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Sample records for garcinia cambogia extract

  1. Acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis in a patient taking Garcinia cambogia extract successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott F; Godley, Robert W; Evron, Joshua M; Heider, Amer; Nicklas, John M; Thomas, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    A previously healthy 48-year-old woman was evaluated for lightheadedness and chest heaviness 2 weeks after starting the herbal supplement Garcinia cambogia. She was found to be hypotensive and had an elevated serum troponin level. The patient had a progressive clinical decline, ultimately experiencing fulminant heart failure and sustained ventricular arrhythmias, which required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Endomyocardial biopsy results were consistent with acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis (ANEM). High-dose corticosteroids were initiated promptly and her condition rapidly improved, with almost complete cardiac recovery 1 week later. In conclusion, we have described a case of ANEM associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia extract. PMID:25475477

  2. A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as

  3. Evaluation of the satiating properties of a nutraceutical product containing Garcinia cambogia and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Marcos A; Finlayson, Graham; Fischman, Daniela; de Paz, Carolina; Telleriarte, Martín R; Ferrero, Alejandro J; Bobillo, Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario E

    2014-04-01

    A nutraceutical product composed of a combination of Garcinia cambogia, l-carnitine and a seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum has been recently developed. The aim of the present study was to characterize its effects on subjective satiety sensations and food preferences in healthy volunteers. In a crossover design, 28 subjects (21 females and 7 males, aged 31 ± 5, BMI 22.6 ± 1.7) were randomly assigned to receive the active treatment (LIS) or placebo (PL) over one week. At the end of each treatment period, subjects were instructed to consume ad libitum a test meal. Food preferences and appetite sensations were evaluated by means of the Leeds Food Preferences Questionnaire and visual analog scales, before and after meal, over three hours. There were no differences in energy intake between study groups. LIS was associated with a reduction in subjective hunger sensations (p = 0.018) and to an increase in satiety (p = 0.02) and fullness (p = 0.01) ratings. The preference for high fat foods was reduced after consuming the test meal in both study groups. There was a significant effect of LIS treatment on food explicit liking and implicit wanting, as evidenced by an increase in preference for sweet foods (relative to savory foods; p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively), but no differences were observed regarding the preference for low or high fat foods (NS). These results provide proof of principle for the satiating properties of a nutraceutical containing Garcinia cambogia, Ascophyllum nodosum extract and l-carnitine and suggest that it might be useful as an appetite modulator. PMID:24563084

  4. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Schneider, Ricardo; Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Falavigna, Andressa; Piazza, Ivone; Rossetto, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n = 30) and control (n = 13) groups, received 2.4 g (800 mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p = 0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p = 0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia. PMID:24133059

  5. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 ± 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 ± 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (−12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as “tired eyes,” “blurry eyes,” “muscle pain/stiffness,” “early satiety,” “epigastralgia,” “dizziness,” “arthralgia” and “easily breaking into a sweat.” The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for “dizziness.” On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy. PMID:18385825

  6. Acute liver failure associated with Garcinia cambogia use.

    PubMed

    Corey, Rebecca; Werner, K Tuesday; Singer, Andrew; Moss, Adyr; Smith, Maxwell; Noelting, Jessica; Rakela, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Millions of Americans regularly use herbal supplements, but many are unaware of the potential hidden dangers. Numerous supplements have been associated with hepatotoxicity and, indeed dietary/herbal supplements represent an increasingly common source of acute liver injury. We report a case of acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia, a supplement widely promoted for weight loss. When patients present with acute hepatitis or liver failure from an unknown etiology, a careful history of supplement use should be performed. PMID:26626648

  7. Evaluation and Characterization of Malabar Tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Choppa, Tharachand; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel; Zachariah, Abraham

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical compounds present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Malabar tamarind fruits collected from NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur. The seeds yielded 46.5 % of oil. Parameters such as the peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, and acid value of the extracted Malabar tamarind seed oil were determined. These values were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters present in the oil. UV absorption spectroscopy of the oil showed hypsochromic shift, and the maximum absorbance was at 269 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum revealed the presence of olefin hydrogen and carbonyl group of ester compounds in the oil sample. The evaluation of the chemical compounds in the oil using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that, a total of five fatty acid methyl esters were present in the oil sample. Among the five fatty acid esters present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil, Methyl 16-methyl heptadecanoate (54.57 %) was found to be the predominant compound. This study also supports the presence of olefins in the long chain fatty acids from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. There is a significant correlation between the properties and the characteristic profile of the oil sample. This study is the first report that shows Malabar tamarind as a promising source of oil seeds. PMID:26345007

  8. Antioxidant and antiplatlet aggregation properties of bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anushi; Joseph, G S; Singh, R P

    2014-08-01

    The bark extracts of Garcinia pedunculata and Garcinia cowa, which are abundant in the Northeastern regions of India, were screened for their antioxidant and in vitro antiplatelet aggregating activities. By β-carotene linoleate model for antioxidant assay, acetone extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extracts of G. cowa exhibited higher antioxidant activity (86.47 and 66.94 % respectively, at 25 ppm) than other extracts. Similar pattern was observed for superoxide radical scavenging method for antioxidant assay. The ethyl acetate extract of G. pedunculata and hexane extract of G. cowa exhibited higher antiplatelet aggregation capacity towards ADP induced platelet aggregation (IC50 0.16 and 0.43 ug, respectively) than other extracts. PMID:25114359

  9. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  10. In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Garcinia hombroniana aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S K; Rasedee, A; Mohd Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2015-06-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G. hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p < 0.05), compared to the untreated control group. The possible mode of antitrypanosomal effect of the plant extract was also investigated on cultured T. evansi in HMI-9 medium with the addition of 25 µg/ml G. hombroniana aqueous extract. It was observed that the addition of G. hombroniana extract resulted in the inhibition of trypanosomal kinetoplast division, with no significant inhibitory effect on nuclear division. It is concluded from the current study that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has a potential antitrypanosomal activity through the inhibition of kinetoplast division, as one of the possible mechanisms of its antitrypanosomal effect. This plant could serve as a possible source of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:25818171

  11. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  12. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% α-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of α-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. PMID:23680732

  13. Comparison of the skin penetration of Garcinia mangostana extract in particulate and non-particulate form.

    PubMed

    Tachaprutinun, Amornset; Meinke, Martina C; Richter, Heike; Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to solve the water insolubility limitation of the medically and cosmetically interesting substance Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML) extract by encapsulation, and to evaluate and investigate the penetration efficacy of free and encapsulated GML in two different vehicles (water and cream) in porcine ear skin. The follicular penetration depth was determined in 50 hair follicles for each of the four formulations by means of fluorescence microscopy. Tape stripping was used to compare the distribution properties of GML with all formulations on the stratum corneum. The results showed that encapsulated and free GML in the cream base penetrated deeper into hair follicles than if applied in an aqueous base. In addition, encapsulated GML could be distributed more homogeneously on the stratum corneum than the free GML. In conclusion, it was found that encapsulated GML in a cream base had the most effective penetration level in porcine ear skin. PMID:24321393

  14. Antimicrobial activity of benzophenones and extracts from the fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Naldoni, F J; Claudino, A L R; Cruz, J W; Chavasco, J K; Faria e Silva, P M; Veloso, M P; Dos Santos, M H

    2009-04-01

    The pericarp and seeds from fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis were subjected to extraction with hexane and ethanol. The pericarp hexane extract (PHE) and seed ethanol extract (SEE) were purified by silica gel column chromatography, which permitted isolation of the prenylated benzophenones 7-epiclusianone (1) and guttiferone-A (2), respectively. The antimicrobial activity of PHE, SEE, and compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus cultures. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were established. The substances presented activity against S. aureus and B. cereus as follows: PHE, 4.0 microg/mL and 2.4 microg/mL; SEE, 10.0 microg/mL and 12.6 microg/mL; 7-epiclusianone, 1.2 microg/mL and 0.6 microg/mL; and guttiferone-A, 2.4 microg/mL and 2.4 microg/mL, respectively. The direct relationship between the lipophilic character of the structure and activity in Gram-positive bacteria was specifically observed. Therefore these extracts and prenylated benzophenones represent an interesting topic for further studies and open possibilities for an alternative control of diseases associated with Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:19459744

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Biochemical Evaluations of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Garcinia kola.

    PubMed

    Badmus, Jelili A; Adedosu, Olaniyi T; Adeleke, Emmanuel G; Akinboro, Kehinde H; Odeyemi, Bayonle I; Ayoola, Bolanle I; Hiss, Donavon C

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) leaves have received limited scientific attention despite their traditionally acclaimed medicinal properties. The scavenging ability of the methanolic leaf extract (MLE) of G. kola was assayed for hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), superoxide anion (O2 (-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(•+)), and lipid peroxidation (LP) activity in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were also evaluated. Group I animals were given oral doses of water, whereas Group II and Group III animals received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) MLE, respectively, for 14 days. Plasma glucose, magnesium, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT/γGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), LP, and liver histopathological appearance were also assessed. The extract scavenged OH(•), O2 (-), DPPH, and ABTS(•+) and inhibited LP in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Furthermore, oral administration of the extract showed no adverse effects on hepatic and renal function tests. Increased hepatic GSH and nonsignificant changes in LP, GPx and SOD activities, and liver histology were observed. These results suggest that G. kola leaves have antioxidant activities which may have application in traditional medicine. PMID:27355075

  16. In vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sônia Aparecida; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; da Silva, Claudinei Alves; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2014-02-01

    The damaging effects of sunlight to the skin has triggered studies that involve the synthesis and extraction of organic compounds from natural sources that can absorb UV radiation, and studies on polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used as photochemopreventive agents for reducing skin damage. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract (GbEE). We evaluated the cell viability of L929 fibroblasts after UVB exposure using a quartz plate containing the extract solution or the GbEE formulation. The in vivo photoprotective effect of the GbEE formulation was evaluated by measuring the UVB damage-induced decrease in endogenous reduced glutathione (GSH), the increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The in vitro methodology using fibroblasts showed that the photoprotective properties of the GbEE solutions and 10% GbEE formulation were similar to the commercial sunscreen (SPF-15). In vivo results demonstrated of the GbEE formulation in decreasing UVB induced-damage such as GSH depletion, an increased in MPO activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The results showed that the extract has great potential for use as a sunscreen in topical formulations in addition to UV filters. PMID:24491421

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Biochemical Evaluations of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Garcinia kola

    PubMed Central

    Badmus, Jelili A.; Adedosu, Olaniyi T.; Adeleke, Emmanuel G.; Akinboro, Kehinde H.; Odeyemi, Bayonle I.; Ayoola, Bolanle I.; Hiss, Donavon C.

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) leaves have received limited scientific attention despite their traditionally acclaimed medicinal properties. The scavenging ability of the methanolic leaf extract (MLE) of G. kola was assayed for hydroxyl radical (OH•), superoxide anion (O2−), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+), and lipid peroxidation (LP) activity in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were also evaluated. Group I animals were given oral doses of water, whereas Group II and Group III animals received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) MLE, respectively, for 14 days. Plasma glucose, magnesium, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT/γGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), LP, and liver histopathological appearance were also assessed. The extract scavenged OH•, O2−, DPPH, and ABTS•+ and inhibited LP in egg yolk, rat liver, and brain homogenates. Furthermore, oral administration of the extract showed no adverse effects on hepatic and renal function tests. Increased hepatic GSH and nonsignificant changes in LP, GPx and SOD activities, and liver histology were observed. These results suggest that G. kola leaves have antioxidant activities which may have application in traditional medicine.

  18. Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Alfiah; Agustin, Melia Eka; Rokhimaningrum, Farida Ayu; Adro'i, Hasan; Darmanto, Win

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract on spermatogenics number, seminiferous tubules sized, profile protein of epididymal and testicular sperm, and fertility of mice (Mus musculus). Fourty two male mice strain BALB/C was divided equally into 7 groups. The control group was given 0.05 ml of 0.05% CMC solution. Three group were given mangosteen pericarp extract at various doses (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 7 days, while the other three groups were given the same extract dose for 35 days. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. The results showed that mangosteen pericarp extract at 75 and 100 mg/kg dose for 7 days had no effect on spermatogenics number and seminiferous tubule sizes, but the treatment dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days and all treatment (doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 35 days led to significant decrease on the number of spermatogenics and seminiferous tubule sizes; effect on protein profiles testicular and epididymal sperm; and lower fertilization.

  19. The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Sunday A; Ofusori, David A; Ojo, Gideon B; Ayoka, Oladele A; Abayomi, Taiwo A; Tijani, Adekilekun A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice. PMID:23569771

  20. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  1. Antiproliferative activities of Garcinia bracteata extract and its active ingredient, isobractatin, against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhong, Qing-Qing; Wang, Shu-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Ren, Dong-Mei; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    In our cell based screening of antitumor ingredients from plants, the EtOH extract of Garcinia bracteata displayed antiproliferative effect against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Phytochemical investigation of this active extract produced nine ingredients, and their structures were established by analysis of MS and NMR spectra. Antiproliferative evaluation of isolated ingredients on A549, MCF-7 and PC3 cells indicated that a xanthone named isobractatin (1) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against the above three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 2.90 to 4.15 μM. Treatment of PC3 cells with 1 led to an enhancement of the cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase cycle-related proteins analysis showed that the expressions of cyclins D1 and E were reduced by 1, whereas the protein level of cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor P21 was induced. Additionally, 1 enhanced PC3 cell apoptosis by activations of Bax, caspases 3 and 9, and by inhibition of Bcl-2. Our combined data illustrated that isobractatin (1) was the antiproliferative ingredient of G. bracteata against three human cancer cell lines, which exerted its antiproliferatrive effect via cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. PMID:23812779

  2. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A. P.; Brendel, Martin; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  3. Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Hanes, Justin; Kim, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn extract (GME) is a natural product that has received considerable attention in cancer therapy, and has the potential to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutics and improve efficacy. We formulated GME-encapsulated ethyl cellulose (GME-EC) and a polymer blend of ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose (GME-EC/MC) nanoparticles. We achieved high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency using a solvent-displacement method with particle sizes around 250 nm. Cellular uptake and accumulation of GME was higher for GME-encapsulated nanoparticles compared to free GME. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis showed effective anticancer activity of GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. GME-EC/MC nanoparticles showed approximately twofold-higher anticancer activity compared to GME-EC nanoparticles, likely due to their enhanced bioavailability. GME-encapsulated nanoparticles primarily entered HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficked through the endolysosomal pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanism of drug-loaded cellulose-based nanoparticles. In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles - GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles - successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity. PMID:25125977

  4. In vivo evaluation of interaction between aqueous seed extract of Garcinia kola Heckel and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Esimone, Charles O; Nwafor, Sunday V; Okoli, Charles O; Chah, Kennedy F; Uzuegbu, David B; Chibundu, Chinedu; Eche, Mike A; Adikwu, Micheal U

    2002-01-01

    The effect of Garcinia kola seed extract (100 mg/kg) on the pharmacokinetic and antibacterial effects of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (40 mg/kg) was studied. The results (mean +/- SEM) indicated that concurrent administration of both agents significantly (P < 0.05) decreased average serum concentration, peak serum concentration, and elimination rate of ciprofloxacin HCl, whereas the half-life and clearance rate were increased. The decrease in clearance rate was not significant. There was no difference in time to peak plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl in both groups (n = 5), which occurred at 1 hour. However, the peak plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl was 46.90 +/- 9.50 microg/mL in the group that received ciprofloxacin HCl alone as against 35.80 +/- 9.30 microg/mL noted in the group that received both agents (difference of 22.24%). At 2.5 hours and longer, the values were higher in the group that received both agents, but these were not statistically significant. The reciprocal serum inhibitory titer (SIT) was 33.33 and 50.00% higher in group that received ciprofloxacin HCl alone at 1 and 2.5 hours, respectively; the highest value for both groups being at 1 hour. In contrast, at 4 hours, the value of reciprocal SIT was 66.67% higher in the group that received both agents and at 24 hours, the value was zero for both groups. The observed pharmacokinetic and antibacterial interactions at various time interval indicate biphasic interaction. The interaction was antagonistic at 1 and 2.5 hours, but exhibited potentiation at 4 hours. The precise mechanism underlying the observed biphasic interaction is not fully understood. PMID:12115015

