Sample records for garcinia cambogia extract

  1. EVALUATION OF THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF HYDROXYCITRIC ACID OR GARCINIA CAMBOGIA EXTRACTS IN HUMANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márquez Fabiola; Babio Nancy; Bulló Mònica; J. Salas-Salvadó

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (?)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyses the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA.Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight and

  2. Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Hydroxycitric Acid or Garcinia cambogia Extracts in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiola Márquez; Nancy Babio; Mònica Bulló; J. Salas-Salvadó

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight

  3. Effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum leptin and insulin in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Hayamizu; H Hirakawa; D Oikawa; T Nakanishi; T Takagi; T Tachibana; M Furuse

    2003-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on 10% sucrose loading in mice for 4 weeks. Treatment was found to have no effect on body weight, fat pad weight or serum glucose level. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA were observed. Levels of serum insulin and leptin, as well as the leptin\\/WAT

  4. Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohsuke Hayamizu; Hironori Tomi; Izuru Kaneko; Manzhen Shen; Madhu G. Soni; Gen Yoshino

    2008-01-01

    (?) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants

  5. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of hydroxycitric acid or Garcinia cambogia extracts in humans.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Fabiola; Babio, Nancy; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight and fat loss in both experimental animals and humans, we should be cautious when interpreting the results as other randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have not reported the same outcomes. Furthermore, most studies in humans have been conducted on small samples and mainly in the short term. None of them have shown whether these effects persist beyond 12 weeks of intervention. Therefore, there is still little evidence to support the potential effectiveness and long-term benefits of G. cambogia extracts. With regard to toxicity and safety, it is important to note that except in rare cases, studies conducted in experimental animals have not reported increased mortality or significant toxicity. Furthermore, at the doses usually administered, no differences have been reported in terms of side effects or adverse events (those studied) in humans between individuals treated with G. cambogia and controls. PMID:22530711

  6. Acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis in a patient taking Garcinia cambogia extract successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott F; Godley, Robert W; Evron, Joshua M; Heider, Amer; Nicklas, John M; Thomas, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    A previously healthy 48-year-old woman was evaluated for lightheadedness and chest heaviness 2 weeks after starting the herbal supplement Garcinia cambogia. She was found to be hypotensive and had an elevated serum troponin level. The patient had a progressive clinical decline, ultimately experiencing fulminant heart failure and sustained ventricular arrhythmias, which required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Endomyocardial biopsy results were consistent with acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis (ANEM). High-dose corticosteroids were initiated promptly and her condition rapidly improved, with almost complete cardiac recovery 1 week later. In conclusion, we have described a case of ANEM associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia extract. PMID:25475477

  7. A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as toxicity. PMID:25732350

  8. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ate?, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ay?en

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were p<0.05. Serum Ca levels were not significantly different between all groups on days 45 and 75. Serum P level was significantly higher in the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of phytate P in diet. It was hoped that with further evidence-based study this product will enter to mainstream medicines. PMID:22419377

  9. Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohsuke Hayamizu; Yuri Ishii; Izuru Kaneko; Manzhen Shen; Yasuhide Okuhara; Norihiro Shigematsu; Hironori Tomi; Mitsuhiro Furuse; Gen Yoshino; Hiroyuki Shimasaki

    2003-01-01

    Background(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is an active ingredient extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit Garcinia cambogia. It inhibits adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase and has been used in the treatment of obesity.

  10. Flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia lower lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asha Sarah Koshy; L Anila; N. R Vijayalakshmi

    2001-01-01

    Administration of flavonoids from Garcinia cambogia, at a dose of 1 mg 100 g?1 body weight day?1, significantly lowered lipid levels in rats fed normal and cholesterol-containing diets. ?-Hydroxy ?-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase showed significant reduction in normocholesterolemic rats. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were reduced significantly. Highly stimulated activities of the enzymes lipoprotein lipase and plasma

  11. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-?. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-? level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  12. Determination of organic acids in Garcinia cambogia (Desr.) by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K Jayaprakasha; K. K Sakariah

    1998-01-01

    The major organic acid in Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind) has been found to be (?)-hydroxycitric acid, present in concentrations of 16–18%, using high-performance liquid chromatography with 10 mM sulfuric acid as eluent. Citric and malic acids are present in Malabar tamarind in minor quantities.

  13. Antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activities of Garcinia extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Joseph; G. K. Jayaprakasha; A. T. Selvi; B. S. Jena; K. K. Sakariah

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hexane and chloroform extracts from the fruit rinds of Garcinia cowa and Garcinia pedunculata on the growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus was studied using peanut powder as a model food system. The growth of A. flavus was completely inhibited by the hexane and chloroform extracts from G. cowa and chloroform extract from G. pedunculata at

  14. Antioxidant and antiplatlet aggregation properties of bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anushi; Joseph, G S; Singh, R P

    2014-08-01

    The bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa, which are abundant in the Northeastern regions of India, were screened for their antioxidant and in vitro antiplatelet aggregating activities. By ?-carotene linoleate model for antioxidant assay, acetone extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extracts of G. cowa exhibited higher antioxidant activity (86.47 and 66.94 % respectively, at 25 ppm) than other extracts. Similar pattern was observed for superoxide radical scavenging method for antioxidant assay. The ethyl acetate extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extract of G. cowa exhibited higher antiplatelet aggregation capacity towards ADP induced platelet aggregation (IC50 0.16 and 0.43 ug, respectively) than other extracts. PMID:25114359

  15. In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Garcinia hombroniana aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S K; Rasedee, A; Mohd Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2015-06-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G.?hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p?extract was also investigated on cultured T.?evansi in HMI-9 medium with the addition of 25?µg/ml G.?hombroniana aqueous extract. It was observed that the addition of G.?hombroniana extract resulted in the inhibition of trypanosomal kinetoplast division, with no significant inhibitory effect on nuclear division. It is concluded from the current study that the aqueous extract of G.?hombroniana has a potential antitrypanosomal activity through the inhibition of kinetoplast division, as one of the possible mechanisms of its antitrypanosomal effect. This plant could serve as a possible source of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:25818171

  16. Chemistry and Biochemistry of (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid from Garcinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. JENA; G. K. J AYAPRAKASHA; R. P. S INGH; K. K. SAKARIAH

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid ((-)-HCA) is the principal acid of fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia indica, and Garcinia atroviridis. (-)-HCA was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA: citrate + ATP + CoA f acetyl-CoA + ADP + Pi + oxaloacetate. The inhibition of this

  17. Antioxidative and antimutagenic activities of the extracts from the rinds of Garcinia pedunculata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Jayaprakasha; P. S. Negi; B. S. Jena

    2006-01-01

    Diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with preventing mutagenesis and cancer and other health benefits. In the present study, hexane and chloroform extracts from the fruit rinds of Garcinia pedunculata were tested for their antioxidative and antimutagenic activities. Both the hexane and chloroform extracts showed antioxidant activity studied through ?-carotene–linoleate model system and ?, ?-diphenyl-?-picrylhadrazyl (DPPH) method

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract and two biflavonoids from Garcinia gardneriana leaves in mouse paw oedema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaqueline C. Castardo; Arthur S. Prudente; Juliano Ferreira; Cláudio L. Guimarães; Franco Delle Monache; Valdir Cechinel Filho; Michel F. Otuki; Daniela A. Cabrini

    2008-01-01

    Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana) Zappi (Clusiaceae) is widely distributed in Brazil and used in folk medicine to treat inflammation, pain, and urinary tract and other infections. However, very few studies have analyzed these therapeutic effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Garcinia gardneriana (HEGG) and some of its isolated biflavonoids were evaluated. The results

  19. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Activities of the Extracts from the Fruit Rinds of Garcinia cowa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Negi; G. K. Jayaprakasha; B. S. Jena

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have reported the biological activities of the crude extracts\\/purified compounds from various parts of Garcinia cowa. In the present study, the dried fruit rinds of G. cowa were extracted with hexane and chloroform and the extracts were used to evaluate their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. Using ?-carotene-linoleate-model system, at 200 ppm concentration, hexane, chloroform extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole

  20. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  1. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumour-promoting and cytotoxic activities of different plant part extracts of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M Mackeen; A. M Ali; N. H Lajis; K Kawazu; Z Hassan; M Amran; M Habsah; L. Y Mooi; S. M Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts (methanol) of various parts, viz. the leaves, fruits, roots, stem and trunk bark, of Garcinia atroviridis were screened for antimicrobial, cytotoxic, brine shrimp toxic, antitumour-promoting and antioxidant activities. The crude extracts exhibited predominantly antibacterial activity with the root extract showing the strongest inhibition against the test bacteria at a minimum inhibitory dose (MID) of 15.6 ?g\\/disc. Although all

  2. Antihepatoxic constituents of Garcinia kola seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Iwu

    1985-01-01

    Summary Kolaviron, a fraction of defatted methanolic extract and biflavanones ofGarcinia kola seeds significantly antagonized the lethal poisoning of mice with phalloidin. Garcinia biflavanones GB1, GB2 and kolaflavanone were isolated as the active constituents.

  3. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% ?-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of ?-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. PMID:23680732

  4. Comparison of the skin penetration of Garcinia mangostana extract in particulate and non-particulate form.

    PubMed

    Tachaprutinun, Amornset; Meinke, Martina C; Richter, Heike; Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to solve the water insolubility limitation of the medically and cosmetically interesting substance Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML) extract by encapsulation, and to evaluate and investigate the penetration efficacy of free and encapsulated GML in two different vehicles (water and cream) in porcine ear skin. The follicular penetration depth was determined in 50 hair follicles for each of the four formulations by means of fluorescence microscopy. Tape stripping was used to compare the distribution properties of GML with all formulations on the stratum corneum. The results showed that encapsulated and free GML in the cream base penetrated deeper into hair follicles than if applied in an aqueous base. In addition, encapsulated GML could be distributed more homogeneously on the stratum corneum than the free GML. In conclusion, it was found that encapsulated GML in a cream base had the most effective penetration level in porcine ear skin. PMID:24321393

  5. In vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sônia Aparecida; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; da Silva, Claudinei Alves; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2014-02-01

    The damaging effects of sunlight to the skin has triggered studies that involve the synthesis and extraction of organic compounds from natural sources that can absorb UV radiation, and studies on polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used as photochemopreventive agents for reducing skin damage. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract (GbEE). We evaluated the cell viability of L929 fibroblasts after UVB exposure using a quartz plate containing the extract solution or the GbEE formulation. The in vivo photoprotective effect of the GbEE formulation was evaluated by measuring the UVB damage-induced decrease in endogenous reduced glutathione (GSH), the increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1? and TNF-?. The in vitro methodology using fibroblasts showed that the photoprotective properties of the GbEE solutions and 10% GbEE formulation were similar to the commercial sunscreen (SPF-15). In vivo results demonstrated of the GbEE formulation in decreasing UVB induced-damage such as GSH depletion, an increased in MPO activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1? and TNF-?. The results showed that the extract has great potential for use as a sunscreen in topical formulations in addition to UV filters. PMID:24491421

  6. The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Sunday A; Ofusori, David A; Ojo, Gideon B; Ayoka, Oladele A; Abayomi, Taiwo A; Tijani, Adekilekun A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice. PMID:23569771

  7. Garcinia vilersiana bark extract activates the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Duong, Ho Huynh Thuy; Quynh, Nguyen Thi; Kanaho, Yasunori; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia vilersiana is a traditional medicinal plant in Vietnam. The petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Garcinia vilersiana (GVE) was prepared to evaluate its potential to activate Nrf2, a transcription factor of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Exposure of mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells to GVE (0.625-2.5 µg/ml) resulted in a significant activation of Nrf2, as evaluated by nuclear accumulation of this transcription factor, and increased antioxidant response element (ARE) binding activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. As a result, GVE caused ARE-dependent up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cells. These results suggest that GVE contains components that have the ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway, leading to cellular protection. PMID:24213006

  8. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) ?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) ?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) ?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) ?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) ?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  9. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumour-promoting and cytotoxic activities of different plant part extracts of Garcinia atroviridis griff. ex T. anders.

    PubMed

    Mackeen, M M; Ali, A M; Lajis, N H; Kawazu, K; Hassan, Z; Amran, M; Habsah, M; Mooi, L Y; Mohamed, S M

    2000-10-01

    Crude extracts (methanol) of various parts, viz. the leaves, fruits, roots, stem and trunk bark, of Garcinia atroviridis were screened for antimicrobial, cytotoxic, brine shrimp toxic, antitumour-promoting and antioxidant activities. The crude extracts exhibited predominantly antibacterial activity with the root extract showing the strongest inhibition against the test bacteria at a minimum inhibitory dose (MID) of 15.6 microg/disc. Although all the extracts failed to inhibit the growth of most of the test fungi, significant antifungal activity against Cladosporium herbarum was exhibited by most notably the fruit (MID: 100 microg), and the leaf (MID: 400 microg) extracts. None of the extracts were significantly cytotoxic, and lethal towards brine shrimps. The root, leaf, trunk and stem bark extracts (except for the fruits) showed strong antioxidant activity exceeding that of the standard antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. Antitumour-promoting activity (>95% inhibition) was shown by the fruit, leaf, stem and trunk bark extracts. PMID:10996278

  10. Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Hanes, Justin; Kim, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn extract (GME) is a natural product that has received considerable attention in cancer therapy, and has the potential to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutics and improve efficacy. We formulated GME-encapsulated ethyl cellulose (GME-EC) and a polymer blend of ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose (GME-EC/MC) nanoparticles. We achieved high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency using a solvent-displacement method with particle sizes around 250 nm. Cellular uptake and accumulation of GME was higher for GME-encapsulated nanoparticles compared to free GME. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis showed effective anticancer activity of GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. GME-EC/MC nanoparticles showed approximately twofold-higher anticancer activity compared to GME-EC nanoparticles, likely due to their enhanced bioavailability. GME-encapsulated nanoparticles primarily entered HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficked through the endolysosomal pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanism of drug-loaded cellulose-based nanoparticles. In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles - GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles - successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity. PMID:25125977

  11. Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Hanes, Justin; Kim, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn extract (GME) is a natural product that has received considerable attention in cancer therapy, and has the potential to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutics and improve efficacy. We formulated GME-encapsulated ethyl cellulose (GME-EC) and a polymer blend of ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose (GME-EC/MC) nanoparticles. We achieved high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency using a solvent-displacement method with particle sizes around 250 nm. Cellular uptake and accumulation of GME was higher for GME-encapsulated nanoparticles compared to free GME. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis showed effective anticancer activity of GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. GME-EC/MC nanoparticles showed approximately twofold-higher anticancer activity compared to GME-EC nanoparticles, likely due to their enhanced bioavailability. GME-encapsulated nanoparticles primarily entered HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficked through the endolysosomal pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanism of drug-loaded cellulose-based nanoparticles. In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles – GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles – successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity. PMID:25125977

  12. Immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. against collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanxia; Zhou, Hailing; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wei, Qun

    2014-05-01

    Isogarcinol is a natural compound that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., and we were the first to report that it is a new immunosuppressant. In the present study, we investigated the immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explored its potential mechanism in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The oral administration of isogarcinol significantly reduced clinical scores, alleviated cartilage and bone erosion, and reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in CIA mice. Isogarcinol inhibited xylene-induced mouse ear edema in vivo. In vitro, isogarcinol decreased iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression and NO content by inhibiting NF-?B expression. Furthermore, isogarcinol decreased the activity of NFAT and inhibited IL-2 expression. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with down-regulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory reactions. PMID:24738849

  13. Eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors: inhibitive action of ethanol extracts of Garcinia kola for the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Okafor; V. I. Osabor; E. E. Ebenso

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the inhibitive effect of ethanol extracts of Garcinia kola (EXG) for the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 solutions. The study is another trial to find a cheap and environmentally safe inhibitor for mild steel corrosion. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The inhibition efficiency has been evaluated using the hydrogen evolution technique at 30-60°C. The mechanism

  14. Xanthones and benzophenones from Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia mangostana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilar; Lien-Hoa D. Nguyen; Ganpathi Venkatraman; Keng-Yeow Sim; Leslie J. Harrison

    2005-01-01

    A new polyisoprenylated benzophenone, guttiferone I, together with the known compounds cambogin, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia griffithii. The acetone extract of the heartwood of Garcinia mangostana contained one new diprenylated xanthone (mangoxanthone) and a new benzophenone (3?,6-dihydroxy-2,4,4?-trimethoxybenzophenone) as well as the known xanthones dulxanthone D, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-13,13-dimethyl-2H-pyran[7,6-b]xanthen-9-one. Their structures were established on

  15. Chemoprevention of 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in rats by kolaviron—A Garcinia kola seed extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. O Farombi; J. G Tahnteng; A. O Agboola; J. O Nwankwo; G. O Emerole

    2000-01-01

    The effect of kolaviron, a mixture of Garcinia biflavonoid 1 (GB1), Garcinia biflavonoid 2 (GB2) and kolaflavanone, used in the treatment of various ailments in southern Nigeria on hepatotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) in rats was investigated. The ability of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) to attenuate the toxic effect of 2-AAF was also examined. Kolaviron administered orally to

  16. The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of Garcinia extract, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as a weight reduction agent, using data from randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in language or time. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified and twelve were included. Nine trials provided data suitable for statistical pooling. The meta-analysis revealed a small, statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring HCA over placebo (MD: -0.88?kg; 95% CI: -1.75, -0.00). Gastrointestinal adverse events were twice as common in the HCA group compared with placebo in one included study. It is concluded that the RCTs suggest that Garcinia extracts/HCA can cause short-term weight loss. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should be more rigorous and better reported. PMID:21197150

  17. Taxonomic Revision and Molecular Studies of Garcinia Section Garcinia (Guttiferae) 

    E-print Network

    Saleh, Mohd. Nazre

    2006-01-01

    Garcinia section Garcinia is one of 14 sections of the species-rich pantropical genus Garcinia (Guttiferae/Clusiaceae). In its most recent circumscription the section comprised 43 species, mostly of rain forest understorey ...

  18. Anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Garcinia mangostana extract in hamster opisthorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Sriraj, Pranee; Songsri, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Boonyarat, Chantana; Rattanasuwan, Panaratana; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip

    2015-07-01

    Administration of praziquantel for treatment of liver fluke infection may affect the host, with mild and severe effects after treatment caused by host immune response. Therefore, we focused on the antioxidant property, inflammatory and anthelmintic effects of the traditional folk medicine, G.?mangostana pericarp extract, in hamster opisthorchiasis. Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups: normal (control) (N); administered G.?mangostana alone (GM); infected with Opisthorchis viverrini alone (OV); and infected with O.?viverrini and administered G.?mangostana extract for 1.5 months (OVGM). Hamster livers were collected 45 days after infection to determine histopathological changes, i.e. aggregation of inflammatory cells. The morphology of adult O.?viverrini (body size and sizes of reproductive organs) was analyzed, as well as worm burden, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces. Toxicity was tested by kidney function (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine); the results demonstrated that G.?mangostana had no renal toxic effect. ABTS radical-scavenging assay indicated that the extract had antioxidant property. Reduction in aggregation of inflammatory cells surrounding the hepatic bile duct, especially at the hilar region, was found in the OVGM group. Worm burden was similar in both infected groups (treated or untreated with G.?mangostana), but the average size of adults in the OV group was larger than in the OVGM group; moreover, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces were also comparatively higher. The present study suggests that G.?mangostana extract possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and can interfere with parasite development by affecting adult size and egg production. This may be useful for controlling the spread of OV infection and other parasites in endemic areas. PMID:25836376

  19. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Garcinia hanburyi extracts by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xiangdong; Liang, Chuang; Dong, Lei; Qu, Xiaotong; Zhao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Gambogic acid and gambogenic acid are two major bioactive components of Garcinia hanburyi, and play a pivotal role in biologic activity. In this study, a specific and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using an isocratic elution with methanol-10 m m ammonium acetate buffer-acetic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray positive ionization using multiple reaction monitoring modes. The transitions monitored were m/z 629.3 [M + H](+) ? 573.2 for gambogic acid, m/z 631.2 [M + H](+) ? 507.2 for gambogenic acid and m/z 444.2 [M + NH4 ](+) ? 83.1 for IS. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 2.00-1000 ng/mL for gambogic acid and 0.500-250 ng/mL for gambogenic acid. The lower limits of quantification of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma were 2.00 and 0.500 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) values were <11.7% and accuracy (RE) was -10.6-12.4% at three QC levels for both analytes. The assay was successfully applied to evaluate pharmacokinetics behavior in rats after oral administration of Garcinia hanburyi extracts. PMID:25159917

  20. The constituents from the stems of Garcinia cowa Roxb. and their cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Tian, Ze; Yang, Jun-shan

    2007-07-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides named garccowaside A, garccowaside B, garccowaside C, and three other known compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stems of Garcinia cowa. These structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Twelve compounds isolated from the stems of Garcinia cowa were tested for cytotoxic activities. PMID:17718199

  1. Prenylated xanthones and tocotrienols from Garcinia virgata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joumaa Merza; Marie-Christine Aumond; David Rondeau; Vincent Dumontet; Anne-Marie Le Ray; Denis Séraphin; Pascal Richomme

    2004-01-01

    Two xanthones, namely virgataxanthone A and B, have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia virgata, together with two formylated tocotrienols and the known ?-tocotrienol, griffipavixanthone and 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (cotoin). Their structures were mainly established using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectroscopies. When sufficient material was available, the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts as well as the isolated

  2. Four new cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhong-Yan; Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Qiao, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Chao; Shen, Guo-Rong; Cai, Mei-Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the twigs of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of four new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones C-F (1-4), and ten known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. PMID:25727735

  3. Pharmacokinetic characterization of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit extract standardized to ?-mangostin in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Li, Gongbo; Ramaiya, Atulkumar; Kumar, Anoop; Gill, Ravinder K; Saksena, Seema; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we have reported the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of ?-mangostin in mice. For this study, we evaluated the PK profile of ?-mangostin using a standardized mangosteen extract in C57BL/6 mice. The primary objective was to determine the PK properties of ?-mangostin when administered as an extract. This experiment was designed to test our primary hypothesis that ?-mangostin in an extract should achieve a desirable PK profile. This is especially relevant as dietary supplements of mangosteen fruit are regularly standardized to ?-mangostin. Mice received 100 mg/kg of mangosteen fruit extract orally, equivalent to 36 mg/kg of ?-mangostin, and plasma samples were analyzed over a 24-hour period. Concentrations of ?-mangostin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, we evaluated the stability in the presence of phase I and phase II enzymes in liver and gastrointestinal microsomes. Furthermore, we identified evidence of phase II metabolism of ?-mangostin. Further research will be required to determine if less abundant xanthones present in the mangosteen may modulate the PK parameters of ?-mangostin. PMID:24774070

  4. Novel cytotoxic polyprenylated xanthonoids from Garcinia gaudichaudii (Guttiferae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Geng Cao; Valerie H. L. Sng; Xiao-Hua Wu; Keng-Yeow Sim; B. H. K. Tan; J. T. Pereira; S. H. Goh

    1998-01-01

    Cytotoxicity guided phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract of the Malaysian medicinal plant Garcinia gaudichaudii led to the isolation of 15 novel cytotoxic compounds, gaudichaudiones A - H (1,2,8 – 10 and 12), gaudichaudiic acids A - E (3 – 6), including the known morellic acid (7) and forbesione (11). All are mainly tetraprenylated xanthonoids but gaudichaudione H (12) is

  5. Three xanthones from Garcinia subelliptica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Minami; Emi Takahashi; Mitsuaki Kodama; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama

    1996-01-01

    Three new xanthones, 2,5-dihydroxy-1-methoxylxanthone, 1-O-methylsymphoxanthone and garciniaxanthone E, have been isolated along with the previously known symphoxanthone and subelliptenone A from the wood of Garcinia subelliptica. Their structures have been elucidated mainly on the basis of spectroscopic data and confirmed by converting them into the corresponding known compounds. Garciniaxanthone E is the second geranylated xanthone isolated from Garcinia species.

  6. Quantification of the Polyisoprenylated Benzophenones Garcinol and Isogarcinol Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring LC/Electrospray Ionization-MS/MS Analysis of Ultrasound-Assisted Extracts of Garcinia indica Fruits.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Jaideep Bibishan; Vishwakarma, Ram Ashrey; Bharate, Sandip Bibishan; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai Prakash

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a method that includes an optimized extraction process and identification and quantification of two anticancer compounds (garcinol and isogarcinol) by LC/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The study aimed to develop a fast, accurate, and sensitive method for the quantification of garcinol and isogarcinol in different extracts of Garcinia indica fruits. The compounds were detected using LC/ESI-MS/MS in the positive-ion mode and quantified in the MRM mode using a transition mass of m/z 603.3/411 taken as the quantifier and 603.3/343.2 as the qualifier for garcinol and isogarcinol. Five point calibration curves were linear in the range of 2 to 10 ng/mL for garcinol and 0.5 to 6 ng/mL for isogarcinol, with a correlation coefficient of ?0.990 for both. LOQ for garcinol and isogarcinol was 0.06 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively, while LOD was 0.021 and 0.017 ng/mL respectively. Our work demonstrated optimization of extraction procedure, fast and highly sensitive quantification (pg level LOQ), and validation of the developed method for the investigated compounds in fruit extracts of G. indica. PMID:25902981

  7. Antifungal garcinia acid esters from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Mackeen, Mukram M; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2002-01-01

    Two new garcinia acid derivatives, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl)-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide and 1',1"-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate, were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis guided by TLC bioautography against the fungus Cladosporium herbarum. The structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. The former compound represents a unique beta-lactone structure and the latter compound is most likely an artefact of garcinia acid (= hydroxycitric acid). Both compounds showed selective antifungal activity comparable to that of cycloheximide (MID: 0.5 microg/spot) only against C herbarum at the MIDs of 0.4 and 0.8 microg/spot but were inactive against bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli), other fungi (Alternaria sp., Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus ochraceous) including the yeast Candida albicans. PMID:12064729

  8. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3??6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2?R,3?R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 ?M (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  9. Cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Asano; Kazuhiro Chiba; Masahiro Tada; Takao Yoshii

    1996-01-01

    Eleven novel cytotoxic xanthones, gambogin, morellin dimethyl acetal, isomoreollin B, moreollic acid, gambogenic acid, gambogenin, isogambogenin, desoxygambogenin, gambogenin dimethyl acetal, gambogellic acid and hanburin were isolated together with four known xanthones, gambogic acid, isomorellin, morellic acid and desoxymorellin, from the dry latex of Garcinia hanburyi. The structures were elucidated by a detailed spectroscopic analysis.

  10. Xanthones and triterpenoids from the bark of Garcinia vilersiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lien Hoa D. Nguyen; Leslie J. Harrison

    2000-01-01

    The hexane extract of the bark of Garcinia vilersiana from Vietnam contained four triterpenoids (olean-12-ene-3?,11?-diol, lupeol, ?-amyrin and oleanolic acid), and six xanthones (globuxanthone, subelliptenone H, subelliptenone B, 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A, 1-O-methylglobuxanthone and symphoxanthone). The structure of 1-O-methylglobuxanthone, the only novel compound, was determined using 1D and 2D NMR techniques and by correlation with globuxanthone.

  11. Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid

    PubMed Central

    Farombi, Ebenezer O.; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

  12. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of benzophenones and xanthones from edible fruits of Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Lyles, James T; Negrin, Adam; Khan, Shabana I; He, Kan; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones ?-mangostin (15), ?-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40 µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24 µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds. PMID:24963617

  13. Griffipavixanthone, a novel cytotoxic bixanthone from Garcinia griffithii and G. pavifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Jian Xu; Shu-Geng Cao; Xiao-Hua Wu; Yee-Hing Lai; B. H. K. Tan; J. T. Pereira; S. H. Goh; Ganapathi Venkatraman; Leslie J. Harrison; Keng-Yeow Sim

    1998-01-01

    A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the extracts of the Malaysian plant Garcinia pavifolia and a phytochemical study of G. griffithii led to the discovery of griffipavixanthone (1), a novel cytotoxic bixanthone with cyclized prenyl groups providing the xanthone-xanthone linkage. Spectroscopic data and preparation of methylated derivatives allowed for the complete structural elucidation of 1.

