  14. α-Mangostin: A Dietary Antioxidant Derived from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth in Xenograft Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ala; Fischer, Joseph W.; Singh, Ashok; Zhong, Weixiong; Shekhani, Mohammed Ozair; Meske, Louise; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive malignant disease, ranking as the fourth most leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States. In this study, we provide evidence of chemotherapeutic effects of α-mangostin, a dietary antioxidant isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. against human PC. Results: The chemotherapeutic effect of α-mangostin was determined using four human PC cells (PL-45, PANC1, BxPC3, and ASPC1). α-Mangostin resulted in a significant inhibition of PC cells viability without having any effects on normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. α-Mangostin showed a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in PC cells. Also, α-mangostin inhibited the expression levels of pNF-κB/p65Ser552, pStat3Ser727, and pStat3Tyr705. α-Mangostin inhibited DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator 3 (Stat3). α-Mangostin inhibited the expression levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin D1, and gp130; however, increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) was observed in PC cells. In addition, i.p. administration of α-mangostin (6 mg/kg body weight, 5 days a week) resulted in a significant inhibition of both primary (PL-45) and secondary (ASPC1) human PC cell-derived orthotopic and ectopic xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. No sign of toxicity was observed in any of the mice administered with α-mangostin. α-Mangostin treatment inhibited the biomarkers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]) in the xenograft tumor tissues. Innovation: We present, for the first time, that dietary antioxidant α-mangostin inhibits the growth of PC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of α-mangostin against human PC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 682–699. PMID:24295217

  15. Bevalac extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  16. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  17. In vivo toxicity and antitumor activity of mangosteen extract.

    PubMed

    Kosem, Nuttavut; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Utsumi, Hideo; Moongkarndi, Primchanien

    2013-04-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) has been widely used in the traditional medicine of Thailand to treat various ailments, especially diseases of the digestive system and infections. Many reports show antiproliferation of crude extracts and active constituents from mangosteen against many cancer cell lines. Therefore, the current study is proposed to demonstrate in vivo evidence on the antitumor activity of mangosteen. Crude methanolic extract (CME) from mangosteen pericarp including 25.19 % α-mangostin as an active xanthone was used in this study. The inhibition on tumor cell proliferation of CME was preliminarily evaluated against the murine colon cancer cell line NL-17 with an IC50 value of 17 and 84 μg/ml based on WST-1 and LDH assays, respectively. The safety dose for animal application was assessed by in vivo toxicity studies using female BALB/c mice. Acute toxicity showed an LD50 value and approximate lethal dose at 1,000 mg/kg, whereas the suitable dose for short-term study should be ≤200 mg/kg. The effective dose for antitumor activity of CME was found to be between 100 and 200 mg/kg, with a tumor size reduction of 50-70 %. Histological staining clearly illustrated a decrease of tumor cell density in the footpad in a dose-dependent manner. The median survival time and life span significantly increased in tumor-bearing mice with CME treatment. This study suggests that CME possesses a powerful antitumor activity. Therefore, it is worth undertaking further investigation to identify active compounds and obtain a deeper understanding of their mechanism, in order to acquire novel effective anticancer drugs. PMID:22622784

  18. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  19. A powder X-ray diffraction method for detection of polyprenylated benzophenones in plant extracts associated with HPLC for quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Felipe T; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Coelho, Carla P; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Dias, Gizelly C; Fracca, Mônica P; Neves, Person P; Stringheta, Paulo C; Doriguetto, Antônio C

    2011-02-20

    A robust, direct, rapid and non-destructive X-ray diffraction crystallography method to detect the polyprenylated benzophenones 7-epi-clusianone (1) and guttiferone A (2) in extracts from Garcinia brasiliensis is presented. Powder samples of benzophenones 1 and 2, dried hexane extracts from G. brasiliensis seeds and fruit's pericarp, and the dried ethanolic extract from G. brasiliensis seeds were unambiguously characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry. The calculated X-ray diffraction peaks from crystal structures of analytes 1 and 2, previously determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique, were overlaid to those of the experimental powder diffractograms, providing a practical identification of these compounds in the analyzed material and confirming the pure contents of the powder samples. Using the X-ray diffraction crystallography method, the studied polyprenylated benzophenones were selectively and simultaneously detected in the extracts which were mounted directly on sample holder. In addition, reference materials of the analytes were not required for analyses since the crystal structures of the compounds are known. High performance liquid chromatography analyses also were comparatively carried out to quantify the analytes in the same plant extracts showing to be in agreement with X-ray diffraction crystallography method. PMID:20943341