  5. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., α-mangostin, β-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) μg/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) μg/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) μg/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) μg/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) μg/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  6. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

  7. Isogarcinol Extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. Ameliorates Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-like Disease in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Hu; Zhang, Mu; Zhong, Youxiu; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wu, Hezhen; Yang, Yanfang; Wei, Qun

    2015-09-30

    Isogarcinol is a new immunosuppressant that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. In the present study, we elucidate its beneficial effect in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in mice -- a model for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in human. The oral administration of 60 mg/kg isogarcinol significantly reduced proteinuria, corrected the abnormal serum biochemical indicator, and decreased the amount of serum antibodies and lowered the renal histopathology score. In addition, isogarcinol alleviated the abnormal activation of CD4 T cells and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes and cytokines in the kidneys and peritoneal macrophages. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with downregulation of CD4 T cells and inflammatory effects. Therefore, we believe that isogarcinol may be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for future treatment of SLE. PMID:26330173

  8. Immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. against collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanxia; Zhou, Hailing; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wei, Qun

    2014-05-01

    Isogarcinol is a natural compound that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., and we were the first to report that it is a new immunosuppressant. In the present study, we investigated the immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explored its potential mechanism in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The oral administration of isogarcinol significantly reduced clinical scores, alleviated cartilage and bone erosion, and reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in CIA mice. Isogarcinol inhibited xylene-induced mouse ear edema in vivo. In vitro, isogarcinol decreased iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression and NO content by inhibiting NF-κB expression. Furthermore, isogarcinol decreased the activity of NFAT and inhibited IL-2 expression. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with down-regulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory reactions. PMID:24738849

  9. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  10. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  11. Anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Garcinia mangostana extract in hamster opisthorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Sriraj, Pranee; Songsri, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Boonyarat, Chantana; Rattanasuwan, Panaratana; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip

    2015-07-01

    Administration of praziquantel for treatment of liver fluke infection may affect the host, with mild and severe effects after treatment caused by host immune response. Therefore, we focused on the antioxidant property, inflammatory and anthelmintic effects of the traditional folk medicine, G. mangostana pericarp extract, in hamster opisthorchiasis. Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups: normal (control) (N); administered G. mangostana alone (GM); infected with Opisthorchis viverrini alone (OV); and infected with O. viverrini and administered G. mangostana extract for 1.5 months (OVGM). Hamster livers were collected 45 days after infection to determine histopathological changes, i.e. aggregation of inflammatory cells. The morphology of adult O. viverrini (body size and sizes of reproductive organs) was analyzed, as well as worm burden, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces. Toxicity was tested by kidney function (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine); the results demonstrated that G. mangostana had no renal toxic effect. ABTS radical-scavenging assay indicated that the extract had antioxidant property. Reduction in aggregation of inflammatory cells surrounding the hepatic bile duct, especially at the hilar region, was found in the OVGM group. Worm burden was similar in both infected groups (treated or untreated with G. mangostana), but the average size of adults in the OV group was larger than in the OVGM group; moreover, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces were also comparatively higher. The present study suggests that G. mangostana extract possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and can interfere with parasite development by affecting adult size and egg production. This may be useful for controlling the spread of OV infection and other parasites in endemic areas. PMID:25836376

  12. Antioxidant properties of xanthones extracted from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen): A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Nguyen Minh; Quang, Duong Tuan; Bui, Ngoc Hoa Thi; Dao, Duy Quang; Nam, Pham Cam

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical study on antioxidant properties of fourteen xanthones extracted from the pericarp of G. Mangostana has been performed. Three main reaction mechanisms are investigated: hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single electron transfer-proton transfer (SETPT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET). The Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization energy (IE), proton affinity (PA) and electron transfer energy (ETE) parameters were computed in gas phase and water. The results show that HAT would be the most favorable mechanism for explaining antioxidant activity of xanthones in gas phase, whereas the SPLET mechanism is thermodynamically favored in water.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions from aerial parts of selected plants (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against some pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Melim, Carla; Guimarães, Karoliny; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Alves, Aurea Damaceno; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruza, Alexandre Bella; Niero, Rivaldo

    2013-11-01

    As part of the program of our research group to search for new and effective substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of four species from the Brazilian flora (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium) and Candida albicans (yeast). The extracts of R. niveus and M. velame showed promising antibacterial activity with MICs, ranging from 1000 to 125 microg/mL. Bio-guided fractionation of M. velame yielded four compounds, with the highest inhibition being observed for compound 3, with a MIC of 125 microg/mL against S. aureus. The combinations of fractions 2 and 4 showed beneficial effect against Gram-positive bacteria (additive effect), suggesting a possible synergistic effect. PMID:24427943

  14. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  15. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  16. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kaksha J; Panchasara, Ashwin K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Vadgama, Vishal K; Tripathi, C B

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  17. α-Mangostin Extraction from the Native Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and the Binding Mechanisms of α-Mangostin to HSA or TRF.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lu, Xiaowang; Wang, Hongzheng; Brodelius, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain the biological active compound, α-mangostin, from the traditional native mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), an extraction method for industrial application was explored. A high yield of α-mangostin (5.2%) was obtained by extraction from dried mangosteen pericarps with subsequent purification on macroporous resin HPD-400. The chemical structure of α-mangostin was verified mass spectrometry (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The purity of the obtained α-mangostin was 95.6% as determined by HPLC analysis. The binding of native α-mangostin to human serum albumin (HSA) or transferrin (TRF) was explored by combining spectral experiments with molecular modeling. The results showed that α-mangostin binds to HSA or TRF as static complexes but the binding affinities were different in different systems. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and absorbance spectra. The association constant of HSA or TRF binding to α-mangostin is 6.4832×105 L/mol and 1.4652×105 L/mol at 298 K and 7.8619×105 L/mol and 1.1582×105 L/mol at 310 K, respectively. The binding distance, the energy transfer efficiency between α-mangostin and HSA or TRF were also obtained by virtue of the Förster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. The effect of α-mangostin on the HSA or TRF conformation was analyzed by synchronous spectrometry and fluorescence polarization studies. Molecular docking results reveal that the main interaction between α-mangostin and HSA is hydrophobic interactions, while the main interaction between α-mangostin and TRF is hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals forces. These results are consistent with spectral results. PMID:27584012

  18. Four new cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhong-Yan; Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Qiao, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Chao; Shen, Guo-Rong; Cai, Mei-Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the twigs of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of four new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones C-F (1-4), and ten known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. PMID:25727735

  19. Pharmacokinetic characterization of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit extract standardized to α-mangostin in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Li, Gongbo; Ramaiya, Atulkumar; Kumar, Anoop; Gill, Ravinder K; Saksena, Seema; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we have reported the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of α-mangostin in mice. For this study, we evaluated the PK profile of α-mangostin using a standardized mangosteen extract in C57BL/6 mice. The primary objective was to determine the PK properties of α-mangostin when administered as an extract. This experiment was designed to test our primary hypothesis that α-mangostin in an extract should achieve a desirable PK profile. This is especially relevant as dietary supplements of mangosteen fruit are regularly standardized to α-mangostin. Mice received 100 mg/kg of mangosteen fruit extract orally, equivalent to 36 mg/kg of α-mangostin, and plasma samples were analyzed over a 24-hour period. Concentrations of α-mangostin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, we evaluated the stability in the presence of phase I and phase II enzymes in liver and gastrointestinal microsomes. Furthermore, we identified evidence of phase II metabolism of α-mangostin. Further research will be required to determine if less abundant xanthones present in the mangosteen may modulate the PK parameters of α-mangostin. PMID:24774070

  20. Xanthones with antimalarial activity from Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Likhitwitayawuid, K; Chanmahasathien, W; Ruangrungsi, N; Krungkrai, J

    1998-04-01

    Chromatographic separation of the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia dulcis (Guttiferae) furnished five xanthones, viz 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 12b-hydroxy-des-D-garcigerrin A (2), 1-O-methylsymphoxanthone (3), symphoxanthone (4), and garciniaxanthone (5). These xanthones 1-5 showed inhibitory effects on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.96-3.88 micrograms/ml. In addition, revised 13C-NMR assignments of 3 and complete 13C-NMR assignments of 4 were obtained through analysis of their COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC spectra. PMID:9581528

  1. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  2. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  3. A new bixanthone derivative from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixiu; Jiang, Yuyang; Li, Jiong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    A new bixanthone derivative, garciobioxanthone (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia, together with 11 known compounds. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR and other spectroscopic analysis. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the references. PMID:24079308

  4. Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid

    PubMed Central

    Farombi, Ebenezer O.; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

  5. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of benzophenones and xanthones from edible fruits of Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Lyles, James T; Negrin, Adam; Khan, Shabana I; He, Kan; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones α-mangostin (15), β-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40 µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24 µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds. PMID:24963617

  6. Potent Schistosomicidal Constituents from Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Aline Pereira; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Pereira, Neusa Araújo; Anchieta, Naira Ferreira; Silva, Matheus Siqueira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira; Silva, Claudinei Alves; Barros, Giulliano Vilela; Souza, Raquel Lopes Martins; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Marques, Marcos José

    2015-06-01

    Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However, several strains of Schistosoma mansoni are resistant to praziquantel, making it necessary to discover new drugs that might be used for its treatment. With this in mind, the properties of a schistosomicidal ethanolic extract of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, the fractions obtained by partitioning this extract, including the hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fraction, and the aqueous fraction, and the isolated compounds 7-epiclusianone, a major component from these fractions, and fukugetin were tested in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Mortality, damage to membranes, and excretory system activity were observed at 100.0, 50.0, 75.0, and 14.0 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract of G. brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, its hexane fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction, and 7-epiclusianone, respectively. For 7-epiclusianone, these data were confirmed by fluorescent probe Hoechst 33 258 and resorufin. Additionally, the biocidal effect of 7-epiclusianone was even higher than the hexane fractions. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 7-epiclusianone on the egg laying of female adult S. mansoni worms was observed in cercariae and schistossomula. Thus, 7-epiclusianone is a promising schistosomicidal compound; however, more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the in vivo activity of this compound. PMID:25905590

  7. Study on Antibacterial Activity of the Bark of Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Nilutpal Sharma; Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Gogoi, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. is an important and endemic medicinal plant of Assam which has been used by various ethnic communities of Northeast India to treat various disorders like dysentery, dyspepsia, and biliousness. The plant is considered to be containing much medicinal value and is also eaten raw or made into pickles by the local people. Our present study has been focused on the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the bark of Garcinia lanceifolia which may lead us to a scientific evidence of the use of this plant in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. PMID:27437444

  8. Xanthones from Garcinia propinqua Roots.

    PubMed

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Machana, Theeraphan; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Garcinia propinqua roots led to the isolation and identification of a new xanthone, doitunggarcinone D (1), together with 15 known compounds (2-16). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 3, 6, 7, 14, 15 and 16 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with MIC values in the range of 1-4 µg/mL. Compounds 3, 7, 10 and 14 also showed good antibacterial activity against B. cereus TISTR 688 with MIC values ranging from 4-8 µg/mL. PMID:26996028

  9. c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase‑mediated anti‑inflammatory effects of Garcinia subelliptica in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Chang; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-03-01

    Garcinia plants have been traditionally used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as skin infections and pain, in many regions including South‑East Asia. Garcinia subelliptica, a plant of the Garcinia species widely distributed from Japan to Thailand, has been reported to contain components similar to other Garcinia plants that exhibit anti‑inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to explore the anti‑inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of Garcinia subelliptica (EGS) in macrophages, as there are no previous systemic studies that have investigated the effects of Garcinia subelliptica on inflammation. Non‑cytotoxic concentrations of EGS (≤200 µg/ml) were observed to reduce nitric oxide production by modulating iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The expression of cyclooxygenase‑2, the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2, was notably reduced by EGS. EGS treatment inhibited the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including IL‑6 and IL‑1β, however, not TNF‑α. Reduced production of inflammatory mediators by EGS was followed by reduced phosphorylation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) however, not of other mitogen‑activated protein kinases and nuclear factor‑κB. These results indicate that EGS selectively inhibits the excessive production of inflammatory mediators in LPS‑stimulated murine macrophages by reducing the activation of JNK, suggesting that EGS is a candidate for modulating severe inflammation. PMID:26781201

  10. Two new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojun; He, Luan; Wu, Xinxing; Zhong, Yanxia; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Yuanxing; Wang, Bin; Xu, Zhifang; Qiu, Shengxiang

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, designated garcimangosxanthone F (1) and garcimangosxanthone G (2), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established as 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone, respectively, on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and MS data interpretation. PMID:25299822

  11. (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a new gastrointestinal smooth muscle L-type calcium channel inhibitor, which underlies the spasmolytic properties of Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Balemba, Onesmo B.; Lösch, Sofie; Patterson, Savannah; McMillan, John S.; Hofmann, Thomas; Mawe, Gary M.; Stark, Timo D.

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia buchananii Baker stem bark extract (GBB) is a traditional medication of diarrhea and dysentery in sub-Saharan Africa. It is believed that GBB causes gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether GBB has spasmolytic actions and identify compounds underlying these actions. Calcium (Ca2+) imaging was used to analyze the effect of GBB on Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves in guinea pig gallbladder and distal colon smooth muscle. Intracellular microelectrode recording was used to determine the effect of GBB, six fractions of GBB, M1–5 and M7, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a compound isolated from M3 on action potentials in gallbladder smooth muscle. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of GBB, M3, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on action potentials in the circular muscle of mouse and guinea pig distal colons, and the effect of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on slow waves in porcine ileum. GBB inhibited Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves. GBB, M3 and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials. L-type Ca2+ channel activator Bay K 8644 increased the discharge of action potentials in mouse colon but did not trigger or increase action potentials in the presence of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials in the presence of Bay K 8644. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone reduced the amplitude but did not alter the frequency of slow waves in the porcine ileum. In conclusion, GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone relax smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels, thus have potential for use as therapies of gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasms, and arrhythmias. PMID:26081368

  12. (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone, a new gastrointestinal smooth muscle L-type calcium channel inhibitor, which underlies the spasmolytic properties of Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Balemba, Onesmo B; Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Patterson, Savannah; McMillan, John S; Mawe, Gary M; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia buchananii Baker stem bark extract (GBB) is a traditional medication of diarrhea and dysentery in sub-Saharan Africa. It is believed that GBB causes gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether GBB has spasmolytic actions and identify compounds underlying these actions. Calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging was used to analyze the effect of GBB on Ca(2+) flashes and Ca(2+) waves in guinea pig gallbladder and distal colon smooth muscle. Intracellular microelectrode recording was used to determine the effect of GBB, six fractions of GBB, M1-5 and M7, and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone, a compound isolated from M3 on action potentials in gallbladder smooth muscle. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of GBB, M3, and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone on action potentials in the circular muscle of mouse and guinea pig distal colons, and the effect of GBB and (2R,3S,2''R,3'' R)-manniflavanone on slow waves in porcine ileum. GBB inhibited Ca(2+) flashes and Ca(2+) waves. GBB, M3 and (2R,3 S,2''R,3''R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials. L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 increased the discharge of action potentials in mouse colon but did not trigger or increase action potentials in the presence of GBB and (2R,3S,2''R,3'' R)-manniflavanone. GBB and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials in the presence of Bay K 8644. GBB and (2R,3 S,2''R,3''R)-manniflavanone reduced the amplitude but did not alter the frequency of slow waves in the porcine ileum. In conclusion, GBB and (2R,3S,2'' R,3''R)-manniflavanone relax smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca(2+) channels, thus have potential for use as therapies of gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasms, and arrhythmias. PMID:26081368

  13. A bioactive cycloartane triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Atlas; Khan, Sadiq Noor

    2016-06-01

    The dichloromethane bark extract of Garcinia hombroniana yielded one new cycloartane triterpene; (22Z,24E)-3β-hydroxycycloart-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (1) together with five known compounds: garcihombronane G (2), garcihombronane J (3), 3β acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,24-dien-26-oic acid (4), (22Z, 24E)-3β, 9α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (5) and 3β, 23α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-8,14,24-trien-26-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by the spectral techniques of NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds together with some previously isolated compounds; garcihombronane B (7), garcihombronane D (8) 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (9), volkensiflavone (10), 4''-O-methyll-volkensiflavone (11), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (12), volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (13), Morelloflavone (14), 3''-O-methyl-morelloflavone (15) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (16) were evaluated for cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. In these activities, compounds 1-9 showed good dual inhibition on both the enzymes while compounds 10-16 did not reasonably contribute to both the cholinesterases inhibitory effects. PMID:26158779