  14. Two new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojun; He, Luan; Wu, Xinxing; Zhong, Yanxia; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Yuanxing; Wang, Bin; Xu, Zhifang; Qiu, Shengxiang

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, designated garcimangosxanthone F (1) and garcimangosxanthone G (2), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established as 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone, respectively, on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and MS data interpretation. PMID:25299822

  15. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zeng; Huang, Lei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Gong-Kan; Lan, Wen-Jian; Li, Hou-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, named 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-xanthone (1) and 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), together with the five known compounds garcinones C (3) and D (4), gartanin (5), xanthone I (6), and ?-mangostin (7). Their structures were elucidated primarily based on MS and NMR data. Compounds 1-7 showed significant cytotoxic activities against various human cancer cell lines. PMID:24509722

  16. Therapeutic Discovery The Synthetic Caged Garcinia Xanthone Cluvenone Induces

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    Therapeutic Discovery The Synthetic Caged Garcinia Xanthone Cluvenone Induces Cell Stress , and Emmanuel A. Theodorakis1 Abstract Several caged Garcinia xanthone natural products have potent bioactivity, but are also tumor selective and thus less toxic. The tropical trees of the genus Garcinia, found in low- land

  17. Regioselective Synthesis of the Bridged Tricyclic Core of Garcinia Natural

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    Regioselective Synthesis of the Bridged Tricyclic Core of Garcinia Natural Products via ABSTRACT Two different routes to the tricyclic core of Garcinia-derived natural products are described of the genus Garcinia, has yielded an abundance of biologi- cally active and structurally intriguing natural

  18. Cytotoxic benzophenone and triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Kamal, Nik Nur Syazni Nik Mohamed; Osman, Hasnah; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of G. hombroniana. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of G. hombroniana yielded two new (1, 9) and thirteen known compounds which were characterized by the spectral techniques of NMR, UV, IR and EI/ESI-MS, and identified as; 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone(1), 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (2), 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (4), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (5),3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (7), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside (8), 18(13?17)-abeo-3?-acetoxy-9?,13?-lanost-24E-en-26-oic acid (9), garcihombronane B (10), garcihombronane D (11), friedelan-3-one (12), lupeol (13), stigmasterol (14) and stigmasterol glucoside (15). In the in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, DBTRG, U2OS and PC-3 cell lines, compounds 1 and 9 displayed good cytotoxic effects against DBTRG cancer cell lines. Compounds 1-8 were also found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Owing to these properties, this study can be further extended to explore more significant bioactive components of this plant. PMID:24813683

  19. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80?% (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2?µM for 3 and 6.3?µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3?µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. PMID:25340468

  20. Medicinal properties of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Pedraza-Chaverri; Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Marisol Orozco-Ibarra; Jazmin M. Pérez-Rojas

    2008-01-01

    Many tropical plants have interesting biological activities with potential therapeutic applications. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (GML) belongs to the family of Guttiferae and is named “the queen of fruits”. It is cultivated in the tropical rainforest of some Southeast Asian nations like Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Philippines, and Thailand. People in these countries have used the pericarp (peel, rind, hull or

  1. Caged-Tetraprenylated Xanthones from Garcinia scortechinii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul; Wanrudee Kaewnok; Sorwaporn Koysomboon; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Walter C. Taylor

    2000-01-01

    Three new caged tetraprenylated xanthones, named scortechinones A–C (1–3) were isolated from twigs of Garcinia scortechinii together with friedelin and stigmasterol. The scortechinone structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those of gaudichaudione H (4). The antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated.

  2. Isoprenylated xanthone and benzophenone constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia planchonii.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Duong Hoang; Ha, Ly Dieu; Tran, Phuong Thu; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa Dieu

    2014-12-01

    A new xanthone, planchoxanthone (1), together with six known compounds, garcinianone A (2), cowanin (3), rubraxanthone (4), f-mangostin (5), dulcisxanthone B (6), and guttiferone Q (7), were isolated from an n-hexane extract of the pericap of Garcinia planchonii. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds was tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. PMID:25632472

  3. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. PMID:24901833

  4. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  5. Identification and characterization of anticancer compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy from Chinese native Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Xu, Naihan; Hu, Hui; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Gu, Yunzhi; Song, Zhijun; Cao, Peng; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. Active compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy are candidates for anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we collected Garcinia species from China and extracted them into water or ethanol fractions. Then, we performed a functional screen in search of novel apoptosis and autophagy regulators. We first characterized the anti-proliferation activity of the crude extracts on multiple cell lines. HeLa cells expressing GFP-LC3 were used to examine the effects of the crude extracts on autophagy. Their activities were confirmed by Western blots of A549 and HeLa cells. By using bioassay guided fractionation, we found that two caged prenylxanthones from Garcinia bracteata, neobractatin and isobractatin, can significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results suggest that different Garcinia species displayed various degrees of toxicity on different cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the use of a high content screening assay to screen natural products was an essential method to identify novel autophagy regulators. PMID:25478784

  6. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. ?-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 ?g/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and ?-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 ?g/mL. PMID:25110196

  7. Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2?-hydroxy-3?-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods. PMID:24392659

  8. A new furanoxanthone from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; See, Irene; Teh, Soek Sin; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    Our phytochemical study on the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana has led to the discovery of a new furanoxanthone, mangaxanthone A (1), together with five known analogs. The five known analogs that were isolated are ?-mangostin (2), ?-mangostin (3), cowagarcinone B (4), and dulcisxanthone F (5). The structural elucidations of these compounds were carried out by interpreting their spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR spectra and MS. PMID:24670077

  9. New cholinesterase inhibitors from Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Khaw, Kooi-Yeong; Vikneswaran, Murugaiyah

    2014-09-01

    A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge. PMID:24924287

  10. Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Primchanien Moongkarndi; Nuttavut Kosem; Sineenart Kaslungka; Omboon Luanratana; Narongchai Pongpan; Neelobol Neungton

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidative properties of crude methanolic extract (CME) from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (family Guttiferae) using human breast cancer (SKBR3) cell line as a model system. SKBR3 cells were cultured in the presence of CME at various concentrations (0–50?g\\/ml) for 48h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by

  11. Phenolics from hull of Garcinia mangostana fruit and their antioxidant activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Limei Yu; Mouming Zhao; Bao Yang; Qiangzhong Zhao; Yueming Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 70% MeOH, and then partitioned into the n-BuOH fractions. Furthermore, three major phenolic components related to their antioxidant activities were purified by silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 and then identified as P1 (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-2,8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)), P2 [1,3,6-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-2,8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) xanthone] and P3 (epicatechin) using UV–visible spectrophotometry, IR spectrophotometry and NMR spectroscopy,

  12. Preparative isolation and identification of tyrosinase inhibitors from the seeds of Garcinia kola by high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Okunji; Slavko Komarnytsky; Georgie Fear; Alexander Poulev; David M. Ribnicky; Peter I. Awachie; Yoichiro Ito; Ilya Raskin

    2007-01-01

    In continuation of our search for bioactive natural products that can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation, 50 extracts\\/fractions from 21 families of medicinal plants from West and Central Africa were evaluated for inhibitory activity against tyrosinase (E:C:1.14.18.1), the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. Four extracts including the methanol extract of Garcinia kola seeds

  13. Potential use of Garcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Aniche; G. U. Uwakwe

    1990-01-01

    The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave

  14. PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Synthesis and evaluation of caged Garcinia xanthones

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Synthesis and evaluation of caged Garcinia and potent bioactivities exhibited by several family members of the caged Garcinia xanthones, we developed pharmacophore. Introduction The Garcinia genus of tropical plants has yielded a structurally intriguing family

  15. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones Oraphin Chantarasriwong,[a, b

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    #12;Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones Oraphin Chantarasriwong,[a, b] Ayse. 2010, 16, 9944 ­ 99629944 DOI: 10.1002/chem.201000741 #12;Introduction The trees of the genus Garcinia the years Garcinia trees have retained considerable value as sources for medicines, pigments, gums, waxes

  16. Mangostanol, a prenyl xanthone from Garcinia mangostana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nattaya Chairungsrilerd; Kazuya Takeuchi; Yasushi Ohizumi; Shigeo Nozoe; Tomihisa Ohta

    1996-01-01

    During studies for identification of biologically active components from natural sources, a new polyoxygenated xanthone mangostanol was isolated from the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana, along with known xanthones, ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 8-deoxygartnin, 5,9-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-8-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-pyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6-one, garcinone E and 2-(?,?-dimethylallyl)-1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone and epicatechin. Spectroscopic analysis mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, established the structure of mangostanol {3,5,9-trihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-8-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-3,4-dihydropyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6-one} Mangostanol, and ?- and ?-mangostin

  17. Antiplasmodial and other constituents from four Indonesian Garcinia spp.

    PubMed

    Elfita, Elfita; Muharni, Muharni; Latief, Madyawati; Darwati, Darwati; Widiyantoro, Ari; Supriyatna, Supriyatna; Bahti, Husein H; Dachriyanus, Dachriyanus; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Foubert, Kenne; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc

    2009-05-01

    Phytochemical investigations of four Garcinia spp. from Indonesia, i.e. Garcinia griffithii T. Anderson, Garcinia celebica L., Garcinia cornea L. and Garcinia cymosa K. Schum (Clusiaceae), have resulted in the isolation of a xanthone, 1,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2,7-diprenylxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone, isoxanthochymol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside from the stem bark of G. griffithii; friedelin and 3beta-hydroxy-23-oxo-9,16-lanostadien-26-oic acid or garcihombronane D from leaves of G. celebica; 23-hydroxy-3-oxo-cycloart-24-en-26-oic acid and epicatechin from stem bark of G. cornea; (+/-)-morelloflavone, morelloflavone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside or fukugiside, the triterpene 3beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid and canophyllol from stem bark of G. cymosa. The xanthone and garcihombronane D displayed a selective activity against Plasmodium falciparum; isoxanthochymol and the triterpene beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal activity. PMID:19481231

  18. Antimicrobial prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia goudotiana.

    PubMed

    Mahamodo, Sania; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel; Abedini, Amin; Ranarivelo, Heritiana; Duhal, Nathalie; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Lemoine, Amélie; Razafimahefa, Dorothée; Razanamahefa, Bakonirina; Bailleul, François; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina

    2014-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation using antimicrobial assay of the crude acetonic extract of Garcinia goudotiana leaves and of its five partitions led to the isolation of two new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, goudotianone 1 (1) and goudotianone 2 (2), in addition to two known compounds including one xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-isoprenylxanthone (3), and one triterpenoid, friedelin (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of different spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The crude acetonic extract, the methylene chloride and ethyl acetate partitions, and some tested compounds isolated from this species (1-3) demonstrated selective significant antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Enterococcus faecalis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The potential cytotoxic activities of these extracts and compounds were evaluated against human colon carcinoma HT29 and human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 cells. PMID:24690454

  19. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-07-25

    Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-? plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24960143

  20. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Marie Guedje; Jean Lejoly; Bernard-Aloys Nkongmeneck; Wyb B. J. Jonkers

    2003-01-01

    Garcinia lucida Vesque (Clusiaceae) is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem, leading to high mortality. To identify the processes or the life stages that influence

  1. Phenolic compounds from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Deachathai; W. Mahabusarakam; S. Phongpaichit; Y.-J. Zhang; C.-R. Yang

    2006-01-01

    Dulcisxanthones C–F (1–4) and dulcinone (5) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The abilities of some of these compounds to act as radical scavengers and antibacterial agents were investigated.

  2. Novel cytotoxic, polyprenylated heptacyclic xanthonoids from Indonesian Garcinia gaudichaudii (Guttiferae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Y J; Yip, S C; Kosela, S; Fitri, E; Hana, M; Goh, S H; Sim, K Y

    2000-11-30

    [reaction: see text] The structures of novel gaudichaudiic acids F-I (1-4), isolated from the bark of Indonesian Garcinia gaudichaudii, have been elucidated by detailed spectral analysis. Gaudichaudiic acid I (4) is probably derived from 1 as a result of allylic oxidation at C-24 and C-21, followed by aromatization. PMID:11101460

  3. Vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract (Garcinia mangostana Linn) in hypercholesterol-diet-given Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain

    PubMed Central

    Wihastuti, Titin Andri; Sargowo, Djanggan; Tjokroprawiro, Askandar; Permatasari, Nur; Widodo, Mohammad Aris; Soeharto, Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in atherosclerosis produces H2O2 and triggers the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-?B) and increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The formation of vasa vasorum occurs in atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis is mediated by VEGFR-1 and upregulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). The newly formed vasa vasorum are fragile and immature and thus increase plaque instability. It is necessary to control vasa vasorum angiogenesis by using mangosteen pericarp antioxidant. This study aims to demonstrate that mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract can act as vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition in rats given a hypercholesterol diet. Methods This was a true experimental laboratory, in vivo posttest with control group design, with 20 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats divided into five groups (normal group, hypercholesterol group, and hypercholesterol groups with certain doses of mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract: 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight). The parameters of this study were H2O2 measured by using colorimetric analysis, as well as NF-?B, iNOS, and HIF-1?, which were measured by using immunofluorescence double staining and observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope in aortic smooth muscle cell. The angiogenesis of vasa vasorum was quantified from VEGFR-1 level in aortic tissue and confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results Analysis of variance test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract had a significant effect (P<0.05) in decreasing vasa vasorum angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition in hypercholesterol-diet-given R. norvegicus Wistar strain. Conclusion Mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract 800 mg/kg body weight is proven to decrease vasa vasorum angiogenesis. Similar studies with other inflammatory parameters are encouraged to clarify the mechanism of vasa vasorum angiogenesis inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract. PMID:25187725

  4. PAPER www.rsc.org/obc | Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Evaluation of the pharmacophoric motif of the caged Garcinia xanthones

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    of the caged Garcinia xanthones Oraphin Chantarasriwong,a,b Woo Cheal Cho,a Ayse Batova,*c Warinthorn Chavasiri Garcinia xanthones, led us to evaluate their pharmacophore. We have developed a Pd(0)-catalyzed method and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant leukemia cells. As such, the caged Garcinia

  5. Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O; Adesanya, Saburi A; Idowu, Thomas O; Okimi, Oluwakemi C; Oyelami, Oyesiku A; Iwalewa, Ezekiel O

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. Patients and methods Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. All KOA patients presenting at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex were recruited into the study. The patients were grouped into four (A = Placebo, B = Naproxen, C = Garcinia kola, D = Celebrex). The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of 200 mg of G. kola, Naproxen (500 mg), Celebrex (200 mg) and Ascorbic acid (100 mg). The primary outcome measure over six weeks study period was the change in mean WOMAC pain visual analogue scales (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in joint stiffness and physical function (mobility/walking). Results 143 patients were recruited, 84 (58.7%, males – 24, females – 60) satisfied the selection criteria and completed the study. The effect of knee osteoarthritis bilateralism among the subjects was not significant on their outcome (p > 0.05). The change in the mean WOMAC pain VAS after six weeks of G. kola was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (p < 0.001). Multiple comparisons of the mean VAS pain change of G. kola group was not lowered significantly against the naproxen and celebrex groups (p > 0.05). The onset of G. kola symptomatic pain relief was faster than the placebo (p < 0.001). However, it was slower than the active comparators (p > 0.05). The duration of therapeutic effect of Garcinia kola was longer than the placebo (p > 0.001). G. kola period of effect was less than naproxen and celebrex (p < 0.001). G. kola subjects had improved mean change mobility/walking after six weeks better than the control group(p < 0.001). The mean change in mobility of the G. kola group when compared to the active comparators was not significantly better (p < 0.05). The mean change of knee joint stiffness (p < 0.001) and the change of mean WOMAC score (p < 0.001) were improved on Garcinia kola as compared to the placebo. The mid term outcome of eleven Garcinia kola subjects after cessation of use had a mean pain relief period of 17.27 +/- 5.15 days (range: 9–26 days). There was no significant cardiovascular, renal or drug induced adverse reaction to Garcinia kola. Conclusion Garcinia kola appeared to have clinically significant analgesic/anti-inflammatory effects in knee osteoarthritis patients. Garcinia kola is a potential osteoarthritis disease activity modifier with good mid term outcome. Further studies are required for standardization of dosages and to determine long-term effects. PMID:18667082

  6. A novel polyisoprenyl benzophenone derivative from Garcinia eugeniaefolia.

    PubMed

    Hartati, Sri; Soemiati, Atiek; Wang, Hong-Bing; Kardono, Leonardus B S; Hanafi, Muhammad; Kosela, Soleh; Qin, Guo-Wei

    2008-01-01

    A novel polyisoprenyl benzophenone derivative named eugeniaphenone (1) was isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia eugeniaefolia Wall. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It is the first example in which an isoprenyl unit formed a cyclobutane-containing side chain in the polyisoprenyl benzophenone derivatives. PMID:18470802

  7. Antimalarial xanthones from Calophyllum caledonicum and Garcinia vieillardii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Emmanuelle Hay; Jean-Jacques Hélesbeux; Olivier Duval; Medhi Labaïed; Philippe Grellier; Pascal Richomme

    2004-01-01

    The antimalarial activity of 22 xanthones against chloroquino-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated. Natural caloxanthone C (1), demethylcalabaxanthone (2), calothwaitesixanthone (3), calozeyloxanthone (4), dombakinaxanthone (5), macluraxanthone (6), and 6-deoxy-?-mangostin (7) were isolated from Calophyllum caledonicum. 1,6-dihydroxyxanthone (8), pancixanthone A (9), isocudraniaxanthone B (10), isocudraniaxanthone A (11), 2-deprenylrheediaxanthone B (12) and 1,4,5-trihydroxyxanthone (13) were isolated from Garcinia vieillardii. Moreover, synthetic

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lih-Geeng Chen; Ling-Ling Yang; Ching-Chiung Wang

    2008-01-01

    The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn (Guttiferae) is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in Southeast Asia. Two xanthones, ?- and ?-mangostins, were isolated from the fruit hull of G. mangostana, and both significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The IC50 values for the inhibition of NO production by ?- and ?-mangostins

  9. Complete NMR assignments of bioactive rotameric (3???8) biflavonoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-07-01

    The genus Garcinia is reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Garcinia hombroniana in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to isolate the chemical constituents from the bark of G. hombroniana and explore their possible pharmacological potential. Ethyl acetate extract afforded one new (1) and six (2-7) known 3???8 rotameric biflavonoids. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy together with electron ionization/ESI mass spectrometric techniques and were identified as (2R, 3S) volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (1), volkensiflavone (2), 4?-O-methyl-volkensiflavone (3), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), morelloflavone (5), 3?-O-methyl-morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (7). The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned by circular dichroism spectroscopy as 2R, 3S. The coexistence of conformers of isolated biflavonoids in solution at 25?°C in different solvents was confirmed by variable temperature NMR studies. At room temperature (25?°C), compounds 1-7 exhibited duplicate NMR signals, while at elevated temperature (90?°C), a single set of signals was obtained. Compound 5 showed significant in vitro antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. The antibacterial studies showed that compounds 5 and 6 are the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3 and 6 also showed moderate antituberculosis activity against H38 Rv. Based on the research findings, G. hombroniana could be concluded as a rich source of flavanone-flavone (3???8) biflavonoids that exhibit rotameric behaviour at room temperature and display significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24700704

  10. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal evaluation of Garcinia mangostana pericarp and ?-mangostin, its major xanthone derivative.

    PubMed

    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Basudan, Omer A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Farag, Mohamed; Assaf, Mahmoud H; El Tahir, Kamaleldin H; Maes, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Five xanthone derivatives and one flavanol were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Garcinia mangostana. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and the major xanthone (?-mangostin) were evaluated in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. The major constituent ?-mangostin was also checked for antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. cheleneoi, M. xenopi and M. intracellulare. Activity against P. falciparum (IC?? 2.7 ?g/mL) and T. brucei (IC?? 0.5 ?g/mL) were observed for the dichloromethane extract, however, with only moderate selectivity was seen based on a parallel cytotoxicity evaluation on MRC-5 cells (IC?? 9.4 ?g/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was inactive (IC?? > 30 µg/mL). The major constituent ?-mangostin showed rather high cytotoxicity (IC?? 7.5 µM) and a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity profile. This in vitro study endorses that the antiprotozoal and antimicrobial potential of prenylated xanthones is non-conclusive in view of the low level of selectivity. PMID:24002136

  11. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species

    PubMed Central

    Sosef, Marc S.M.; Dauby, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii. PMID:23233817

  12. Xanthones from Garcinia smeathmannii (Oliver) and their antimicrobial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Komguem; A. L. Meli; R. N. Manfouo; David Lontsi; F. N. Ngounou; V. Kuete; Hippolyte W. Kamdem; Pierre Tane; Bonaventure T. Ngadjui; Beiban L. Sondengam; Joseph D. Connolly

    2005-01-01

    Two new xanthones, smeathxanthone A (1) (2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone) and smeathxanthone B (2) (5,7,10-trihydroxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methylpent-3-enyl)[2H, 6H]pyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6-one), have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia smeathmannii, and their structures elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. 1,3,5-Trihydroxyxanthone and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone were also obtained. The compounds showed only modest activity against a range of bacteria and yeasts.

  13. Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Asghar; Emmanuel Monjok; Ghislaine Kouamou; Sunny E. Ohia; Debasis Bagchi; Mustafa F. Lokhandwala

    2007-01-01

    Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium\\/potassium salt of (?)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of\\u000a the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation,\\u000a oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated

  14. Noncytotoxic and Antitumour-Promoting Activities of Garcinia Acid Esters from Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae)

    PubMed Central

    Mackeen, Mukram M.; Mooi, Lim Y.; Amran, Mohidin; Mat, Nashriyah; Lajis, Nordin H.; Ali, Abdul M.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro antitumour-promoting, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of two ester derivatives of garcinia acid, that is, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl)-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide (1) and 1?,1??-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate (2), that had been previously isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae), were examined. Based on the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation, compound 1 (IC50: 70??M) showed much higher (8-fold) antitumour-promoting activity than compound 2 (IC50: 560??M). In addition, both compounds were nontoxic towards CEM-SS (human T-lymphoblastic leukemia) cells (CD50: >100??M), Raji (human B-lymphoblastoid) cells (CD50: >600??M), and brine shrimp (LD50: >300??M). Although the antitumour-promoting activity of compound 1 is moderate compared with the known antitumour promoter genistein, its non-toxicity suggests the potential of compound 1 and related structures as chemopreventive agents. The weak antioxidant activity displayed by both compounds also suggested that the primary antitumour-promoting mechanism of compound 1 did not involve oxidative-stress quenching. PMID:22685487

  15. Noncytotoxic and Antitumour-Promoting Activities of Garcinia Acid Esters from Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae).

    PubMed

    Mackeen, Mukram M; Mooi, Lim Y; Amran, Mohidin; Mat, Nashriyah; Lajis, Nordin H; Ali, Abdul M

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro antitumour-promoting, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of two ester derivatives of garcinia acid, that is, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl)-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide (1) and 1',1''-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate (2), that had been previously isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae), were examined. Based on the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation, compound 1 (IC(50): 70??M) showed much higher (8-fold) antitumour-promoting activity than compound 2 (IC(50): 560??M). In addition, both compounds were nontoxic towards CEM-SS (human T-lymphoblastic leukemia) cells (CD(50): >100??M), Raji (human B-lymphoblastoid) cells (CD(50): >600??M), and brine shrimp (LD(50): >300??M). Although the antitumour-promoting activity of compound 1 is moderate compared with the known antitumour promoter genistein, its non-toxicity suggests the potential of compound 1 and related structures as chemopreventive agents. The weak antioxidant activity displayed by both compounds also suggested that the primary antitumour-promoting mechanism of compound 1 did not involve oxidative-stress quenching. PMID:22685487

  16. Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Cao, Peng; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1) and H (2), and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and immortalized HL7702 normal liver cells, whereby compounds 1, 5, 8, and 15-17 exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that 5 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, 1 and 16 at the G2/M phase, and 17 at the G1 phase, while 16 and 17 induced apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy analysis by GFP-LC3 puncta formation and western blotting suggested that 17 induced autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that these xanthones possess anticancer activities targeting cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy signaling pathways. PMID:26102071

  17. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively. PMID:25460314

  18. Anti-Helicobacter pylori xanthones of Garcinia fusca.

    PubMed

    Nontakham, Jannarin; Charoenram, Napaporn; Upamai, Wanchalerm; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Suksamrarn, Sunit

    2014-08-01

    A new geranylated xanthone derivative, fuscaxanthone I (1), along with nine xanthones (2-9 and 11), a biphenyl (10) and three biflavonoids (12-14) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia fusca Pierre. Compounds 8, 10 and 11-14 were reported from this plant species for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori. Cowaxanthone (5) and fukugiside (14) exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against H. pylori DMST reference strain at MICs 4.6 and 10.8 ?M, respectively, than that of the control metronidazole. Isojacareubin (8) displayed the most potent activity against H. pylori HP40 clinical isolate with MIC 23.9 ?M, which was approximately two times greater than that of the standard drug amoxicillin. PMID:24155023

  19. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Xanthones and Benzophenone from Garcinia smeathmannii.

    PubMed

    Fouotsa, Hugues; Lannang, Alain Meli; Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Tatsimo, Simplice J N; Neumann, Beate; Mbazoa, Celine Djama; Razakarivony, Andrianambinina Andriamarolahy; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Eloff, Jacobus N; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    A new prenylated xanthone, 1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxy-2-(3-methybut-2-enyl)-4-(3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl) xanthone (1), and a new benzophenone (2), together with four known xanthone derivatives, cheffouxanthone (3), smeathxanthone A (4), smeathxanthone B (5), ananixanthone (6), and two pentacyclic triterpenes, epi-friedelinol (7) and friedelin (8), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia smeathmannii. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D?NMR experiments, and compound 2 was further characterized and confirmed by single X-ray analysis. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited the most prominent antibacterial activity against gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 8, 8, and 2?µg/mL, respectively, while compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 showed the capacity to scavenge free radicals. PMID:25798641

  20. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  1. Recent Research on Bioactive Xanthones from Natural Medicine: Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Jia, Buyun; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Xuerui; Zhu, Guangyu; Chen, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Garcinia hanburyi, a tropical plant found in south Asia, has a special long history in the development of both medicine and art. This review mainly focuses on the pharmacy research of the bioactive compounds from the plant in recent years. Preparative and analysis separation methods were introduced. Moreover, the chemical structure of the isolated compounds was included. The studies of biological activities of the caged xanthones from the plant, including antitumor, anti-HIV-1, antibacterial, and neurotrophic activities, were reviewed in detail. Furthermore, the mechanisms of its antitumor activity were also reviewed. As mentioned above, some of the xanthones from G. hanburyi can be promising drug candidates, which is worth studying. However, we still need much evidence to prove their efficacy and safety. So, further research is critical for the future application of xanthones from G. hanburyi. PMID:26152816

  2. Isolation and structure elucidation of highly antioxidative 3,8?-linked biflavanones and flavanone-C-glycosides from Garcinia buchananii bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Lösch, Sofie; Boakye, Paul A; Balemba, Onesmo B; Pasilis, Sofie P; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-02-29

    The aim of this study was to identify antioxidants from Garcinia buchananii bark extract using hydrogen peroxide scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. LC-MS/MS analysis, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy led to the unequivocal identification of the major antioxidative molecules as a series of three 3,8?-linked biflavanones and two flavanone-C-glycosides. Besides the previously reported (2R,3R,2?R,3?R)-naringenin-C-3/C-8? dihydroquercetin linked biflavanone (GB-2; 4) and (2R,3S,2?R,3?R)-manniflavanone (3), whose stereochemistry has been revised, the antioxidants identified for the first time in Garcinia buchananii were (2R,3R)-taxifolin-6-C-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (2R,3R)-aromadendrin-6-C-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and the new compound (2R,3S,2?S)-buchananiflavanone (5). The H?O? scavenging and the ORAC assays demonstrated that these natural products have an extraordinarily high antioxidative power, especially (2R,3S,2?R,3?R)-manniflavanone (3) and GB-2 (4), with EC?? values of 2.8 and 2.2 ?M, respectively, and 13.73 and 12.10 ?mol TE/ ?mol. These findings demonstrate that G. buchananii bark extract is a rich natural source of antioxidants. PMID:22250972

  3. Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 ?g/ml?M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 ?g/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 ?g/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). Conclusions The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude extract from G. nobilis, O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis as well as some of their compounds, and mostly compound 2 (isolated from G. nobilis,) could be considered as interesting natural antibacterial products. PMID:23574627

  4. Cytotoxic compounds from the leaves of Garcinia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Lannang, Alain Meli; Tatsimo, Simplice J N; Fouotsa, Hugues; Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Saxena, Ajit Kumar; Sewald, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    A new compound, named banganxanthone C (=12-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-en-1-yl)-5,10-dihydroxy-9-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)-2H,6H-pyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6-one; 4), together with five known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia polyantha. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Among the known compounds, two were xanthones, one was a pentacyclic triterpene, one sterol, and one benzophenone derivative. Isoxanthochymol (2) and 4-[(2E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl]-1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-9H-xanthen-9-one (3) exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against the leukemia cell line TPH-1 with IC50 inhibition values of 1.5 and 2.8??g/ml, respectively. The cytotoxic activity was found to be related to apoptosis induction. PMID:24934683

  5. Facultative Apomixis in Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae) and Effects of Different Pollination Regimes on Reproductive Success.