  20. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  1. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  2. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  3. Mangosteen pericarp extract inhibits the formation of pentosidine and ameliorates skin elasticity.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Rei-Ichi; Moroishi, Narumi; Sugawa, Hikari; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Saigusa, Musashi; Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Nagai, Mime; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Nagai, Ryoji

    2015-07-01

    The inhibition of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) by daily meals is believed to become an effective prevention for lifestyle-related diseases. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of hot water extracts of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp (WEM) on the formation of pentosidine, one of AGEs, in vitro and in vivo and the remedial effect on skin conditions were measured. WEM significantly inhibited pentosidine formation during gelatin incubation with ribose. Several compounds purified from WEM, such as garcimangosone D and rhodanthenone B, were identified as inhibitors of pentosidine formation. Oral administration of WEM at 100 mg/day to volunteer subjects for 3 months reduced the serum pentosidine contents. Because obtaining skin biopsies from healthy volunteers is ethically difficult, AGE accumulation in the skin was estimated by a fluorescence detector. The oral administration of WEM significantly reduced the skin autofluorescence intensity, demonstrating that WEM also reduced AGE accumulation in the skin. Furthermore, the elasticity and moisture content of the skin was also improved by WEM. These results demonstrate that intakes of WEM reduces the glycation stress and results in the improvement of skin conditions. PMID:26236097

  4. Mangosteen pericarp extract inhibits the formation of pentosidine and ameliorates skin elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Rei-ichi; Moroishi, Narumi; Sugawa, Hikari; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Saigusa, Musashi; Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Nagai, Mime; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Nagai, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) by daily meals is believed to become an effective prevention for lifestyle-related diseases. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of hot water extracts of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp (WEM) on the formation of pentosidine, one of AGEs, in vitro and in vivo and the remedial effect on skin conditions were measured. WEM significantly inhibited pentosidine formation during gelatin incubation with ribose. Several compounds purified from WEM, such as garcimangosone D and rhodanthenone B, were identified as inhibitors of pentosidine formation. Oral administration of WEM at 100 mg/day to volunteer subjects for 3 months reduced the serum pentosidine contents. Because obtaining skin biopsies from healthy volunteers is ethically difficult, AGE accumulation in the skin was estimated by a fluorescence detector. The oral administration of WEM significantly reduced the skin autofluorescence intensity, demonstrating that WEM also reduced AGE accumulation in the skin. Furthermore, the elasticity and moisture content of the skin was also improved by WEM. These results demonstrate that intakes of WEM reduces the glycation stress and results in the improvement of skin conditions. PMID:26236097

  5. Histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos incubated in crude extracts of camellia seed and mangosteen pericarp.

    PubMed

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-10-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  6. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    PubMed Central

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  7. Mangosteen leaf extract increases melanogenesis in B16F1 melanoma cells by stimulating tyrosinase activity in vitro and by up-regulating tyrosinase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Mariani Abdul; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Park, Chang Seo

    2012-02-01

    Melanin synthesis is stimulated by various effectors, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), cyclic AMP (cAMP)-elevating agents (forskolin, isobutylmethylxantine, glycyrrhizin) and ultraviolet light. Our investigation focused on the identification of the melanogenic efficacy of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) leaf extract with regard to its effects on melanogenesis in B16F1 melanoma cells, since it has been known to possess strong anti-oxidant activities. The mangosteen leaf extract was found to stimulate melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner without any significant effects on cell proliferation. Cytotoxicity of the extract was measured using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; the highest concentration of the extract that did not affect cell viability was 32 µg/ml. Formation of melanin from cultured B16F1 melanoma induced by extract treatment was estimated using spectrophotometry. In order to clarify the subsequent mechanism of tyrosinase activation by the extract, the levels of tyrosinase expression in B16F1 melanoma were examined using an intracellular tyrosinase assay and tyrosinase zymography. Up-regulation of intracellular tyrosinase expression seemed to correlate with an increase in microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) protein levels since MITF is the key factor for genes involved in melanogenesis. Both of the results showed that tyrosinase activity was markedly enhanced from extract-treated cells. The overall results suggest that mangosteen leaf extract may be a promising candidate for the treatment of hypopigmentation disorder and useful for self-tanning cosmetic products. PMID:22089762

  8. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:22016616

  9. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  10. Anti-Obesity Effects of Soy Leaf via Regulation of Adipogenic Transcription Factors and Fat Oxidation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Jong-Min; Cho, Moon-Hee; Chung, Young-Jin; Park, Ki Hun; Shin, Dong-Ha; Park, Ho-Yong; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2015-08-01