  14. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. PMID:25340468

  15. Cytotoxic benzophenone and triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Kamal, Nik Nur Syazni Nik Mohamed; Osman, Hasnah; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of G. hombroniana. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of G. hombroniana yielded two new (1, 9) and thirteen known compounds which were characterized by the spectral techniques of NMR, UV, IR and EI/ESI-MS, and identified as; 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone(1), 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (2), 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (4), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (5),3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (7), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside (8), 18(13→17)-abeo-3β-acetoxy-9α,13β-lanost-24E-en-26-oic acid (9), garcihombronane B (10), garcihombronane D (11), friedelan-3-one (12), lupeol (13), stigmasterol (14) and stigmasterol glucoside (15). In the in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, DBTRG, U2OS and PC-3 cell lines, compounds 1 and 9 displayed good cytotoxic effects against DBTRG cancer cell lines. Compounds 1-8 were also found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Owing to these properties, this study can be further extended to explore more significant bioactive components of this plant. PMID:24813683

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

    The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

  17. Polyphenolic Constituents of the Pericarp of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Morio; Ninomiya, Kana; Tagashira, Yukari; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki

    2015-09-01

    Three new polyphenols, together with 14 known compounds, were isolated from a hot water extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp, a plant that has been used medicinally in Southeast Asia. The three new polyphenols were characterized as a 4-aryl-2-flavanylbenzopyran derivative (tentatively named GM-1), 1, 3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxybenzophenone (GM-2), 2, and 2,3-dihydrochromone derivative (GM-3), 3 on the basis of NMR and MS data. The relative stereostructure of GM-1 was assigned to have 2,3-cis-3,4-trans- and 2″,3″-cis configurations on the basis of the coupling constants of heterocyclic ring protons in the (1)H NMR spectrum along with nuclear Overhauser effect correlations. The HPLC analysis indicated that major polyphenolic components in the hot water extract of mangosteen pericarp were epicatechin and procyanidin B2 (epicatechin dimer). PMID:26023815

  18. Constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Chang; Weng, Jing-Ru; Won, Shen-Jeu; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2005-07-01

    A new benzophenone, garcinielliptone FA (1), and a new benzoylphloroglucinol, garcinielliptone FB (2), along with six known compounds, were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and supported by computer-generated molecular modeling. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines. PMID:16038565

  19. Isoprenylated xanthone and benzophenone constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia planchonii.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Duong Hoang; Ha, Ly Dieu; Tran, Phuong Thu; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa Dieu

    2014-12-01

    A new xanthone, planchoxanthone (1), together with six known compounds, garcinianone A (2), cowanin (3), rubraxanthone (4), f-mangostin (5), dulcisxanthone B (6), and guttiferone Q (7), were isolated from an n-hexane extract of the pericap of Garcinia planchonii. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds was tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. PMID:25632472

  20. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  1. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. PMID:24901833

  2. Identification and characterization of anticancer compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy from Chinese native Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Xu, Naihan; Hu, Hui; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Gu, Yunzhi; Song, Zhijun; Cao, Peng; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. Active compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy are candidates for anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we collected Garcinia species from China and extracted them into water or ethanol fractions. Then, we performed a functional screen in search of novel apoptosis and autophagy regulators. We first characterized the anti-proliferation activity of the crude extracts on multiple cell lines. HeLa cells expressing GFP-LC3 were used to examine the effects of the crude extracts on autophagy. Their activities were confirmed by Western blots of A549 and HeLa cells. By using bioassay guided fractionation, we found that two caged prenylxanthones from Garcinia bracteata, neobractatin and isobractatin, can significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results suggest that different Garcinia species displayed various degrees of toxicity on different cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the use of a high content screening assay to screen natural products was an essential method to identify novel autophagy regulators. PMID:25478784

  3. Garcinia Cambogia-Induced Acute Hepatitis; Varenicline-Induced Parkinsonism; Resistant Hypocalcemia After Zoledronic Acid Administration; Zonisamide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury; Psychosis Associated with Guanfacine.

    PubMed

    Mancano, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Med Watch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to Med Watch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA's Med Watch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA Med Watch partner. PMID:26448666

  4. A new xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Fu, Manqin; Qiu, Samuel X; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Chen, Yulong; Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2013-12-01

    A new prenylxanthone, garcimangostanol (1), was isolated from the EtOAc-soluble partition of the ethanol extract of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L., along with three known compounds, namely 8-deoxygartanin (2), 1-isomangostin (3), and garcinone C (4). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of its 1D, 2D NMR and MS data. Compounds 1-4 exhibited either significant o r moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, A549, Hep-G2 and CNEhuman cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 values from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 23.6+/- 1.5 microM by MTT colorimetric assay. PMID:24555285

  5. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. α-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 μg/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and β-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL. PMID:25110196

  6. Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2α-hydroxy-3β-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods. PMID:24392659

  7. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zeng; Huang, Lei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Gong-Kan; Lan, Wen-Jian; Li, Hou-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, named 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-xanthone (1) and 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), together with the five known compounds garcinones C (3) and D (4), gartanin (5), xanthone I (6), and γ-mangostin (7). Their structures were elucidated primarily based on MS and NMR data. Compounds 1-7 showed significant cytotoxic activities against various human cancer cell lines. PMID:24509722

  8. Garcinia benzophenones inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells and synergize with sulindac sulfide and turmeric.

    PubMed

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Mighty, Jason; Kashiwazaki, Ryota; Figueroa, Mario; Jalees, Filza; Acuna, Ulyana Munoz; Le Gendre, Onica; Foster, David A; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that extracts and purified components from Garcinia species inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells. Garcinia benzophenones activate the expression of genes in the endoplasmic reticulum and cellular energy stress (mTOR) pathways. This study examines the growth inhibitory and synergistic effects of Garcinia benzophenones, alone or combined with chemopreventive agents, on human colon cancer cells. To find optimal combination treatments, HT29 colon cancer cells were treated with benzophenones alone, or combined with chemopreventive agents, and cell growth measured using the MTT assay. To reveal effects on signaling pathways, we assessed effects of the MEK inhibitor U0126 and the ER IP3 receptor antagonist heparin, as well as effects on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1 (mTOR pathway), using Western blot analysis. New and known benzophenones from Garcinia intermedia inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells; an alcohol extract of Garcinia xanthochymus, as well as purified guttiferones (guttiferone E and xanthochymol), preferentially inhibited the growth of colon cancer versus nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells. Guttiferone E exhibited synergy with the NSAID sulindac sulfide and xanthochymol, with the spice turmeric. Guttiferone A did not alter phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1, indicating that the mTORC1 pathway is not involved in its action. The effects of xanthochymol were enhanced by U0126, at low doses, and were blocked by heparin, indicating that the MEK pathway is involved, while the ER IP3 receptor is critical for its action. These studies indicate the potential of benzophenones, alone or combined with sulindac sulfide or turmeric, to prevent and treat colon cancer. PMID:23848206

  9. UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-Guided Dereplication of the Endangered Chinese Species Garcinia paucinervis to Identify Additional Benzophenone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Anandhi Senthilkumar, Harini; Figueroa, Mario; Wu, Shi-Biao; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chunlin

    2016-06-24

    A number of Garcinia species accumulate benzophenone derivatives that may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer. The dereplication of new benzophenone derivatives from Garcinia species is challenging due to the occurrence of multiple isomers and the known compounds found in their extracts. In the current study, a strategy is described using the UPLC-QTOFMS(E) technique to identify tentatively the known and uncharacterized benzophenones of interest based upon the characteristic fragmentation ions. Several UPLC-QTOFMS peaks (a-ee) appeared to contain benzophenone derivatives, and 12 of these peaks contained compounds with MS ionization profiles not consistent with previously identified compounds from the seeds of Garcinia paucinervis, an endangered Chinese species. The targeted isolation of unidentified compounds of interest afforded five new benzophenones, paucinones E-I (1-5), which were determined by MS and NMR analysis and ECD spectroscopy. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three breast cancer cell lines inclusive of MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, and MCF-7. These results indicate that the UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-guided isolation procedure is an efficient strategy for isolating new benzophenones from Garcinia species. PMID:27266714

  10. Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Composition of Garcinia lancifolia.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Saikia, S; Das, J; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L; Veer, V

    2012-05-01

    Garcinia lancifolia (Clusiaceae) is an unexplored medicinal plant used as stomachic, diuretic and its fruit is used to cure dysentery and diarrhoea. The acidic fruits are used to prepare juice, pickle and curries. The phytochemical analysis of different extracts of G. lancifolia leaf, stem and fruit revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. The high phenolic content was observed in the methanol extract of leaf followed by methanol extract of stem and dichloromethane extract of leaf. The G. lancifolia fruit juice exhibited high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus subtilis. The methanol extract of fruit pulp was also very effective against Gram-positive bacteria when compared with Gram-negative bacteria. The radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was highest in fruit juice followed by methanol extract of leaf and stem. All extracts showed concentration-dependent increase in the antioxidant activity. PMID:23439879

  11. Natural products from Garcinia brasiliensis as Leishmania protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ivan O; Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Maria A; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Barbieri, Clara L; do Sacramento, Luis V S; Marques, Marcos J; dos Santos, Marcelo H

    2011-06-01

    The infections by protozoans of the genus Leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. The drugs of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimonials, which cause renal and cardiac toxicity. As part of a search for new drugs against leishmaniasis, we evaluated the in vitro Leishmania protease inhibition activity of extracts (hexanic, ethyl-acetate, and ethanolic) and fukugetin, a bioflavonoid purified from the ethyl-acetate extract of the pericarp of the fruit of Garcinia brasiliensis, a tree native to Brazilian forests. The isolated compound was characterized by using spectral analyses with nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, ultraviolet, and infrared techniques. The ethyl-acetate extract and the compound fukugetin showed significant activity as inhibitors of Leishmania's proteases, with mean (±SD) IC(50) (50% inhibition concentration of protease activity) values of 15.0±1.3 μg/mL and 3.2±0.5 μM/mL, respectively, characterizing a bioguided assay. In addition, this isolated compound showed no activity against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis and mammalian cells. These results suggest that fukugetin is a potent protease inhibitor of L. (L.) amazonensis and does not cause toxicity in mammalian or Leishmania cells in vitro. This study provides new perspectives on the development of novel drugs that have leishmanicidal activity obtained from natural products and that target the parasite's proteases. PMID:21554130

  12. A new xanthone from Garcinia nitida.

    PubMed

    Ee, G C L; Foo, C H; Jong, V Y M; Ismail, N H; Sukari, M A; Taufiq Yap, Y H; Awang, K

    2012-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the stem bark of Garcinia nitida has led to the isolation of five xanthones. They are 1,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6-dimethylpyrano[2',3':2,3]-xanthone (1), inophyllin B (2), osajaxanthone (3), 3-isomangostin (4) and rubraxanthone (5). The structures of these compounds were established using mainly 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HMBC and HMQC) while molecular masses were determined via MS techniques; 1 is a new compound. PMID:22044165

  13. DNA-seq analysis of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Syuhaidah; Sampathrajan, Sureshkumar; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2016-03-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree mainly found in South East Asia and considered as "the queen of fruits". The asexually produced fruit is dark purple or reddish in color, with white flesh which is slightly acidic with sweet flavor and a pleasant aroma. The purple pericarp tissue is rich in xanthones which are useful for medical purposes. We performed the first genome sequencing of this commercially important fruit tree to study its genome composition and attempted draft genome assembly. Raw reads of the DNA sequencing project have been deposited to SRA database with the accession number SRX1426419. PMID:26981362

  14. DNA-seq analysis of Garcinia mangostana

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Syuhaidah; Sampathrajan, Sureshkumar; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2015-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree mainly found in South East Asia and considered as “the queen of fruits”. The asexually produced fruit is dark purple or reddish in color, with white flesh which is slightly acidic with sweet flavor and a pleasant aroma. The purple pericarp tissue is rich in xanthones which are useful for medical purposes. We performed the first genome sequencing of this commercially important fruit tree to study its genome composition and attempted draft genome assembly. Raw reads of the DNA sequencing project have been deposited to SRA database with the accession number SRX1426419. PMID:26981362

  15. Cytotoxic Polyisoprenyl Benzophenonoids from Garcinia subelliptica

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Chiou, Chun-Tang; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yang Kuo, Li-Ming; Liao, Chia-Chin; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2010-01-01

    Six new polyisoprenyl benzophenonoids, (±)-garcinialiptone A (1, 2), garcinialiptone B (3), (−)-cycloxanthochymol (4), garcinialiptone C (5), and garcinialiptone D (6), along with three known compounds, xanthochymol (7), isoxanthochymol (8), and cycloxanthochymol (9), were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures of 1–6 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Biological evaluation showed that all compounds 1–9 exhibited cytotoxic activity against a small panel of human tumor cell lines (A549, DU145, KB, vincristine-resistant KB). PMID:20232858

  16. A new prenylated biflavonoid from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Saelee, Arun; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2015-01-01

    A new prenylated biflavonoid, named dulcisbiflavonoid A, together with five biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by analysing their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR. PMID:25675112

  17. Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (−)-HCA

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (−)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. PMID:23990846

  18. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

  19. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Ah; Su, Bao-Ning; Keller, William J; Mehta, Rajendra G; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2006-03-22

    As part of ongoing research on cancer chemopreventive agents from botanical dietary supplements, Garcinia mangostana L. (commonly known as mangosteen) was selected for detailed study. Repeated chromatography of a CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the pericarp led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated prenylated xanthones, 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G (1) and mangostingone [7-methoxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-3-butenyl)-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone, 2], together with 12 known xanthones, cudraxanthone G (3), 8-deoxygartanin (4), garcimangosone B (5), garcinone D (6), garcinone E (7), gartanin (8), 1-isomangostin (9), alpha-mangostin (10), gamma-mangostin (11), mangostinone (12), smeathxanthone A (13), and tovophyllin A (14). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Except for compound 2, which was isolated as a minor component, the antioxidant activities of all isolates were determined using authentic and morpholinosydnonimine-derived peroxynitrite methods, and compounds 1, 8, 10, 11, and 13 were the most active. Alpha-mangostin (10) inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene-induced preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary organ culture assay with an IC50 of 1.0 microg/mL (2.44 microM). PMID:16536578

  20. Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Wei; Huang, A-Mei; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Weng, Jing-Ru; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2012-11-15

    Two new triterpenoids, garcinielliptones Q (1) and S (3), and a new phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone R (2), were isolated from the seed of Garcinia subelliptica. Their structures were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone FC (4) from this plant exhibited a significant increase of antiproliferative effect, while 4 combined with cisplatin significantly caused decrease of cell inhibition induced by cisplatin in NTUB1. Exposure of NTUB1 cells to 4 cotreated with cisplatin for significantly decreased the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than that of the total amount generated by 4 and cisplatin. These results suggested that 4 could protect the cisplatin toxicity through reduction of ROS in NTUB1. Phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones, A (5) and F (7), and garsubelline A (6), from this plant, revealed ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and 5 displayed an inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase. These finding showed that 5-7 may be used as antioxidants. PMID:22868169

  1. Phloroglucinols with prooxidant activity from Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Chang; Lu, Yi-Huang; Wei, Bai-Luh; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Won, Shen-Jen; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2008-02-01

    A new phloroglucinol, garcinielliptone HF ( 1), possessing an unprecedented skeleton, and the tautomeric pair of garcinielliptone FC ( 2/ 2a) were isolated from the heartwood and pericarp of Garcinia subelliptica, respectively. Their structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods. The ability of compounds 1 and 2/ 2a to induce DNA-cleavage activity was examined using supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA. In the presence of Cu(II), compounds 1 and 2/ 2a caused significant breakage of pBR322 DNA. The involvement of H2O2 and O2 (*-), and H2O2, O2 (*-), and OH (*) in 1- and 2/ 2a-mediated scission, respectively, was established by inhibition or no protection of DNA breakage by various oxygen radical scavengers. Thus, in the presence Cu(II), 1 and 2/ 2a may show a prooxidant effect on DNA and induce cell death. PMID:18166016