    PubMed

    Pangsuban, Sasithorn; Bamroongrugsa, Noparat; Kanchanapoom, Kamnoon; Nualsri, Charassri

    2009-12-01

    Various aspects of the reproductive success of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. were studied. Controlled pollination experiments were carried out in an orchard located in Songkhla province, southern Thailand, from February to July 2003. Floral longevity, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability were examined before carrying out the experiments. Three pollination treatments were compared: open pollination, manual pollination with bags, and bags without pollination (apogamy). Although there was no significant difference in the initial fruit set, bagged and manual pollination produced a significantly greater fruit drop rate than apogamy or natural pollination at one week after the flowers had been pollinated. On the other hand, the apogamy treatment had a greater fruit drop rate than natural and manual pollination treatments before fruit maturation. In addition, unpollinated bagged flowers bore fewer and smaller fruit than naturally and manually cross-pollinated flowers. Although the fruits from unpollinated flowers were capable of asexual seed formation, they produced fewer seeds and had poorer seed quality (defined as average fresh weight and germination rate) than those from the other treatments. The occurrence of asexual and sexual reproduction was also studied using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by comparing the patterns of bands produced from DNA extracted from the offspring of the naturally cross-pollinated fruits. On average, 58% of the offspring had a genetic constitution identical to that of the maternal parent (ranging from 36% to 87%), indicating that some offspring were produced without prior fertilisation. However, the remainder showed polymorphism, demonstrating the occurrence of sexual reproduction. These findings indicate that facultative apomixis occurred in the study population. However, a residual sexuality was important for fruit production, fruit size, normal seed set and seed quality. PMID:24575182

  6. Isolation and bioactivities of constitutents of the roots of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Permana, D; Lajis, N H; Mackeen, M M; Ali, A M; Aimi, N; Kitajima, M; Takayama, H

    2001-07-01

    Two new prenylated compounds, the benzoquinone atrovirinone (1) and the depsidone atrovirisidone (2), were isolated from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were determined on the basis of the analysis of spectroscopic data. While compound 2 showed some cytotoxicity against HeLa cells, both compounds 1 and 2 were only mildly inhibitory toward Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:11473441

  7. Atrovirisidone B, a new prenylated depsidone with cytotoxic property from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Permanaa, Dharma; Abas, Faridah; Maulidiani; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Lajis, Nordin Hj

    2005-01-01

    A new prenylated depsidone, atrovirisidone B (2), together with naringenin (3) and 3,8"-binaringenin (4) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data interpretation. Compound 2 showed cytotoxic activity against human breast (MCF-7), human prostate (DU-145) and human lung (H-460) cancer cells. PMID:16163823

  8. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhash Padhye; Aamir Ahmad; Nikhil Oswal; Fazlul H Sarkar

    2009-01-01

    Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as

  9. Rapid in vitro multiplication and conservation of Garcinia indica: A tropical medicinal tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Malik; R. Chaudhury; Rajwant K. Kalia

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient method has been developed for rapid regeneration of plantlets via adventitious bud differentiation on mature seeds of Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy, a medicinally important facultative apomictic tropical tree species. High frequency direct shoot proliferation was induced in seed segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with cytokinins (BAP, kinetin and TDZ) alone and in combination

  10. Nitrosatable amines and nitrosamide formation in natural stimulants: Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Atawodi; P. Mende; B. Pfundstein; R. Preussmann; B. Spiegelhalder

    1995-01-01

    Three varieties of kola nut, Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola, of Nigerian origin, were analysed for their content of primary and secondary amines, and assessed for their relative methylating potential due to nitrosamide formation. Primary and secondary amines were determined as benzene sulfonamides by gas chromatography\\/thermal energy analysis (GC\\/TEA). Dimethylamine, methylamine, ethylamine and isopentylamine were detected in all

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF FLAVONOIDS OF GARCINIA KOLA SEEDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adaramoye OA; Farombi EO; Adeyemi EO; Emerole GO

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative damage has been suggested to be a contributory factor in the development and compli- cations of atherosclerosis, and of recent the beneficial effects of antioxidants against some pathologies have gained considerable interest. We evaluated the protective effects of flavonoids from Garcinia kola seeds on the oxidation of human low- density lipoprotein (LDL) and their ability to scavenge reactive

  12. Adaptogenic potentials of Camellia sinensis leaves, Garcinia kola and Kola nitida seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles O. Esimone; Michael U. Adikwu; Chukwuemeka S. Nworu; Festus B. C. Okoye; Damian C. Odimegwu

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we screened Garcinia kola seed (GKS), Kola nitida seed (KNS) and Camellia sinensis Leaves (TEA) for adaptogenic potentials. The investigation was carried out in albino rats to determine the ability of these plant materials to increase non-specific resistance against physical, chemical and biological stressors. The results show that the three plant materials protected the animals from bacteria-induced

  13. Rapid screening and identification of ?-amylase inhibitors from Garcinia xanthochymus using enzyme-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles coupled with HPLC and MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfang; Chen, Yu; Xiao, Chuying; Chen, Dan; Xiao, Yuxiu; Mei, Zhinan

    2014-06-01

    ?-Amylase inhibitors play an important role in management of diabetes and obesity. In order to rapidly discover potent ?-amylase inhibitors from medicinal plants, a ligands-screening method based on enzyme-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles integrated with HPLC was developed. Amine-terminated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared for the immobilization of ?-amylase. Based on the affinity theory, the ?-amylase-coated magnetic nanoparticles were employed to fish out the ligands from the extracts of Garcinia xanthochymus, and the elutes were examined by HPLC. As a result, three ligands were screened out. Isolation and identification were carried out subsequently. By analyzing the UV, MS and NMR spectra, they were identified as three biflavonoids including GB2a glucoside (2), GB2a (3) and fukugetin (4). The IC50 values of the three compounds were also determined. The results suggest the proposed approach is efficient and accurate, and has great potential in rapid discovery of drug candidates from medical plants. PMID:24814002

  14. An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX) for weight management.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Rao, C V S; Garis, R; Bramble, J D; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a safe, natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, a key enzyme which facilitates the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides. Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated the superior bioavailability of a novel calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax). Greater bioavailability of HCA-SX was observed when taken on an empty stomach. HCA-SX was also shown to exhibit concentration-dependent release of serotonin in isolated rat brain cortex, which may explain its appetite suppressive action. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, primary eye irritation and 90-day chronic toxicity studies, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation and mouse lymphoma tests, were assessed to determine the safety of HCA-SX. In the 90-day toxicity study, dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX were assessed on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathology in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. No remarkable toxicity results were detected, demonstrating the safety of HCA-SX. Furthermore, clinical studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HCA-SX over a period of eight weeks were conducted in 60 human volunteers. Subjects were given a 2,000 kcal diet/day, participated in a 30 min walking exercise program 5 days/week and given an oral dose of placebo or 4666.7 mg HCA-SX (providing 2,800 mg HCA) in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals, Body weight, BMI, lipid profiles, serum leptin, serotonin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites were determined at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Food intake, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced, while HDL and serotonin levels, and excretion of urinary fat metabolites (a biomarker of fat oxidation) significantly increased. No significant adverse effects were reported. These results demonstrate the safety, bioavailability and efficacy of HCA-SX in weight management. PMID:18084863

  15. Determination of organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Desr.) by LC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Jayaprakasha; K. K. Sakariah

    2002-01-01

    Organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Kokam) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major organic acid in leaves and rinds has been found to be (?)-hydroxycitric acid present to the extent of 4.1–4.6 and 10.3–12.7%, respectively, by isocratic elution with 8 mM sulfuric acid as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 ml\\/min using UV

  16. Structure elucidation and NMR spectral assignment of five new xanthones from the bark of Garcinia xanthochymus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Zhong, Fangfang; He, Hongwu; Hu, Yun; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Guangzhong

    2008-12-01

    Five new xanthones, namely Garcinexanthones A-E (1-5), were isolated from the barks of Garcinia xanthochymus. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, primarily NMR, MS, and UV. The complete assignments of the (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR chemical shifts for the compounds were achieved by using 1D and 2D NMR techniques, including DEPT, HSQC, and HMBC NMR experiments. PMID:18800340

  17. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, D.; Buwa, L.; Mayekiso, B.; Basson, A. K.; Okoh, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through MIC determination and only Benz2 and Benz3 were found to be active with MIC's ranging from 0.625 to 2.5?mg/mL. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed Benz2 to have 9 compounds whilst Benz3 had 7 compounds, with the major compounds in both fractions being 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.?.) and 9,19-Cyclolanostan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3.?.). The Benz2 fraction was found to have mainly indifferent interactions with ampicillin and penicillin G whilst mainly additive interactions were observed with ciprofloxacin. The Benz3 fraction's interactions were found to be 50% synergistic with penicillin G and 25% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. A commercially available 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.?.) was found not to exhibit any antiListerial activities at maximum test concentrations of 5?mg/mL, suggesting that the compound could be acting in synergy with the other compounds in the eluted fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. PMID:24527056

  18. Two new xanthones isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia lancilimba.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nian-Yun; Han, Quan-Bin; Cao, Xin-Wei; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Song, Jing-Zheng; Chen, Shi-Lin; Yang, Da-Jian; Yiu, Hillary; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2007-06-01

    Two new xanthones, 1,5,6-trihydroxy-6',6'-dimethyl-2H-pyrano(2',3':3,4)-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (1) and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-6',6'-dimethyl-2H-pyrano(2',3':3,2)-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (2), have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia lancilimba (Guttiferae), together with six known xanthones. Their structures were identified on the basis of extensive spectral evidence including detailed 2D NMR and HR-MS data. Two new compounds showed moderate inhibitory effect on human breast cancer MDA-MB-435S cell line. PMID:17541202

  19. Kaennacowanols A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the roots of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Kaennakam, Sutin; Siripong, Pongpun; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2015-04-01

    Three new xanthones, named kaennacowanols A-C (1-3), along with nineteen known xanthones were isolated from the roots of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB and HeLa cell lines. Compounds 17 and 22 showed good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 values of 7.97 and 9.10?M, respectively. On the other hand, compound 15 showed good cytotoxicity against HeLa cell with IC50 value of 9.34?M. PMID:25771120

  20. A tocotrienol series with an oxidative terminal prenyl unit from Garcinia amplexicaulis.

    PubMed

    Lavaud, Alexis; Richomme, Pascal; Gatto, Julia; Aumond, Marie-Christine; Poullain, Cyril; Litaudon, Marc; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Guilet, David

    2015-01-01

    Ten tocotrienol derivatives, i.e., amplexichromanols (1-10), were isolated from stem bark of Garcinia amplexicaulis Vieill. ex Pierre collected in Caledonia. The structures of the compounds 1-5 were determined to be chromanol derivatives substituted by a polyprenyl chain oxidized in terminal position. The remaining compounds 6-10 are the corresponding dimeric derivatives. Eleven known compounds, including xanthones, tocotrienol derivatives, triterpenes and phenolic compounds, were also isolated. Their structures were mainly determined using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectroscopy analysis. The compounds and some amplexichromanol molecules formerly isolated from G. amplexicaulis exhibited significant antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and in the ORAC assay. PMID:25468538

  1. Chemistry of ?-mangostin. Studies on the semisynthesis of minor xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Carlo F; Biagiotti, Marco; Pappalardo, Valeria M; Rabuffetti, Marco; Speranza, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    ?-Mangostin is the major prenylated xanthone from Garcinia mangostana and it has been used also in recent times as starting material for the semisynthetic preparation of various biologically active derivatives. Its structure is characterised by the presence of few functional groups amenable to chemical manipulations, but present in the molecule in multiple instances (three phenolic hydroxyl groups, two prenyl chains and two unsubstituted aromatic carbons). This study represents a first approach to the systematic investigation of the reactivity of ?-mangostin and describes the semisynthesis of some minor xanthones isolated from G. mangostana. PMID:25482370

  2. Two Unusual Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols, Including a Pair of Enantiomers from Garcinia multiflora.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Min; Yi, Ping; Li, Yang; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Gu, Wei; Ma, Yuan; Huang, Lie-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yang, Chong-Lin; Li, Yan; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Two polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, garcimulins A and B ((±)-1 and 2), including a pair of enantiomers with the unique caged tetracyclo[5.4.1.1(1,5).0(9,13)]tridecane skeleton were isolated from Garcinia multiflora. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines in vitro (IC50 3.42-13.23 ?M). The acidification of lysosomes in HeLa cell was obviously affected by compound 2. PMID:25867714

  3. The chemistry and medicinal uses of the underutilized Indian fruit tree Garcinia indica Choisy (kokum): A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga; Harshith P. Bhat; Ramakrishna J. Pai; Rekha Boloor; Princy Louis Palatty

    2011-01-01

    Garcinia indica Choisy Syn Brindonia indica, commonly known as kokum and belonging to Guttiferae family, is a plant native to certain regions of India. The trees yield fruits annually in the summer season during the months of March to May. The fruits are green when raw and red to dark purple when fully ripe. They are used to prepare juice,

  4. Comparative Analyses of the Moisture Isotherms, Proximate Compositions, Physical and Functional Properties of Dried Cola nitida and Garcinia kola Kernels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunday S. Arogba

    2000-01-01

    Dried fruit kernels of Cola nitida and Garcinia kola were analysed and compared for proximate composition, physical, functional, and moisture isotherm characteristics. Their main differences were in appearance, fat and protein contents, carbohydrate composition as reflected in least gelation concentrations, water absorption capacity, monolayer moisture content, critical equilibrium moisture contents and the corresponding water activities for maintaining shelf-stability during storage.

  5. Molecular docking studies and in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of chemical constituents of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Atlas, Amir; Khan, Imran; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3?-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE. PMID:25219673

  6. Friedolanostane, friedocycloartane and benzophenone constituents of the bark and leaves of Garcinia benthami.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hiep D; Trinh, Binh T D; Tran, Quyen N; Nguyen, Hoan D; Pham, Hung D; Hansen, Poul Erik; Duus, Fritz; Connolly, Joseph D; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa D

    2011-02-01

    Friedolanostanes, (22Z,24E)-3?-acetoxy-9?-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanosta-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid, (22Z,24E)-3?,9?-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanosta-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid, (22Z,24E)-9?-hydroxy-3-oxo-17,14-friedolanosta-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid, a friedocycloartane, (22Z,24E)-3?-hydroxy-17,13-friedocycloarta-12,22,24-trien-26-oic acid, and a benzophenone, benthaphenone, together with known compounds (22Z,24E)-3?,9?-dihydroxy-17,13-friedolanosta-12,22,24-trien-26-oic acid, methyl (24E)-3?,23-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanosta-8,14,24-trien-26-oate, glutinol, lupeol, and stigmasterol, were isolated from leaves and bark of Garcinia benthami. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, mainly 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy, and chemical correlations. PMID:21168174

  7. Proteasome-inhibitory and cytotoxic constituents of Garcinia lateriflora: absolute configuration of caged xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yulin; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Kardono, Leonardus B. S.; Riswan, Soedarsono; Chai, Heebyung; Cottrell, Charles E.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Swanson, Steven M.; Ding, Yuanqing; Li, Xing-Cong; Marais, Jannie P. J.; Ferreira, Daneel; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    A new biflavonoid (1), a new xanthone enantiomer (2), five new caged xanthones (3–7), and several known compounds were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia lateriflora, collected in Indonesia. The structures of the new compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of the caged xanthones was shown for the first time at carbons 5, 7, 8, 8a, 10a, and 27, by analysis of COSY and NOESY NMR and ECD spectra. The biflavonoids exhibited proteasome inhibitory activity, and the known compound, morelloflavone (8) was found to have the greatest potency (IC50 = 1.3 ?M). The caged xanthones were cytotoxic towards HT-29 cells, with the known compound, morellic acid (10) being the most active (ED50 = 0.36 ?M). However, when tested in an in vivo hollow fiber assay, it was inactive at the highest dose tested (20 mg/kg). PMID:20730041

  8. Bioactive prenylated xanthones from the young fruits and flowers of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Siridechakorn, Ittipon; Maneerat, Wisanu; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2015-02-27

    Five new xanthones, garciniacowones A-E (1-5), together with 14 known xanthones, 6-19, were isolated from the young fruits and fresh flowers of Garcinia cowa. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and mass spectrometric data. The compounds 1-19 were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity and for their ability to inhibit ?-glucosidase. Compounds 16 and 17 showed the most potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 7.8 ± 0.5 and 8.7 ± 0.3 ?M, respectively. Compounds 8, 9, and 19 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with identical MIC values of 2 ?g/mL, while 8, 10, and 19 exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688 with identical MIC values of 4 ?g/mL. PMID:25651042

  9. A-Ring Oxygenation Modulates the Chemistry and Bioactivity of Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Kristyna M.; Guizzunti, Gianni; Theodoraki, Maria A.; Xu, Jing; Batova, Ayse; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products of the caged Garcinia xanthones (CGX) family are characterized by a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities and promising pharmacological profiles. We have developed a Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction cascade that, in combination with a Pd(0)-catalyzed reverse prenylation, provide rapid and efficient access to the CGX pharmacophore, represented by the structure of cluvenone. To further explore this pharmacophore, we have synthesized various A-ring oxygenated analogues of cluvenone and have evaluated their bioactivities in terms of growth inhibition, mitochondrial fragmentation, induction of mitochondrial-dependent cell death and Hsp90 client inhibition. We found that installation of an oxygen functionality at various positions of the A-ring influences significantly both the site-selectivity of the Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction and the bioactivity of these compounds, due to remote electronic effects. PMID:23563530

  10. Garcinia dulcis? 

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to measure the competency of problem solving skills of fourth-year veterinary students. The study identified two primary objectives, (a) define clinical competency for fourth-year veterinary medical students, and (b...

  11. New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lin, Li-Gen

    2015-02-11

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. This condition, and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be a promising source for developing effective and safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree, and its fruit, mangosteen, is called 'Queen of Fruit'. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medicinal agent for treatment of various diseases. Products derived from mangosteen are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. This review summarizes the recent chemical and pharmacological studies related to G. mangostana, including weight reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activity. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing and treating obesity, which should encourage more interest in the development of relevant therapeutic methods. PMID:25520256

  12. Mangostanaxanthones I and II, new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaaban, Mona I A; Ross, Samir A

    2014-10-01

    Two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (3) and II (5) were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, along with four known xanthones: 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (1), parvifolixanthone C (2), ?-mangostin (4), and rubraxanthone (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, UV, 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. Compounds 3 and 5 displayed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 12.07 and 14.12 ?M, respectively using DPPH assay. Compounds 4-6 had weak to moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while demonstrated promising action against Bacillus cereus with MICs 0.25, 1.0, and 1.0mg/mL, respectively. The tested compounds were inactive against Candida albicans. However, they showed selective antifungal potential toward Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 3 and 4 possessed quorum-sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. PMID:25128900

  13. Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus

    PubMed Central

    Sunkar, Swetha; Nachiyar, C Valli

    2012-01-01

    Objective To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity. PMID:23593575

  14. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex of Garcinia kola seeds modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Ayepola, Omolola R; Cerf, Marlon E; Brooks, Nicole L; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is a complex disease that involves increased production of free radicals which is a strong stimulus for the release of pro-inflammatory factors. We evaluated the renal protective effect of kolaviron (KV) - a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of 5 flavonoids, in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: untreated controls (C); normal rats treated with kolaviron (C+KV); untreated diabetic rats (D); kolaviron treated diabetic rats (D+KV). A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg) was used for the induction of diabetes. Renal function parameters were estimated in a clinical chemistry analyzer. Markers of oxidative stress in the kidney homogenate were analyzed in a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader and Bio-plex Promagnetic bead-based assays was used for the analysis of inflammatory markers. The effect of kolaviron on diabetes-induced apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay. In the diabetic rats, alterations in antioxidant defenses such as an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were observed. There was no difference in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Diabetes induction increased apoptotic cell death and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? with no effect on IL-10. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation and increased ORAC and GSH concentration in renal tissues. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats also suppressed renal IL-1?. The beneficial effects of kolaviron on diabetes-induced kidney injury may be due to its inhibitory action on oxidative stress, IL-1? production and apoptosis. PMID:25481391

  15. Importance of Solvation in Understanding the Chiroptical Spectra of Natural Products in Solution Phase: Garcinia Acid Dimethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Jeirath, Neha; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Habel, Deenamma; Nair, Divya Sadasivan; Haleema, Simimole

    2013-01-01

    The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (+)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed by comparison with the corresponding spectra predicted by quantum chemical methods for (2S,3S)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester. For solution-phase calculations the recently developed continuous surface charge polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used. It is found that gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level yield nearly mirror-image ECD spectra in the 190–250 nm region for the same absolute configuration and that gas-phase ECD predictions lead to incorrect absolute configuration. At the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, however, gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions of ECD in the 190–250 nm region are not so different, but PCM predictions provide better agreement with the experimental observations. For carbonyl stretching vibrations, the vibrational band positions predicted at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in gas-phase calculations differ significantly from the corresponding experimentally observed band positions, and this discrepancy has also been corrected by the use of PCM. In addition, the solution-phase VCD predictions provided better agreement (with experimental VCD observations) than gas-phase VCD predictions. These observations underscore the importance of including solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopic properties. PMID:21114277

  16. Computer Aided Screening of Phytochemicals from Garcinia against the Dengue NS2B/NS3 Protease.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Tahir Ul; Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Azhar, Samia; Fatima, Tabeer; Hassan, Muhammad; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Akram, Waheed; Idrees, Sobia

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus NS2/NS3 protease because of its ability to cleave viral proteins is considered as an attractive target to screen antiviral agents. Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Therefore, this study was designed to uncover possible phytochemical of different classes (Aromatic, Carbohydrates, Lignin, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins, Terpenoids, Xanthones) that could be used as inhibitors against the NS2B/NS3 protease of DENV. With the help of molecular docking, Garcinia phytochemicals found to be bound deeply inside the active site of DENV NS2B/NS3 protease among all tested phytochemicals and had interactions with catalytic triad (His51, Asp75, Ser135). Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy. PMID:24748749

  17. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1??M IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1??M IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity. PMID:26090459

  18. Computer Aided Screening of Phytochemicals from Garcinia against the Dengue NS2B/NS3 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Tahir ul; Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Azhar, Samia; Fatima, Tabeer; Hassan, Muhammad; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Akram, Waheed; Idrees, Sobia

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus NS2/NS3 protease because of its ability to cleave viral proteins is considered as an attractive target to screen antiviral agents. Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Therefore, this study was designed to uncover possible phytochemical of different classes (Aromatic, Carbohydrates, Lignin, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins, Terpenoids, Xanthones) that could be used as inhibitors against the NS2B/NS3 protease of DENV. With the help of molecular docking, Garcinia phytochemicals found to be bound deeply inside the active site of DENV NS2B/NS3 protease among all tested phytochemicals and had interactions with catalytic triad (His51, Asp75, Ser135). Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy. PMID:24748749

  19. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON SEED AND PLANTATION TECHNOLOGY FOR GARCINIA GUMMI-GUTTA (GUTTIFERAE): AN INDIGENOUS AND ECONOMIC TREE CROP OF THE INDIAN PENINSULA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. N. NAIR; C. MOHANAN; GEORGE MATHEW

    2005-01-01

    Garcinia gummi-gutta is a hardwood and fruit tree—family Guttiferae—indigenous in the deciduous and semi-evergreen forests of the southern Western Ghats of India. The tree is also grown in homesteads, mainly for its fruits that are used in food preparations. The paper describes a means to raise the species artificially either in forest areas or in homesteads, based on preliminary nursery

  20. Analysis of caged xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi using ultra-performance liquid chromatography\\/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhou; Xin Liu; Jing Yang; Quan-Bin Han; Jing-Zheng Song; Song-Lin Li; Chun-Feng Qiao; Li-Sheng Ding; Hong-Xi Xu

    2008-01-01

    On-line ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI–QTOF–MS\\/MS\\/MS) has been developed for the analysis of a series of caged xanthones in the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. The fragmentation of protonated molecular ions for 12 known cadged xanthones was carried out using low-energy collision-induced electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that Retro-Diels-Alder

  1. Safety assessment of (?)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax ®, a novel calcium\\/potassium salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Soni; G. A. Burdock; H. G. Preuss; S. J. Stohs; S. E. Ohia; D. Bagchi

    2004-01-01

    (?)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10–30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake. The objective of this review is

  2. Inhibition effects of mangosenone F from Garcinia mangostana on melanin formation in B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyung Won; Jeong, Seong Hun; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Jung, Sunin; Lee, Ji Won; Woo, Hyun Sim; Cho, Jung Keun; Park, Ki Hun

    2012-08-29

    Melanogenesis can be controlled by tyrosinase inhibition or by blocking the maturation processes of tyrosinase and its related proteins. Mangostenone F was isolated from the seedcases of Garcinia mangostana . Mangostenone F was shown to be inactive against tyrosinase (IC50 > 200 ?M) but was a potent ?-glucosidase inhibitor in vitro (IC50 = 21.0 ?M). Mangostenone F was found to inhibit production of melanin in the mouse melanoma cell line B16F10. Importantly, unlike most glycosidase inhibitors, mangostenone F displayed very low cytotoxicity (EC50 > 200 ?M). The Western blot for expression levels of proteins involved in melanogenesis showed that mangostenone F down-regulated tyrosinase and TRP-2 expression. Treating B16F10 cells with mangostenone F significantly increased the susceptibility of tyrosinase to endoglycosidase H digestion, indicating that tyrosinase was unable to mature fully and pass to the trans-golgi apparatus. Consistent with these data, in lysate assays, mangostenone F was shown to be a better inhibitor of ?-glucosidases than deoxynojirimycin, a representative glycosidase inhibitor. PMID:22779928

  3. Neuroprotective effects of xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2014-08-01

    Lead poisoning is a common environmental toxicity and low level of lead exposure is responsible for neurobehavioral or intelligence defects. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetycholinesterase (AChE) dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice. ICR mice were exposed to lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1%) with or without xanthone co-administration (100 and 200mg/kgBW/day) for 38days. Xanthone possesses a high phenolic content, which is positive correlation with its antioxidant activity (R(2)=0.98). The IC50 of xanthone on scavenging free radical activities, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in cell-free system were 0.48±0.08, 1.88±0.09, 2.20±0.03 and 0.98±0.40mg/mL, respectively. We found that Pb induced AChE dysfunction and memory deficit in a dose dependent manner, indicated by in vitro and in vivo studies. However, xanthone significantly restored AChE activity in the blood and brains of mice and prevented Pb-induced neurobehavioral defect indicators with Forced Swimming and Morris water maze tests. Xanthone treatment improved all indicators compared to the Pb-treated group. In conclusion, xanthone alleviates Pb-induced neurotoxicity, in part, by suppression of oxidative damage and reversing AChE activity with a reduction in learning deficit and memory loss. PMID:24795231

  4. Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.

    PubMed

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1. PMID:25128427

  5. Kolaviron, a Garcinia biflavonoid complex ameliorates hyperglycemia-mediated hepatic injury in rats via suppression of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia-induced liver injury. Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds have been shown to possess anti- inflammatory properties which has not been explored in diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of KV on pro-inflammatory proteins in the liver of diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Kolaviron (100 mg/kg) was administered orally five times a week for six weeks. The concentrations of cytokines and chemokine were measured using Bio-plex Pro™ magnetic bead-based assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). Plasma glucose and serum biomarkers of liver dysfunction were analyzed with diagnostic kits in an automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Insulin concentration was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Result Kolaviron (100mg/kg) treatment significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction. Serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes were significantly reduced in kolaviron treated diabetic rats. Kolaviron prevented diabetes induced increase in the hepatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-?) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the hepatoprotective effects of kolaviron in diabetic rats may be partly associated with its modulating effect on inflammatory responses. PMID:24359406

  6. Efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% Aqueous Eye Drops in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Adefule-Ositelu, Adebukunola O.; Adegbehingbe, Bernice O.; Adefule, Adebayo K.; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O.; Samaila, Elsie; Oladigbolu, Kehinde

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% aqueous solution eye drops in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (POAG/OH). Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, active-controlled prospective study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive Timolol 0.5% eye drops as a control medication (A = Group 1 eyes) or Garcinia kola 0.5% eye drops as the study medication (B = Group 2 eyes). All drops were instilled at 6 am and 6 pm daily. Goldman applanation tonometry was performed at 9 am, 12 pm and 3 pm at baseline, week-6, week-12 and week-24 visits. Voluntary and actively elicited reports of adverse events were documented. The mean change in IOP over 24 weeks was the primary outcome measure. Both groups were compared for statistically significant differences at all visits. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to G. kola and Timolol groups. At baseline there were no differences in mean IOP between groups, based on age, sex, or diagnosis. At the end of the study period (24th week), the mean (± SD) reduction in IOP was 12.93 ± 2.3 mmHg (47.8% ± 0.8% reduction) in G. Kola group and 13.09 ± 2.8 mm Hg (48.2% ± 1.03% reduction) in the Timolol group (P > 0.05). Adverse events were mild in nature with no statistically significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Garcinia kola ophthalmic solution significantly reduces IOP as compared to baseline. The IOP lowering effect of both treatments was equivalent. PMID:20543944

  7. Capillary zone electrophoresis for separation and analysis of hydroxycitric acid and hydroxycitric acid lactone: application to herbal products of Garcinia atroviridis Griff.