    The anti-obesity effects of extracts from soy leaves (SLE) cultivated for 8 weeks (8W) or 16 weeks (16W) were investigated in diet-induced obese mice. The effects of kaempferol, an aglycone of the kaempferol glycosides that are the major component of 8W-SLE, and coumestrol, the major component of 16W-SLE, were also investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), 8W-SLE (HFD+8W-SLE 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), 16W-SLE (HFD+16W-SLE 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), and Garcinia cambogia extracts (GE) (HFD+GE 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) groups. Body weight gain and fat accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) were highly suppressed by daily oral administration of 8W-SLE and 16W-SLE for 10 weeks. Supplementing a HFD with 8W-SLE and 16W-SLE regulated the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (c/EBPα), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), adipocyte protein 2, and fatty acid synthase (FAS), which are related to adipogenesis, in addition to hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which are related to fat oxidation in WAT. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, kaempferol and coumestrol exhibited anti-adipogenic effects via downregulation of PPARγ, c/EBPα, SREBP-1, and FAS. Kaempferol and coumestrol increased the expression of HSL, CPT-1, and UCP2. PMID:25826408

  11. Antitumor and apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.)in YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Nim; Jang, Hye Yeon; Kim, Hyeong Jin; Shin, Seong Ah; Choo, Gang Sik; Park, Young Seok; Kim, Sang Ki; Jung, Ji Youn

    2016-04-01

    α-mangostin is a dietary xanthone which has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-allergic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects in various types of human cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin on YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells. The results from MTT assays revealed that cell proliferation significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the cells treated with α-mangostin. DAPI staining illustrated that chromatin condensation in the cells treated with 15 µM α-mangostin was far greater than that in the untreated cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that α-mangostin suppressed YD-15 cell viability by inducing apoptosis and promoting cell cycle arrest in the sub-G1 phase. Western blot analysis of various signaling molecules revealed that α-mangostin targeted the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways through the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in a dose‑dependent manner. α-mangostin also increased the levels of Bax (pro-apoptotic), cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), whereas the levels of the anti-apoptotic factors, Bcl-2 and c-myc, decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The anticancer effects of α-mangostin were also investigated in a tumor xenograft mouse model. The α-mangostin-treated nude mice bearing YD-15 tumor xenografts exhibited a significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor weight due to the potent promoting effects of α-mangostin on cancer cell apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL assay. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the level of cleaved caspase-3 increased, whereas the Ki-67, p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 levels decreased in the α-mangostin‑treated mice. Taken together, the findings of our study indicate that α-mangostin induces the apoptosis of YD-15 tongue carcinoma cells through the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26951885

  12. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  13. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (<50 μA). Bradykinin acetate, angiotensin II antipeptide, angiotensin II acetate, neurotensin, angiotensin I trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than 50 μA, and extraction recoveries for the model peptides were in the range of 77-94%, with RSD values less than 10%. PMID:25467476

  15. Update on beam extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, L.P.

    1983-08-26

    At the time of the 1981 Workshop on Experimental Use of the SLC, we published an extraction scheme for the MINIQUAD final focus (FF) optics. Since then a different FF optics design has been selected. With the same achromat section and outboard telescope, it allows a number of options for the inboard telescope. This note describes the new extraction system and briefly considers electron-electron extraction and the consequences of an extraction kicker malfunction. 4 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  16. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  17. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  18. Precolumn for extract concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.; Bloom, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    AUDRI requires test sample separation into organic compound families for subsequent insertion into several parallel chromatographs. Sample is first extracted by selective organic solvents. Solvent is then removed from extract to increase extract-to-solvent ratio, increasing system sensitivity. Backflushing of precolumn serves as cleanser.

  19. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  20. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  1. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  2. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  3. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  4. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  5. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction We report our experience with lead extraction in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and discuss the indications for extraction in these patients. Patients Eighteen patients with an ICD (mean age 58±12 years) were referred for lead extraction: two patients with infection and 16 with lead dysfunction. Methods Lead extraction was performed with a laser sheath (Excimer) if traction with a locking device was insufficient. New leads were implanted during the same procedure, if applicable. Results Shock leads were successfully extracted in 16 patients and additional pace-sense leads in seven patients. In two patients, the shock conductor was considered unaffected and only a pace-sense lead was exchanged or an additional pace-sense lead inserted. After extraction, new shock leads were implanted in 14 patients. Major complications occurred in one patient: a pericardial tamponade after perforation of the superior caval vein necessitating acute surgery. Conclusion Lead extraction with a laser sheath is effective in ICD patients, but major complications can occur. Our current policy with malfunctioning leads is to extract all leads in which insulation defects cannot be ruled out to avoid interference, but to abandon leads that are without insulation defects and properly insulated. In case of infection, extraction remains the primary treatment of choice. PMID:25696709

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  7. Extractive distillation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.