  2. Antimicrobial activity in cultures of endophytic fungi isolated from Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Rungjindamai, Nattawut; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Sakayaroj, Jariya

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen for antimicrobial activity in endophytic fungi isolated from surface sterilized leaves and branches of five Garcinia plants, G. atroviridis, G. dulcis, G. mangostana, G. nigrolineata and G. scortechinii, found in southern Thailand. Fermentation broths from 377 isolated fungi were tested for antimicrobial activity by the agar diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained for crude ethyl acetate extracts. Seventy isolates (18.6%) displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic microorganism, such as Staphylococcus aureus, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results revealed that 6-10%, 1-2% and 18% of the crude ethyl acetate extracts inhibited both strains of S. aureus (MIC 32-512 microg mL(-1)), Ca. albicans and Cr. neoformans (MIC 64-200 microg mL(-1)), and Microsporum gypseum (MIC 2-64 microg mL(-1)), respectively. Isolates D15 and M76 displayed the strongest antibacterial activity against both strains of S. aureus. Isolates M76 and N24 displayed strong antifungal activity against M. gypseum. Fungal molecular identification based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that isolates D15 (DQ480353), M76 (DQ480360) and N24 (DQ480361) represented Phomopsis sp., Botryosphaeria sp. and an unidentified fungal endophyte, respectively. These results indicate that some endophytic fungi from Garcinia plants are a potential source of antimicrobial agents. PMID:17052267

  3. Antimicrobial prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia goudotiana.

    PubMed

    Mahamodo, Sania; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel; Abedini, Amin; Ranarivelo, Heritiana; Duhal, Nathalie; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Lemoine, Amélie; Razafimahefa, Dorothée; Razanamahefa, Bakonirina; Bailleul, François; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina

    2014-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation using antimicrobial assay of the crude acetonic extract of Garcinia goudotiana leaves and of its five partitions led to the isolation of two new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, goudotianone 1 (1) and goudotianone 2 (2), in addition to two known compounds including one xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-isoprenylxanthone (3), and one triterpenoid, friedelin (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of different spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The crude acetonic extract, the methylene chloride and ethyl acetate partitions, and some tested compounds isolated from this species (1-3) demonstrated selective significant antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Enterococcus faecalis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The potential cytotoxic activities of these extracts and compounds were evaluated against human colon carcinoma HT29 and human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 cells. PMID:24690454

  4. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-07-25

    Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-γ plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24960143

  5. Antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory activities of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Asfour, Hani Z

    2016-07-01

    A prenylated xanthone, α-mangostin was separated from the alcoholic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp. Its structure was established by different spectroscopic analysis. The total methanolic extract (TME) and different fractions of G. mangostana pericarp as well as α-mangostin were assessed for their antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory effects (QSI). The TME, CHCl3 fraction, and α-mangostin exhibited strong activity against all tested strains. While, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and aqueous fractions showed moderate activity against some of the tested organisms. In addition TME, CHCl3, EtOAc, and α-mangostin showed promising QSI, while n-BuOH and aqueous fractions showed moderate activity. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for TME, CHCl3 fractions, and α-mangostin was also assessed. PMID:27592485

  6. Caged polyprenylated xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; He, Shiwen; Tang, Chu; Li, Jun; Yang, Guangzhong

    2016-03-01

    Five new caged polyprenylated xanthones (1a, 2a, 3, 10a and 10b), and 12 known related compounds were isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated in vitro. Most of xanthones showed modest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. PMID:26688377

  7. Phenolic compounds from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, S; Mahabusarakam, W; Phongpaichit, S; Taylor, W C; Zhang, Y-J; Yang, C-R

    2006-03-01

    Dulcisxanthones C-F and dulcinone together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the flowers of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The abilities of some of these compounds to act as radical scavengers and antibacterial agents were investigated. PMID:16325214

  8. Cytotoxic Properties and Complete Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Assignment of Isolated Xanthones from the Root of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Wahyuni, Fatma Sri; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Lajis, Nordin HJ; Hamidi, Dachriyanus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate compounds from the roots of Garcinia cowa and to evaluated their cytotoxic activity against breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145), and lung (H-460) cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ground air-dried root was sequentially macerated with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol. The DCM soluble extract was fractionated by vacuum liquid chromatography, column chromatography, and radial chromatography over silica gel with hexane, EtOAc and methanol as eluent in progressively increasing polarity manner; to yield three compounds. Their structures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic data and their comparison with those of the literature. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was carried out against human cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The extract was added at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml). The level of cytotoxicity was determined by calculating the level of IC50 that was based on the percentage of the cell death following the 24 h incubation with the extract. Results: Phytochemical study on the roots of G. cowa yielded rubraxanthone (3), cowanine (4) and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (5). Compound 4 with an IC50 value of 4.1 ± 1.0 μM, 5.4 ± 2.3 μM and 11.3 ± 10.0 μM against MCF-7, H-460, and DU-145, respectively while compound 3 was found to be in active. Conclusion: The results indicate that G. cowa roots could be important sources of natural cytotoxic compounds. SUMMARY Isolation of cytotoxic compounds from Garcinia cowaCowanine is the active constituent from the roots of Garcinia cowaComplete nuclear magnetic resonance assignment of isolated compoundsMS fragmentation of rubraxanthone. PMID:27041859

  9. Prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia with antienteroviral activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tao, Ling; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yang, Yi-Fu; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Da-Jian; Lu, Ai-Ping; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-04-25

    An acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia showed antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded 12 new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, oblongifolins J-U (1-12), and five known compounds. The structures of 1-12 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of a Mosher ester procedure carried out in NMR tubes and ECD calculations. Compared to ribavirin (IC50 253.1 μM), compounds 1, 4, and 13 exhibited significant anti-EV71 activity in vitro, with IC50 values of 31.1, 16.1, and 12.2 μM, respectively. In addition, the selectivity indices of these compounds were 1.5, 2.4, and 3.0 in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, respectively. PMID:24679044

  10. Bioassay-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and polycyclic acylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Liang, Shuang; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Shi-Lin; Wang, Xin-Hong; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2012-08-24

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones A (1) and B (2), three new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, nujiangefolins A-C (3-5), and 10 known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 3 and 4 are unusual polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols in which the enol hydroxy group forms a six-membered ring with a benzene ring carbon. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against 11 cancer cell lines and immortalized MIHA normal liver cells, and the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. Isojacareubin (6) was found to be the most potent cytotoxic compound of those tested. PMID:22871217

  11. Bioassay-guided isolation of xanthones and polycyclic prenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Feng, Chao; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Gang; Han, Quan-Bin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Chang, Donald C; Luo, Kathy Qian; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia has resulted in the isolation of three new xanthones, oblongixanthones A-C (1-3), three new polyprenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, oblongifolins E-G (4-6), and 12 known compounds. Oblongifolins I (5) and J (6) are the first natural products that have similar structural features to those of two known oxidation products of garcinol. The structures of the new compounds 1-6 were characterized by spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were assayed for their apoptosis-inducing effects against HeLa-C3 cells. Oblongifolin C (16) was found to be the most potent apoptotic inducer of the compounds evaluated. PMID:19113969

  12. Phenolic compounds from the seeds of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, Suwanna; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2008-01-01

    Dulcisxanthone G, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone, together with 13 known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The activities on antibacterial and antioxidation of the isolated compounds were examined. PMID:19023789

  13. Damnacanthal from the Congolese medicinal plant Garcinia huillensis has a potent preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dibwe, Dya Fita; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Screening of eight Congolese medicinal plants showed that the CHCl(3) and MeOH extracts of Aframomum melegueta (PC(50)  = 47.8 µg/mL and 13.8 µg/mL, respectively) and CHCl(3) extracts of Garcinia huillensis (PC(50)  = 17.8 µg/mL) and Securidaca longepedunculata (PC(50)  = 23.4 µg/mL) had preferential cytotoxicity against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells under nutrient-deprived conditions. The active constituents of the CHCl(3) extract of G. huillensis were examined and 12 known anthraquinones were identified. Among them, damnacanthal (1) caused preferential necrotic cell death of PANC-1 and PSN-1 cells under nutrient-deprived and serum-sensitive conditions (PC(50)  = 4.46 µm and 3.77 µm, respectively). PMID:22447631

  14. UPLC-ESI-TOF MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of the Antioxidative Food Supplement Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Balemba, Onesmo B; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-08-19

    Comparative antioxidative analyses of aqueous ethanolic extracts from leaf, root, and stem of Garcinia buchananii revealed high activity of all three organs. To investigate the metabolite composition of the different parts of G. buchananii, an untargeted metabolomics approach using UPLC-ESI-TOF MS with simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-collision energy mass spectra (MS(e)) was performed. Unsupervised statistics (PCA) highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of the three organs. OPLS-DA revealed (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-1, (2R,3S)-morelloflavone, and (2R,3S)-volkensiflavone as the most decisive marker compounds discriminating leaf from root and stem extract. Leaves represent the best source to isolate GB-1, morelloflavone, and volkensiflavone. Root extract is the best organ to isolate xanthones and stem bark extract the best source to isolate (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone; the identified polyisoprenylated benzophenones are characteristic compounds for the leaf organ. Morelloflavone, volkensiflavone, and garcicowin C were isolated for the first time from G. buchananii, identified via MS, NMR, and CD spectroscopy, and showed in H2O2 scavenging, H/L-TEAC, and H/L-ORAC assays moderate to strong in vitro antioxidative activities. PMID:26226176

  15. Anticancer Activity of Garcinia morella on T-Cell Murine Lymphoma Via Apoptotic Induction.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bhaswati; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Monisha, Javadi; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge (TK) based medicines have gained worldwide attention and presently the scientific community is focussing on proper pharmacological validation and identification of lead compounds for the treatment of various diseases. The North East region of India is the home of valuable traditional herbal remedies. Garcinia morella Desr. (Guttiferae) is one such medicinal plant used by traditional healers for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the leaf, bark and fruit of G. morella (GM) in different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The results of this study showed that GM methanol extracts possessed in vitro antioxidant and anticancer properties, where the fruit extract (GF) showed maximum activity. The anticancer activity was further confirmed by the results of in vivo administration of GF (200 mg/kg) for ten days to Dalton's lymphoma (DLA) induced mice. GF extract significantly increased the mean survival time (MST) of the animals, decreased the tumor volume and restored the hematological and biochemical parameters. The present study for the first time reported the anticancer property of GF on DLA. Further from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of GF on DLA, it can be concluded that GF exerts its anticancer effect through induction of caspases and DNA fragmentation that ultimately leads to apoptosis. However, further experimentation is required to elucidate the active principle and validate these findings in various in vivo settings. PMID:26858645

  16. Anticancer Activity of Garcinia morella on T-Cell Murine Lymphoma Via Apoptotic Induction

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Bhaswati; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Monisha, Javadi; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge (TK) based medicines have gained worldwide attention and presently the scientific community is focussing on proper pharmacological validation and identification of lead compounds for the treatment of various diseases. The North East region of India is the home of valuable traditional herbal remedies. Garcinia morella Desr. (Guttiferae) is one such medicinal plant used by traditional healers for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the leaf, bark and fruit of G. morella (GM) in different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The results of this study showed that GM methanol extracts possessed in vitro antioxidant and anticancer properties, where the fruit extract (GF) showed maximum activity. The anticancer activity was further confirmed by the results of in vivo administration of GF (200 mg/kg) for ten days to Dalton’s lymphoma (DLA) induced mice. GF extract significantly increased the mean survival time (MST) of the animals, decreased the tumor volume and restored the hematological and biochemical parameters. The present study for the first time reported the anticancer property of GF on DLA. Further from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of GF on DLA, it can be concluded that GF exerts its anticancer effect through induction of caspases and DNA fragmentation that ultimately leads to apoptosis. However, further experimentation is required to elucidate the active principle and validate these findings in various in vivo settings. PMID:26858645

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia species using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Lee, Stephanie; Choi, Franky Fung Kei; Xu, Gang; Liu, Xin; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-09-23

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a group of natural products isolated from different Garcinia species with a wide range of important biological activities. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to photodiode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF) method was developed to characterize 16 PPAPs in 10 Garcinia species. In source dissociation techniques based on cone voltage fragmentation were used to fragment the deprotonated molecules and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using ramping collision energy were used to further break down the resulting product ions. The resulting characteristic fragment ions were generated by cleavage of C1-C5 bond and C7-C8 bond through concerted pericyclic reaction, which is especially valuable for differentiating three types of PPAPs isomers. As such, two new PPAPs isomers present in minor amount in the extracts of Garcinia oblongifolia were tentatively characterized by comparing their tandem mass spectra to the known ones. In addition, an UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was validated for the quantitative determination of PPAPs. The method exhibited limits of detection from 2.7 to 21.4 ng mL(-1) and intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 3.7% and the recovery was in the range of 89-107% with RSD less than 9.0%. This UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method has successfully been applied to quantify 16 PPAPs in 32 samples of 10 Garcinia species, which were found to be a rich source of PPAPs. PMID:20869510

  18. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species. PMID:26773895

  19. Three new xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yating; Li, Dahong; Jia, Cuicui; Xue, Chunmei; Bai, Jiao; Li, Zhanlin; Hua, Huiming

    2016-04-01

    Three new prenylated xanthones, garcinexanthones G-I (1-3), together with fifteen known ones (4-18) were identified from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against HL-60 (human leukemia), A549 (human lung cancer), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Among them, compounds 7, 17, and 13 exhibited the most pronounced growth inhibitory activity against HL-60, A549, and MCF-7 cell lines with GI50 values of 1.68, 4.88, and 6.28 μM, respectively. PMID:26645396

  20. Cytotoxic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from the twigs of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Kan, Winnie L T; Zhou, Yan; Song, Jing-Zheng; Han, Quan-Bin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Cho, Chi-Hin; Rudd, John A; Lin, Ge; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-02-26

    An unusual polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol derivative unsubstituted at C-2 and C-6, garcicowin A (1), together with three other new (garcicowins B-D, 2-4) and nine known analogues, was isolated and characterized from the twigs of Garcinia cowa. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116) and against normal colon cells (CCD-18Co), and the results demonstrated their selective toxicity toward the cancer cells. PMID:20058933

  1. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    PubMed

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. PMID:21362142

  2. γ-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana pericarps as a dual agonist that activates Both PPARα and PPARδ.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Gamo, Kanae; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kawada, Teruo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Akao, Yukihiro; Tosa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    We tested the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ agonistic activity of a Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to develop a treatment for the metabolic syndrome, and demonstrated γ-mangostin to be an active compound on the basis of a luciferase reporter gene assay. γ-Mangostin induced the expression of the uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) gene which is related to energy expenditure and fat metabolism in L6 cells. We showed that γ-mangostin is a dual agonist that activates both PPARδ and PPARα. γ-Mangostin also induced the expression of acyl-CoA synthase and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A genes in HepG2 cells. These results suggest the potential of γ-mangostin as a preventive agent of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24317060

  3. Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Cao, Peng; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1) and H (2), and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and immortalized HL7702 normal liver cells, whereby compounds 1, 5, 8, and 15-17 exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that 5 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, 1 and 16 at the G2/M phase, and 17 at the G1 phase, while 16 and 17 induced apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy analysis by GFP-LC3 puncta formation and western blotting suggested that 17 induced autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that these xanthones possess anticancer activities targeting cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy signaling pathways. PMID:26102071

  4. Xanthones with quinone reductase-inducing activity from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen).

    PubMed

    Chin, Young-Won; Jung, Hyun-Ah; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-02-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a dichloromethane-soluble extract of Garcinia mangostana fruits has led to the isolation and identification of five compounds, including two xanthones, 1,2-dihydro-1,8,10-trihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-9-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3,2-a]xanthen-11-one (1) and 6-deoxy-7-demethylmangostanin (2), along with three known compounds, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,8-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (3), mangostanin (4), and alpha-mangostin (5). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined from analysis of their spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds in the present study together with eleven other compounds previously isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen, were tested in an in vitro quinone reductase-induction assay using murine hepatoma cells (Hepa 1c1c7) and an in vitro hydroxyl radical antioxidant assay. Of these, compounds 1-4 induced quinone reductase (concentration to double enzyme induction, 0.68-2.2microg/mL) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells and gamma-mangostin (6) exhibited hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (IC50, 0.20microg/mL). PMID:17991497

  5. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica Bedd.