    PubMed

    Muensritharam, Laksamee; Tolieng, Vasana; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo; Petsom, Amorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2008-02-13

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was developed for quantitative determination of hydroxycitric acid and hydroxycitric acid lactone in herbal products of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. Resolution optimization was investigated by varying type, concentration and pH of buffers. Using the pH 9.2 buffer containing 30 mM Na(2)B(4)O(7), 90 mM NaH(2)PO(4) and 0.5 mM tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, baseline resolution (R(s)>1.5) was found for all analytes. Advantages of the developed CZE method include simple sample preparation, fast analysis time within 5 min and high accuracy and precision. PMID:18160244

  8. Identification and antibacterial evaluation of bioactive compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.

    PubMed

    Seanego, Christinah T; Ndip, Roland N

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the bioactivity of G. kola seeds on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Salmonella typhimurium. The crude ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion method and their activities were further determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. The extracts were fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Bioautography was used to assess the activity of the possible classes of compounds present in the more active extracts. Column chromatography was used to purify the active compounds from the mixture, while GC-MS was used to identify the phytocomponents of the fractions. The inhibition zone diameters of the extracts ranged from 0-24 ± 1.1 mm, while MIC and MBC values ranged between 0.04-1.25 mg/mL and 0.081-2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) solvent system separated more active compounds. The MIC of the fractions ranged between 0.0006-2.5 mg/mL. CEF 3 (F3), CEF 11 (F11) and CEF 12 (F12) revealed the presence of high levels of linoleic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl ester, respectively. The results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and provide leads which could be further exploited for the development of new and potent antimicrobials. PMID:22728354

  9. Reduction of adipose tissue and body weight: effect of water soluble calcium hydroxycitrate in Garcinia atroviridis on the short term treatment of obese women in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Roongpisuthipong, Chulaporn; Kantawan, Rungthiwa; Roongpisuthipong, Wanjarus

    2007-01-01

    Fifty obese women with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m(2) were randomly allocated into two groups, 25 in each. Group 1, with a mean (+/-SEM) age of 40.0+/-2 years, received water soluble calcium hydroxycitrate (HCA) as Garcinia atroviridis. Group 2, with a mean age of 35.6+/-1.8 years, received placebo. All subjects were recommended a similar diet with 1000 Kcal/day. The trial lasted for 2 months. At baseline the means BMI of Group 1 and Group 2 were 27.5+/-0.2 kg/m(2) and 26.7+/-0.5 kg/m(2), respectively. Group 1 lost significantly more weight (2.8 vs. 1.4 kg, p<0.05) and at a greater rate than Group 2 throughout the study. The decrease in their body weight was due to a loss of fat storage as evidenced by a significant decrease in the triceps skin fold thickness. On a short-term basis, HCA in Garcinia atroviridis was an effective for weight management. PMID:17215177

  10. A Single Chiroptical Spectroscopic Method May Not Be Able To Establish the Absolute Configurations of Diastereomers: Dimethylesters of Hibiscus and Garcinia Acids

    PubMed Central

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Donahue, Emily A.; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis. PMID:21568330

  11. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.

    PubMed

    Downs, Bernard W; Bagchi, Manashi; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V; Shara, Michael A; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions. PMID:16055158

  12. Object extraction Object extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    (is a grass-roof a vegetation area?) · object ontologies are hierarchical (tree / forrest / vegetation · buildings · vegetation · roads #12;Interactive object extraction #12;Interactive object extraction angles in man-made structures · measurement accuracy of human operator is lower than that of automatic

  13. Stability of cough linctus (streptol) formulated from named medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Iwu, Maurice; Okunji, Christopher; Tchimene, Michel; Anele, Ngozi; Chah, Kennedy; Osonwa, Uduma; Akpa, Paul Achile; Onunkwo, Godswill Chukwunweike

    2009-03-01

    Extracts of named medicinal herbs (Garcinia kola, Zingiber oificinale, Aframonum melequeta and Ocimum viride) were formulated into an antitussive preparation to alleviate cough. Some physical properties of the cough syrup formulation evaluated were: specific gravity, pH, viscosity, content uniformity, and shelf life. The specific gravity and viscosity of the formulations were stable on storage, with glycerin-based formulations having higher values. The pH of the formulation varied from 4.2 to 5.3 and was also stable on storage. Glycerin-based formulations had lower pH values. The total flavonoids content of Streptol was calculated based on GB1 and found to be 46 mg. The estimated shelf life of the Streptol cough syrup was 4.5 years. PMID:19252311

  14. Effects of (?)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Mattes; Leslie Bormann

    2000-01-01

    (?)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) reportedly promotes weight loss, in part, through suppression of hunger. However, this mechanism has never been evaluated in humans in a controlled study. Eighty-nine mildly overweight females were prescribed 5020-kJ diets for 12 weeks as part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Forty-two participants ingested 400-mg caplets of Garcinia cambogia 30–60 min prior to meals for

  15. Inhibition of CHOP accentuates the apoptotic effect of ?-mangostin from the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-10-10

    The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit has been a popular food in Southeast Asia for centuries and is increasing in popularity in Western countries. We identified ?-Mangostin as a primary phytochemical modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer cells and propose that ?-Mangostin is responsible for exerting a biological effect in prostate cancer cells. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with ?-Mangostin and evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blot, fluorescent microscopy and siRNA transfection to evaluate ER stress. Next, we evaluated ?-Mangostin for microsomal stability, pharmacokinetic parameters, and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. ?-Mangostin significantly upregulated ER stress markers in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, ?-Mangostin did not promote ER stress in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) from prostate cancer patients. CHOP knockdown enhanced ?-Mangostin-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. ?-Mangostin significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Our study suggests that ?-Mangostin is not the only active constituent from the mangosteen fruit requiring further work to understand the complex chemical composition of the mangosteen. PMID:25261723

  16. Effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, on the antioxidant, hormonal and spermatogenic indices of diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, O A; Lawal, S O

    2014-10-01

    The antihyperglycaemic effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola has been established in previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of KV (200 mg kg(-1) ) on the antioxidant, hormonal and spermatogenic indices of alloxan-diabetic male rats, and metformin hydrochloride (MET) (30 mg kg(-1) ) served as standard drug. The results showed that KV and MET significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic rats. Also, untreated and MET-treated diabetic groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower body-weight gain and relative weights of testes. In addition, epididymal sperm abnormalities were increased, whereas sperm count, motility, testicular protein and sialic acid were decreased in untreated diabetic group. Also, antioxidant parameters, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the testes with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation in untreated diabetic group. Furthermore, untreated diabetic group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower levels of testosterone, luteinising and follicle-stimulating hormones relative to controls. Treatment with KV restored the relative weights of testes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, sperm and hormonal indices of the diabetic animals. This study demonstrated the role of KV to promote fertility in diabetic male rats by enhancing the hormonal and antioxidant status of the rats. PMID:24007369

  17. Dose-Independent ADME Properties and Tentative Identification of Metabolites of ?-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana in Mice by Automated Microsampling and UPLC-MS/MS Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Chul; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    The information about a marker compound's pharmacokinetics in herbal products including the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) is closely related to the efficacy/toxicity. Also dose range and administration route are critical factors to determine the ADME profiles. Since the supply of a sufficient amount of a marker compound in in vivo study is still difficult, pharmacokinetic investigations which overcome the limit of blood collection in mice are desirable. Thus, we have attempted to investigate concurrently the ADME and proposed metabolite identification of ?-mangostin, a major constituent of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L, in mice with a wide dose range using an in vitro as well as in vivo automated micro-sampling system together. ?-mangostin showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses of 5–20 mg/kg and oral doses of 10–100 mg/kg. The gastrointestinal absorption of ?-mangostin was poor and the distribution of ?-mangostin was relatively high in the liver, intestine, kidney, fat, and lung. ?-mangostin was extensively metabolized in the liver and intestine. With regards to the formation of metabolites, the glucuronidated, bis-glucuronidated, dehydrogenated, hydrogenated, oxidized, and methylated ?-mangostins were tentatively identified. We suggest that these dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics of ?-mangostin in mice provide an important basis for preclinical applications of ?-mangostin as well as mangosteen. In addition, these experimental methods can be applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice. PMID:26176540

  18. Kolaviron, a Garcinia kola biflavonoid complex, protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury: pertinent mechanistic insights from biochemical and physical evaluations in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Akinrinola, Bolanle L; Olaleye, M Tolulope; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-04-01

    The pathophysiology of stroke is characterized by biochemical and physical alterations in the brain. Modulation of such aberrations by therapeutic agents affords insights into their mechanism of action. Incontrovertible evidences that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of neurologic disorders have brought antioxidative compounds, especially plant phytochemicals, under increasing focus as potential remedies for the prevention and management of neurodegenerative diseases. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) was evaluated for neuroprotectivity in brains of male Wistar rats submitted to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced global ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). Animals were divided into six groups: sham treated, vehicle (I/R), 50 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 100 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R, 200 mg/kg kolaviron + I/R and quercetin (20 mg/kg i.p.) + I/R. The common carotid arteries were occluded for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Relative brain weight and brain water content were determined and oxidative stress and neurochemical markers were also evaluated. I/R caused significant decreases in glutathione level and the activities of enzymic antioxidants, the sodium pump and acetylcholinesterase while significant increases were recorded in relative brain weight, brain water content, lipid peroxidation and the activities of glutamine synthetase and myeloperoxidase. There was a remarkable ablation of I/R induced oxidative stress, neurochemical aberrations and brain edema in animals pretreated with kolaviron. The results suggested that the protection afforded by kolaviron probably involved regulation of redox and electrolyte homeostasis as well as anti-inflammatory and antiexcitotoxic mechanisms. PMID:25638229

  19. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14?weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30?min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500?kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26?±?2.37?kg compared with 0.56?±?2.34?kg for placebo (pU ?=?0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. PMID:24797657

  20. Hydroxycitric acid does not promote inflammation or liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Clouatre, Dallas L; Preuss, Harry G

    2013-11-28

    Garcinia cambogia extract (GC) with its active component consisting of hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is widely utilized for weight loss. Various HCA salts are available, including calcium, magnesium, potassium and mixtures of these. Experimentally, these salts exhibit different properties with some, but not all, improving glucose tolerance and blood pressure. Recently, obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The active arm reduced visceral fat, adipocyte size and serum glucose, yet purportedly also exhibited hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increased mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress. The latter findings are at odds with a large body of animal and human studies that have been conducted on the safety and efficacy of HCA. This literature shows HCA to be protective against the liver toxicity associated with ethanol and dexamethasone administration, and to maintain serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase at near normal levels. In both animal and clinical literature, elevated intakes of HCA per se have not led to signs of inflammation or hepatotoxicity. The compound has been found to reduce markers of inflammation in brain, intestines, kidney and serum. PMID:24307814

  1. Hydroxycitric acid does not promote inflammation or liver toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Clouatre, Dallas L; Preuss, Harry G

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia cambogia extract (GC) with its active component consisting of hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is widely utilized for weight loss. Various HCA salts are available, including calcium, magnesium, potassium and mixtures of these. Experimentally, these salts exhibit different properties with some, but not all, improving glucose tolerance and blood pressure. Recently, obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The active arm reduced visceral fat, adipocyte size and serum glucose, yet purportedly also exhibited hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increased mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress. The latter findings are at odds with a large body of animal and human studies that have been conducted on the safety and efficacy of HCA. This literature shows HCA to be protective against the liver toxicity associated with ethanol and dexamethasone administration, and to maintain serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase at near normal levels. In both animal and clinical literature, elevated intakes of HCA per se have not led to signs of inflammation or hepatotoxicity. The compound has been found to reduce markers of inflammation in brain, intestines, kidney and serum. PMID:24307814

  2. In vivo toxicity and antitumor activity of mangosteen extract.

    PubMed

    Kosem, Nuttavut; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Utsumi, Hideo; Moongkarndi, Primchanien

    2013-04-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) has been widely used in the traditional medicine of Thailand to treat various ailments, especially diseases of the digestive system and infections. Many reports show antiproliferation of crude extracts and active constituents from mangosteen against many cancer cell lines. Therefore, the current study is proposed to demonstrate in vivo evidence on the antitumor activity of mangosteen. Crude methanolic extract (CME) from mangosteen pericarp including 25.19 % ?-mangostin as an active xanthone was used in this study. The inhibition on tumor cell proliferation of CME was preliminarily evaluated against the murine colon cancer cell line NL-17 with an IC50 value of 17 and 84 ?g/ml based on WST-1 and LDH assays, respectively. The safety dose for animal application was assessed by in vivo toxicity studies using female BALB/c mice. Acute toxicity showed an LD50 value and approximate lethal dose at 1,000 mg/kg, whereas the suitable dose for short-term study should be ?200 mg/kg. The effective dose for antitumor activity of CME was found to be between 100 and 200 mg/kg, with a tumor size reduction of 50-70 %. Histological staining clearly illustrated a decrease of tumor cell density in the footpad in a dose-dependent manner. The median survival time and life span significantly increased in tumor-bearing mice with CME treatment. This study suggests that CME possesses a powerful antitumor activity. Therefore, it is worth undertaking further investigation to identify active compounds and obtain a deeper understanding of their mechanism, in order to acquire novel effective anticancer drugs. PMID:22622784

  3. Tooth Extraction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3 to 4 hours after the procedure The extraction site becomes very painful -- This may be a sign that you have developed a dry socket. If you have an infection, your dentist usually will prescribe antibiotics.

  4. Pharmacokinetic properties of pure xanthones in comparison to a mangosteen fruit extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Han, Ah-Reum; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Frye, Reginald F; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

    2013-05-01

    The xanthones ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin are the major bioactive compounds in Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) fruit extracts. Previously, we reported the pharmacokinetic properties of ?-mangostin in rats. The purpose of this follow-up study was to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in rats if administered as either a pure compound or as a component of a mangosteen fruit extract. The absolute bioavailability of ?-mangostin when administered as a pure compound was determined by giving male Sprague Dawley rats 2 mg/kg ?-mangostin intravenously or 20 mg/kg orally. A 160 mg/kg aliquot of mangosteen fruit extract was administered, containing ?- and ?-mangostin doses equal to 20 mg/kg and 4.5 mg/kg of each pure compound, respectively. Plasma samples were collected for both pharmacokinetic studies, and compound concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic of ?-mangostin after intravenous administration followed a two-compartment body model. The half-life of the distribution phase was 2.40 min, and that of the elimination phase was 1.52 h. After oral administration, both ?- and ?-mangostin underwent intensive first-pass metabolism, and both compounds were conjugated rapidly after oral administration. When given as an extract, the total absorption of ?- and ?-mangostin was not increased, but the conjugation was slower, resulting in increased free (unconjugated) compound exposure when compared to pure compound administration. Since reported beneficial biological activities of mangosteen xanthones are based on the free, unconjugated compounds, food supplements containing mangosteen fruit extracts should be preferred over the administration of pure xanthones. PMID:23673465

  5. Use of asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control columnaris in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, P; Phumkhachorn, P

    2010-03-01

    To develop antibiotic-free and chemical-free aquaculture, it is necessary to have natural substances to control diseases of aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to find an herb having therapeutic effect against columnaris, a fish disease caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Of all tested herbs (including kalmegh Andrographis paniculata, candle bush Cassia alata, Asiatic pennywort Centella asiatica, mangosteen Garcinia mangostana, pomegranate Punica granatum, and guava Psidium guajava), the aqueous extract of Asiatic pennywort exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against F. columnare; the minimal inhibitory concentration was 31.25 lg/mL. It was also found to have a bactericidal effect on F. columnare. When experimental bath exposures of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to F. columnare were performed, the median lethal dose was determined to be 2.37 x 10(5) colony forming units/mL. For in vivo trials, six different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) of Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract were used as bath treatments to control experimentally induced columnaris in Nile tilapia. The decrease in fish mortality was dose dependent, and at a concentration of 100 mg/L no mortality or adverse effects were noted in the infected fish. This study suggests that Asiatic pennywort aqueous extract has the potential to control disease caused by F. columnare. PMID:20575361

  6. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  7. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  8. Information extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zhang; C. Hoede

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to extract relevant information by knowledge graphs from natural language text. We give a multiple level model based on knowledge graphs for describing template information, and investigate the concept of partial structural parsing. Moreover, we point out that expansion of concepts plays an important role in thinking, so we study the expansion

  9. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    PubMed Central

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  10. DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this interactive, adapted from the University of Nebraska's Plant and Soil Science eLibrary, with reading material and animations to help students learn the basics of DNA extraction. The lesson is divided into and introduction and the four processes involved: cell lysis, dismantling the cell membrane, removing unwanted cell parts, and precipitating the DNA. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

  11. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation. PMID:15836459

  12. Binary Extraction in Hydrometallurgy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. KHOLKIN; G. L. PASHKOV; V. V. BELOVA

    2000-01-01

    Results obtained during technological application of binary extraction (extraction by salts of organic acids and organic bases) for recovery and separation of non-ferrous, rare, noble and associated metals are presented in the paper. The method of extraction of copper, especially from leaching solutions of oxidised ores, with the use of tertraoc-tylammonium dialkyldithiophosphate has been developed- The binary extractant is characterized

  13. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  14. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696699

  15. Uranium extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M.A.

    1983-05-03

    Uranium is extracted from wet process phosphoric acid by extraction with a mixture of a diorganophosphate and a neutral phosphorus compound, which is preferably a triorgano phosphine oxide, in the presence of nitrate to form an organic extract layer containing uranium and an aqueous acid layer, which are separated.

  16. Extraction of citrus glucosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. El-Nawawi

    1995-01-01

    Hesperidin and naringin were extracted from orange peel and grapefruit peel, respectively, by treating the peel with Ca(OH)2. The effect of maturity of the peel and recycling of the extracting liquor upon the yield of glucoside were investigated. The highest yields of hesperidin were obtained from orange peel extracted at the early season, increase in maturity led to a decrease

  17. TRITIUM EXTRACTION FACILITY ALARA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    The primary mission of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) is to extract tritium from tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) that have been irradiated in a commercial light water reactor and to deliver tritium-containing gas to the Savannah River Site Facility 233-H. The tritium extraction segment provides the capability to deliver three (3) kilograms per year to the nation's nuclear

  18. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  19. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  20. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction We report our experience with lead extraction in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and discuss the indications for extraction in these patients. Patients Eighteen patients with an ICD (mean age 58±12 years) were referred for lead extraction: two patients with infection and 16 with lead dysfunction. Methods Lead extraction was performed with a laser sheath (Excimer) if traction with a locking device was insufficient. New leads were implanted during the same procedure, if applicable. Results Shock leads were successfully extracted in 16 patients and additional pace-sense leads in seven patients. In two patients, the shock conductor was considered unaffected and only a pace-sense lead was exchanged or an additional pace-sense lead inserted. After extraction, new shock leads were implanted in 14 patients. Major complications occurred in one patient: a pericardial tamponade after perforation of the superior caval vein necessitating acute surgery. Conclusion Lead extraction with a laser sheath is effective in ICD patients, but major complications can occur. Our current policy with malfunctioning leads is to extract all leads in which insulation defects cannot be ruled out to avoid interference, but to abandon leads that are without insulation defects and properly insulated. In case of infection, extraction remains the primary treatment of choice. PMID:25696709

  1. TRITIUM EXTRACTION FACILITY ALARA

    SciTech Connect

    Joye, BROTHERTON

    2005-04-19

    The primary mission of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) is to extract tritium from tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) that have been irradiated in a commercial light water reactor and to deliver tritium-containing gas to the Savannah River Site Facility 233-H. The tritium extraction segment provides the capability to deliver three (3) kilograms per year to the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. The TEF includes processes, equipment and facilities capable of production-scale extraction of tritium while minimizing personnel radiation exposure, environmental releases, and waste generation.

  2. Extractive Metallurgy of Beryllium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. GUPTA; S. SAHA

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the extractive metallurgy of beryllium is presented. Due to the strategic importance and element of secrecy surrounding the metal, any open literature on beryllium is rather limited. However, this review has been made to cover all important aspects of beryllium extraction technology namely, resources of the metal; processing of ores; reduction of fluoride and oxide to

  3. Glomalin extraction and measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Janos; Sara Garamszegi; Bray Beltran

    2008-01-01

    We investigated extraction from soil of glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and we examined its measurement. The most commonly used protocols for extracting glomalin require autoclaving of soil in citrate solution, followed by centrifugation to separate the supernatant, and then measurement by either Bradford protein assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that lengthening the time

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Hedrick; Leah J. Mulcahey; Larry T. Taylor

    1992-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) provides for the first time a viable option to conventional and widely used Soxhlet extraction. The ability to change the solvating power of a single supercritical fluid by changing its density is an exceedingly attractive feature. An environmentally safe alternative such as supercritical carbon dioxide to organochlorine solvents which are widely used today in many government

  5. Distribution behavior of astatine: Solvent extraction and back extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Sultana; A. Toyoshima; N. Takahashi; H. Baba

    2001-01-01

    The distribution behavior of astatine was studied at tracer concentrations and over a wide range of carrier iodide concentration in both solvent extraction and back extraction processes. Astatine compounds were extracted instantly into the organic solvent, CS2 from the carrier free and carrier iodide containing solutions. Back extraction of astatine with various NaOH solutions followed by solvent extraction caused the

  6. Extracting the Max From a DNA Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edmund Marek

    2009-01-01

    Students of all ages get a thrill out of actually seeing clumps or strands of DNA. The Biotechnology/Bioinformatics Discovery! Project, a professional development workshop offered to science teachers, has always included a DNA-extraction activity. Over the course of four years, as the authors conducted these workshops for scores of teachers, they extended and refined the DNA-extraction activity to make it relevant to middle school students. Although the protocol for this exercise is on their project website along with teaching tips, they describe here the use of oral directions to give teachers many opportunities to interact with their students, and to assess how well students can follow directions and stay focused on the task.

  7. Oilseed extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D. A.

    1985-05-07

    A process is provided for the recovery of a separate lecithin/phosphatide-rich product during the extraction of soybeans with an isopropanol-based solvent. The invention comprises steps for contacting soybeans with solvent to obtain an extracted seed meal and a solvent extract of seedoils and lecithin and related phosphatides, cooling miscella to a temperature in the range from about 30/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ F., phase separating the cooled miscella, recovering from the phase separation an upper solvent-rich phase, an intermediate lecithin/phosphatide-rich phase and a lower crude oil phase, and directly recycling the solvent-rich phase to the extractor.

  8. Threshold voltage extraction circuit 

    E-print Network

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01

    A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

  9. Supercritical Fluid Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    In supercritical fluid extraction, many options are available for achieving and controlling the desired selectivity, which is extremely sensitive to variations in pressure, temperature, and choice of solvent. The ability of supercritical fluids...

  10. Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    E-print Network

    Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    In supercritical fluid extraction, many options are available for achieving and controlling the desired selectivity, which is extremely sensitive to variations in pressure, temperature, and choice of solvent. The ability of supercritical fluids...

  11. Threshold voltage extraction circuit

    E-print Network

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01

    A novel optimally self-biasing MOSFET threshold-voltage (V[]) extractor circuit is presented. It implements the most popular industrial extraction algorithm of biasing a saturated MOSFET to the linear portion of its [] versus [] characteristic...

  12. Standardized extracts, foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Lemanske; Steve L. Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Summary  While progress has been made in the areas of food allergen characterization, both the complexity of the biochemical constituents\\u000a of food and the body’s normal physiologic (digestion) and immunologic responses to food ingestion provide challenging obstacles\\u000a to efforts aimed at developing standardized food extracts. As indicated above, while currently available food extracts can\\u000a be useful in the evaluation of food

  13. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  14. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. (CSIR, Trivandrum (India))

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Nano-electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Jensen, Henrik; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2013-06-27

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 ?L acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary electrophoresis (CE). In that way the sample preparation performed by nano-EME was coupled directly with a CE separation. Separation performance of 42,000-193,000 theoretical plates could easily be obtained by this direct sample preparation and injection technique that both provided enrichment as well as extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction. This corresponded to 100-times enrichment per minute of nano-EME. Nano-EME was found to be a very soft extraction technique, and about 99.2-99.9% of the analytes remained in the sample volume of 200 ?L. The SLM could be reused for more than 200 nano-EME extractions, and memory effects in the membrane were avoided by effective electro-assisted cleaning, where the electrical potential was actively used to clean the membrane. PMID:23764444

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RARE EARTHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. Plaksin; K. F. Barysheva; A. V. Astafeva

    1962-01-01

    Descriptions are given of rare earth separation by acid leaching and ; solvent extraction with TBP. Hydrometallurgical treatment of enriched rare earth ; products enables 85 to 95% extraction into nitric acid with 50% HNOâ ; Ieaching at 80 to 904DEC. Multistaged and counter-current extraction with TBP ; separates Ca and Fe from rare earth products, extracting up to 94

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  18. EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY OF EUXENITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. May; J. L. Tews; A. W. Henderson; W. G. Gruzensky

    1959-01-01

    Results of this study demonstrate that multiple-oxide minerals can be ; processed to usable compounds by the techniques described. The chlorination ; procedure offers an efficient method for extracting tantalum, niobium, uranium, ; titanium, thorium, and the rare-earth elements from their ores. Separation of ; the chloride products into four groups is of additional benefit for processing ; materials such

  19. Solidphase extraction of phenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Rodr??guez; M. P Llompart; R Cela

    2000-01-01

    Sample preparation for phenol analysis using solid-phase extraction (SPE) is reviewed. The scope of the review has been restricted to the literature dealing with the analysis of phenols as the main objective. The use, advantages and disadvantages of silica sorbents, polymeric, functionalised, carbon-based and mixed available sorbents, when applied to the separation and preconcentration of phenols, as well as the

  20. Introduction to DNA Extractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hays, Lana

    This lab exercise, authored by Lana Hays of Access Excellence at the National Health Museum, giving instructions for the extraction of DNA from several different starting materials. The lab employs everyday material which can be found at your local grocery store. The exercise is designed for the 6-12 grade level.

  1. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  2. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  3. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  4. Extraction of gamma

    E-print Network

    Robert Fleischer

    2001-10-22

    After a brief look at the well-known standard approaches to determine the angle gamma of the unitarity triangle, we focus on two kinds of strategies, employing $B\\to\\pi K$ modes, and U-spin-related B decays. Interesting "puzzles", which may already be indicated by the present B-factory data, are pointed out, and the importance of the extraction of hadronic parameters, which are provided by these strategies as by-products, is emphasized.

  5. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  6. Bactericidal activity of herbal extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus Thuille; Manfred Fille; Markus Nagl

    2003-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of total herbal extracts has been investigated. The MIC of extracts of Evodia rutaecarpa and grape kernel ranged between 0.25 and 1 mg\\/ml against gram-positive cocci and P. aeruginosa. Cocci were killed after 30 – 90 min of incubation in grape kernel extract (0.5 – 1.5 mg\\/ml), and after 8 h in evodia extract (0.5 – 1

  7. Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Martella; J. D. Navratil; W. F. Santiago

    1978-01-01

    The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction

  8. Joint Inference in Information Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoifung Poon; Pedro Domingos

    2007-01-01

    The goal of information extraction is to extract database records from text or semi-structured sources. Traditionally, information extraction proceeds by first segmenting each can- didate record separately, and then merging records that refer to the same entities. While computationally efficient, this ap- proach is suboptimal, because it ignores the fact that segment- ing one candidate record can help to segment

  9. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover, recommendation systems could also benefit from a tag hierarchy. PMID:24391901

  10. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  11. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Henna Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubiay, Kathem K.; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K.