    1984-05-08

    A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.

  8. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    PubMed

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  10. Oilseed extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D. A.

    1985-05-07

    A process is provided for the recovery of a separate lecithin/phosphatide-rich product during the extraction of soybeans with an isopropanol-based solvent. The invention comprises steps for contacting soybeans with solvent to obtain an extracted seed meal and a solvent extract of seedoils and lecithin and related phosphatides, cooling miscella to a temperature in the range from about 30/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ F., phase separating the cooled miscella, recovering from the phase separation an upper solvent-rich phase, an intermediate lecithin/phosphatide-rich phase and a lower crude oil phase, and directly recycling the solvent-rich phase to the extractor.

  11. Solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-01-19

    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent in which primary extract from the extraction zone is cooled to form a secondary raffinate and secondary extract and the secondary and primary raffinates are blended to produce an increased yield of product of desired quality. In a preferred embodiment of the process, the lubricating oil feedstock to the process is first contacted with a stripping medium previously used in the process for the recovery of solvent from at least one of the product streams whereby solvent contained in said stripping medium is recovered therefrom.

  12. Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

    2004-02-01

    To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  14. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  15. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  16. Extraction processes for bioproduct separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartl, J.; Marr, R.

    1993-01-01

    The three-phase extraction process, a modification of reactive extraction, was investigated for its applicability in the separation of organic acids from fermentation broth. It was compared with reactive extraction, liquid membrane permeation, and supercritical fluid extraction. These processes are based on the use of amine extractants, which have to be dissolved in nonpolar solvents, for the extraction of carboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, and aminocarboxylic acids. This paper considers the comparison of the above-mentioned processes. Furthermore, the extractability of acids from synthetic aqueous solutions and fermented broths was compared. Principal consideration was paid to the extraction of lactic acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, and L-leucine.

  17. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  18. [Femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx)].

    PubMed

    Blum, M; Sekundo, W

    2010-10-01

    Starting in 2006 a new "all femto" method of refractive correction for myopia and myopic astigmatism was introduced. This new method was originally introduced as femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and further developed with a small incision into SMILE (small incision lenticule extraction). To simplify the terminology the manufacturer brought this onto the market in April 2010 as ReLEx (refractive lenticule extraction). In this procedure a lenticule of intrastromal corneal tissue and a flap-like access cut are subsequently cut utilizing the VisuMax® femtosecond system (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). The lenticule is then manually removed and the flap repositioned (only by FLEx). In approximately 1,000 successful surgical operations only few side effects were found. The number of eyes treated is currently being expanded in order to further standardize this new clinical procedure. PMID:20694728

  19. Extraction for ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.; Foelsche, H.

    1981-01-01

    The design specifications for ISABELLE, a superconducting proton storage ring facility under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory call for circulating beam intensities of up to 6 x 10/sup 14/ protons at 400 GeV energy in each ring. The energy stored in the beam is 41 Megajoules, an order of magnitude more than what has been dealt with in the past. This beam energy cannot be safely disposed of within the confines of the ISABELLE lattice if damage to the dump or quenching of the superconducting magnets is to be avoided. Therefore the full intensity beam must be extracted from the storage rings under all circumstances of emergency or routine beam disposal. Beam losses in excess of 10/sup -3/ of the full beam can jeoardize the extraction components and lead to magnet quenching as well. In this note a conceptual design of the extraction system is summarized and the major constraints which lead to the parameters chosen are discussed.

  20. Magma energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric.

  1. Magma Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-20

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

  2. Slow extraction of LAMPF 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, E. P.

    Half integer resonant extraction are used to slowly extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extraction efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum.

  3. Slow extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-10-01

    Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extraction efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high-beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum.

  4. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  6. Atraumatic extractions: a biomechanical rationale.

    PubMed

    Misch, Carl E; Perez, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Biomechanical aspects of force have been applied to tooth extraction for centuries. However, the mechanical advantages available to extract the teeth were primarily applied to hold the crown of the tooth, rather than help extract it. An extraction device (Physics Forceps) has been developed to apply a biomechanical rationale to the extraction process of a tooth using a class 1 lever, creep, and shear components of force. PMID:18717405

  7. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  8. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

  10. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552