    PubMed

    Aravind, A P Anu; Asha, K R T; Rameshkumar, K B

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica, a hitherto uninvestigated endemic species to the Western Ghats of south India, resulted in isolation and characterisation of the polyisoprenylated benzophenones 7-epi-nemorosone (1) and garcinol (2) along with biflavonoids GB-1a (3), GB-1 (4), GB-2 (5), morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside or fukugiside (7). The compounds were identified using various spectroscopic techniques, mainly through NMR and MS. The methanol extract and the biflavonoids 3, 4, 5 and 7 showed potential in vitro antioxidant activities. The IC50 value of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of compound 7 was 8.34 ± 2.12 μg/mL, comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid (3.2 ± 0.50 μg/mL). In the superoxide radical scavenging assay, compound 7 gave IC50 value of 6.95 ± 1.33 μg/mL close to standard ascorbic acid with IC50 value of 5.8 ± 0.25 μg/mL. Validated HPTLC estimation revealed G. travancorica as a rich source of morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside (7.12% dry wt. leaves). PMID:25982126

  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterisation of the anti-Listeria components of Garcinia kola seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, D; Basson, K A; Mayekiso, B; Buwa, L; Okoh, I A

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption chromatography was used to separate the bioactive constituents of the crude n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds. The silica gel 60 column fractions were eluted using the solvent combination of benzene: ethanol : ammonium hydroxide (BEA) in the ratio combination of 36 : 4 : 0.4 v/v. The fractions were tested for anti-Listeria activities by determining their MIC50, MIC90 or MIC against 4 Listeria isolates. The fractions were labelled BEA1 to BEA5 and 3 out of the 5 fractions eluted were active against the test Listeria species with MIC's ranging from MIC 0.57 mg/mL to MIC50 0.625 mg/mL. The most active fractions, BEA2 and BEA3, were subjected to gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify their composition. Fraction BEA2 constituted of 18 compounds mostly sterols and the BEA3 fraction contained 27 compounds with the most abundant compounds being fatty acids derivatives. The BEA2 fraction's interactions with antibiotics proved to be 100% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin whilst it exhibited 50% additivity and 50% synergism with penicillin G. However, all the interactions of the BEA2 fraction with each of the conventional antibiotics used were synergistic against the human listeriosis causative bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:25757343

  7. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively. PMID:25460314

  8. Anti-inflammatory phloroglucinols and terpenoids from Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ru; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Wang, Jih-Pyang; Wu, Ru-Rong; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2004-11-01

    Three new phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones K (1), L (2), and M (3), and two new terpenoids, garcinielliptones N (4) and O (5), have been isolated from the seeds of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures of 1-5 including their relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and supported by computer-generated molecular modeling. Compounds 2 and 3 showed potent inhibitory effects on the release of beta-glucuronidase, and on beta-glucuronidase and histamine, respectively, from peritoneal mast cells stimulated with p-methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine (compound 48/80) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compounds 2 and 3 showed potent effects on NO production in culture media of RAW 264.7 cells in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Compound 2 also showed a potent effect on NO production in culture media of N9 cells in response to LPS/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). PMID:15568764

  9. Recent research on bioactive xanthones from natural medicine: Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Jia, Buyun; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Xuerui; Zhu, Guangyu; Chen, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Garcinia hanburyi, a tropical plant found in south Asia, has a special long history in the development of both medicine and art. This review mainly focuses on the pharmacy research of the bioactive compounds from the plant in recent years. Preparative and analysis separation methods were introduced. Moreover, the chemical structure of the isolated compounds was included. The studies of biological activities of the caged xanthones from the plant, including antitumor, anti-HIV-1, antibacterial, and neurotrophic activities, were reviewed in detail. Furthermore, the mechanisms of its antitumor activity were also reviewed. As mentioned above, some of the xanthones from G. hanburyi can be promising drug candidates, which is worth studying. However, we still need much evidence to prove their efficacy and safety. So, further research is critical for the future application of xanthones from G. hanburyi. PMID:26152816

  10. New depsidones and xanthone from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Siripong, Pongpun; Khumkratok, Suttira; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2016-06-01

    Two new depsidones, schomburgdepsidones A and B (1 and 2), and one new xanthone, schomburgxanthone A (3), together with eight known compounds (4-11) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all 11 compounds was evaluated against the KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7 and Hep G2 human cancer cell lines. Compound 7 performed a good cytotoxicity against the KB, Hela S-3 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 3.17-6.07μM. Compound 3 exhibited a good cytotoxicity against the KB cell line only, with an IC50 value of 8.14μM. PMID:27102610

  11. Complete NMR assignments of bioactive rotameric (3 → 8) biflavonoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-07-01

    The genus Garcinia is reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Garcinia hombroniana in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to isolate the chemical constituents from the bark of G. hombroniana and explore their possible pharmacological potential. Ethyl acetate extract afforded one new (1) and six (2-7) known 3 → 8 rotameric biflavonoids. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy together with electron ionization/ESI mass spectrometric techniques and were identified as (2R, 3S) volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (1), volkensiflavone (2), 4″-O-methyl-volkensiflavone (3), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), morelloflavone (5), 3″-O-methyl-morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (7). The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned by circular dichroism spectroscopy as 2R, 3S. The coexistence of conformers of isolated biflavonoids in solution at 25 °C in different solvents was confirmed by variable temperature NMR studies. At room temperature (25 °C), compounds 1-7 exhibited duplicate NMR signals, while at elevated temperature (90 °C), a single set of signals was obtained. Compound 5 showed significant in vitro antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. The antibacterial studies showed that compounds 5 and 6 are the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3 and 6 also showed moderate antituberculosis activity against H38 Rv. Based on the research findings, G. hombroniana could be concluded as a rich source of flavanone-flavone (3 → 8) biflavonoids that exhibit rotameric behaviour at room temperature and display significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24700704

  12. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal evaluation of Garcinia mangostana pericarp and α-mangostin, its major xanthone derivative.

    PubMed

    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Basudan, Omer A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Farag, Mohamed; Assaf, Mahmoud H; El Tahir, Kamaleldin H; Maes, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Five xanthone derivatives and one flavanol were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Garcinia mangostana. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and the major xanthone (α-mangostin) were evaluated in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. The major constituent α-mangostin was also checked for antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. cheleneoi, M. xenopi and M. intracellulare. Activity against P. falciparum (IC₅₀ 2.7 μg/mL) and T. brucei (IC₅₀ 0.5 μg/mL) were observed for the dichloromethane extract, however, with only moderate selectivity was seen based on a parallel cytotoxicity evaluation on MRC-5 cells (IC₅₀ 9.4 μg/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was inactive (IC₅₀ > 30 µg/mL). The major constituent α-mangostin showed rather high cytotoxicity (IC₅₀ 7.5 µM) and a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity profile. This in vitro study endorses that the antiprotozoal and antimicrobial potential of prenylated xanthones is non-conclusive in view of the low level of selectivity. PMID:24002136

  13. Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 μg/ml M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 μg/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). Conclusions The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude

  14. Novel and anti-inflammatory constituents of Garcinia subelliptica.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ru; Lin, Chun-Nan; Tsao, Lo-Ti; Wang, Jih-Pyang

    2003-05-01

    Four novel phloroglucinol derivatives, garcinielliptones A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), a novel triterpenoid, garcinielliptone E (5), and three known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Garcinia subelliptica. The structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data. Known compounds garsubellin A (6) and garcinielliptin oxide (7) showed potent inhibitory effects on the release of beta-glucuronidase, and beta-glucuronidase and histamine, respectively, from peritoneal mast cells stimulated with compound 48/80 in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 15.6+/-2.5, and 18.2+/-3.6 and 20.0+/-2.7 microM, respectively. Compound 7 showed potent inhibitory effects on the release of beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme from neutrophils stimulated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe(fMLP)/cytochalasin B (CB) in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 15.7+/-3.0 and 23.9+/-3.2 microM, respectively. Compound 7 also showed potent inhibitory effect on superoxide formation from neutrophils stimulated with fMLP/CB also in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 17.9+/-1.5 microM. PMID:12740842

  15. Antioxidant compounds from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Tong, Woei-Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah

    2016-08-01

    A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml). PMID:26999039

  16. An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX) for weight management.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Rao, C V S; Garis, R; Bramble, J D; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a safe, natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, a key enzyme which facilitates the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides. Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated the superior bioavailability of a novel calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax). Greater bioavailability of HCA-SX was observed when taken on an empty stomach. HCA-SX was also shown to exhibit concentration-dependent release of serotonin in isolated rat brain cortex, which may explain its appetite suppressive action. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, primary eye irritation and 90-day chronic toxicity studies, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation and mouse lymphoma tests, were assessed to determine the safety of HCA-SX. In the 90-day toxicity study, dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX were assessed on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathology in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. No remarkable toxicity results were detected, demonstrating the safety of HCA-SX. Furthermore, clinical studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HCA-SX over a period of eight weeks were conducted in 60 human volunteers. Subjects were given a 2,000 kcal diet/day, participated in a 30 min walking exercise program 5 days/week and given an oral dose of placebo or 4666.7 mg HCA-SX (providing 2,800 mg HCA) in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals, Body weight, BMI, lipid profiles, serum leptin, serotonin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites were determined at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Food intake, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced, while

  17. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L).

    PubMed

    Paengkoum, P; Phonmun, T; Liang, J B; Huang, X D; Tan, H Y; Jahromi, M F

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  18. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L)

    PubMed Central

    Paengkoum, P.; Phonmun, T.; Liang, J. B.; Huang, X. D.; Tan, H. Y.; Jahromi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  19. Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana Inhibit Advanced Glycation Endproducts Formation: Effect on Amadori Products, Cross-Linked Structures and Protein Thiols.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; El-Bassossy, Hany; Mohamed, Gamal A; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alshali, Khalid Z; Banjar, Zainy M

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) in body tissues plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Here, the inhibitory effect of bioactive metabolites isolated from fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana on AGE formation was investigated through bio-guided approach using aminoguanidine (AG) as a positive control. Including G. mangostana total methanol extract (GMT) in the reaction mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose or ribose inhibited the fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner. The bioassay guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of four bioactive constituents from the bioactive fraction; which were identified as: garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-glucopyranoside (2), epicatechin (3), and 2,3',4,5',6-pentahydroxybenzophenone (4). All the tested compounds significantly inhibited fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner whereas compound 3 (epicatechin) was found to be the most potent. In search for the level of action, addition of GMT, and compounds 2-4 inhibited fructosamine (Amadori product) and protein aggregation formation in both glucose and ribose. To explore the mechanism of action, it was found that addition of GMT and only compound (3) to reaction mixture increased protein thiol in both glucose and ribose while compounds 1, 2 and 4 only increased thiol in case of ribose. In conclusion, phenolic compounds 1-4 inhibited AGEs formation at the levels of Amadori product and protein aggregation formation through saving protein thiol. PMID:26907243

  20. Kolaviron, Biflavonoid Complex from the Seed of Garcinia kola Attenuated Angiotensin II- and Lypopolysaccharide-induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Nitric Oxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Adedapo, Adeolu Alex; Yakubu, Momoh Audu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid extract from Garcinia kola seeds has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, cardio-protective, nephro-protective and other arrays of chemopreventive capabilities but the mechanism of action is still not completely understood. Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative potential of KV in cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs). Effects of KV (25-100 μg/mL) on VSMC proliferation alone or following treatments with mitogen and proinflammatory agents Angiotensin II (Ag II, 10-6 M) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/mL) and effects on NO production were determined. Cellular proliferations were determined by MTT assay, nitric oxide (NO) level was determined by Griess assay. KV dose-and time dependently attenuated VSMC growth. Results: Treatment of VSMCs with Ag II and LPS significantly enhanced proliferation of the cell which was significantly attenuated by the treatment with KV. Treatment of VSMC with LPS significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) level in the media which was attenuated by KV. These results demonstrated anti-proliferative anti-inflammatory properties of KV as it clearly inhibited cellular proliferation induced by mitogens as well as LPS-induced inflammatory processes. Conclusion: Therefore, KV may mitigate cardiovascular conditions that involve cell proliferation, free radical generation and inflammatory processes such as hypertension, diabetes and stroke. However, the molecular mechanism of action of KV needs to be investigated. SUMMARY Angiotensin-induced cell proliferationKolaviron mitigates angiotensin-induced cell proliferationKolaviron ameliorates nitric oxide productionKolaviron offers antioxidant activity. Abbreviations Used: VSMCs: Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Ag II: Angiotensin II, KV: Kolaviron, LPS: lypopolysaccharide, NO: Nitric Oxide, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, MTT

  1. A new megastigmane sulphoglycoside and polyphenolic constituents from pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thu Huong; Le Huyen, Tram; Tran, Thi Minh; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Pham, Thanh Binh; Nguyen Tien, Dat

    2016-07-01

    A megastigmane sulphoglycoside together with three phenolic compounds were isolated from the water-soluble fraction of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana. The structure of the new compound was determined as 4-O-sulpho-β-d-glucopyranosyl abscisate (1) by spectroscopic data. Proanthocyanidin A2 (2) showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and DPPH scavenging activities with IC50 values of 3.46 and 11.6 μM, respectively. PMID:26727880

  2. Inhibition of human lipoprotein oxidation by morelloflavone and camboginol from Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Kongkachuay, Suyanee; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2007-06-01

    A biflavonoids, morelloflavone (1) and a prenyltated xanthone, camboginol (2), isolated from the fruits of Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz., exhibited strong antioxidation effects in both Fe2+ -mediated and non-metal induced human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidations. However, a well-known antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), was found less potent than both compounds based on the same test systems. PMID:17613824

  3. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, D.; Buwa, L.; Mayekiso, B.; Basson, A. K.; Okoh, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through MIC determination and only Benz2 and Benz3 were found to be active with MIC's ranging from 0.625 to 2.5 mg/mL. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed Benz2 to have 9 compounds whilst Benz3 had 7 compounds, with the major compounds in both fractions being 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.β.) and 9,19-Cyclolanostan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3.β.). The Benz2 fraction was found to have mainly indifferent interactions with ampicillin and penicillin G whilst mainly additive interactions were observed with ciprofloxacin. The Benz3 fraction's interactions were found to be 50% synergistic with penicillin G and 25% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. A commercially available 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.β.) was found not to exhibit any antiListerial activities at maximum test concentrations of 5 mg/mL, suggesting that the compound could be acting in synergy with the other compounds in the eluted fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. PMID:24527056

  4. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Penduka, D; Buwa, L; Mayekiso, B; Basson, A K; Okoh, A I

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through MIC determination and only Benz2 and Benz3 were found to be active with MIC's ranging from 0.625 to 2.5 mg/mL. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed Benz2 to have 9 compounds whilst Benz3 had 7 compounds, with the major compounds in both fractions being 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3. β .) and 9,19-Cyclolanostan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3. β .). The Benz2 fraction was found to have mainly indifferent interactions with ampicillin and penicillin G whilst mainly additive interactions were observed with ciprofloxacin. The Benz3 fraction's interactions were found to be 50% synergistic with penicillin G and 25% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. A commercially available 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3. β .) was found not to exhibit any antiListerial activities at maximum test concentrations of 5 mg/mL, suggesting that the compound could be acting in synergy with the other compounds in the eluted fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. PMID:24527056

  5. Xanthones from Garcinia paucinervis with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Hong; Li, Chen-Xi; Jia, Cui-Cui; Sun, Ya-Ting; Xue, Chun-Mei; Bai, Jiao; Hua, Hui-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Zhan-Lin