    2008-01-01

    Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis (Co-agulase negative staphylococci or CONS), ß-hemolytic streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were obtained from 74 (35 females, 39 males) patients with different skin infections who attended the Dermatology outpatient clinic in Basra General Hospital. The bacterial isolates were treated with L. inermis extracts in vitro. Alcoholic and oily extracts were more effective than the water extract which had no effects using standard method of NCCL, 2000. Alcoholic extracts had the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.125-0.150 µg/ml against ß-hemolytic streptococci and against CONS was 0.125-175 µg/ml .Oily extracts had a MIC of 0.25-0.30 µg/ml against Staphylococcus epidermidis (cons). Both alcoholic and oily extracts had the same MIC (0.5 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus. However, alcoholic extracts were more effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MIC of 0.5-0.57 µg/ml than oily extract (MIC of 0.20-0.28 µg/ml). However, there were no statically differences between the effects of oily and alcoholic henna extracts (p= 0.050). When comparing the extracts’ MICs with those of antibiotics, alcoholic extracts showed pronounced antibacterial effects against the isolated bacteria in vitro but oily extracts had much similar MICs to those of antibiotics and there are significant difference between effect of both extracts and antibiotics p>0.050. PMID:22334837

  12. The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1913-01-01

    I39-3I3-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. 155 JANUARY, 1913 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY TECHNICAL BULLETIN THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLORO? FORM EXTRACT OF SOILS BY G. S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION... postal card will bring these publications. THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF SOILS. (t. S. FliAPS , Chemist. ?J. B. o Y . C U G O Assistant Chemist. The soil may coDtarn any of the Substances which are found in plants or animals...

  13. Impurity Extraction by Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G.; Kincaid, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The goals are to model and to measure the phase equilibrium properties of a finely divided fluid containing a large number of chemically similar species. The objective is to develop an accurate, usable model for such phenomena as pollutant extraction of rain clouds, industrial separation in spray towers, and separation in emulsions. The project was designed as a hierarchy of complementary theoretical and experimental steps. A theory was developed to describe the segregation of complex impurities at the interface of a solvent. This phenomenon is important in phase behavior when a large fraction of molecules in a material are near an interface, the situation in a finely divided material. The theory will be modified to account for the effect of surface curvature on the surface tension. The study of mixtures differs from pure fluids not only because of the surface effects but also because composition differences between the droplet and the surrounding vapor can stabilize a droplet with respect to a bulk phase.

  14. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  15. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. (Moore, ID) [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  16. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Minier; G. Goma

    1982-01-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

  17. Automatic breast border extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Christina M.

    2005-04-01

    In computer aided mammography algorithms there are several processing steps, which must be performed. The basic segmentation procedure involves extracting the principal feature on a mammogram; the breast border. This is performed by segmenting the breast and the non-breast into distinct regions. In this paper, a method for extracting the breast border is proposed. The method has performance similar to established techniques but with higher degrees of automatization and robustness. It iteratively adapts a model of the background to ensure a robust object detection yielding a smooth outline of the breast. The main idea is to identify the "knee" in the cumulative intensity histogram of the image. The intensity value at the knee is thereafter used to automatically define a region, to be modelled by a two-dimensional polynomial surface of degree two. The modelled background is then subtracted from the original image. The procedure described is iteratively performed until the degree of non-uniformity of the grey-scale background is smaller then a certain value. Thereafter the difference image is post-processed by a flood-filling algorithm, a new threshold is estimated as above and applied to yield a binary image. Lastly morphological operations are performed to smoothen the breast border. In conclusion, the strength in the proposed method, compared to similar methods, is that it makes use of an iterative approach to reduce the effects of the background, it produces smooth edges and automatically finds thresholds. It is also evaluated on the entire MIAS database (322 images) with a performance of 94%.

  18. Sub-acute effect of NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices in rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L

    PubMed Central

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A.; Nwosu, Ifeanyi O.; Farombi, Ebenezer O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kolaviron (KV) (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) and extract of Curcuma longa (CL) are frequently used in folk medicine for treatment of hypertension. One of their mechanisms of action is to enhance antioxidant properties in animals. NG- nitro- l- arginine methyl- ester (L- NAME) is L- arginine analogue, which by binding to Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) may induce hypertension partly due to increase in tissues oxidative stress. Objectives: To investigate the effect of L- NAME on some biochemical indices and the possible protective effect of KV or CL. Materials and Methods: Four groups consisting of 6 rats each were used. One group served as control, second group received L- NAME (40 mg/kg/day). Third and fourth groups were treated with KV and CL, respectively and also received L- NAME. KV and CL were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Results: L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) increase in the levels of serum urea, creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase relative to controls. L- NAME treated rats had markedly decreased hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione- S- transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Precisely, L- NAME decreased CAT, SOD, GST and GSH by 48, 52, 76 and 40%, respectively. L- NAME intoxication significantly decreased (P <0.05) renal GSH and SOD levels. Also, L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the animals. Administration of KV or CL with L- NAME caused significant (P <0.05) inhibition of LPO and augments tissue antioxidant indices. Conclusion: These results confirm the adverse effect of L- NAME on biochemical indices and, the ability of kolaviron or Curcuma longa to ameliorate the alterations. PMID:22923949

  19. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  20. Analysis of antioxidants extracted from polypropylene by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Garde, J A; Catalá, R; Gavara, R

    1998-01-01

    Maximal potential migration of six antioxidants (AO) from five polypropylene (PP) formulations was determined by two supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedures, both of which contained static and dynamic steps. All analytical conditions affecting the extraction were studied and optimized using Irgafos 168 as standard. SFE was more efficient as temperature and fluid density increased. During the static step in which the samples were exposed to the fluid without flux, the introduction of hexane and methanol as fluid modifiers significantly improved the extraction. Hexane appears to facilitate polymer swelling while methanol solvates the antioxidants. In the dynamic step (in which the extraction actually occurs) time is the key parameter. Extraction for 90 min results in an efficiency of around 75%. The introduction of modifiers during this step (by an HPLC-SFE procedure) did not produce any significant improvement. When SFE was carried out on all samples, extraction efficiency was around 75% except for Irganox 1010 and Hostanox O3. The large molecular volume of these antioxidants may be responsible for the considerable reduction of extraction efficiency. Particle size and shape of polymer sample were also important. The greater the surface to volume ratio the greater the extraction efficiency. PMID:10209581

  1. NAMED ENTITY EXTRACTION FROM SPEECH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Kubala; Richard Schwartz; Ralph Weischedel

    We report results using a hidden Markov model to extract information from broadcast news. IdentiFinder™ was trained on the broadcast news corpus and tested on both the 1996 HUB-4 development test data and the 1997 HUB-4 evaluation test data with respect to the named entity (NE) task: extracting ? names of locations, persons, and organizations;

  2. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Fearnside

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive

  3. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  4. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED EXTRACTION PROCEDURE (PBEP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to develop an extraction procedure which mimics the physiological conditions in the human gastrointestinal track. Using this extraction procedure, the mass of contaminants which desorb from hazardous soil will be estimated. This project has focused ...

  5. Extracting company names from text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa F. Rau

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description is given of an implemented algorithm that extracts company names automatically from financial news. Extracting company names from text is one problem; recognizing subsequent references to a company is another. The author addresses both problems in an implemented, well-tested module that operates as a detachable process from a set of natural language processing tools. She implements a

  6. Delignification of Miscanthus by Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasisanker Padmanabhan; Edmond Zaia; Katherine Wu; Harvey W. Blanch; Douglas S Clark; Alexis T Bell; John M. Prausnitz

    2011-01-01

    Removal of lignin from miscanthus liberates cellulose and hemicellulose for hydrolysis to obtain sugars that can subsequently be fermented to ethanol or butanol. Extraction of lignin from raw miscanthus at 70°C is feasible when the extracting solvent contains a base (Ethylenediamine, EDA) mixed with an organic solvent or a mildly hydrophobic ionic liquid. A 50–50 (by weight) mixture of EDA

  7. Delignification of Miscanthus by Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasisanker Padmanabhan; Edmond Zaia; Katherine Wu; Harvey W. Blanch; Douglas S. Clark; Alexis T. Bell; John M. Prausnitz

    2012-01-01

    Removal of lignin from miscanthus liberates cellulose and hemicellulose for hydrolysis to obtain sugars that can subsequently be fermented to ethanol or butanol. Extraction of lignin from raw miscanthus at 70°C is feasible when the extracting solvent contains a base (Ethylenediamine, EDA) mixed with an organic solvent or a mildly hydrophobic ionic liquid. A 50–50 (by weight) mixture of EDA

  8. Information Extraction Using Link Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norshuhani Zamin; Bandar Seri Iskandar

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, information extraction (IE) has become a rapidly expanding field as the machine-readable documents keep growing exponentially. IE is the perfect solution to transform factual knowledge from publications into database entries. Many efforts have been made to automatically extract and mine scientific texts ranging from biochemical to terrorism attacks reports. This study is looking into the

  9. Pitch Extraction and Fundamental Frequency

    E-print Network

    Regina, University of

    Pitch Extraction and Fundamental Frequency: History and Current Techniques David Gerhard Technical and Fundamental Frequency: History and Current Techniques David Gerhard Abstract: Pitch extraction (also called fundamental frequency estimation) has been a popular topic in many fields of research since the age

  10. Keyword Extraction Using Language Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianyi Liu; Jinghua Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced language network and described three kinds of networks. Keyword extraction is an important technology in many areas of document processing. In particularly, a keyword extraction algorithm based on language network and PageRank is proposed. Firstly a semantic network for a single document is build, then Pagerank is applied in the network to decide on the

  11. Successive solvolytic extraction of petrocrops

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, D.K.; Pradeep, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, M. [M.D. Univ., Rohtak (India)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Petrocrops may provide a renewable source of petroleum in the future. The use of low boiling nonpolar (hexane) and polar (methanol) solvents may afford nonpolar and polar biocrudes respectively by successive extractions. However, further successive extraction of spent residue obtained in anthracene oil, quinoline, or liquid paraffin may afford recovery of biopolymer biocrude. These biocrudes may be hydro treated to yield liquid fuels.

  12. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  13. Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

    1999-01-01

    The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

  14. Development of signal-extraction scheme for Resonant Sideband Extraction

    E-print Network

    K. Kokeyama; K. Somiya; F. Kawazoe; S. Sato; S. Kawamura; A. Sugamoto

    2008-05-26

    As a future plan, an advanced gravitational-wave detector will employ an optical configuration of resonant sideband extraction (RSE), achieved with an additional mirror at the signal-detection port of the power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. To control the complex coupled cavity system, one of the most important design issues is how to extract the longitudinal control signals of the cavities. We developed a new signal-extraction scheme which provides an appropriate sensing matrix. The new method uses two sets of sidebands: one of the sideband components satisfies the critical coupling ondition for the RSE interferometer and reaches the signal-extraction port, and the other sideband is completely reflected by the Michelson interferometer. They provide a diagonalized sensing matrix and enable the RSE control to be robust.

  15. Endovascular extraction techniques for pacemaker and ICD lead extraction

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years, comprehensive endovascular techniques have been developed to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads. It is important that referring physician have knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the different techniques. In this paper we discuss the techniques and results of the currently used endovascular extraction techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696690

  16. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    PubMed Central

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V.; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements.

  17. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, S; Chen, Y; Saravanan, D; Sundram, K M; Yoga Latha, L

    2011-01-01

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed. PMID:22238476

  18. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  19. DNA Extraction & Staging Laboratory (DESL)

    Cancer.gov

    As part of the Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR), the DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL) located in Frederick, MD, is responsible for the preparation of samples for investigators at NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

  20. Parallel algorithms for inductance extraction

    E-print Network

    Mahawar, Hemant

    2007-09-17

    of the iterative method becomes a challenging task. This work presents a class of parallel algorithms for fast and accurate inductance extraction of VLSI circuits. We use the solenoidal basis approach that converts the linear system into a reduced system...

  1. Extracting information from informal communication

    E-print Network

    Rennie, Jason D. M. (Jason Daniel Malyutin), 1976-

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the problem of extracting information from informal communication. Textual informal communication, such as e-mail, bulletin boards and blogs, has become a vast information resource. However, such ...

  2. Hub4 Information Extraction Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Pallett; John S. Garofolo; Jonathan G. Fiscus; Mark A. Przybocki

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the Information Extraction Named-EntityEvaluation (IE-NE), one of the new spokes added to theDARPA-sponsored 1998 Hub-4 Broadcast News Evaluation.This paper discusses the information extraction task as posedfor the 1998 Broadcast News Evaluation. This paper reviewsthe evaluation metrics, the scoring process, and the test corpusthat was used for the evaluation. Finally, this paper reviews theresults of the first running

  3. Extraction of silicones from soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Lehmann

    1993-01-01

    Silicone polymer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), was extracted from soil incubated at 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1] for 0,1,3,7,14, and 28 d with mean recovery of 95.4% ([sigma] = 2.1%). From four agricultural soils incubated for one week at 1, 10, and 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1], mean extraction recovery was 95.6% ([sigma] = 3.2%). The method is now being used in [sup 14]C

  4. Point Source Extraction with MOPEX

    E-print Network

    David Makovoz; Francine R. Marleau

    2005-06-30

    MOPEX (MOsaicking and Point source EXtraction) is a package developed at the Spitzer Science Center for astronomical image processing. We report on the point source extraction capabilities of MOPEX. Point source extraction is implemented as a two step process: point source detection and profile fitting. Non-linear matched filtering of input images can be performed optionally to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and improve detection of faint point sources. Point Response Function (PRF) fitting of point sources produces the final point source list which includes the fluxes and improved positions of the point sources, along with other parameters characterizing the fit. Passive and active deblending allows for successful fitting of confused point sources. Aperture photometry can also be computed for every extracted point source for an unlimited number of aperture sizes. PRF is estimated directly from the input images. Implementation of efficient methods of background and noise estimation, and modified Simplex algorithm contribute to the computational efficiency of MOPEX. The package is implemented as a loosely connected set of perl scripts, where each script runs a number of modules written in C/C++. Input parameter setting is done through namelists, ASCII configuration files. We present applications of point source extraction to the mosaic images taken at 24 and 70 micron with the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) as part of the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey and to a Digital Sky Survey image. Completeness and reliability of point source extraction is computed using simulated data.

  5. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  6. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  7. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that are regulated as food supplements but are intended to treat disease or maintain health. Antioxidants and beneficial lipid products are major examples in this category. The final major category consists of environmental applications, both as an extraction technique for environmental analysis, and as a possible remediation strategy for removing contaminants that would otherwise be too expensive to recover. Most of the work in this area has focused on non-polar compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), where non-polar supercritical (SC) CO2 offers high extraction efficiencies. Co-solvent systems combining CO2 with one or more modifiers extend the utility of SC CO2 to polar and even ionic compounds. Supercritical water can extract polar compounds, and it has the additional advantage of combining extraction and destruction of contaminants via the supercritical water oxidation (SUWOX) process. Supercritical fluids are also useful in various niche applications. Fuel extraction, conversion, and analysis is one such application. Extraction of metals from various matrixes is also an area of continuing interest. The application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to production of nano-structured materials is a new area likely to see rapid growth in the next few years.

  8. AGS slow extracted beam improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to an equivalent proton energy of 29 GeV. Since the late 1960`s it has been serving high energy physics (HEP - proton beam) users of both slow and fast extracted beams. The AGS fixed target program presently uses primary proton and heavy ion beams (HIP) in slowly extracted fashion over spill lengths of 1.5 to 4.0 seconds. Extraction is accomplished by flattoping the main and extraction magnets and exciting a third integer resonance in the AGS. Over the long spill times, control of the subharmonic amplitude components up to a frequency of 1 kilohertz is very crucial. One of the most critical contributions to spill modulation is due to the AGS MMPS. An active filter was developed to reduce these frequencies and it`s operation is described in a previous paper. However there are still frequency components in the 60-720 Hz sub-harmonic ripple range, modulating the spill structure due to extraction power supplies and any remaining structures on the AGS MMPS. A recent scheme is being developed to use the existing tune-trim control horizontal quadrupole magnets and power supply to further reduce these troublesome noise sources. Feedback from an external beam sensor and overcoming the limitations of the quadrupole system by lead/lag compensation techniques will be described.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of rosemary extracts.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, J; Amiot, M J; Nguyen-The, C

    2000-10-01

    A rosemary extract commercially exploited (Oxy'less) as an antioxidant of lipids in foods was dissolved in ethanol (100 mg/ml), and the solution was tested against foodborne microorganisms. For gram-positive bacteria, the MIC of the ethanolic solution was 1% for Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 0.5% for Listeria monocytogenes, 0.5% for Staphylococcus aureus, 0.13% for Streptococcus mutans, and 0.06% for Bacillus cereus. It slowed the growth of Penicillium roquefortii and Botrytis cinerea. Up to 1% of the ethanolic solution had no activity on the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Erwinia carotovora and on the yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis and Cryptococcus laurentii. Antibacterial activity of the rosemary extract was strongly influenced by the composition of the media. The MIC was reduced by low pH, high NaCl contents, and low temperatures. Low pH and high NaCl concentration had a synergistic effect on the MIC of the rosemary extract for S. aureus. Lipids, surface-active agents, and some proteins decreased its antibacterial activity, whereas pectin had no effect. The inhibitory effect was little modified by heat treatment (100 degrees C). The natural microflora of pasteurized zucchini broth was inhibited by 0.5% of the rosemary extract. The antibacterial activity was linked to the compounds extracted with hexane, which are presumably phenolic diterpenoids. PMID:11041135

  10. Three-dimensional feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, D.

    1983-06-01

    Range images offer significant advantages over passive reflectance images because they preserve the 3-D information of the scene viewed from the sensor. Therefore, range data is becoming an increasingly important source of information for a variety of applications including 3-D target classification, autonomous vehicles, and robot vision. This research is part of an effort to develop a 3-D object recognition system for vehicle objects in air-to-ground laser range imagery. The full system includes image feature extraction, object modeling, model-driven prediction, and feature to model matching. This paper presents several three-dimensional feature extraction techniques for use on laser range imagery. These include object-ground segmentation, projection image generation from range data, and 3-D physical edge detection. We emphasize extracting 3-D physical features of the object from 3-D range data without restricting ourselves in a sensor-centered range image format. The object-ground segmentation and projection image generation techniques extract global object features from range data, and are useful for object orientation estimation and major structures identification. The 3-D physical edge detector directly calculates the physical angle of the object surface. It is not only useful for physical edge (convex, concave, occluding) detection, but also provides useful information for extracting planar and curved surfaces.

  11. MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS 1) DNA extraction · DNA was extracted from the ileo-cecal nodes of 475 Holstein cows from two herds using the Qiagen DNA extraction kit (Valencia, CA). 2) Map detection · Map and Jerome, Idaho, respectively. DNA was extracted from ileo-cecal lymph nodes using the Qiagen (Valencia, CA

  12. Extraction of silicones from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, R.G. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States). Health and Environmental Sciences)

    1993-10-01

    Silicone polymer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), was extracted from soil incubated at 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1] for 0,1,3,7,14, and 28 d with mean recovery of 95.4% ([sigma] = 2.1%). From four agricultural soils incubated for one week at 1, 10, and 100 mg kg[sup [minus]1], mean extraction recovery was 95.6% ([sigma] = 3.2%). The method is now being used in [sup 14]C studies on the fate of silicones in the soil environment and will later be used for extraction of silicones from field samples. Silicone polymers have a variety of uses, including lubricants, electrical insulators, and texturizers in personal care products. They can enter the environment through wastewater treatment systems in which they adsorb to the solids, and are then applied to the soil during disposal of the sludge.

  13. Accurate extraction of the News

    E-print Network

    Shrirang S. Deshingkar

    2006-09-14

    We propose a new scheme for extracting gravitational radiation from a characteristic numerical simulation of a spacetime. This method is similar in conception to our earlier work but analytical and numerical implementation is different. The scheme is based on direct transformation to the Bondi coordinates and the gravitational waves are extracted by calculating the Bondi news function in Bondi coordinates. The entire calculation is done in a way which will make the implementation easy when we use uniform Bondi angular grid at $\\mathcal I^+$. Using uniform Bondi grid for news calculation has added advantage that we have to solve only ordinary differential equations instead of partial differential equation. For the test problems this new scheme allows us to extract gravitational radiation much more accurately than the previous schemes.

  14. Phoenix I energy extraction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J. M.; Patterson, E. L.; Tisone, G. C.; Moreno, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF/sub 6/-HI or SF/sub 6/-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H/sub 2/ and F/sub 2/ mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF/sub 6/-HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H/sub 2/-F/sub 2/ fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H/sub 2/ and F/sub 2/ mixtures. For an input intensity of 10/sup 7/ W/cm/sup 2/, 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF/sub 6/-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature.

  15. Extracting Context To Improve Accuracy For HTML Content Extraction

    E-print Network

    Web pages contain clutter (such as ads, unnecessary images and extraneous links) around the body of an article, which distracts a user from actual content. Extraction of "useful and relevant" content from web impaired, reducing noise for information retrieval systems and to generally improve the web browsing

  16. [Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

    1998-01-01

    Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

  17. Extraction Techniques Leveraging Elevated Temperature and Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Brannegan; Carlos Lee; Jian Wang; Larry Taylor

    \\u000a This chapter introduces, explains, and evaluates several important sample preparation techniques available for pharmaceutical\\u000a applications. In-depth discussion of Pressurized Fluid Extraction (also known as Pressurized Liquid Extraction, or Accelerated\\u000a Solvent Extraction), Microwave Assisted Extraction, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction is presented. The principles of each\\u000a technique, including instrumentation, method development, key parameters, and advantages\\/limitations, are detailed. A number\\u000a of pharmaceutical applications

  18. Pressurized solvent extraction of wheat germ oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurhan Turgut Dunford; Minquan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the pressurized solvent extraction of wheat germ oil. The effects of temperature (45–135 °C at 1500 psi), extraction time, sample size and solvent type on the extraction efficiency and oil quality were studied. Extraction efficiency of the normal-hexane was compared to that of the iso- and high purity-hexane, iso-propanol, ethanol and acetone. The extracts were analyzed for n-3

  19. Antioxidative activities of water extract and ethanol extract from field horsetail ( tsukushi) Equisetum arvense L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Nagai; Takao Myoda; Toshio Nagashima

    2005-01-01

    Water extract and ethanol extract from top and body portions of field horsetail (tsukushi) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity was investigated using four different methods. The contents of total phenolic components were richer in the ethanol extract fractions of each portion than in the water extracts. On the other hand, protein contents were much lower in ethanol extract fractions

  20. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-02-01

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000?L of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. PMID:21190688

  1. PERFORMANCE MEASURES FOR INFORMATION EXTRACTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Makhoul; Francis Kubala; Richard Schwartz; Ralph Weischedel

    1999-01-01

    While precision and recall have served the information extraction community well as two separate measures of system performance, we show that the F-measure, the weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall, exhibits certain undesirable behaviors. To overcome these limitations, we define an error measure, the slot error rate, which combines the different types of error directly, without having to resort

  2. Performance measures for information extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Makhoul; F. Kubala; R. Schwartz

    1998-01-01

    While precision and recall have served the information extraction community well as two separate measures of system performance, we show that the F-measure, the weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall, exhibits certain undesirable behaviors. To overcome these limitations, we define an error measure, the slot error rate, which combines the different types of error directly, without having to resort

  3. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  4. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes 

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic...

  5. Parameter extraction from spaceborne MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Moore, B. T.; Nixon, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An addressable matrix of 32 CMOS transistors was designed into a test chip to be flown on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). In this paper the matrix is described along with a SPICE-like parameter extraction procedure called JMOSFIT, and Cobalt 60 radiation test results are presented that illustrate the shift in the 21-MOSFET parameters derived from JMOSFIT.

  6. Adaptive Text Extraction and Mining

    E-print Network

    Ciravegna, Fabio

    9.6 percent #12;2 Intranet The Big Picture query processor data base Web IE ontology Ciravegna University of Sheffield F.Ciravegna@dcs.shef.ac.uk www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/~fabio ECML-2003 Tutorial Ciravegna & Kushmerick: ECML-2003 Tutorial2 What is IE What can we extract from the Web and why? n Introduction: (20

  7. Model extraction for fault isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rattikorn Hewett

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation-based approach for fault isolation in complex dynamic systems. A machine learning technique is used to extract, from simulated data, models representing regularities in system behavior. A heuristic based on the degree of coverage of the model on the data is then applied to isolate faults. To test tolerance to incomplete models, our simulation model only

  8. Signature extraction using mutual interdependencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Claussen; Justinian Rosca; Robert I. Damper

    2011-01-01

    Recently, mutual interdependence analysis (MIA) has been successfully used to extract representations, or “mutual features”, accounting for samples in the class. For example, a mutual feature is a face signature under varying illumination conditions or a speaker signature under varying channel conditions. A mutual feature is a linear regression that is equally correlated with all samples of the input class.

  9. Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

  10. Lesson 10: Extraction of Roots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This lesson introduces quadratic equations and graphs. Equations of the form ax^2 + c = 0 are solved via extraction of roots. Later application problems involving volume and surface area and compound interest (problems of the form a(x - p)^2 = q ) are presented.

  11. Example-based skeleton extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Schaefer; Can Yuksel

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for extracting a hierarchical, rigid skeleton from a set of example poses. We then use this skeleton to not only reproduce the example poses, but create new deformations in the same style as the examples. Since rigid skeletons are used by most 3D modeling software, this skeleton and the corresponding vertex weights can be inserted directly

  12. Extracting Geospatial Entities from Wikipedia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Witmer; Jugal Kalita

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of extracting geospatial data from the article text of the English Wikipedia. In the first phase of our work, we create a training corpus and select a set of word-based features to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) for the task of geospatial named entity recognition. We target for testing a corpus of Wikipedia articles

  13. Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted

    E-print Network

    Milling of Uranium Ore Uranium is extracted from ore with strong acids or bases. The uranium is concentrated in a solid substance called"yellowcake." Chemical Conversion Plants convert the uranium in yellowcake to uranium hexafluoride (UF6 ), a compound that can be made into nuclear fuel. Enrichment

  14. Phenolic compounds from the fruit of Garcinia dulcis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Deachathai; W. Mahabusarakam; S. Phongpaichit

    2005-01-01

    Dulcinoside (1), dulcisisoflavone (2), dulcisxanthone A (3) and sphaerobioside acetate (6) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the green fruit of G. dulcis. Dulcisflavan (4), dulcisxanthone B (5) and isonormangostin (7) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the ripe fruit. Compounds 6 and 7 were synthetic known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The

  15. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ‘no visible scarring’ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  16. On extraction of oscillation parameters

    E-print Network

    Sobczyk, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We discuss methods to extract neutrino oscillation parameters based on the directly observable quantities, without reconstruction of neutrino energy. The distributions of muon energies and production angles are compared to Monte Carlo predictions made for a set of different neutrino oscillation parameters. The method is applied to T2K neutrino beam and tested for a set of MC data samples in order to evaluate the statistical error.

  17. On extraction of oscillation parameters

    E-print Network

    Jan Sobczyk; Jakub Zmuda

    2009-11-30

    We discuss methods to extract neutrino oscillation parameters based on the directly observable quantities, without reconstruction of neutrino energy. The distributions of muon energies and production angles are compared to Monte Carlo predictions made for a set of different neutrino oscillation parameters. The method is applied to T2K neutrino beam and tested for a set of MC data samples in order to evaluate the statistical error.

  18. Named Entity Extraction From Speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Kubala

    1998-01-01

    We report results using a hidden Markov model to extractinformation from broadcast news. IdentiFinder^TM was trainedon the broadcast news corpus and tested on both the 1996HUB-4 development test data and the 1997 HUB-4 evaluationtest data with respect to the named entity (NE) task: extracting. names of locations, persons, andorganizations;. dates and times;. monetary amounts and percentages.Evaluation is based on automatic

  19. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

  20. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  1. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents ...

  2. Melody Extraction: A Blind Source Separation Approach

    E-print Network

    Clausen, Michael

    Melody Extraction: A Blind Source Separation Approach Shankar Vembu German Research Center Source separation approach Experiments Conclusion #12;3 Extraction of melody Computer music transcription using source separation techniques Idea: Separate vocals from the polyphonic input Apply monophonic

  3. How to Extract DNA From Anything Living

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-10

    In this genetics activity, learners discover how to extract DNA from green split peas. This resource guide includes a brief explanation of DNA and provides suggestions for ways to experiment with DNA extraction further.

  4. Qualitative terminology extraction: Identifying relational adjectives

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualitative terminology extraction: Identifying relational adjectives Béatrice Daille IRIN for terminology extraction and other automatic terminology tasks. 1. Introduction Identifying relational be interesting in several fields of NLP, such as terminology acquisition, topic detection, updating of thesauri

  5. Accelerated solvent extraction of petroleum contaminated sediments

    E-print Network

    Bauguss, Jeffery Lynn

    1997-01-01

    Attempts have been made in recent years to find acceptable alternatives to classical soxhlet extraction of petroleum contaminated sediments. One such method that is very promising is accelerated solvent extraction also referred to as high pressure...