    2016-02-01

    Three new xanthones, paucinervins H-J (1-3), as well as eleven known compounds (4-14), were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis. The structures of the new compounds (1-3) were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and HR ESIMS. In vitro antiproliferative activity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells was tested, among which, compounds 2, 5, 6 and 7 exhibited strong growth inhibitory effects with GI50 values ranging from 1.30 to 9.08 μM, respectively. Preliminary SARs were also discussed. PMID:26659874

  6. [A new flavone from stems of Garcinia bracteata and its anti-TMV activity].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-mei; Zhou, Jun; Lou, Jie; Wang, Yue-de; Zhou, Kun; Dong, Wei; Gao, Xue-mei; Hu, Qiu-fen; Jiang, Zhi-yong

    2015-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the stems of Garcinia bracteata collected from Xishuangbanna resulted in the isolation of a new flavone. By analysis of the HRESIMS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, the structure of the new compound was determined as 7-methoxy-4',6-dihydroxy-8-isobutyryl-flavone(1). Compound 1 was also tested for its anti-tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) activity. Results suggested the 1 possessed remarkable anti-TMV activity, with an inhibition rate of 28.2%. PMID:27071257

  7. Chemistry of α-mangostin. Studies on the semisynthesis of minor xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Carlo F; Biagiotti, Marco; Pappalardo, Valeria M; Rabuffetti, Marco; Speranza, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    α-Mangostin is the major prenylated xanthone from Garcinia mangostana and it has been used also in recent times as starting material for the semisynthetic preparation of various biologically active derivatives. Its structure is characterised by the presence of few functional groups amenable to chemical manipulations, but present in the molecule in multiple instances (three phenolic hydroxyl groups, two prenyl chains and two unsubstituted aromatic carbons). This study represents a first approach to the systematic investigation of the reactivity of α-mangostin and describes the semisynthesis of some minor xanthones isolated from G. mangostana. PMID:25482370

  8. Two Unusual Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols, Including a Pair of Enantiomers from Garcinia multiflora.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Min; Yi, Ping; Li, Yang; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Gu, Wei; Ma, Yuan; Huang, Lie-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yang, Chong-Lin; Li, Yan; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Two polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, garcimulins A and B ((±)-1 and 2), including a pair of enantiomers with the unique caged tetracyclo[5.4.1.1(1,5).0(9,13)]tridecane skeleton were isolated from Garcinia multiflora. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines in vitro (IC50 3.42-13.23 μM). The acidification of lysosomes in HeLa cell was obviously affected by compound 2. PMID:25867714

  9. The co-pigmentation of anthocyanin isolated from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia Mangostana L.) as Natural Dye for Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munawaroh, H.; adillah, G. F.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Hanif, Q. A.; Hidayat, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2016-02-01

    Study of color stability of anthocyanin from extract mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) with co-pigmentation method has been conducted. Malic acid and ascorbic acid used as a co-pigment to stabilize the anthocyanin structure through formation of new binding between anthocyanin. Anthocyanin from mangosteen pericarp were isolated by several steps, including maceration, extraction, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The anthocyanin separation was conducted by TLC, while the identification of functional groups of those compound, were used FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for spectra analysis. Ultraviolet- visible absorption spectra have represented differences absorbance and color intensity in various pH. Copigmentation with malic acid and ascorbic acid in many composition and temperature were also well described. Meanwhile, anthocyanin-malic acid and anthocyanin-ascorbic acid have color retention higher than that of pure anthocyanin. Maximum color retention has been achieved at a ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 for ascorbic acid and malic acid, respectively. Therefore, the addition of ascorbic acid and malic acid as a copigment shows the ability to protect color retention of anthocyanin (mangosteen pericarp) from degradation process. The better efficiency of DSSC (η) have been achieved, whereas n of controlled anthocyanin, anthocyanin-ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin-malic acid were 0,1996%, 0,2922%, 0,3029%, respectively.

  10. Diagnostic filtering to screen polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia oblongifolia by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Dan; Li, Hao-Hao; Wang, Hui; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-03-17

    A novel multistage MS approach, insource collision-induced dissociation (CID) combined with Time Aligned Parallel (TAP) fragmentation, was established to study the fragmentation behavior of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), which could provide a more reliable fragmentation relationship between precursor and daughter ions. The diagnostic ions for different subtypes of PPAPs and their fragmentation behaviors have been summarized. Moreover, a new and reliable multidimensional analytical workflow that combines ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), data-independent mass spectrometry (MS(E)), and tandem MS with ion mobility (IM) has been optimized and established for the analysis of PPAPs in the plant Garcinia oblongifolia by diagnostic filtering. Diagnostic fragment ions were used to selectively screen PPAPs from extracts, whereas IM coupled to MS was used to maximize the peak capacity. Under the optimized UHPLC-IM-MS(E) and UHPLC-IM-MS/MS method, 140 PPAPs were detected from the crude extract of G. oblongifolia, and 10 of them were unambiguously identified by comparing them to the reference compounds. Among those PPAPs, 7 pairs of coeluting isobaric PPAPs that were indistinguishable by conventional UHPLC-HRMS alone, were further resolved using UHPLC-IM-MS. It is anticipated that the proposed method will be extended to the rapid screening and characterization of the other targeted or untargeted compounds, especially these coeluting isomers in complex samples. PMID:26920776

  11. Fingerprinting and validation of a LC-DAD method for the analysis of biflavanones in Garcinia kola-based antimalarial improved traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Tshibangu, P Tshisekedi; Kapepula, P Mutwale; Kapinga, M J Kabongo; Lupona, H Kabika; Ngombe, N Kabamba; Kalenda, Dibungi T; Jansen, O; Wauters, J N; Tits, M; Angenot, L; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Marini, R D; Frédérich, M

    2016-09-01

    African populations use traditional medicines in their initial attempt to treat a range of diseases. Nevertheless, accurate knowledge of the composition of these drugs remains a challenge in terms of ensuring the health of population and in order to advance towards improved traditional medicines (ITMs). In this paper chromatographic methods were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of a per os antimalarial ITM containing Garcinia kola. The identified analytical markers were used to establish TLC and HPLC fingerprints. G. kola seeds were analysed by HPLC to confirm the identity of the extract used by the Congolese manufacturer in the ITM. The main compounds (GB1, GB2, GB-1a and Kolaflavanone) were isolated by preparative TLC and identified by UPLC-MS and NMR. For the quantification of the major compound GB1, a simple and rapid experimental design was applied to develop an LC method, and then its validation was demonstrated using the total error strategy with the accuracy profile as a decision tool. The accurate results were observed within 0.14-0.45mg/mL range of GB1 expressed as naringenin. The extracts used in several batches of the analysed oral solutions contained GB1 (expressed as naringenin) within 2.04-2.43%. Both the fingerprints and the validated LC-DAD were found suitable for the quality control of G. kola-based raw material and finished products, respectively. PMID:27343901

  12. Comparative study on the efficacy of Garcinia kola in reducing some heavy metal accumulation in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, C R; Owu, D U; Ufearo, C S; Iwuala, M O E

    2011-05-17

    Garcinia kola is regarded as an antidote and anti-hepatotoxic agent. We examined its protection ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. The ground seed was mixed with rat feed (5%, w/w) and fed to rats while Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. Garcinia kola was administered either at the same time with the metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Garcinia kola could not reverse the weight reduction in the heavy metal exposed groups although it offers more protection and aid greater elimination of heavy metals from the liver. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection by Garcinia kola to Cd (72.4%) and Pb (56.2%) accumulation when compared to Hg (40%) at week 2 which was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2. At week 6, the percentage protection to both Hg (64.2%) and Cd (62.2%) were comparable to each other while protection to Pb (49.9%) accumulation was significantly (P<0.01) reduced. The percentage protection was time-dependent in some groups but treatment during and after the exposure provided a greater protection. Garcinia kola has the highest hepatoprotective effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection against Pb toxicity in rats and its administration is beneficial in reducing heavy metal accumulation in the liver. PMID:21458555

  13. Identification of hepatoprotective xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, guided with tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in HL-7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Qianyu; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Lin, Ligen

    2015-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative damage in human normal hepatocytes (HL-7702), led to the identification of 10 known xanthones. Among them, γ-mangostin (γ-Man) exhibited the most potent activity to attenuate t-BHP induced hepatocyte injury. γ-Man significantly ameliorated t-BHP induced reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cell nuclei morphology change in HL-7702 cells. t-BHP decreased the intracellular levels of key enzymes including glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was totally reversed by γ-Man. Moreover, γ-Man significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione, resulting in the alleviation of oxidative stress. The above results suggest γ-Man is a potential hepatoprotective agent against t-BHP induced oxidative injury, which may benefit the further application of G. mangostana as a health food. PMID:26189454

  14. Antimicrobial effects of three tropical plant extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Okigbo, R N; Mmeka, E C

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of Cymbopogon citatrus (lemongrass) and Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and the seed extracts of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) were carried out. G. kola had effect only on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with no inhibition on Candida albicans. Ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Cymbopogon citratus showed inhibition on the three organism but G. kola ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts only inhibited S. aureus and E. coli with no inhibition on Candida albicans. The organism's susceptibility varied with more inhibition to S. aureus and least to Candida albicans. PMID:20161941

  15. Nitrosatable amines and nitrosamide formation in natural stimulants: Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Mende, P; Pfundstein, B; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1995-08-01

    Three varieties of kola nut, Cola acuminata, C. nitida and Garcinia cola, of Nigerian origin, were analysed for their content of primary and secondary amines, and assessed for their relative methylating potential due to nitrosamide formation. Primary and secondary amines were determined as benzene sulfonamides by gas chromatography/thermal energy analysis (GC/TEA). Dimethylamine, methylamine, ethylamine and isopentylamine were detected in all kola nut varieties, while pyrrolidine, piperidine and isobutylamine were detected in one or more varieties. Estimated average total daily intake of aliphatic amines by a typical kola nut chewer varied from 260 to 1040 micrograms/day for secondary amines and from 2430 to 9710 micrograms/day for primary amines. Methylating activity of the nitrosated kola nuts, expressed as N-nitroso-N-methylurea equivalents, was also determined by GC/TEA. Methylating activity was significantly higher in kola nuts (170-490 micrograms/kg) than has ever been reported for a fresh plant product. These data suggest that the possible role of kola nut chewing in human cancer aetiology should be explored in countries where kola nuts are widely consumed as stimulants. PMID:7672735

  16. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic Myrothecium spp. isolated from Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella.

    PubMed

    Ruma, Karmakar; Sunil, Kumar; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy

    2015-11-01

    Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella, medicinal plants are endemic to Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Sixteen Myrothecium isolates were obtained from the tissues of bark and twigs of these plants. The purpose of this study was to explore the antimicrobial activity and genetic variability of the endophytic Myrothecium isolates. The antimicrobial activity as well as the genetic diversity of endophytic Myrothecium species was investigated through RAPD, ISSR and ITS sequence analysis. Myrothecium isolates were genotypically compared by RAPD and ISSR techniques, 510 and 189 reproducible polymorphic bands were obtained using 20 RAPD and ten ISSR primers respectively. The isolates grouped into four main clades and subgroups using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis. rDNA ITS sequence analysis presented better resolution for characterising the isolates of Myrothecium spp. The clustering patterns of the isolates were almost similar when compared with RAPD and ISSR dendograms. The results signify that RAPD, ISSR and ITS analysis can be employed to distinguish the genetic diversity of the Myrothecium species. The endophytic and pathogenic strains were compared by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour joining methods. One isolate (JX862206) amongst the 16 Myrothecium isolates exhibited potent antibacterial and as well as anti-Candida activity. PMID:26409457

  17. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Desmond N; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J; Lipke, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis. PMID:26195512

  18. Anti-biofilm activity of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia mangostana L.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong T M; Vo, Bac H; Tran, Nhung T; Van, Quyen D

    2015-11-01

    This study was carried out to further examine the anti-biofilm activity of α-mangostin (αMG) isolated from Garcinia mangostana L. grown in Vietnam, against a strongly biofilm producing Streptococcus mutans, a major causative agent of dental caries. The obtained data indicated that topical applications (twice-daily, 60 s exposure each) of 150 μM αMG during biofilm formation on the surfaces of hydroxyapatite disks (sHA) by S. mutans UA159 resulted in 30.7% reduction in biofilm accumulation after 68 h of growth. The treatment did not affect the viability of S. mutans cells in the biofilms. The surface activities of two key enzymes responsible for biofilm formation, i.e. the glycosyltransferases GtfB and GtfC, were reduced by 20 and 35%, respectively (vs. vehicle control, P < 0.05). Interestingly, αMG specifically targeted S. mutans in mixed biofilms, resulting in the decrease of the S. mutans population and total biofilm biomass. αMG was also found to accumulate within the biofilm of S. mutans up to 4.5 μg/biofilm, equal to a concentration of >10 μM/biofilm. In conclusion, this study confirmed anti-biofilm activity of αMG against S. mutans. A brief exposure to αMG may suppress biofilm formation by targeting key enzymes imvolved in biofilm formation. PMID:26618571

  19. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) Presents Genotoxic Effects in Different Cells of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, Peterson Menezes; de Souza Marques, Eduardo; Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; Andrade, Sergio Faloni; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2013-01-01

    Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans. PMID:24250785

  20. Morelloflavone from Garcinia dulcis as a novel biflavonoid inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Tuansulong, Ku-Aida; Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Pinkaew, Decha; Fujise, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid from Garcinia dulcis previously shown to have hypocholesterolemic activity, was examined for its effect on HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. By using the catalytic domain of house mouse HMG-CoA reductase, morelloflavone was found to inhibit the enzyme activity by competing with HMG-CoA whereas it was non-competitive towards NADPH. The inhibition constants (K(i)) with respect to HMG-CoA and NADPH were 80.87 ± 0.06 µm and 103 ± 0.07 µm, respectively. Both flavonoid subunits of this compound, naringenin and luteolin, equally competed with HMG-CoA with K(i) of 83.58 ± 4.37 µm and 83.59 ± 0.94 µm, respectively, and were also non-competitive with NADPH (K(i) of 182 ± 0.67 µm and 188 ± 0.14 µm, respectively). Due to these findings, we suggest that each subunit of morelloflavone would occupy the active site of the enzyme, thereby blocking access of its substrate. The present study thus demonstrates the ability of morelloflavone from G. dulcis to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase in vitro. As a result, this biflavonoid might serve as a new candidate for the future development of hypocholesterolemic agents. PMID:20734327

  1. Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus

    PubMed Central

    Sunkar, Swetha; Nachiyar, C Valli

    2012-01-01

    Objective To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity. PMID:23593575

  2. Effect of dehusked Garcinia kola seeds on the overall pharmacokinetics of quinine in healthy Nigerian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Igbinoba, Sharon I; Onyeji, Cyprian O; Akanmu, Moses A; Soyinka, Julius O; Pullela, Srirama Sarma V V; Cook, James M; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of concurrent ingestion of Garcinia kola seed on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy Nigerian volunteers were assigned into 2 groups (A and B; n = 12 per group) on the basis of G. kola dose orally ingested. Each subject received 600 mg quinine sulfate before and after ingesting 12.5 g of G. kola once daily for 7 days (group A) or 12.5 g twice daily for 6 days and once on the seventh day (group B). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma quinine and its metabolite (3-hydroxyquinine) using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. Concurrent administration of quinine with G. kola reduced quinine tmax by 48% (group A), mean Cmax by 19% and 26% in groups A and B, respectively, and slight reduction in mean AUC0- ∞ of quinine in both groups. 3-hydroxyquinine Cmax also reduced by 29% and 32%; AUC0-∞ by 13% and 9%, respectively. The point estimates of the T/R ratio of the geometric means for all Cmax obtained and only the AUC0-∞ at a higher dose of G. kola were outside the 80%-125% bioequivalence range. In conclusion, an herb-drug interaction was noted with concurrent quinine and G. kola administration. PMID:25328082

  3. Natural Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana with Multifunctional Activities for the Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Nan; Li, Qian; Jing, Ming-Hua; Alba, Espargaró; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Sabaté, Raimon; Han, Yi-Fan; Pi, Rong-Biao; Lan, Wen-Jian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Jing-Kao