  6. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  7. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Research last year emphasized the nature of microscopic interfaces, i. e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co and Na in order to improve on a recently proposed model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of extractant molecules and their interactions with metal ions which occur in hydrometallurgical solvent extraction systems were further investigated.

  8. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  9. Adaptive Mesh Extraction using Simplification and Refinement

    E-print Network

    Adaptive Mesh Extraction using Simplification and Refinement Adelailson Peixoto and Luiz Velho of iso-surface extraction from volumes. If one desires to extract an adaptively sampled hierarchical mesh, e.g., it is more natural that samples are adaptively added to the mesh in accord with the specific

  10. Process for extracting materials from biological material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Van Spronsen; G. J. Witkamp; F. Hollman; Y. H. Choi; R. Verpoorte

    2011-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for extracting materials from biological material, which process is characterized in that the naturally occurring biological material is treated with an extractant consisting of a deep eutectic solvent of natural origin or a an ionic liquid of natural origin to produce a biological extract of natural origin dissolved in the said solvent or

  11. Extracting Conceptual Relations from Persian Resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hakimeh Fadaei; Mehrnoush Shamsfard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a relation extraction system which uses a combination of pattern based, structure based and statistical approaches. This system uses raw texts and Wikipedia articles to learn conceptual relations. Wikipedia structures are rich source of information in relation extraction and are well used in this system. A set of patterns are extracted for Persian language and

  12. Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Sook Seo; Betty Jane Burri; Zhejiu Quan; Terry R. Neidlinger

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a health problem in Southeast Asia that can be corrected by feeding orange fruits and vegetables such as mango. Pumpkin is a traditional Korean food that is easy to store and is already believed to have health benefits. We extracted carotenoids from pumpkin by liquid–liquid extraction and by supercritical fluid extraction. We measured carotenoids by reversed-phase

  13. Improved extraction technique for biological fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction technique speeds up separation of biological fluids into number of compounds. This eliminates agitation, emulsion formation, centrifugation, mechanical separation of phases, filtration, and other steps that have been used previously. Extraction efficiencies are equal or better than current manual liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

  14. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  15. Video Object Extraction for Surveillance System

    E-print Network

    Tian, Qi

    10/22/2004 Video Object Extraction for Surveillance System Like Zhang CS, UTSA #12;Reference 1. C. Kim and J.-N. Hwang, "Object-based video abstraction for video surveillance systems", IEEE/extraction #12;Video Object Extraction Original Frame Background Object #12;VSAM by CMU Video Surveillance

  16. Transposon extraction protocol Maitreya Dunham November 2006

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Maitreya

    precipitate. Mix equal amounts of DNA from each digest if multiple digests. Extraction In a screw-cap tube extraction, or 1 µg sonicated wt genomic DNA. Aliquot 21 µl gel-purified DNA into a new tube. Add 20 µl 2.5XTransposon extraction protocol Maitreya Dunham November 2006 modification of the Qiagen HSE

  17. Hydrophilic solutes in modified carbon dioxide extraction—prediction of the extractability using molecular dynamic simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Günther; Martin Maus; Karl Gerhard Wagner; Peter Christian Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Super- and subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extractions of crude drugs were simulated by molecular modelling to predict the extractability of different hydrophilic plant constituents under various extraction conditions. The CO2 extraction fluids were simulated either with pure CO2 or with solvent modified CO2 at different pressures and temperatures. Molecular modelling resulted in three different solubility parameters: the total solubility parameter

  18. Effects of Extraction Conditions on the Content of Anthocyanins and Bioelements in Berry Fruit Extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Pliszka; Elwira Wierzbicka

    2008-01-01

    Two methods for extracting anthocyanins and bioelements [calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe)] from black chokeberry, black currant, strawberry, and bilberry fruits were compared in this study. Correlations between the content of anthocyanins and bioelements in fruit extracts were determined using method A [extraction with hydrochloric acid (HCl)] and method B [extraction with water (H2O)]. Relationships between the

  19. Microwave Assisted Extraction - An Innovative and Promising Extraction Tool for Medicinal Plant Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivekananda Mandal; Yogesh Mohan; S. Hemalatha

    In recent years, the use of microwave for extraction of constituents from plant material has shown tremendous research interest and potential. Conventional techniques for the extraction of active constituents are time and solvent consuming, thermally unsafe and the analysis of numerous constituents in plant material is limited by the extraction step. This review highlights the importance of extraction step in

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts.

    PubMed

    Battinelli, L; Tita, B; Evandri, M G; Mazzanti, G

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 microgml of dry extract. E. angustifolium and E. rosmarinifolium had the most broad spectrum of action inhibiting bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The extracts were devoid of toxicity on Artemia salina within the range of antimicrobial concentrations, suggesting that the action is selective on microorganisms. PMID:11482755

  1. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  2. Thermal extraction/pyrolysis gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Brandurski, E.L.; Yu, P.F.N.; Bruce, G.D.

    1990-04-04

    This patent describes a method for converting a nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph into a thermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph. It comprises: adapting a temperature control assembly for replacing the heater in the nonthermal extraction gas chromatograph and for receiving the insert chamber of the nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph without modifying the sample flow path of the nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph. The temperature control assembly comprises a furnace for controllably heating the sample insert to thermal extraction and pyrolysis temperatures and a cooling means for controlling the temperature of the inlet assembly and for returning the temperature of the inlet assembly to initial state conditions following use of the apparatus, replacing the heater with the thus-adapted temperature control assembly, and maintaining the sample flow path of the nonthermal extraction pyrolysis gas chromatograph substantially without modification.

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction in the analysis of 21 organochlorine pesticides in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Barriada-Pereira; E Concha-Graña; M. J González-Castro; S Muniategui-Lorenzo; P López-Mah??a; D Prada-Rodr??guez; E Fernández-Fernández

    2003-01-01

    A method to determine 21 organochlorine pesticides in vegetation samples using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is described and compared with Soxhlet extraction. Samples were extracted with hexane–acetone (1:1, v\\/v) and the extracts were cleaned using solid-phase extraction with Florisil and alumine as adsorbents. Pesticides were eluted with hexane–ethyl acetate (80:20, v\\/v) and determined by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. Recoveries obtained

  4. Antioxidant activity of extracts of black sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiuhui; Xu, Juan; Chen, Shubing; Yang, Fangmei

    2004-02-25

    Antioxidant activities of extracts derived from sesame seed by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction and by n-hexane were determined using alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and linoleic acid system methods. The highest extracted yield was given at 35 degrees C, 40 MPa, and a CO(2) flow rate of 2.5 mL min(-1) by an orthogonal experiment. The yields of extracts increased with increasing pressure, and yields at 40 and 30 MPa were higher than that by solvent extraction at 46.50%. Results from the linoleic acid system showed that the antioxidant activity follows the order: extract at 35 degrees C, 20 MPa > BHT > extract at 55 degrees C, 40 MPa > extract at 55 degrees C, 30 MPa > Trolox > solvent extraction > alpha-tocopherol. The SC-CO(2) extracts exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activities comparable to that by n-hexane extraction. The extracts at 30 MPa presented the highest antioxidant activities assessed in the DPPH method. At 20 MPa, the EC(50) increased with temperature, which indicated that the antioxidant activity was decreased in a temperature-dependent manner. The significant differences of antioxidant activities were found between the extracts by SC-CO(2) extraction and n-hexane. However, no significant differences were exhibited among the extracts by SC-CO(2) extraction. The vitamin E concentrations were also significantly higher in SC-CO(2) extracts than in n-hexane extracts, and its concentrations in extracts corresponded with the antioxidant activity of extracts. PMID:14969554

  5. Rate of the vegetable oil extraction with supercritical CO 2—III. Extraction from sea buckthorn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bártlová; H. Sovová

    1996-01-01

    Oil from the seed and pulp of sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) was extracted with carbon dioxide at pressures 9.6–27 MPa and temperatures 25–60°C. Influence of extraction conditions on solubility and mass transfer rate was studied. No marked changes in composition of extracted oil in the course of extraction were observed. Experimental extraction curves were evaluated using a model

  6. Antioxidant-Rich Extract from Dehydrated Seabuckthorn Berries by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lalit D. Kagliwal; Anuradha S. Pol; Sushant C. Patil; Rekha S. Singhal; Vandana B. Patravale

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry oil having high nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and therapeutic activity has been extracted from dried seabuckthorn\\u000a (SBT) whole berry powder using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), a green process for extraction of bioactives. The SC-CO2 process was optimized using Box–Behnken design. Three SC-CO2 parameters namely extracting pressure, extracting temperature, and time of extraction were examined. The optimal SC-CO2

  7. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  8. Evaluation of Extractive Voicemail Summarization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Koumpis, Konstantinos

    This interesting paper outlines a framework for automatic summarization of voicemail messages and delivery as compact text messages. The proposed system, developed at the University of Sheffield, incorporates speech recognition technology and summary word extraction. An overview of the feature selection process is especially interesting, as it briefly describes how pitch, word duration, and pauses in the voicemail message are used to obtain a compressed subset of the most important features. A number of experiments were performed to determine the system's accuracy and usability, and the results are presented in the paper.

  9. Membrane clarification of tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Kumar, Chandini S; Sharma, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    The ready-to-drink (RTD) tea beverages are becoming increasingly popular owing to the health benefits associated with tea polyphenols, but instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is a common problem encountered in the product. Membrane technology provides a scope to produce natural, additive-free RTD teas while overcoming the major disadvantages associated with the conventional decreaming methods. Approaches employing membranes for the clarification of extracts from black and green tea have been discussed together with their relative advantages and limitations. The article also outlines the concerns to be addressed in the future attempts employing membrane technology. PMID:24499147

  10. Techniques for transvenous leads extraction.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, M G; Soldati, E; De Lucia, R; Marzilli, M

    2007-12-01

    The number of implanted cardiac pacing and defibrillating devices is currently increasing, leading to an increasing number of device-related complications, due to either malfunction or infection. Removal of the whole system, including the leads, was proven to be the most effective therapy. At present the importance of transvenous lead extraction is consequently increased. In order to remove pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) leads, they have to be made free from any binding site from the entry in the vein to the tip. Different techniques, including mechanical dilation, powered dilation and intravascular approaches have been developed over the last years and are currently available. Results reported in the literature show a significant success rate (ranging between 90% and 98% of the leads) and a reduced incidence of serious complications (1% to 3% in different series) in selected centres. The extraction procedures are complex and life-threatening complications may always occur, suggesting the need of trained and experienced operators as well as the availability of a surgical standby. At present indications to removal are restricted to infection or to damage of the leads inducing serious risk for the patients; the availability of a more effective and safe technique will probably spread indications to most of abandoned leads. PMID:18091645

  11. Evaluation of extraction method on the chemical composition in Apeiba tibourbou Aubl's extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the potential of Apeiba tibourbou Aubl, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of fatty acid, rosmarinic (Ra) and caffeic (Ca) acid from A. tibourbou. Materials and Methods: Determinations of residual moisture (Rm), proteins (Pt), lipids (Lp), total fiber (Tf), and carbohydrate (Cy) were performed in triplicate samples according assessment of antioxidant capacity. Extraction of fatty acids was carried out by two different methods: (i) By shoxlet and (ii) bligh and dyer. The optimized conditions were determined by surface response methodology (RSM), and the criterion of desirability was the maximum extraction of Ra and Ca. Results: The method of bligh and dyer was able to extraction more total Lp than the shoxlet. However, the extraction of fatty acid was different for the two methods. The optimized conditions to extract RA and Ca was calculated by RSM, 42°C, 30% (alcohol degree) and 24 min, this conditions maximize simultaneously the extraction of Ca (0, 04%) and Ry (1.89), Conclusion: It was observed that the extraction method alters the chemical composition of extract, and it is possible to extract Ca and Ra from A. tibourbou's leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction. PMID:25829777

  12. Selective extraction of Cyclopia for enhanced in vitro phytoestrogenicity and benchmarking against commercial phytoestrogen extracts.

    PubMed

    Mfenyana, Ciko; DeBeer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Louw, Ann

    2008-11-01

    Previous work established the phytoestrogenicity of "unfermented"Cyclopia (honeybush) extracts. The current study investigated the phytoestrogenicity of four Cyclopia harvestings (M6-9) for preparation of extracts with enhanced phytoestrogenicity for benchmarking against commercial preparations. Two extracts, from M6 (C. subternata) and M7 (C. genistoides), were identified as most phytoestrogenic using estrogen receptor binding, an estrogen receptor response element containing promoter reporter assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, and E-screen. M6 and M7 were sequentially and non-sequentially extracted with five solvents of differing polarities. Additionally, two extracts were prepared in the traditional way of preparing a cup of honeybush tea. The resultant 22 extracts were evaluated for estrogenicity. Select extracts were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The sequentially extracted M6 methanol extract (SM6Met) had the highest potency and the sequentially extracted M6 ethyl acetate extract (SM6EAc) had the highest efficacy of all the extracts. The HPLC results suggested enrichment of luteolin in SM6EAc and enrichment of an unidentified polyphenol in SM6Met. Benchmarking against four commercial phytoestrogenic preparations suggest that in terms of the assays used, Cyclopia extracts have comparable potency and efficacy to the commercial extracts and thus have potential as marketable phytoestrogenic nutraceuticals. PMID:18793725

  13. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are important as they indicate the changing perceptions of local residents in relation to both their local geology and human exploitation of geological resources. The implications of this research for developing strategies of engagement with local communities will be discussed.

  14. Supercritical CO 2 Extraction of Flax Lignans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren M. Comin; Feral Temelli; Marleny Aranda Saldaña

    2011-01-01

    Lignans, such as flaxseed secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have been implicated in the prevention of hormonally related\\u000a cancers and other prevalent diseases. Lignans are typically extracted using organic solvents, which must then be removed from\\u000a the extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is a non-toxic, inexpensive solvent, which, when combined with polar modifiers, can be used to extract polar phenolic compounds,\\u000a such

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Battinelli; Beatrice Tita; Maria Grazia Evandri; Gabriela Mazzanti

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 ?g\\/ml of

  16. A Study of Terpeneless Lemon Extracts

    E-print Network

    Spilman, C. Clay

    1912-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection A Study of Terpeneless Lemon Extracts 1912 by C. Clay Spilman This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries’ Center... paper for credit as a Senior Thesis, such as is required of all applicants for a degree in the school of Engineering, Very respectfully submitted, 1. TERPENELESS LEMON EXTRACTS• There are two extracts which have the flavor of lemon and which have...

  17. Entity Profile Extraction from Large Corpora? ? ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Li; Rohini Srihari; Cheng Niu; Xiaoge Li

    Information Extraction (IE) has two anchor points: (i) entity-centric information leads to an Entity Profile (EP); (ii) action-centric information leads to an Event Scenario. Based on a pipelined architecture which involves both document-level IE and corpus-level IE, a multi-level modular approach to EP extraction from large corpora is described: (i) named entity tagging; (ii) three-level pattern matching for extracting the

  18. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  19. Extracting Rx information from clinical narrative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Mork; Olivier Bodenreider; Dina Demner-Fushman; Rezarta Islamaj Dogan; François-Michel Lang; Zhiyong Lu; Aurélie Névéol; Lee B. Peters; Sonya E. Shooshan; Alan R. Aronson

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveThe authors used the i2b2 Medication Extraction Challenge to evaluate their entity extraction methods, contribute to the generation of a publicly available collection of annotated clinical notes, and start developing methods for ontology-based reasoning using structured information generated from the unstructured clinical narrative.DesignExtraction of salient features of medication orders from the text of de-identified hospital discharge summaries was addressed with

  20. Interfacial chemistry in solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Research this past year continued to emphasize characterization of the physicochemical nature of the microscopic interfaces, i.e., reversed micelles and other association microstructures, which form in both practical and simplified acidic organophosphorus extraction systems associated with Ni, Co, and Na in order to improve on the model for aggregation of metal-extractant complexes. Also, the macroscopic interfacial behavior of model extractant (surfactant) molecules was further investigated. 1 fig.

  1. Antioxidant activities of selected oriental herb extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Kim; J. H. Kim; M. J. Oh; M. Y. Jung

    1994-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were studied by determining the peroxide values of linoleic\\u000a acid during storage at 50C. Among the herb extracts tested, 44 species showed strong antioxidant activities on the oxidation\\u000a of linoleic acid. The antioxidative effects of these 44 selected herb extracts were studied further in a methyl linoleate\\u000a system during storage for

  2. Extraction of arsenic compounds from lichens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanja Mrak; Zdenka Šlejkovec; Zvonka Jeran

    2006-01-01

    Different extraction procedures were applied to improve the extraction efficiency of arsenic compounds from lichens. Two lichen species were chosen from an arsenic-contaminated environment: epiphytic Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and terricolous Cladonia rei Schaer. Samples were extracted with water at temperatures of 20, 60 and 90°C, using mixtures of methanol\\/water (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9), Tris buffer and acetone and the

  3. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  4. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie; Mark C. Meckes; Teri L. Richardson

    1996-01-01

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,pâ²-DDT, p,pâ²-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can

  5. Hydrotropic Extraction of Curcuminoids from Turmeric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak V. Dandekar; V. G. Gaikar

    2003-01-01

    A novel hydrotropy-based extraction method for selective extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa (turmeric) was investigated. The degree of extraction was dependent upon the effect of a hydrotrope on the cellular structure and hydrotrope–curcuminoids interactions. Hydrotropes directly affect the cell structure, making curcuminoids more accessible either by dissolution of the cell membrane\\/wall constituents or by disorganizing cell wall. Sodium cumene

  6. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, re-circulation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; isc-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  7. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, recirculation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; iso-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for (co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  8. The effect of extraction temperature, time and number of steps on the antioxidant capacity of methanolic banana peel extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafaela González-Montelongo; M. Gloria Lobo; Mónica González

    2010-01-01

    A solvent extraction method was developed to obtain methanolic extracts rich in antioxidants from banana peel. Central composite design “23+star” and response surface methodology were used in order to optimise the number of extraction steps, extraction temperature and extraction time. The number of extractions was statistically the most significant factor in scavenging activity against both DPPH and ABTS+ radicals and

  9. Optimization of Protein Extraction for Lichen Thalli

    PubMed Central

    Kondratiuk, Anna S.; Savchuk, Oleksiy M.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen-forming fungal proteins have been seldom searched due to many difficulties in their extraction. Phenols, quinones, proteases, and other components released during cell disruption have been known to be the greatest challenges related to protein extraction from lichens. To overcome these problems and maintain good electrophoretic resolution and high protein concentration, an extraction buffer containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, ascorbic acid, Triton X-100, polyethylene glycol, proteinase, and oxidase inhibitors in sodium phosphate buffer was developed. This extraction buffer showed high efficiency for all lichen species tested in the study.

  10. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

  11. Antimutagenicity of extracts of Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J C; Hu, S H; Lee, W L; Tsai, L Y

    2001-05-01

    Hericium erinaceus is valuable in the diet and in medical treatment. It contains water-soluble polysaccharides that have been found to enhance immunity and which show anti-artificial pulmonary metastatic tumor effects. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of the mycelium and fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus were examined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 to screen for antimutagenic effects against 5 mutagens: AFB1, B[a]P, Glu-P-1, NQNO, and Trp-P-1. We found that both extracts have the strongest antimutagenic activity against Trp-P-1, followed by Glu-P-1, B[a]P-1, AFB1, and finally NQNO. In addition, the antimutagenicity of the extracts was produced in a concentration-dependent manner. At a concentration of 200 ppm, both extracts showed the highest inhibitory action. However, the linear correlation indicated that concentration-activity relationship was not significant (p > 0.05). In addition, extracts showed less antimutagenicity after heat treatment (p < 0.05). This suggests that the antimutagenicity of the extracts is heat-labile. The ethanol extract from mycelium or fruiting body had better antimutagenic effects than did the water extract (p < 0.05). Also, the extract from the fruiting body had better antimutagenic effects than did that from the mycelium. PMID:11517861

  12. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid. PMID:18962288

  13. Extraction Of Emissivities From Thermal Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, Simon J.; Kahle, Anne B.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents evaluation of two techniques for processing multispectral data. One technique for extraction of emissivity data called "model emittance calculation." Other technique called "thermal log residuals."

  14. Self Describing and Self Extracting Data Flows

    E-print Network

    )..................................................................................7 2.3.2.1 Schema/Contents SQL to File..................................................................................................................................8 2.3.2.4 Data Extraction as SQL-92

  15. Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

  16. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  17. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  18. Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  19. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  20. Extraction of arsenic compounds from lichens.

    PubMed

    Mrak, Tanja; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Jeran, Zvonka

    2006-03-15

    Different extraction procedures were applied to improve the extraction efficiency of arsenic compounds from lichens. Two lichen species were chosen from an arsenic-contaminated environment: epiphytic Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and terricolous Cladonia rei Schaer. Samples were extracted with water at temperatures of 20, 60 and 90 degrees C, using mixtures of methanol/water (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9), Tris buffer and acetone and the extracts speciated. Water and Tris buffer showed the best extraction efficiency of all extractants used; however, the extraction efficiency was still less than 23%. Since a major fraction of arsenic appeared to be associated with trapped soil particles, a sequential extraction procedure originally designed for soils (extraction steps: (1) 0.05 mol l(-1) (NH(4))(2)SO(4); (2) 0.05 mol l(-1) (NH)(4)H(2)PO(4); (3) 0.2 mol l(-1) NH(4)-oxalate buffer, pH 3.25; (4) mixture of 0.2 mol l(-1) NH(4)-oxalate buffer and 0.1 mol l(-1) ascorbic acid, pH 3.25; (5) 0.5 mol l(-1) KOH) was applied and found to remove 45% of the total arsenic from H. physodes and 83% from C. rei. The lipid-soluble fraction of arsenic was estimated by k(0)-INAA analysis of diethylether extracts and was found to be negligible. An HPLC-UV-HGAFS system was used to determine the arsenic compounds extracted. In both lichen species, arsenous acid, arsenic acid, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, trimethylarsine oxide and glycerol-ribose were detected. In addition, phosphate-ribose was found in H. physodes. PMID:18970562

  1. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Surassmo, Suvimol; Nukoolkarn, Veena S; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2005-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13 medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Among those, Senna alata, Eupatorium odoratum, Garcinia mangostana, and Barleria lupulina had strong inhibitory effects. Based on a broth dilution method, the Garcinia mangostana extract had the greatest antimicrobial effect. The MIC values were the same (0.039 mg/ml) for both bacterial species and the MBC values were 0.039 and 0.156 mg/ml against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. In bioautography assay, the Garcinia mangostana extract produced strong inhibition zones against Propionibacterium acnes. Antimicrobial activity from fractions of column chromatography revealed one of the active compounds in Garcinia mangostana could be mangostin, a xanthone derivative. Taken together, our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Therefore, this plant would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for acne. PMID:16009519

  2. A Comparison Between the Oil, Hexane Extract and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extract of Juniperus communis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biljana M. Damjanovic; Dejan Skala; Dusanka Petrovic-Djakov; Josip Baras

    2003-01-01

    Volatile compounds from the berries of common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) were isolated by hydrodistillation, hexane extraction and supercritical CO2 extraction. The hydrodistillation yield was 2.17%, the hexane extraction yield 5.31 % and supercritical CO2 extraction yield 0.96%. Their compositions were compared using GC\\/M S as the method of analysis. Analyses reveal that samples differ quantitatively and qualitatively. The concentrations

  3. Extraction of rare earth metals from nitrate solutions with a binary extractant based on Cyanex 272

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Belova; A. A. Voshkin; N. S. Egorova; A. I. Khol’kin

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms for the extraction of rare earth metals with a binary extracting agent based on bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic\\u000a acid with the formation of various complexes in the organic phase were proposed. The compositions of the extracted compounds\\u000a were determined, and the distribution of these compounds was adequately described by calculated curves.

  4. Factors Influencing Phase Disengagement Rates in Solvent Extraction Systems Employing Tertiary Amine Extractants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Mover; W. J. Mc Dowell

    1981-01-01

    Phase disengagement rate is a critical property in determining the usefulness of a particular solvent extraction system in hydro-metallurgy. A survey of a number of commercial tertiary amine extractants of the type used in uranium extraction hydrometallurgy has been carried out to suggest whether structural factors influence phase disengagement behavior and to provide a useful comparison of different amines with

  5. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P < 0.05. Compared to the group of ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Based on these analyses, it can be concluded that persimmon leaf extract is better than ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief. PMID:25864752

  6. Antioxidant and anti-cancer cell proliferation activity of propolis extracts from two extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Khacha-ananda, Supakit; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Tragoolpua, Yingmanee

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total flavonoid compounds and cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines of propolis extracts from two extraction methods were investigated in this study. Propolis was collected from Phayao province and extracted with 70% ethanol using maceration and sonication techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were also determined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of propolis was evaluated using MTT assay. The percentage propolis yield after extraction using maceration (18.1%) was higher than using sonication (15.7%). Nevertheless, antioxidant and flavonoid compounds of the sonication propolis extract were significant greater than using maceration. Propolis extract from sonication showed antioxidant activity by 3.30 ± 0.15 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract. Total phenolic compound was 18.3 ± 3.30 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and flavonoid compound was 20.49 ± 0.62 mg quercetin/g extract. Additionally, propolis extracts from two extraction methods demonstrated the inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines at 24, 48 and 72 hours in a dose-dependent manner. These results are of interest for the selection of the most appropriate method for preparation of propolis extracts as potential antioxidant and anticancer agents. PMID:24377638

  7. Ultrahigh pressure extraction as a tool to improve the antioxidant activities of green tea extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Xi; Deji Shen; Ye Li; Rui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of ultrahigh pressure extraction at pressures of 150MPa, 250MPa, 350MPa and 450MPa on the total phenolic contents, the extraction yields and the antioxidant activities of green tea were investigated. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were analyzed using DPPH radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. The results showed that the phenolic contents and the

  8. Data Extraction from Deep Web Pages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jufeng Yang; Guangshun Shi; Yan Zheng; Qingren Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel model to extract data from Deep Web pages. The model has four layers, among which the access schedule, extraction layer and data cleaner are based on the rules of structure, logic and application. In the experiment section, we apply the new model to three intelligent system, scientific paper retrieval, electronic ticket ordering and

  9. Testbed for information extraction from deep web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Yamada; Nick Craswell; Tetsuya Nakatoh; Sachio Hirokawa

    2004-01-01

    Search results generated by searchable databases are served dynamically and far larger than the static documents on the Web. These results pages have been referred to as the Deep Web. We need to extract the target data in results pages to integrate them on different searchable databases. We propose a test bed for information extraction from search results. We chose

  10. Logic extraction and factorization for low power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasan Iman; Massoud Pedram

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes algebraic procedures for node extraction and factorization that target low power consump- tion. New power cost functions are introduced for the sum-of- products and factored form representations of functions. These cost functions are then used to guide the power optimi- zation procedures. It is also shown that using the proposed SOP power cost function, all extractions resulting

  11. Extracting Patterns from Location History Andrew Kirmse

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    " to infer the user's important locations. The "Place lab client" infers locations by listening to RF-emissionsExtracting Patterns from Location History Andrew Kirmse Google Inc Mountain View, California device location with his permission) is used to extract the user's location patterns. We describe how we

  12. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  13. Biomedical Relation Extraction: From Binary to Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical relation extraction aims to uncover high-quality relations from life science literature with high accuracy and efficiency. Early biomedical relation extraction tasks focused on capturing binary relations, such as protein-protein interactions, which are crucial for virtually every process in a living cell. Information about these interactions provides the foundations for new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, more interests have been shifted to the extraction of complex relations such as biomolecular events. While complex relations go beyond binary relations and involve more than two arguments, they might also take another relation as an argument. In the paper, we conduct a thorough survey on the research in biomedical relation extraction. We first present a general framework for biomedical relation extraction and then discuss the approaches proposed for binary and complex relation extraction with focus on the latter since it is a much more difficult task compared to binary relation extraction. Finally, we discuss challenges that we are facing with complex relation extraction and outline possible solutions and future directions. PMID:25214883

  14. Extractive Metallurgy Today, Progress and Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FATHI HABASHI

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years extractive metallurgy has been advancing gradually. There have beun probably few remarkable new ideas but there has been an important progress in the metallurgical literature. Numerous meetings devoted to various aspects of extractive metallurgy were held and,the proceedings of these meetings were published in the form of useful books readily available to the scientific community.

  15. [Extraction of thermolabile compounds with supercritical gases.].

    PubMed

    Stahl, E; Keller, K

    1983-02-01

    The thermolabile acoragermacrone and other sesquiterpenes could be extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide from beta-asarone free calamus rhizomes ( Acorus calamus L. var. americanus Wulff. A usual steam distillation lets this substance partly decompose into shyobunone. By using high pressure extraction with fractionated separation a higher yield of the bitter principles of calamus, acorone and isoacorone, is obtained. PMID:17405097

  16. Extraction in Coq: an Overview Pierre Letouzey

    E-print Network

    Letouzey, Pierre - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7

    of Coq allows one to transform Coq proofs and functions into functional programs. We illustrate the behavior of this tool by reviewing several variants of Coq denitions for Euclidean division, as well the current status of the extraction mechanism available in the Coq proof assistant [7, 8]. The extraction

  17. Separation of Rare Earths by Solvent Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. THAKUR

    2000-01-01

    Solvent extraction technology for the separation of rare earths is a recent one. This is mainly due to the low separation factors between the adjacent rare earths for any type of extractants that have been investigated so far. In spite of this inherent weakness arising due to the gradual small changes in basicity in the series of rare earths few

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction. Principles and practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. McHugh; V. J. Krukonis

    1986-01-01

    The authors cover virtually every facet of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology: the history of SCF extraction, its underlying thermodynamic principles, process principles, industrial applications, and analysis of SCF research and development efforts. A review of 75 major SCF extraction patents provides an important source of technical and business information. Computer programs that can be used to calculate critical mixture and

  19. Extracting windows registry information from physical memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuhui Zhang; Lianhai Wang; Lei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Windows registry from physical memory contains lots of important information that are of potential evidential value in forensic analysis. In this paper, a method of extracting windows registry information from physical memory has been proposed. The algorithm for extracting the hive files from memory is presented and mainly composed of the following steps: judging the version of operating system, acquiring

  20. Information Extraction from Traffic Images Masahiro Tanaka

    E-print Network

    Bargiela, Andrzej

    Information Extraction from Traffic Images Masahiro Tanaka , Ryo Hamamura and Andrzej Bargiela extraction from traffic images. The images have been provided for the monitoring purpose by humans, but we here consider how we can utilise them by automatic monitoring. Al- gorithms for detecting running cars

  1. A Review of Relation Extraction Nguyen Bach

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    A Review of Relation Extraction Nguyen Bach Language Technologies Institute School of Computer review of various aspects of the entity rela- tion extraction task. Some of the most important supervised a vast amount of unstructured electronic text on the Web, including newswire, blogs, email communications

  2. A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  3. Extracting Semistructured Information from the Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hammer; H. Garcia-Molina; J. Cho; R. Aranha; Arturo Crespo

    1997-01-01

    We describe a configurable tool for extracting semistructured data from a set of HTML pages and for converting the extracted information into database objects. The input to the extractor is a declarative specification that states where the data of interest is located on the HTML pages, and how the data should be \\

  4. Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Adam; J. Mainwaring; Michael N. Quigley

    1996-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

  5. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

  6. Slit extraction type compact microwave ion source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Tsuji; Junzo Ishikawa; Toshinori Takagi

    1989-01-01

    A new compact microwave ion source with three antennas has been constructed; it has a large plasma production chamber (16 × 66 × 5 mm3) for increasing the extraction of ion current by a slit extraction electrode. Even in such a large plasma production chamber, the axial magnetic field (about 900 G) was formed uniformly with a combination of permanent

  7. Evaluation of Extraction Techniques for Ontology Excerpts

    E-print Network

    Baader, Franz

    Evaluation of Extraction Techniques for Ontology Excerpts Jieying Chen1 , Michel Ludwig2,3 , Yue Ma of an ontology excerpt as being a fixed-size subset of an ontology that preserves as much knowledge as pos- sible about the terms in a given vocabulary as described in the ontology. We consider different extraction

  8. Manufacture of coke from a coal extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Gray; G. M. Kimber; D. E. Shipley

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for the production of coke having a low mineral matter content, which process comprises digesting coal in a high boiling aromatic oil solvent at a temperature within the range of 350°C to 480°C., separating insoluble matter from the coal digest to give a coal extract and coking the coal extract.

  9. Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N.

    1996-12-01

    A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

  10. Fast Multiresolution Extraction of Multiple Transparent Isosurfaces

    E-print Network

    Fast Multiresolution Extraction of Multiple Transparent Isosurfaces Thomas Gerstner Department@iam.uni-bonn.de Abstract. In this paper, we present a multiresolution algorithm which is capa- ble to render multiple with a hierarchical tetrahedral grid. The multiresolution extraction algorithm is then based on an adaptive traversal

  11. Effect of olive pomace extracts on hyperlipidaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Liu; Hongbin Sun; Jing Shang; Yuanyuan Yong; Luyong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the hypolipidemic effect of olive pomace extracts. Identification and quantitation of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid as the potentially effective components of the pomace extracts were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography methods. Hyperlipidaemia was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days. The

  12. Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, J.S. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

  13. Antiradical Activity of Paulownia tomentosa (Scrophulariaceae) Extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel Smejkal; Pavla Holubova; Ales Zima; Jan Muselik; Margita Dvorska

    2007-01-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is a large indecidous tree planted mostly for its fast growing wood and decoratative purposes. The tree is also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As a part of our study of natural polyphenols, the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa were extracted by EtOH and than subjected to liquid\\/liquid extraction. Fractions were analysed by TLC and HPLC to determine presence

  14. Terminology Extraction from Comparable Corpora for Latvian

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Terminology Extraction from Comparable Corpora for Latvian Tatiana GORNOSTAYa,1 , Anita RAMMb on terminology extraction from comparable corpora for Latvian. In the first section we introduce our work; the second section briefly describes the concept of the project and the implemented general terminology

  15. Resume Information Extraction with Cascaded Hybrid Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Yu; Gang Guan; Ming Zhou

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for resume information extraction to support automatic resume management and routing. A cascaded information extraction (IE) framework is designed. In the first pass, a resume is segmented into a consecutive blocks attached with labels indicating the information types. Then in the second pass, the detailed information, such as Name and Address, are identified in

  16. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  17. Information Extraction Using Hidden Markov Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Robert Leek

    1997-01-01

    This thesis shows how to design and tune a hidden Markov model to extract factual information from a corpus of machine-readable English prose. In particular, the thesis presents a HMM that classifies and parses natural language assertions about genes being located at particular positions on chromosomes. The facts extracted by this HMM can be inserted into biological databases. The HMM

  18. Anomalous solvent extraction behavior of astatine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Takahashi; H. Baba

    1997-01-01

    We studied the solvent extraction behavior of astatine and found the anomalous behavior of this element similar to radioiodine. Astatine was extracted into CS2 from acidic solution over a wide range of carrier iodine concentration. The distribution ratios of astatine were determined by measuring the -ray from 210 At with a Nal(TI) detector. A drastic change was observed around at

  19. MT Spindowns from Extracts Arshad Desai

    E-print Network

    Mitchison, Tim

    not seeing competition effects. For a unknown protein, it is best totry a variety of conditions. Below on ice. 2. Extracts must have a source of GTP. For Xenopus egg extracts, we simply add an energy the speed and/or time to reach an equivalent clearing factor. 5. Save supe for gel/blot, aspirate cushion

  20. Extracting Falsifiable Predictions from Sloppy Models

    E-print Network

    Myers, Chris

    Extracting Falsifiable Predictions from Sloppy Models RYAN N. GUTENKUNST,a FERGAL P. CASEY,b JOSHUA, USA ABSTRACT: Successful predictions are among the most compelling vali- dations of any model. Extracting falsifiable predictions from nonlinear multiparameter models is complicated by the fact

  1. Antibacterial activity of some lichen extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Karagöz; Nihal Doruöz; Zuhal Zeybek; Ali Aslan

    2009-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from some lichens species were evaluated for antibacterial activity against six standard strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and two environmental strains (Aeromonas) that were isolated from different lakes. The aqueous and ethanol extracts showed a variable range of antibacterial activity to both standard strains and

  2. Extraction of fetal ECG from maternal ECG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Serdengecti; M. Engin; E. Z. Engin; S. Balci

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical signals taken from body surface by non-invasive methods include problems such as noise and mixing with other physiological signals. These problems also appear evidently during the extraction of fetal ECG's. Therefore, the fetal EKG signal is contaminated by maternal ECG signal and noise. In this study, the purpose is to determine the best algorithm for fetal ECG extraction by

  3. Glomerulus Extraction by Optimizing the Fitting Curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhang; Jinglu Hu

    2008-01-01

    Glomerulus extraction is an important step for automatic analysis of the kidney diseases in the computer-aided diagnosis system. A method based on searching the best fitting curve is proposed based on the characteristics of the renal biopsy images in microscope. This method can solve the problem of the large defect of the enhanced boundary, which lead to unsuccessful extraction. Firstly,

  4. Critical area extraction for soft fault estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard A. Allan; Anthony J. Walton

    1998-01-01

    Algorithms are presented for extracting the critical area associated with extra and missing material soft faults of an integrated circuit from the mask layout. These algorithms have been implemented within the Edinburgh Yield Estimator (EYE) tool which permits efficient extraction of the critical area from an arbitrary mask layout. Accurate estimates of device critical area of even the largest devices

  5. Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

    1969-01-01

    Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    1999-05-01

    A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum). PMID:10374253

  7. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  8. Treatment of trinitrotoluene by crude plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Medina, Victor F; Larson, Steven L; Agwaramgbo, Lovell; Perez, Waleska; Escalon, Lynn

    2004-05-01

    Crude plant extract solutions (spinach and parrotfeather) were prepared and spiked with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) (20 mgl(-1)). 90-h TNT removal by these solutions was compared to controls. Spinach and parrotfeather extract solutions removed 99% and 50% of the initial TNT, respectively; TNT was not eliminated in the controls or in extract solutions where removal activity was deactivated by boiling. A first-order removal constant of 0.052 h(-1) was estimated for spinach extract solutions treating 20 mgl(-1) TNT concentrations, which compared favorably to intact plant removal. Concentration variation was described by Michaelis-Menton kinetics. Detectable TNT degradation products represented only a fraction of the total TNT transformed, and the transformation favored the formation of 4-aminodinitrotoluene. The results indicated that crude plant extracts transform TNT, without the presence of the live plant. PMID:15013677

  9. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Barbara M.; Ilic, Nebojsa; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology. There were no treatment-related toxic effects from chicory extract administered orally at 70, 350, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Since there were no observed adverse effects of chicory extract in these studies, the NOAEL for the extract is 1000 mg/kg/g administered orally for 28 days. PMID:17306431

  11. Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

  12. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  13. Micellar extraction of europium (III) by a bolaform extractant and parent compounds derived from 5-pyrazolone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Hebrant; Christophe Provin; Jean-Pierre Brunette; Christian Tondre

    2001-01-01

    Micellar ultrafiltration is used to determine the extraction of europium (III) by a series of micelle-solubilized extractants derived from 5-pyrazolone. The extractants, solubilized in CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) micelles, have either a single complexing site: 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HPMBP), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-lauroyl-5-pyrazolone (HPMLP) or they are bis-ligands which can be called ‘bolaform’ extractants: 1,6-bis(1?-phenyl-3?-methyl-5?-pyrazolone-4?-)-1,6-hexanedione (HP-4-PH), 1,12-bis(1?-phenyl-3?-methyl-5?-pyrazolone-4?-)-1,12-dodecanedione (HP-10-PH). The yield of extraction is measured as a

  14. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  15. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. PMID:25929197

  16. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  17. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  18. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section 319.721...Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.721 Fluid extract of meat. Fluid extract of meat (e.g., “Fluid Extract of...

  19. Biological Activity of Root Extracts from Dalbergia saxatilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Uchendu

    2000-01-01

    The spasmogenic activity of root extracts of Dalbergia saxatilis on rat uterine muscles was investigated. Petroleum ether (60°–80°) and chloroform extracts and chromatographic fractions of these extracts had no contractile effect on uterine muscle preparations. In contrast, contractile responses were observed in the polar extracts and chromatographic fractions of these extracts, with most activity in the 70 percent aqueous ethanol

  20. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction of environmental samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Camel

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, microwave-assisted extraction has attracted growing interest as it allows rapid extractions of solutes from solid matrices, with extraction efficiency comparable to that of the classical techniques. In particular, numerous applications of this recent technique deal with the extraction of pollutants from environmental samples. This review gives a brief presentation of the theory of microwave and extraction systems,

  1. PRESSURIZED FLUIDS FOR EXTRACTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extraction of cedarwood oil (CWO) using liquid carbon dioxide (LC-CO2) was investigated, including the effects of extraction pressure and length of extraction. The chemical composition of the extracts were monitored over the course of the extraction as well. When 80 liters of carbon dioxide we...

  2. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ? -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  3. Groundwater Extraction from Multiple-Layer Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, W.; Hsu, K.; Chang, C.; Lin, Z.; Hou, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater over extraction has caused seriously seawater intrusion and subsidence problems in Taiwan. Pumping in deep aquifer is considered as the main reason to cause the subsidence. Since multiple-layer pumping wells are popular in Taiwan due to their convenience and low cost in installation, responsibilities for the deterioration in both groundwater quantity and quality are therefore difficult to be identified for different groundwater users. Conventionally groundwater was considered to evenly extract from the layers covered by the multiple-layer wells. We investigated this issue by applying numerical modeling software TOUGH2 to simulate the multiple-layer pumping. In the conceptual model, we designed fully penetrated pumping wells and partially penetrated pumping wells. The modeling of multiple pumping was applied to a field site. Both in the conceptual and field models, the effects of screen locations, extraction locations and properties of filter pack on the distribution of extraction rates are considered. Our results show that 1. the screens closer to the extraction location contribute more extraction flux, 2. locations of extraction and screen dominantly control the flow rate in each layer. These results are different from the common thought in the multiple-layer pumping and can be used as a general idea of large-scale multiple-layer pumping modeling.

  4. Extracted current saturation in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalskyy, S.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Minea, T. [LPGP, University Paris-Sud 11, bat 210, 15 rue G. Clemenceau-Orsay, F91405 (France)

    2012-06-01

    The extraction of negatively charged particles from a negative ion source is one of the crucial issues in the development of the neutral beam injector system for future experimental reactor ITER. Full 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code - ONIX [S. Mochalskyy et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105011 (2010)] - is used to simulate the hydrogen plasma behaviour and the extracted particle features in the vicinity of the plasma grid, both sides of the aperture. It is found that the contribution to the extracted negative ion current of ions born in the volume is small compared with that of ions created at the plasma grid walls. The parametric study with respect to the rate of negative ions released from the walls shows an optimum rate. Beyond this optimum, a double layer builds-up by the negative ion charge density close to the grid aperture surface reducing thus extraction probability, and therefore the extracted current. The effect of the extraction potential and magnetic field magnitudes on the extraction is also discussed. Results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  5. Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkaya, M.

    2012-07-01

    Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

  6. [Multi-objective optimization of extraction process for red ginseng based upon extraction efficiency and cost control].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

    2014-07-01

    It is the objective of this study to optimize the extraction process of red ginseng to minimize the unit cost of extracting effective ingredients. The relation between the target variables of total quantity of ginsenosides and first extraction time, first extraction solution amount, second extraction time, second extract solution amount were studied with Box-Behnken experimental design method. At the same we also considered the cost of extraction solution and energy usage. The objective function was set as unit cost of target (total quantity of ginsenosides or its purity) for the multi-objective optimization of extraction process. As a result, the optimal process parameters were found as first extraction time (108.7 min), first extraction solution amount folds (12), second extraction time (30 min), second extraction solution amount folds (8) to minimize the unit cost. It indicated that this approach could potentially be used to optimize industrial extraction process for manufacturing Chinese medicine. PMID:25276970

  7. Continuous extraction of organic materials from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

    1971-01-01

    A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

  8. 3D Feature Extraction for Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Visualization techniques provide tools that help scientists identify observed phenomena in scientific simulation. To be useful, these tools must allow the user to extract regions, classify and visualize them, abstract them for simplified representations, and track their evolution. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This article explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and those from Finite Element Analysis.

  9. Institut Franais de Pondichry, 1994 ISSN 0971 -3107

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Melastomataceae Memecylon talbottanum ............. 44 4-aperturate 4-porate - echinate Clusiaceae Garcinia Clusiaceae Garcinia gummi-gutta ................... 12 Garcinia morella ............................ 12 Garcinia travancorica ................... 13 5-colpate - echinate Icacinaceae Nothapodytes foetida

  10. Optimization of extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Sumaira; Ali, Muhammad; Mahmood, Asif

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves using response surface methodology (RSM). A user-defined design was applied to determine the effects of extraction time (min), extraction temperature ((o)C) and ethanol concentration (%), on total phenolic content (TPC) from Moringa oleifera leaves dried by three methods (oven, sunlight and ambient air). The RSM was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the extraction of TPC of Moringa oleifera leaves. The optimum conditions that maximize the extraction of TPC were extraction time, 60 min; extraction temperature, 90(o)C and % of methanol, 50 % (v/v). TPC extracted under these conditions were 12.28, 12.65 and 13.14 mg GAE/g DW for samples dried by different methods. Significant difference between drying methods was found (p<0.001). Pair wise significant difference was found only between oven and ambient air drying methods (p<0.001). PMID:22713938

  11. Compositional variance in extracted particulate matter using different filter extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bein, K. J.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Collection and subsequent extraction of particulate matter (PM) from filter substrates is a common requirement for in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies, as well as chemical analyses such as ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Several filter extraction protocols exist and different laboratories employ different methods, potentially biasing inter-study comparisons. Previous studies have shown significant differences in extraction efficiency between techniques and identified the relevant extraction artifacts. However, a comprehensive inter-comparison of different methods based on the chemical composition of the extracted PM has never been conducted. In the current study, an exhaustive suite of chemical analyses is performed on PM extracted from glass micro-fiber filters using techniques commonly employed in different laboratories: Multi-solvent extraction (MSE) and spin-down extraction (SDE). PM samples were collected simultaneously during field studies conducted in an urban and rural setting using a high-volume PM2.5 sampler. Results show remarkable compositional variance between the PM extracts for all chemical components analyzed, including metals, water soluble ions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, non-aromatic organics, elemental carbon and organic carbon. Mass closure was greater than 90% for MSE but deviated substantially for SDE. Detailed retrospective gravimetric analysis of archived SDE samples revealed that a process-based loss of PM mass is the root cause of the differences. These losses are shown to be compositionally biased, both externally between different PM mixtures and internally within a given PM mixture. In combination, the results of this study are the first to demonstrate (i) an exhaustive chemical characterization of a single PM extract, (ii) the significance of directly characterizing the extracted PM used in toxicological studies, (iii) the existence of substantial compositional biases between different filter extraction techniques and (iv) the importance of standardizing filter extraction objectives and procedures to avoid introducing study bias into toxicological studies.

  12. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the definition...

  13. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the definition...

  14. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180...Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the definition...

  15. ROSE Process Offers Energy Savings for Solvent Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Gearheart, J. A.; Nelson, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Kerr-McGee has developed and commercialized an energy-efficient solvent extraction process known as ROSE (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) in which the extraction solvent is recovered as a supercritical fluid. The energy requirement...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983 Food...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting...

  20. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Boelo; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Heeres, Hero J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-01-01

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and chemical engineers in the fields of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and foods. In this review the principles and advances of resolution through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction are discussed, starting with an introduction on the principles of enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction including host-guest chemistry, extraction and phase transfer mechanisms, and multistage liquid-liquid extraction processing. Then the literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction systems is reviewed, structured on extractant classes. The following extractant classes are considered: crown ether based extractants, metal complexes and metalloids, extractants based on tartrates, and a final section with all other types of chiral extractants. PMID:21107491

  1. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin. (2) Propylene glycol. (3) Sugar (including invert sugar). (4) Dextrose. (5) Corn sirup (including dried corn...

  2. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin. (2) Propylene glycol. (3) Sugar (including invert sugar). (4) Dextrose. (5) Corn sirup (including dried corn...

  3. Web Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    market opportunity, market penetration strategy, and market development metrics." Market intelligenceWeb Data Extraction for Online Market Intelligence at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory Online market intelligence (OMI), and especially competitive intelligence for product pricing, is a very

  4. Natural Language Tools for Information Extraction

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Stuart C.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4 Tools that automatically process text 34 4.1 AeroText (Lockheed MartinNatural Language Tools for Information Extraction for Soft Target Exploitation and Fusion Final

  5. Using language models for generic entity extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian H. Witten; Zane Bray; Malika Mahoui; W. J. Teahan

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of statistical language modeling techniques, such as are commonly used for text compression, to extract meaningful, low-level, information about the location of semantic tokens, or \\

  6. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  8. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    The common juniper is a tree that grows in Europe, Asia, and North America. The ripe fruit of Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus is alcohol extracted to produce Juniperus Communis Extract and Juniperus Oxycedrus Extract, respectively. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is the volatile oil from the wood of J. oxycedrus. Juniperus Phoenicea Extract comes from the gum of Juniperus phoenicea, and Juniperus Virginiana Extract is extracted from the wood of Juniperus virginiana. Although Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is produced as a by-product of distillation, no information was available on the manufacturing process for any of the Extracts. Oils derived from these varieties of juniper are used solely as fragrance ingredients; they are commonly produced using steam distillation of the source material, but it is not known if that procedure is used to produce extracts. One report does state that the chemical composition of Juniper Communis Oil and Juniperus Communis Extract is similar, each containing a wide variety of terpenoids and aromatic compounds, with the occasional aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes, and, more rarely, alkanes. The principle component of Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is cadinene, a sesquiterpene, but cresol and guaiacol are also found. No data were available, however, indicating the extent to which there would be variations in composition that may occur as a result of extraction differences or any other factor such as plant growth conditions. Information on the composition of the other ingredients was not available. All of the Extracts function as biological additives in cosmetic formulations, and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is used as a hair-conditioning agent and a fragrance component. Most of the available safety test data are from studies using oils derived from the various varieties of juniper. Because of the expected similarity in composition to the extract, these data were considered. Acute studies using animals show little toxicity of the oil or tar. The oils derived from J. communis and J. virginiana and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar were not skin irritants in animals. The oil from J. virginiana was not a sensitizer, and the oil from J. communis was not phototoxic in animal tests. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar was genotoxic in several assays. No genotoxicity data were available for any of the extracts. Juniperus Communis Extract did affect fertility and was abortifacient in studies using albino rats. Clinical tests showed no evidence of irritation or sensitization with any of the tested oils, but some evidence of sensitization to the tar. These data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; methods of manufacturing and impurities data, especially pesticides; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; dermal reproductive/developmental toxicity data (to include determination of a no-effect level); two genotoxicity assays (one in a mammalian system) for each extract; if positive, a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity assay performed using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods is needed; a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity assay performed using NTP methods on Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar; and irritation and sensitization data on each extract and the tar (these data are needed because the available data on the oils cannot be extrapolated). Until these data are available, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic formulations. PMID:11558640

  9. Local feature point extraction for quantum images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Xu, Kai; Gao, Yinghui; Wilson, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Quantum image processing has been a hot issue in the last decade. However, the lack of the quantum feature extraction method leads to the limitation of quantum image understanding. In this paper, a quantum feature extraction framework is proposed based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. Based on the design of quantum image addition and subtraction operations and some quantum image transformations, the feature points could be extracted by comparing and thresholding the gradients of the pixels. Different methods of computing the pixel gradient and different thresholds can be realized under this quantum framework. The feature points extracted from quantum image can be used to construct quantum graph. Our work bridges the gap between quantum image processing and graph analysis based on quantum mechanics.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  11. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  12. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  13. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  14. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  15. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate annatto pigments, which are separated from the liquid and dried, with or...foods. (b) Specifications. Annatto extract, including pigments precipitated therefrom, shall conform to the following...

  16. Supercritical Fluid Extraction- Process Simulation and Design 

    E-print Network

    Martin, C. L.; Seibert, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) currently finds application in the food and petroleum industries. Research is aimed at using the unique properties of supercritical fluids to perform industrially significant separations. One major problem...

  17. Comparison of Bacterial Extracellular Polymer Extraction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Melanie J.; Lester, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Five different bacterial extracellular polymer extraction methods and a combination of two of these methods were compared on cultures of activated sludge, synthetic activated sludge, and Klebsiella aerogenes. High-speed centrifugation was the most effective extraction method for the K. aerogenes culture, based on the comparatively small amount of cell disruption and the relatively high extracellular polymer yield. Steaming treatment was the most effective extraction method for the activated sludges, since it released a significant quantity of extracellular polymers from the flocs and caused less cellular disruption than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium hydroxide treatments. Sodium hydroxide treatment caused extensive disruption in all cultures. Ultrasonication released low concentrations of extracellular polymers from all cultures. However, it caused no significant cell disruption and therefore may be useful as a preliminary treatment in conjunction with another extraction method. PMID:16345600

  18. Molecular Mechanism of Cyclodextrin Mediated Cholesterol Extraction

    PubMed Central

    López, Cesar A.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2011-01-01

    The depletion of cholesterol from membranes, mediated by ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is well known and documented, but the molecular details of this process are largely unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have been able to study the CD mediated extraction of cholesterol from model membranes, in particular from a pure cholesterol monolayer, at atomic resolution. Our results show that efficient cholesterol extraction depends on the structural distribution of the CDs on the surface of the monolayer. With a suitably oriented dimer, cholesterol is extracted spontaneously on a nanosecond time scale. Additional free energy calculations reveal that the CDs have a strong affinity to bind to the membrane surface, and, by doing so, destabilize the local packing of cholesterol molecules making their extraction favorable. Our results have implications for the interpretation of experimental measurements, and may help in the rational design of efficient CD based nano-carriers. PMID:21455285

  19. Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W 

    E-print Network

    Brinker, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam ...

  20. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  1. Extracting secret keys from integrated circuits

    E-print Network

    Lim, Daihyun, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Modern cryptographic protocols are based on the premise that only authorized participants can obtain secret keys and access to information systems. However, various kinds of tampering methods have been devised to extract ...

  2. Co-extraction of DNA and PLFA from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Sheridan; Techtmann, Stephen M; Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Niang, Dijibril; Pfiffner, Susan; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid/DNA co-extraction from one sample is attractive in limiting biases associated with microbial community analysis from separate extractions. We sought to enhance established co-extraction methods and use high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to identify preferentially extracted taxa from co-extracted DNA. Co-extraction results in low DNA yields and distinct community structure changes. PMID:26027542

  3. 1998 HUB4 INFORMATION EXTRACTION EVALUATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Przybocki; Jonathan G. Fiscus; John S. Garofolo; David S. Pallett

    This paper documents the Information Extraction Named-Entity Evaluation (IE-NE), one of the new spokes added to the DARPA-sponsored 1998 Hub-4 Broadcast News Evaluation. This paper discusses the information extraction task as posed for the 1998 Broadcast News Evaluation. This paper reviews the evaluation metrics, the scoring process, and the test corpus that was used for the evaluation. Finally, this paper

  4. Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

    1980-01-01

    Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

  5. Plant extracts as modulators of genotoxic effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debisri Sarkar; Archana Sharma; Geeta Talukder

    1996-01-01

    Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity\\u000a of environmental genotoxicants. The property of preventing carcinogenesis has been reported in many plant extracts. The observation\\u000a of a close association between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis has extended the survey to include plant extracts and plant\\u000a products able to modify the process of

  6. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Grzenia; D. J. Schell; S. R. Wickramasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed.

  7. Automatic information extraction from large websites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valter Crescenzi; Giansalvatore Mecca

    2004-01-01

    Information extraction from websites is nowadays a relevant problem, usually performed by software modules called wrappers. A key requirement is that the wrapper generation process should be automated to the largest extent, in order to allow for large-scale extraction tasks even in presence of changes in the underlying sites. So far, however, only semi-automatic proposals have appeared in the literature.We

  8. Purification of Polonium210 Using Pyrochemical Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Wheelwright; J. L. Swanson; T. R. Myers

    1980-01-01

    An efficient extraction process that does not utilize halides or organic solvents has been developed for the recovery and purification of 210po. Polonium-210, produced in bismuth metal by neutron irradiation, is extracted from molten bismuth metal into molten NaOH in an unique 3-compartment contactor under an inert atmosphere. At a temperature of 450±25°C, and at a NaOH\\/Bi weight ratio of

  9. Solvent extraction process for tar sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Funk; W. G. May; J. C. Pirkle

    1982-01-01

    A solvent extraction process for tar sands is disclosed wherein a low boiling solvent having a normal boiling point of from 20* to 70* C. Is used to extract tar sands. The solvent is mixed with tar sands in a dissolution zone, the solvent:bitumen weight ratio being maintained at from about 0.5:1 to 2:1. This mixture is passed to a

  10. Aromatics Extraction Plant Design Using Synthesis Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Wilcox, R. J.; Nedwick, R.