    2016-07-01

    Natural xanthones have diversity pharmacological activities. Here, a series of xanthones isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana Linn, named α-Mangostin, 8-Deoxygartanin, Gartanin, Garciniafuran, Garcinone C, Garcinone D, and γ-Mangostin were investigated. Biological screening performed in vitro and in Escherichia coli cells indicated that most of the xanthones exhibited significant inhibition of self-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and also β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, acted as potential antioxidants and biometal chelators. Among these compounds, α-Mangostin, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin showed better antioxidant properties to scavenge Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical than Trolox, and potent neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death partly by up-regulating HO-1 protein level and then scavenging reactive oxygen species. Moreover, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin could be able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. These findings suggest that the natural xanthones have multifunctional activities against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and could be promising compounds for the therapy of AD. PMID:27038926

  4. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs

    PubMed Central

    Padhye, Subhash; Ahmad, Aamir; Oswal, Nikhil; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as an anti-cancer agent, and it is increasingly being realized that garcinol is a pleiotropic agent capable of modulating key regulatory cell signaling pathways. Here we have summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on garcinol and its observed biological activities. We have also provided an explanation of observed properties based on its chemical structure and provided an insight into the structure and properties of chalcones, the precursors of garcinol. The available data is promising but more detailed investigations into the various properties of this compound, particularly its anti-cancer activity are urgently needed, and it is our hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this nature's wonder agent. PMID:19725977

  5. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Desmond N.; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis. PMID:26195512

  6. New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lin, Li-Gen

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. This condition, and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be a promising source for developing effective and safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree, and its fruit, mangosteen, is called 'Queen of Fruit'. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medicinal agent for treatment of various diseases. Products derived from mangosteen are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. This review summarizes the recent chemical and pharmacological studies related to G. mangostana, including weight reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activity. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing and treating obesity, which should encourage more interest in the development of relevant therapeutic methods. PMID:25520256

  7. Mangostanaxanthones I and II, new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaaban, Mona I A; Ross, Samir A

    2014-10-01

    Two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (3) and II (5) were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, along with four known xanthones: 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (1), parvifolixanthone C (2), α-mangostin (4), and rubraxanthone (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, UV, 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. Compounds 3 and 5 displayed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 12.07 and 14.12 μM, respectively using DPPH assay. Compounds 4-6 had weak to moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while demonstrated promising action against Bacillus cereus with MICs 0.25, 1.0, and 1.0mg/mL, respectively. The tested compounds were inactive against Candida albicans. However, they showed selective antifungal potential toward Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 3 and 4 possessed quorum-sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. PMID:25128900

  8. Effect of dehusked Garcinia kola seed on the overall pharmacokinetics of quinine in healthy Nigerian volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Igbinoba, Sharon I.; Onyeji, Cyprian O.; Akanmu, Moses A.; Soyinka, Julius O.; Pullela, Srirama Sarma V.V; Cook, James M.; Nathaniel, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of concurrent ingestion of Garcinia kola seed on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. In a randomized crossover study, 24 healthy Nigerian volunteers were assigned into two groups (A and B; n = 12 per group) on the basis of G. kola dose orally ingested. Each subject received 600mg quinine sulphate before and after ingesting 12.5g of G. kola once daily for seven days (Group A) or 12.5g twice daily for six days and once on the seventh day (Group B). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma quinine and its metabolite, (3-hydroxyquinine) using a validated HPLC method. Concurrent administration of quinine with G. kola reduced quinine tmax by 48% (group A), mean Cmax by 19% and 26% in groups A and B, and slight reduction in mean AUC0–∞ of quinine in both groups. 3-hydroxyquinine Cmax also reduced by 29% and 32%; AUC0–∞ by 13% and 9% respectively. The point estimates of the T/R ratio of the geometric means for all Cmax obtained and only the AUC0–∞ at a higher dose of G. kola were outside the 80–125% bioequivalence range. In conclusion, an herb-drug interaction was noted with concurrent quinine and G. kola administration. PMID:25328082

  9. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex of Garcinia kola seeds modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Ayepola, Omolola R; Cerf, Marlon E; Brooks, Nicole L; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is a complex disease that involves increased production of free radicals which is a strong stimulus for the release of pro-inflammatory factors. We evaluated the renal protective effect of kolaviron (KV) - a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of 5 flavonoids, in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: untreated controls (C); normal rats treated with kolaviron (C+KV); untreated diabetic rats (D); kolaviron treated diabetic rats (D+KV). A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg) was used for the induction of diabetes. Renal function parameters were estimated in a clinical chemistry analyzer. Markers of oxidative stress in the kidney homogenate were analyzed in a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader and Bio-plex Promagnetic bead-based assays was used for the analysis of inflammatory markers. The effect of kolaviron on diabetes-induced apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay. In the diabetic rats, alterations in antioxidant defenses such as an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were observed. There was no difference in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Diabetes induction increased apoptotic cell death and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α with no effect on IL-10. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation and increased ORAC and GSH concentration in renal tissues. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats also suppressed renal IL-1β. The beneficial effects of kolaviron on diabetes-induced kidney injury may be due to its inhibitory action on oxidative stress, IL-1β production and apoptosis. PMID:25481391

  10. Apoptosis-mediated antiproliferative activity of friedolanostane triterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Garcinia celebica against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    SUBARNAS, ANAS; DIANTINI, AJENG; ABDULAH, RIZKY; ZUHROTUN, ADE; NUGRAHA, PATRIA A.; HADISAPUTRI, YUNI E.; PUSPITASARI, IRMA M.; YAMAZAKI, CHIHO; KUWANO, HIROYUKI; KOYAMA, HIROSHI

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of Garcinia celebica strongly inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. The present study focused on investigating the active anticancer and antiproliferative compound from the G. celebica leaves and assessing its mechanism of action. Ethanol extracts of G. celebica were fractionated based on their polarity using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water. The antiproliferative properties were tested in vitro against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The active compound was subsequently isolated using column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance. The characterized compound was also tested for its antiproliferative properties and the mechanism by which it induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by western blot analysis of the activated apoptotic proteins. This resulted in the isolation of a friedolanostane triterpenoid, which was determined to be methyl-3α, 23-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanstan-8,14,24-trien-26-oat. This compound inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 82 and 70 µM for the 24 and 48 h treatments, respectively. Furthermore, the western blot analysis suggested that the compound exerted its anticancer activities by promoting apoptosis through the inhibition of the oncogenic protein Akt, thereby increasing the expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. These results suggest that methyl-3α,23-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanstan-8,14,24-trien-26-oat is the anticancer compound found in G. celebica, providing a basis for its potential use in cancer disease management. PMID:26870339

  11. Cylindroxanthones A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Ersam, Taslim; Fatmawati, Sri; Siripong, Pongpun; Aree, Thammarat; Tip-pyang, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Three new xanthones, cylindroxanthones A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The molecular structure of 1 was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These three xanthones were evaluated regarding their cytotoxicity against KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7, and Hep G2 cancer cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 value of 2.36 μM. PMID:26611370

  12. Dataset of SSR markers for ISSR-Suppression-PCR to detect genetic variation in Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we present 15 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers with the motifs (AC)n, (GA)n, and (AC)n(AG)n using a ISSR-Suppression-PCR technique in order to discriminate Garcinia mangostana from diverse geographical origins in Peninsular Malaysia. A few loci showed differences between 3 and 6 bp in allele size, indicating that there are some polymorphisms between individuals correlating to the number of SSR repeats that may be useful for differentiate of genotypes. Collectively, these data show that the ISSR-Suppression-PCR is a valuable method to illustrate genetic variation of selected G. mangostana in Malaysia. PMID:27617279

  13. Effectiveness of primate seed dispersers for an "oversized" fruit, Garcinia benthamii.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Kim R; Brockelman, Warren Y; Saralamba, Chanpen; Nathalang, Anuttara

    2015-10-01

    The largest fruits found in tropical forests may depend on complementary seed dispersal strategies. These fruits are dispersed most effectively by megafauna, but populations can persist where megafauna are absent or erratic visitors. Smaller animals often consume these large fruits, but their capacity to disperse these seeds effectively has rarely been assessed. We evaluated the contributions of gibbons (Hylobates lar) and other frugivores in the seed dispersal of the megafaunal fruit Garcinia benthamii, using the SDE (seed dispersal effectiveness) landscape. Gibbons preferentially consumed G. benthamii fruits and were the main seed disperser that we observed. However, gibbons became satiated when availability was high, with 57% of fruits falling to the ground unhandled. Recruitment of seedlings from gibbon-dispersed seeds was also very low. Elephants consumed G. benthamii fruit, but occurred at low density and were rare visitors to the trees. We suggest that gibbons might complement the seed dispersal role of elephants for G. benthamii, allowing limited recruitment in areas (such as the study site) where elephants occur at low density. Fruit availability varied between years; when availability was low, gibbons reliably consumed most of the crop and dispersed some seeds that established seedlings, albeit at low numbers (2.5 seedlings per crop). When fruit availability was high, the fruit supply overwhelmed the gibbons and other arboreal frugivores, ensuring a large abundance of fruit available to terrestrial seed dispersers. Although gibbons effectively dispersed more seeds at these times (20.7 seedlings per crop), there was the potential for elephants to move many more seeds. Complementary seed dispersal strategies may be important for megafaunal fruit, because they ensure that very large fruits are able to benefit from megafaunal dispersal but also persist where this dispersal becomes erratic. However, our data suggest that smaller seed dispersers might not be

  14. Efficacy of Slim339 in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects.

    PubMed

    Toromanyan, Edward; Aslanyan, Gayane; Amroyan, Elmira; Gabrielyan, Emil; Panossian, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of orally self-administered Slim339, a proprietary fixed combination of Garcinia cambogia extract with calcium pantothenate (standardized for the content of hydroxycitric acid and pantothenic acid) and extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Rosa damascena, Lavandula officinalis and Cananga odorata, on body weight in overweight and obese volunteers. During a 60-day treatment period, the average reduction in body weight for the group receiving Slim339 (n = 30) was 4.67% compared with 0.63% for the placebo group (n = 28) (p < 0.0001). Weight losses of >or=3 kg were recorded for 23 subjects in the treatment group and only one in the placebo group. It is concluded that Slim339 represents a potential therapy for obesity. PMID:17639559

  15. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity. PMID:26090459

  16. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity. PMID:26090459

  17. Natural products: a safest approach for obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Neeru; Yadav, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize adverse reactions associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The use of natural products as medicine has been documented for hundreds of years in various traditional systems of medicines throughout the world. This review focuses on the medicinal plants such as Achyranthus aspera, Camellia sinensis, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, etc., being used traditionally in Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Chinese, etc., systems of medicine. The review also highlights recent reported phytochemicals such as escins, perennisosides, dioscin, gracillin, etc., and the various extracts of the plants like Nelumbo nucifera, Panax japonicas, Cichorium intybus, Cyperus rotundus, Paeonia suffruticosa, etc., which have been successfully identified for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22821661

  18. New Dietary Supplements for Obesity: What We Currently Know.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and its associated cardiometabolic alterations currently are considered an epidemic; thus, their treatment is of major importance. The cornerstone for such treatment involves therapeutic lifestyle changes; however, the vast majority of cases fail and/or significant weight loss is maintained only in the short term because of lack of compliance. The popularity of dietary supplements for weight management has increased, and a wide variety of these products are available over the counter. However, the existing scientific evidence is insufficient to recommend their safe use. Hence, the purpose of this article is to review the clinical effects, proposed mechanism of action, and safety profile of some of the new dietary supplements, including white bean extract, Garcinia cambogia, bitter orange, Hoodia gordonii, forskolin, green coffee, glucomannan, β-glucans, chitosan, guar gum, and raspberry ketones. PMID:27053066

  19. Screening of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia species using precursor ion discovery (PID) scan and ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Song, Jing-Zheng; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Li, Song-Lin; Han, Quan-Bin; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2009-10-01

    A strategy was newly developed to rapidly screen polycyclic polyprenylated acyl-phloroglucinols (PPAPs) from the plant matrices of nine Garcinia species using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with comprehensive mass spectrometric approaches including precursor ion discovery (PID) and tandem mass (MS/MS) scans. The PPAPs share the same diagnostic product ion at m/z 177.02 in positive MS/MS scan, which may be increased as the base peak by ramping the cone voltage from 45 to 100 V. With this ramping cone voltage PID scan, it is feasible to selectively screen the PPAPs from 29 samples of nine Garcinia species. This approach has proven to be a powerful, highly selective, and sensitive tool for rapid screening and detection of nontargeted components in natural products before the purification and structural elucidation process. PMID:19643632

  20. Anti-obesity Effect of Yogurt Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 in Diet-induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of yogurt fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 in diet-induced obese rats. To examine the effects, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on six different diets, as follows: Group A was fed an ND and orally administrated saline solution; Group B, an HFD and orally administrated saline solution; Group C, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt fermented by ABT-3 and L. plantarum Q180; Group D, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt with added Garcinia cambogia extract, fermented by ABT-3 and L. plantarum Q180; Group E, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt fermented by L. plantarum Q180; and Group F, an HFD and orally administrated yogurt with added Garcinia cambogia extract, fermented by L. plantarum Q180 for eight weeks. After eight weeks, the rate of increase in bodyweight was 5.14%, 6.5%, 3.35% and 10.81% lower in groups C, D, E and F, respectively, compared with group B; the epididymal fat weight of groups E and F was significantly lower than that of group B; and the level of triglyceride and leptin was significantly reduced in groups C, D, E and F compared to group B. In addition, the level of AST was reduced in group C compared to the other groups. To examine the effects of yogurt on the reduction of adipocyte size, the adipocyte sizes were measured. The number of large-size adipose tissue was less distributed in groups A, C, D, E and F than in group B. PMID:27499667

  1. Kolaviron, a Garcinia biflavonoid complex ameliorates hyperglycemia-mediated hepatic injury in rats via suppression of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia-induced liver injury. Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds have been shown to possess anti- inflammatory properties which has not been explored in diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of KV on pro-inflammatory proteins in the liver of diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Kolaviron (100 mg/kg) was administered orally five times a week for six weeks. The concentrations of cytokines and chemokine were measured using Bio-plex Pro™ magnetic bead-based assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). Plasma glucose and serum biomarkers of liver dysfunction were analyzed with diagnostic kits in an automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Insulin concentration was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Result Kolaviron (100mg/kg) treatment significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction. Serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes were significantly reduced in kolaviron treated diabetic rats. Kolaviron prevented diabetes induced increase in the hepatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the hepatoprotective effects of kolaviron in diabetic rats may be partly associated with its modulating effect on inflammatory responses. PMID:24359406

  2. Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, some of the xanthones from mangosteen have been found to influence specific enzyme activities, such as aromatase, HIV-1 protease, inhibitor κB kinase, quinone reductase, sphingomyelinase, topoisomerase and several protein kinases, and they also modulate histamine H1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding. Several synthetic procedures for active xanthones and their analogs have been conducted to obtain a better insight into structure-activity relationships for this compound class. This short review deals with progress made in the structural characterization of the chemical constituents of mangosteen, as well as the biological activity of pure constituents of this species and synthetic methods for the mangosteen xanthones. PMID:21562610

  3. Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. We found that the position and intensity of characteristic peaks at 3600-3100 cm(-) (1) in IR spectra allowed discrimination of G. mangostana from different locations. Further principal component analysis (PCA) of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan (South) were clustered together in one group while samples from Perak, Kedah, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu (North and East Coast) were in another clustered group. PMID:27257614

  4. A new benzoylphloroglucinol derivative with an adamantyl skeleton and other constituents from Garcinia multiflora: effects on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung

    2012-01-01

    A novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative, garcimultiflorone D (1), with an unusual adamantyl-caged skeleton was isolated from the fruits of Garcinia multiflora, together with four known compounds. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D/2D-NMR and mass-spectrometric analyses. Garcimultiflorone D (1) exhibited inhibitory activities with IC(50) values of 7.21±1.07 and 6.01±0.37 μg/ml against fMLP/CB-induced superoxide anion generation and elastase release, respectively. PMID:22253107