    1987-01-01

    the reboiler and condenser duties and temperatures and estimating the traffic and number of trays in each column to estimate its capital cost. APPUCATION TO THE SPECIFIC DESIGN A new plant was designed to produce benzene, toluene, and xylene by extraction... to extract an aromatics stream from a C 6 -C o heart cut of hydrogenated pyrolysis gasoline, leaving a raffinate containing paraffins and naphthenes. The Distillation Section distills the aromatics stream into high purity benzene, toluene, and Co...

  11. A Distributed Knowledge Extraction Data Mining Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang B. Liu; Umadevi Thanneru; Daizhan Cheng

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a We have developed a distributed data mining algorithm based on the progressive knowledge extraction principle. The knowledge\\u000a factors, the data attributes that are significant statistically or based on a predefined mining function, are extracted progressively\\u000a from the distributed data sets. The critical data attributes and sample data set are selected iteratively from distributed\\u000a data sources. The experiments showed that the

  12. Hydration effects in quaternary amine extraction systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Miller; M. C. Fuerstenau

    1970-01-01

    The extraction of Al+++, Cd++, Co++, Cu+, Cu++, Fe++, Fe+++, In+++, Ni++, and Zn++ with quaternary amine was studied using chloride and sulfate as ligands. On the basis of loading experiments and slope analyses,\\u000a the species extracted were: CdCl4=, CoCl4=, CuCl2?, CuCl4=, FeCl4?, and ZnCl4=. Water content of the organic phase was analyzed as a function of loading by Karl

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, T; Banerjee, S; Mandal, S C; Maity, T K; Saha, B P; Pal, M

    2001-05-01

    Hepatoprotective activity of the n-heptane extract of Cassia fistula leaves was investigated by inducing hepatotoxicity with paracetamol in rats. The extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt. exhibited orally, significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The effects produced were comparable to that of a standard hepatoprotective agent. PMID:11417916

  14. Efficient fast thumbnail extraction algorithm for HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonjin; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we proposed a fast thumbnail extraction algorithm using partial decoding for HEVC. The proposed algorithm reconstructs only 4x4 boundary and TU boundary needed for thumbnail image with partial decoding. Experimental results show that proposed method significantly reduces the computational complexity and extraction time for thumbnail. In addition, the visual quality of thumbnail image of proposed method had no big difference compared to conventional method.

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

  16. Alkaline extraction of wastewater activated sludge biosolids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flor Y. García Becerra; Edgar J. Acosta; D. Grant Allen

    2010-01-01

    Activated sludge produced by wastewater treatment facilities are a sub-utilized by-product whose handling and disposal represent significant costs to these facilities. In this work, we introduced a simple and effective alkaline extraction technique that extracts up to 75% of the sludge’s organic matter into a liquor containing potentially useful organic material (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.). The results suggest that at pH

  17. Calibrations of a tritium extraction facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Bretscher; B. M. Oliver; H. IV Farrar

    1983-01-01

    A tritium extraction facility has been built for the purpose of measuring the absolute tritium concentration in neutron-irradiated lithium metal samples. Two independent calibration procedures have been used to determine what fraction, if any, of tritium is lost during the extraction process. The first procedure compares independently measured ⁴He and ³H concentrations from the ⁶Li(n,..cap alpha..)T reaction. The second procedure

  18. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of coconut oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. B. Che Man; Suhardiyono; A. B. Asbi; M. N. Azudin; L. S. Wei

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous extraction of coconut oil with various enzymes was investigated. Several enzyme preparations (cellulase, polygalacturonase,\\u000a protease, and ?-amylase) were used at different concentrations, pH, and temperature values to enhance oil extraction. After\\u000a the oil had been released by the enzyme reaction, it was separated by centrifugation. The results showed that an enzyme mixture\\u000a at 1% (w\\/w) each of cellulase, ?-amylase,

  19. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Esclapez; J. V. García-Pérez; A. Mulet; J. A. Cárcel

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is an interesting process to obtain high valuable compounds and could contribute to\\u000a the increase in the value of some food by-products when used as sources of natural compounds. The main benefits will be a\\u000a more effective extraction, thus saving energy, and also the use of moderate temperatures, which is beneficial for heat-sensitive\\u000a compounds. For a successful

  20. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  1. Phase extraction in disordered isospectral shapes

    E-print Network

    Mugurel ?olea; Bogdan Ostahie; Marian Ni??; Felicia ?olea; Alexandru Aldea

    2012-03-04

    The phase of the electronic wave function is not directly measurable but, quite remarkably, it becomes accessible in pairs of isospectral shapes, as recently proposed in the experiment of Christopher R. Moon {\\it et al.}, Science {\\bf 319}, 782 (2008). The method is based on a special property, called transplantation, which relates the eigenfunctions of the isospectral pairs, and allows to extract the phase distributions, if the amplitude distributions are known. We numerically simulate such a phase extraction procedure in the presence of disorder, which is introduced both as Anderson disorder and as roughness at edges. With disorder, the transplantation can no longer lead to a perfect fit of the wave functions, however we show that a phase can still be extracted - defined as the phase that minimizes the misfit. Interestingly, this extracted phase coincides with (or differs negligibly from) the phase of the disorder-free system, up to a certain disorder amplitude, and a misfit of the wave functions as high as $\\sim 5%$, proving a robustness of the phase extraction method against disorder. However, if the disorder is increased further, the extracted phase shows a puzzle structure, no longer correlated with the phase of the disorder-free system. A discrete model is used, which is the natural approach for disorder analysis. We provide a proof that discretization preserves isospectrality and the transplantation can be adapted to the discrete systems.

  2. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  3. The inner synergistic effect of bifunctional ionic liquid extractant for solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Ji, Yang; Hu, Fengchun; He, Bo; Chen, Ji; Li, Deqian

    2010-06-15

    The inner synergistic effect of bifunctional ionic liquid extractant (Bif-ILE) for solvent extraction is reported for the first time using [tricaprylmethylammonium][di-2-ethylhexylphosphinate] ([A336][P204]) as n extractant for Eu(III), which can be attributed to better stability and hydrophobicity of the complex formed by [A336][P204] with Eu(III). Some other Bif-ILEs are also found to have the similar inner synergistic effect. Distribution coefficient, stripping property and extraction mechanism of the novel extraction protocol are discussed in this report. The study contributes towards acquiring a new understanding of synergistic extraction and task specific ionic liquid (TSIL), furthermore, providing a positive influence on their potential application in analytical chemistry. PMID:20441990

  4. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

  5. Molecular Models of Leaf Extracts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Our Featured Molecules this month come from the paper by Pelter et. al. on the analysis of leaf extracts by thin-layer chromatography (1). As the authors discuss, their experiment may be used in courses at various levels of the curriculum. The molecules discussed in the paper are also of wide interest both for their structural properties and their wide-ranging appearance in both natural and synthetic substances. Included in the molecule collection are all of the isomers for the molecules pictured in the text with the exception of menthyl acetate, for which only one structure is given (see below). All of these molecules have been optimized at the HF/631-G(d) level. The menthol family enantiomeric pairs of menthol, isomenthol, neomenthol and neoisomenthol provide a rich yet coherent group of molecules on which to base discussion of chirality, enantiomers and diastereomers. Treadwell and Black have described some of the differences in physical properties of four members of this family, and several other experiments using one or more menthols have been published in this Journal (2, 3). I have created a Web page in which the eight molecules are embedded in no particular order, and with no rational file names. This is being used in at least one of our organic sections to give students experience at identifying enantiomers, and diastereomers, and in applying R/S notation (4). As access to computational software becomes more common, and as efforts are being made to incorporate more relevant modeling experiments into all levels of the curriculum, the menthols again present some interesting possibilities. While students at the organic level know about enantiomers differing in their optical rotation, and about chiral molecules interacting with chiral and achiral environments, it is instructive for them to think of other ways in which enantiomers and diastereomers are the same or different. Three useful ways of checking to see whether two structures are truly enantiomers is to compute their total energies, vibrational spectra, and dipole moments. These calculations are available in most common computational packages. Figure 1 shows the results of energy calculations on optimized structures of the eight isomers. The enantiomeric pairs have, as expected, exactly the same total energy, while the various diastereomers differ in energy. The computation of the vibrational spectra is a very sensitive probe to determine whether two structures are optimized and enantiomeric or not. Structures that are almost enantiomeric, but not quite optimized, may exhibit similar energies, but the low frequency vibrations will be sensitive to any deviation from optimization. If two supposedly enantiomeric structures do not have the same computed vibrations, or if either shows a negative frequency, the structures need to be optimized more carefully. As with the vibrational frequencies, enantiomers should show identical dipole moments. Only one structure of the eight isomers in the menthyl acetate family is included in the collection, giving students the chance to build the other seven and verify their computed properties. Because of the central role that chirality plays in chemistry, and particularly in biochemistry, it seems appropriate to introduce some of these visualization and modeling exercises early in the curriculum, and in courses designed for students majoring in other areas. Students in various courses could pursue other aspects of these same molecules including odor and cooling properties, and green chemistry approaches to synthesizing menthols.

  6. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naifu Zhou; Jinguang Wu; Zhijian Yu; R. D. Neuman; Dujin Wang; Guangxian Xu

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl\\u000a ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination\\u000a structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemica nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of\\u000a the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed

  7. Modifications to the New Soil Extractant H3A-1: A Multinutrient Extractant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Haney; E. B. Haney; L. R. Hossner; J. G. Arnold

    2010-01-01

    A new soil extractant (H3A-1) with the ability to extract ammonium (NH4) nitrogen (N), nitrate (NO3) N, and phosphorus (P) from soil was originally developed and tested against 32 soils (Haney et al. 2006). H3A-1 is composed of organic acid root exudates, which are naturally occurring, and lithium citrate. In this study, H3A-1 was modified to reduce the extractable iron

  8. Application of microwave-assisted extraction to the fast extraction of plant phenolic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charalampos Proestos; Michael Komaitis

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of phenolic compounds in plants attracts considerable attention. Conventional (reflux) extraction as well as microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic substances from aromatic plants using different solvents has been studied. RP-HPLC with UV detection was employed for the analysis of phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The amount of extractable phenolic substances for this method

  9. Ultrasonically Assisted Extraction of Rutin from Artemisia selengensis Turcz: Comparison with Conventional Extraction Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Peng; Xiaopin Jia; Yuzhi Wang; Hongbin Zhu; Qingmei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonically assisted extraction (UAE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method for the\\u000a fast extraction and determination of rutin in Artemisia selengensis Turcz has been developed. Artemisia selengensis Turcz has been used as food and herbal medicine for thousands of years in China. Rutin is one of the main active ingredients\\u000a of this plant. The extraction of rutin

  10. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2015-06-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1-25:1) and time (2-6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. Optimal condition in microwave assisted method were ethanol 80 % as solvent, extraction time of 5-6 min and liquid/solid ratio of 12.7/1. Results were compared with those obtained by soxhlet extraction. In soxhlet extraction, Optimum conditions were extraction time of 6 h for ethanol 80 % as solvent. Value of phenolic compounds and extraction yield of licorice root in microwave assisted (MAE), and soxhlet were 47.47 mg/g and 16.38 %, 41.709 mg/g and 14.49 %, respectively. These results implied that MAE was more efficient extracting method than soxhlet. PMID:26028705

  11. Extracting fumonisins from maize: efficiency of different extraction solvents in multi-mycotoxin analytics.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Stefanie; Hepperle, Julia; Lauber, Uwe; Schnaufer, Renate; Maier, Susanne; Kühn, Caren; Schwab-Bohnert, Gabriele

    2013-05-01

    The complete extraction of analytes is of utmost importance when analyzing matrix samples for mycotoxins. Mycotoxins consist of substances with widely different physicochemical properties; therefore, the loss of toxins that occurs in multi-mycotoxin methods due to compromises in the extraction solvent is currently a topic under discussion. With regard to fumonisins, several extractants from recently published multi-mycotoxin methods were investigated when analyzing unprocessed and processed maize matrices. All extractants were tested in a validated on-site method and the extraction yields were compared to those of an HPLC-FLD reference method (EN 14352). Most of the compared multi-mycotoxin methods that have been published were only for analyzing fumonisins in maize or maize-meal; we have applied the extractants of these methods to processed, complex maize matrices for the first time. Our results show that, for extractions with aqueous acetonitrile mixtures with the addition of acid, e.g. MeCN/H2O/acetic acid (79/20/1, v/v/v), higher extraction yields are obtained than with MeCN/H2O (80/20, v/v), in both spiked and naturally contaminated maize matrices. But compared to the results of the reference method EN 14352, the two extractants did not show a similar extraction efficiency. Overall, the extractant MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v) turned out to be the most appropriate extractant applied in all experiments, obtaining the best and most comparable extraction yields and recoveries. Furthermore, our investigations showed that, with some of the tested extraction solvents, e.g. MeCN/H2O (75/25) containing 50 mmol/l formic acid, stark differences occur when analyzing spiked and naturally contaminated matrices. With spiked matrices, recoveries of approximately 80-110% were obtained, but with naturally contaminated matrices no results comparable to the EN method have been achieved. In contrast, a double extraction with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (80/19,9/0,1, v/v/v), followed by a second polar extraction step with MeCN/H2O/formic acid (20/79,9/0,1, v/v/v), led, for most naturally contaminated samples, to comparable results with the EN method. However, for spiked samples, the same extractant led to raised recoveries of between 120 and 140 %. For some processed matrices, like taco-chips, all tested extractants showed a poor extraction efficiency for fumonisins. By extending the extraction time from 1 to 15 min, a result comparable to that of the reference method could also be obtained for the extractant using MeCN/MeOH/H2O (1/1/2, v/v/v). As this extractant has been used in our recently published method (Trebstein et al. Mycotoxin Res 25:201, 2009), this work also presents an update on this method with respect to the extended extraction time. PMID:23436221

  12. Process for extracting hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon bearing ores

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.; Eakin, B.E.

    1986-02-18

    This patent describes a process for recovering hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore consisting of: reducing the size of the ore to less than about 5 mesh to form a reduced ore; combining the reduced ore with liquid to form ore pellets; treating the ore pellets to form extractable ore pellets; contacting a bed of the extractable pellets with extracting solvent in an extraction zone such that the relative velocity of the solvent to the extractable pellets is at least about one-half gallon per square foot per minute or more to thereby extract hydrocarbons from the extractable pellets and form spent pellets and a hydrocarbon rich solvent stream comprising extracting solvent and extracted hydrocarbons. The extracted hydrocarbons have an ash content of about less than 3 weight percent; and recovering extracting solvent from the spent pellets while retaining the spent pellets in pellet form without release of a significant amount of fines.

  13. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  14. Empirical Evaluation of Bone Extraction Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Timothy P.; Voegele, Kristyn; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2012-01-01

    The application of high-resolution analytical techniques to characterize ancient bone proteins requires clean, efficient extraction to obtain high quality data. Here, we evaluated many different protocols from the literature on ostrich cortical bone and moa cortical bone to evaluate their yield and relative purity using the identification of antibody-antigen complexes on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis. Moa bone provided an ancient comparison for the effectiveness of bone extraction protocols tested on ostrich bone. For the immunological part of this study, we focused on collagen I, osteocalcin, and hemoglobin because collagen and osteocalcin are the most abundant proteins in the mineralized extracellular matrix and hemoglobin is common in the vasculature. Most of these procedures demineralize the bone first, and then the remaining organics are chemically extracted. We found that the use of hydrochloric acid, rather than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, for demineralization resulted in the cleanest extractions because the acid was easily removed. In contrast, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in smearing upon electrophoretic separation, possibly indicating these samples were not as pure. The denaturing agents sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and guanidine HCl have been used extensively for the solubilization of proteins in non-biomineralized tissue, but only the latter has been used on bone. We show that all three denaturing agents are effective for extracting bone proteins. One additional method tested uses ammonium bicarbonate as a solubilizing buffer that is more appropriate for post-extraction analyses (e.g., proteomics) by removing the need for desalting. We found that both guanidine HCl and ammonium bicarbonate were effective for extracting many bone proteins, resulting in similar electrophoretic patterns. With the increasing use of proteomics, a new generation of scientists are now interested in the study of proteins from not only extant bone but also from ancient bone. PMID:22348088

  15. Antioxidant activity of fermented soybean extract.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chih-Chieh; Hsiao, Ching-Huang; Huang, Sin-Yi; Fu, Sheng-Hwa; Lai, Chih-Chia; Hong, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2004-09-01

    Free radicals are considered to be important causative factors in the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This relationship has led to interest in evaluating the antioxidant capacities of many dietary supplements. Fermented soybean extract is produced by symbiotic fermentation of organic soybean with 20 types of Lactobacillus and yeast. In vitro and in vivo models are used in this study to evaluate the antioxidant effect of fermented soybean extract. Several in vitro models are used to detect the antioxidant capacity of the fermented soybean extract, which is compared to vitamin C and Trolox. The results demonstrate that the fermented soybean extract has strong antioxidant activity against unsaturated fatty acid peroxidation compared to vitamin C and Trolox. By the means of the test system developed by Y. Toshiki et al., it is shown that the fermented soybean extract can function both as an antioxidant and as a free radical acceptor that can convert free radicals into harmless substances through an energy-decreasing procedure. An in vivo study examines the effects of fermented soybean extract on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes (AOE) including total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are measured in liver, kidney, and brain from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The activities of CAT, SOD, and GPX are increased in the liver. However, the SOD activity is decreased in the kidney. SOD and GPX activities are decreased in the brain. These results lead to the conclusion that fermented soybean extract not only has antioxidant activity but also has an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver. PMID:15373417

  16. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, ?-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  17. Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Conway, Joan M; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Dobre, Mirela

    2006-12-01

    The sale of nonprescription weight-loss products accounts for millions of dollars spent by Americans trying to lose weight, yet there is little evidence for effectiveness and there are multiple safety concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine what products, and ingredients within products, were available at retail outlets in a metropolitan area. A purposive sampling strategy identified 73 retail outlets. An audit form was used to collect information from product labels. The audit identified 402 products containing 4,053 separate ingredients. The mean number of ingredients per product was 9.9+/-8.96 (range = 1 to 96). A database search was conducted regarding evidence for effectiveness, safety precautions, and side effects for the 10 ingredients that appeared most often across products. Modest evidence of effectiveness exists for green tea (Camellia sinensis), chromium picolinate, and ma huang (Ephedra major). For the remaining seven (ginger root [Zingiber officinale], guarana [Paullinia cupana], hydroxycitric acid [Garcinia cambogia], white willow [Salix alba], Siberian ginseng [Eleutherococcus senticosus], cayenne [Capsicum annuum], and bitter orange/zhi shi [Citrus aurantium]), inadequate or negative evidence exists. Although precautions and contraindications were found for all 10 ingredients, the strongest concerns in the literature appear for ma huang, bitter orange, and guarana. Our audit revealed numerous weight-loss products available to consumers, yet there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of the top 10 ingredients identified and many potential adverse reactions; therefore, food and nutrition professionals should discuss dietary supplement use with their clients. PMID:17126636

  18. [Contrastive study on dynamic spectrum extraction method].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui-quan; Xiong, Chan; Lin, Ling

    2012-05-01

    Dynamic spectrum method extracts the absorbance of the artery pulse blood with some wavelengths. The method can reduce some influence such as measurement condition, individual difference and spectrum overlap. It is a new way for noninvasive blood components detection However, how to choose a dynamic spectrum extraction method is one of the key links for the weak ingredient spectrum signal. Now there are two methods to extract the dynamic spectral signal-frequency domain analysis and single-trial estimation in time domain In the present research, comparison analysis and research on the two methods were carrued out completely. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the two methods extract the dynamic spectrum from different angles. But they are the same in essence--the basic principle of dynamic spectrum, the signal statistical and average properties. With the pulse wave of relative stable period and amplitude, high precision dynamic spectrum can be obtained by the two methods. With the unstable pulse wave due to the influence of finger shake and contact-pressure change, the dynamic spectrum extracted by single-trial estimation is more accurate than the one by frequecy domain analysis. PMID:22827082

  19. Reexamination of Pure Qubit Work Extraction

    E-print Network

    Max F. Frenzel; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph

    2014-11-19

    Many work extraction or information erasure processes in the literature involve the raising and lowering of energy levels via external fields. But even if the actual system is treated quantum mechanically, the field is assumed to be classical and of infinite strength, hence not developing any correlations with the system or experiencing back-actions. We extend these considerations to a fully quantum mechanical treatment, by studying a spin-1/2 particle coupled to a finite-sized directional quantum reference frame, a spin-l system, which models an external field. With this concrete model together with a bosonic thermal bath, we analyse the back-action a finite-size field suffers during a quantum-mechanical work extraction process, the effect this has on the extractable work, and highlight a range of assumptions commonly made when considering such processes. The well-known semi-classical treatment of work extraction from a pure qubit predicts a maximum extractable work W = kT log 2 for a quasi-static process, which holds as a strict upper bound in the fully quantum mechanical case, and is only attained in the classical limit. We also address the problem of emergent local time-dependence in a joint system with globally fixed Hamiltonian.

  20. Vasoprotective activity of standardized Achillea millefolium extract.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Bolego, Chiara; Cignarella, Andrea; Gaion, Rosa Maria; Innocenti, Gabbriella

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the effects of Achillea millefolium extract in vitro on the growth of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the potential involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) in this process. In addition, the ability of A. millefolium extract to modulate the NF-?B pathway was tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The fingerprinting of the extract was carried out by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS(n) and main constituents were flavonoids (10%) and dicaffeolylquinic acid derivatives (12%). The extract enhanced VSMC growth at least in part by acting through ERs and impaired NF-?B signaling in HUVECs. The various compounds may act with different mode of actions thus contributing to the final effect of the extract. Our findings support some of the traditional uses of A. millefolium, and suggest potential modes of action as related to its effects on vascular inflammation. Therefore, A. millefolium may induce novel potential actions in the cardiovascular system. PMID:21684130

  1. Fern spore extracts can damage DNA.

    PubMed

    Simán, S E; Povey, A C; Ward, T H; Margison, G P; Sheffield, E

    2000-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of the vegetative tissues of bracken fern (Pteridium) has long been established. More recently, the carcinogenic effects of the spores of bracken have also been recognized. Both vegetative tissues and spores of bracken can induce adducts in DNA in animal tissues, but the possible genotoxic or carcinogenic effects of spores from fern species other than bracken are unknown. The single-cell gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay was used to investigate whether fern spores can cause DNA damage in vitro. Extracts of spores from six fern species were administered to cultured human premyeloid leukaemia (K562) cells. Spore extracts of five fern species: Anemia phyllitidis, Dicksonia antarctica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pteris vittata and Sadleria pallida, induced significantly more DNA strand breaks than those in the control groups. Only in one species, Osmunda regalis, was the effect no different from that in the control groups. Using extracts from A. phyllitidis and P. vittata, the extent of DNA damage was increased by increasing the original dose 10 times, whereas an experiment in which exposure times were varied suggested that the highest levels of strand breaks appear after 2 h exposure. Simultaneous incubation with human S9 liver enzyme mix ablated the damaging effect of the extracts. Our data show that fern spore extracts can cause DNA damage in human cells in vitro. Considering the strong correlation between DNA damage and carcinogenic events, the observations made in this report may well have some implications for human health. PMID:10883670

  2. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4?mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515?nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. PMID:22294387

  3. Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogen extracts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Chang, Yen-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Adaptogens are harmless herbs which have pharmaceutical benefits due to their balancing, regulative and tonic functions. However, despite these medicinal effects, the antioxidant potential of adaptogens is rarely mentioned. This study investigated the antioxidant potential of 3 adaptogen extracts, Rhodiola rosea (golden root), Eleutherococcus senticosis (Siberian ginseng) and Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry, Amla). The results of this study showed that R. rosea had the highest potential for singlet oxygen scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing, ferrous chelating and protein thiol protection than either of the other 2 extracts. E. senticosis, on the other hand, showed the best potential for hypochlorite scavenging. In addition, the polyphenol content in the 3 adaptogen extracts followed the order: R. rosea, E. officinalis and E. senticosis. Our data suggest that the antioxidant potential of the 3 adaptogen extracts was proportional to their respective polyphenol content. The supplementation of adaptogen extracts containing high levels of polyphenols may not only have adaptogen properties, but may decrease the risk of complications induced by oxidative stress. PMID:19051347

  4. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic comparisons of multi-ingredients after oral administration of radix salviae miltiorrhizae extract, hawthorn extract, and a combination of both extracts to rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Qiang; Cai, Qian; Liu, Chang; Bao, Feng-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma. This method validated was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the main active ingredients after oral administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract (SME), hawthorn extract (HTE), and a combination of both extracts (2.5?:?1) to rats. The results indicated that there have been great differences in pharmacokinetics between a single extract and a combination of both extracts. A combination of both extracts can enhance their bioavailabilities and delay the elimination of SAB and DSS in rats. PMID:24660090

  5. Simultaneous Determination and Pharmacokinetic Comparisons of Multi-Ingredients after Oral Administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Extract, Hawthorn Extract, and a Combination of Both Extracts to Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Qiang; Cai, Qian; Liu, Chang; Bao, Feng-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), rosmarinic acid (RA), lithospermic acid (LA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and hyperoside (HP) in rat plasma. This method validated was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the main active ingredients after oral administration of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract (SME), hawthorn extract (HTE), and a combination of both extracts (2.5?:?1) to rats. The results indicated that there have been great differences in pharmacokinetics between a single extract and a combination of both extracts. A combination of both extracts can enhance their bioavailabilities and delay the elimination of SAB and DSS in rats. PMID:24660090

  6. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

  7. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 905.702 ? Section 905.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  8. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 941.702 ? Section 941.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  9. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 921.702 ? Section 921.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  10. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 937.702 ? Section 937.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  11. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 912.702 ? Section 912.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  12. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 922.702 ? Section 922.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  13. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 947.702 ? Section 947.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  14. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 942.702 ? Section 942.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  15. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 903.702 ? Section 903.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  16. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 ? Mineral Resources ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. ? 939.702 ? Section 939.702 ? Mineral Resources ? OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? PROGRAMS FOR THE...

  17. Extraction of rare earth metals with a multistage mixer-settler extraction column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuroku Takahashi; Ahmed Abdel-Sattar Abdel-Tawab; Susumu Nii; Toshihiro Yajima; Fumio Kawaizumi

    2002-01-01

    Extraction behavior of rare earth metals within a mixer–settler extraction column has been analyzed with the stage efficiency calculated from mass transfer coefficients and interfacial area. The mass transfer coefficient within the dispersed drops is determined from a rigid sphere model by taking into account the residence time distribution of drops, and the coefficient around the drops is calculated by

  18. Efficient extraction of vaccines formulated in aluminum hydroxide gel by including surfactants in the extraction buffer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daming; Huang, Shuhui; McClellan, Holly; Dai, Weili; Syed, Najam R; Gebregeorgis, Elizabeth; Rausch, Kelly M; Mullen, Gregory E D; Long, Carole; Martin, Laura B; Narum, David; Duffy, Patrick; Miller, Louis H; Saul, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Efficient antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on aluminum hydroxide gels is a critical step for the evaluation of the quality of vaccines following formulation. It has been shown in our laboratory that the efficiency of antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on Alhydrogel decreased significantly with increased storage time. To increase antigen extraction efficiency, the present study determined the effect of surfactants on antigen recovery from vaccine formulations. The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated on Alhydrogel and stored at 2-8°C for 3 years was used as a model in this study. The AMA1 on Alhydrogel was extracted in the presence or absence of 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 20mM cetylpyridinium chloride in the extraction buffer (0.60 M citrate, 0.55 M phosphate, pH 8.5) using our standard antigen extraction protocols. Extracted AMA1 antigen was analyzed by 4-20% Tris-glycine SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining or western blotting. The results showed that inclusion of SDS or cetylpyridinium chloride in extraction buffer increased the antigen recovery dramatically and can be used for efficient characterization of Alhydrogel vaccines. PMID:22107848

  19. Extraction and separation of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with chitosan as extractant.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Qin, Yukun; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution?:?sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4?mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30?:?1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6?h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan. PMID:24350250

  20. Extraction and Separation of Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with Chitosan as Extractant

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Qin, Yukun; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the separation ability of NaCl was slightly higher than that of KCl. Moreover, the price of NaCl is lower than that of KCl. Given the quality-price rate, NaCl solution was chosen as the separation solution. Thirdly, the concentration and ratio of NaCl solution?:?sediment influence the separation of fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The results showed that the optimal separation conditions include 4?mol/L NaCl solution with the ratio of NaCl solution to sediment at 30?:?1. Fucoidan content was found to be affected by different separation time. Fucoidan content increased with the increase of separation time, and the optimal separation time was 6?h. Compared with traditional alkali extraction method, this method not only reduces the usage of alkali and acid and alleviate environment pollution, but also has the comparable extraction yield of fucoidan. It is a potential method for extraction of fucoidan. PMID:24350250