  5. Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

    1999-12-15

    Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

  6. Neuroprotective effects of xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2014-08-01

    Lead poisoning is a common environmental toxicity and low level of lead exposure is responsible for neurobehavioral or intelligence defects. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetycholinesterase (AChE) dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice. ICR mice were exposed to lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1%) with or without xanthone co-administration (100 and 200mg/kgBW/day) for 38days. Xanthone possesses a high phenolic content, which is positive correlation with its antioxidant activity (R(2)=0.98). The IC50 of xanthone on scavenging free radical activities, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in cell-free system were 0.48±0.08, 1.88±0.09, 2.20±0.03 and 0.98±0.40mg/mL, respectively. We found that Pb induced AChE dysfunction and memory deficit in a dose dependent manner, indicated by in vitro and in vivo studies. However, xanthone significantly restored AChE activity in the blood and brains of mice and prevented Pb-induced neurobehavioral defect indicators with Forced Swimming and Morris water maze tests. Xanthone treatment improved all indicators compared to the Pb-treated group. In conclusion, xanthone alleviates Pb-induced neurotoxicity, in part, by suppression of oxidative damage and reversing AChE activity with a reduction in learning deficit and memory loss. PMID:24795231

  7. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation. PMID:17566886

  8. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Nigerian chewing sticks.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, O; Xu, H X; Lee, S F

    1999-12-01

    Ten aqueous extracts from wooden chewing sticks widely used in Nigeria for teeth cleaning were studied for antibacterial activities against 25 different bacteria using an agar diffusion assay. The extracts from five sticks, namely Garcinia kola, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens, Sorindeia warneckei and Vitex doniana, exhibited strong activities against a wide spectrum of bacteria including medically and dentally relevant bacteria. Notably, these five chewing stick extracts showed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from Vernonia amygdalina, Fagara zanthoxyloides and Massularia acuminata also showed activities against bacteria significant to periodontal disease. Methanol extracts prepared from G. kola, A. leiocarpus and V. doniana were further fractionated by solvent extraction. Results showed that the antibacterial activities were distributed into different fractions suggesting that the sticks contain different active antibacterial principles. In conclusion, the results showed that most of the Nigerian chewing sticks do contain antibacterial activities which may contribute to the reported anticaries effect of chewing sticks. These sticks may be sources for new lead antibacterial agents for therapeutic or preventive applications. PMID:10594937

  9. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Voravuthikunchai, S P; Kitpipit, L

    2005-06-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of ten traditional Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their ability to inhibit 35 hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nine medicinal plants displayed activity against all isolates tested. Ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria were most effective, with MICs for MRSA isolates of 0.05-0.4, 0.2-0.4 and 0.2-0.4 mg/mL, respectively, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively. MBCs for MRSA isolates were 0.1-0.4, 1.6-3.2 and 0.4-1.6 mg/mL, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 were 0.4, 3.2 and 1.6 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:15882206

  10. A new NMR approach for structure determination of thermally unstable biflavanones and application to phytochemicals from Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Salger, Mathias; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Previous activity-guided phytochemical studies on Garcinia buchananii stem bark, which is traditionally used in Africa to treat various gastrointestinal and metabolic illnesses, revealed xanthones, polyisoprenylated benzophenones, flavanone-C-glycosides, biflavonoids, and/or biflavanones as bioactive key molecules. Unequivocal structure elucidation of biflavonoids and biflavanones by means of NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the hindered rotation of the monomers around the C-C axis (atropisomerism), resulting in a high spectral complexity. In order to facilitate an unrestricted rotation, NMR spectra are usually recorded at elevated temperatures, commonly over 80 °C, which effects in a single set of resonance signals. However, under these conditions, one of the target compounds of this investigation, (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone (1), undergoes degradation. Therefore, we demonstrated in the present study that the 1,1-ADEQUATE could be successfully used as a powerful alternative approach to confirm the C-C connectivities in 1, avoiding detrimental conditions. However, a moderate increase in temperature up to 50 °C was sufficient to deliver sharp signals in the proton NMR experiment of (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-isomanniflavanone (2) and (2″R,3″R)-preussianone (3). In addition, two new compounds could be isolated, namely (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-2 7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone-7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), and whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. The aforementioned compounds exhibited high anti-oxidative capacity in the H2O2 scavenging, hydrophilic Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (H-TEAC) and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC) assays. PMID:26195084

  11. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-Dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  12. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  13. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-12-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

  14. Stability of cough linctus (streptol) formulated from named medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Iwu, Maurice; Okunji, Christopher; Tchimene, Michel; Anele, Ngozi; Chah, Kennedy; Osonwa, Uduma; Akpa, Paul Achile; Onunkwo, Godswill Chukwunweike

    2009-03-01

    Extracts of named medicinal herbs (Garcinia kola, Zingiber oificinale, Aframonum melequeta and Ocimum viride) were formulated into an antitussive preparation to alleviate cough. Some physical properties of the cough syrup formulation evaluated were: specific gravity, pH, viscosity, content uniformity, and shelf life. The specific gravity and viscosity of the formulations were stable on storage, with glycerin-based formulations having higher values. The pH of the formulation varied from 4.2 to 5.3 and was also stable on storage. Glycerin-based formulations had lower pH values. The total flavonoids content of Streptol was calculated based on GB1 and found to be 46 mg. The estimated shelf life of the Streptol cough syrup was 4.5 years. PMID:19252311

  15. Antitumor and apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.) in YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LEE, HAE NIM; JANG, HYE YEON; KIM, HYEONG JIN; SHIN, SEONG AH; CHOO, GANG SIK; PARK, YOUNG SEOK; KIM, SANG KI; JUNG, JI YOUN

    2016-01-01

    α-mangostin is a dietary xanthone which has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-allergic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects in various types of human cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin on YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells. The results from MTT assays revealed that cell proliferation significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the cells treated with α-mangostin. DAPI staining illustrated that chromatin condensation in the cells treated with 15 µM α-mangostin was far greater than that in the untreated cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that α-mangostin suppressed YD-15 cell viability by inducing apoptosis and promoting cell cycle arrest in the sub-G1 phase. Western blot analysis of various signaling molecules revealed that α-mangostin targeted the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways through the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. α-mangostin also increased the levels of Bax (pro-apoptotic), cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), whereas the levels of the anti-apoptotic factors, Bcl-2 and c-myc, decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The anticancer effects of α-mangostin were also investigated in a tumor xenograft mouse model. The α-mangostin-treated nude mice bearing YD-15 tumor xenografts exhibited a significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor weight due to the potent promoting effects of α-mangostin on cancer cell apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL assay. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the level of cleaved caspase-3 increased, whereas the Ki-67, p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 levels decreased in the α-mangostin-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of our study indicate that α-mangostin induces the apoptosis of YD-15 tongue carcinoma cells through the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26951885

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 1,3,5,7-Tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone Isolated from Twigs of Garcinia esculenta on Stimulated Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Hong; Lao, Yuan-zhi; Wu, Rong; Xu, Jin-wen; Murad, Ferid; Bian, Ka; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia Linn. plants having rich natural xanthones and benzophenones with anti-inflammatory activity attracted a great deal of attention to discover and develop them as potential drug candidates. Through screening targeting nitric oxide accumulation in stimulated macrophage, we found that 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone (TIE) had potential anti-inflammatory effect. To understand how TIE elicits its anti-inflammatory activity, we uncovered that it significantly inhibits the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In further study, we showed that TIE reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), two key molecules responsible for the production of NO and PGE2 during inflammation progress. Additionally, TIE also suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. TIE-led suppression in iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines production were probably the consequence of TIE's capability to block ERK and p38MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, TIE blocked activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as NF-κB regulation of miR155 expression. Our study suggests that TIE may represent as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26538826

  17. Screening of mammalian DNA polymerase and topoisomerase inhibitors from Garcinia mangostana L. and analysis of human cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takefumi; Takenaka, Yukiko; Kozaki, Sachiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    We purified and identified eight xanthones from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and investigated whether these compounds inhibited the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases (Pols) and human DNA topoisomerases (Topos). β-Mangostin was the strongest inhibitor of both mammalian Pols and human Topos among the isolated xanthones, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.4-39.6 and 8.5-10 µM, respectively. Thermal transition analysis indicated that β-mangostin did not directly bind to double-stranded DNA, suggesting that this compound directly bound the enzyme protein rather than the DNA substrate. β-Mangostin showed the strongest suppression of human cervical cancer HeLa cell proliferation among the eight compounds tested, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 27.2 µM. This compound halted cell cycle in S phase at 12-h treatment and induced apoptosis. These results suggest that decreased proliferation by β-mangostin may be a result of the inhibition of cellular Pols rather than Topos, and β-mangostin might be an anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26781450

  18. Griffipavixanthone from Garcinia oblongifolia champ induces cell apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer H520 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Min; Huang, Hui-Juan; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Li, Xu-E

    2014-01-01

    Griffipavixanthone (GPX) is a dimeric xanthone which was isolated in a systematic investigation of Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. In this study, we investigate the effect of GPX on cell proliferation and apoptosis on human Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and determine the mechanisms of its action. GPX inhibited the growth of H520 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, with IC50 values of 3.03 ± 0.21 μM at 48 h. The morphologic characteristics of apoptosis and apoptotic bodies were observed by fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope. In addition, Annexin V/PI double staining assay revealed that cells in early stage of apoptosis were significantly increased upon GPX treatment dose-dependently. Rh123 staining assay indicated that GPX reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. DCFH-DA staining revealed that intracellular ROS increased with GPX treatment. Moreover, GPX cleaved and activated caspase-3. In summary, this study showed that GPX inhibited H520 cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner. Further mechanistic study indicated that GPX induced cell apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway accompanying with ROS production. Our results demonstrate the potential application of GPX as an anti-non-small cell lung cancer agent. PMID:24473206

  19. Inhibition of CHOP accentuates the apoptotic effect of α-mangostin from the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-10-10

    The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit has been a popular food in Southeast Asia for centuries and is increasing in popularity in Western countries. We identified α-Mangostin as a primary phytochemical modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer cells and propose that α-Mangostin is responsible for exerting a biological effect in prostate cancer cells. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with α-Mangostin and evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blot, fluorescent microscopy and siRNA transfection to evaluate ER stress. Next, we evaluated α-Mangostin for microsomal stability, pharmacokinetic parameters, and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. α-Mangostin significantly upregulated ER stress markers in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, α-Mangostin did not promote ER stress in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) from prostate cancer patients. CHOP knockdown enhanced α-Mangostin-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. α-Mangostin significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Our study suggests that α-Mangostin is not the only active constituent from the mangosteen fruit requiring further work to understand the complex chemical composition of the mangosteen. PMID:25261723

  20. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-03-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically

  1. In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 μg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 μg/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced

  2. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  3. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

  4. Nutrition Supplements to Stimulate Lipolysis: A Review in Relation to Endurance Exercise Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial. The present review will describe the effectiveness of lipolytic supplements in fat metabolism and as an ergogenic aid for increasing endurance exercise capacity. There are a number of lipolytic supplements available on the market, but this review focuses on natural ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, L-carnitine, Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid), capsaicin, ginseng, taurine, silk peptides and octacosanol, all of which have shown scientific evidence of enhancing fat metabolism associated with improving endurance performance. We excluded some other supplements owing to lack of data on fat metabolism or endurance capacity. Based on the data in this review, we suggest that a caffeine and green tea extract improves endurance performance and enhances fat oxidation. Regarding other supplements, the data on their practical implications needs to be gathered, especially for athletes. PMID:27465721

  5. A review on botanical species and chemical compounds with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control.

    PubMed

    Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-09-01

    As obesity has reached epidemic proportions, the management of this global disease is of clinical importance. The availability and popularity of natural dietary supplements for the treatment of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this paper was to review the effect of commonly available over the counter plant-derived supplements used to suppress appetite for obesity control and management. The data were obtained from the electronic databases PubMed, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE with full text (via EBSCOHost) and the databases were accessed during late 2012 - early January 2013. The botanical species discussed in this review include Camellia sinensis, Caralluma fimbriata, Citrus aurantium, Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia and Phaseolus vulgaris. This review found that many botanical species including crude extracts and isolated compounds from plants have been shown to provide potentially promising therapeutic effects including appetite control and weight loss. However, many of these crude extracts and compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms of action, long term safety, and potential side effects. PMID:23666454

  6. Dose-Independent ADME Properties and Tentative Identification of Metabolites of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana in Mice by Automated Microsampling and UPLC-MS/MS Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Chul; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    The information about a marker compound's pharmacokinetics in herbal products including the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) is closely related to the efficacy/toxicity. Also dose range and administration route are critical factors to determine the ADME profiles. Since the supply of a sufficient amount of a marker compound in in vivo study is still difficult, pharmacokinetic investigations which overcome the limit of blood collection in mice are desirable. Thus, we have attempted to investigate concurrently the ADME and proposed metabolite identification of α-mangostin, a major constituent of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L, in mice with a wide dose range using an in vitro as well as in vivo automated micro-sampling system together. α-mangostin showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses of 5–20 mg/kg and oral doses of 10–100 mg/kg. The gastrointestinal absorption of α-mangostin was poor and the distribution of α-mangostin was relatively high in the liver, intestine, kidney, fat, and lung. α-mangostin was extensively metabolized in the liver and intestine. With regards to the formation of metabolites, the glucuronidated, bis-glucuronidated, dehydrogenated, hydrogenated, oxidized, and methylated α-mangostins were tentatively identified. We suggest that these dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics of α-mangostin in mice provide an important basis for preclinical applications of α-mangostin as well as mangosteen. In addition, these experimental methods can be applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice. PMID:26176540

  7. Dose-Independent ADME Properties and Tentative Identification of Metabolites of α-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana in Mice by Automated Microsampling and UPLC-MS/MS Methods.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Yon; You, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Yu Chul; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    The information about a marker compound's pharmacokinetics in herbal products including the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) is closely related to the efficacy/toxicity. Also dose range and administration route are critical factors to determine the ADME profiles. Since the supply of a sufficient amount of a marker compound in in vivo study is still difficult, pharmacokinetic investigations which overcome the limit of blood collection in mice are desirable. Thus, we have attempted to investigate concurrently the ADME and proposed metabolite identification of α-mangostin, a major constituent of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L, in mice with a wide dose range using an in vitro as well as in vivo automated micro-sampling system together. α-mangostin showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses of 5-20 mg/kg and oral doses of 10-100 mg/kg. The gastrointestinal absorption of α-mangostin was poor and the distribution of α-mangostin was relatively high in the liver, intestine, kidney, fat, and lung. α-mangostin was extensively metabolized in the liver and intestine. With regards to the formation of metabolites, the glucuronidated, bis-glucuronidated, dehydrogenated, hydrogenated, oxidized, and methylated α-mangostins were tentatively identified. We suggest that these dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics of α-mangostin in mice provide an important basis for preclinical applications of α-mangostin as well as mangosteen. In addition, these experimental methods can be applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice. PMID:26176540

  8. Different Ways to On-Line Hyphenate Centrifugal Partition Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry: Application to Prenylated Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Destandau, Emilie; Michel, Thomas; Toribio, Alix; Elfakir, Claire

    2015-11-01

    Centrifugal partition chromatography is a liquid-liquid separation method well adapted for the fractionation or purification of natural compounds from plant extracts. However, following the preparative isolation, the fractions collected must be analysed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography to evaluate their composition and/or their purity. These additional steps are time-consuming and increase the risk of compound degradation. In order to get an instantaneous analysis of fraction content with structural information on the phytochemicals eluted, it is possible to hyphenate on-line centrifugal partition chromatography with mass spectrometry. Depending on the complexity of the extract, two different kinds of centrifugal partition chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling can be performed: centrifugal partition chromatography-mass spectrometry or centrifugal partition chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling. In the first case, one part of the centrifugal partition chromatography effluent is directly introduced in the mass spectrometry ionisation source to identify the eluted compounds, while in the second case, it is directed to a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system where compounds are first separated thanks to high-performance liquid chromatography and then identified using mass spectrometry. PMID:25615274

  9. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts of Seven Fruits Found in the Southern Brazilian Flora

    PubMed Central

    Bagattoli, P.C.D.; Cipriani, D. C.; Mariano, L.N.B.; Correa, M.; Wagner, T. M.; Noldin, V. F.; Filho, V. Cechinel; Niero, R.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol extracts of seven edible fruits found in southern Brazil: Garcinia achachairu, Rubus imperialis, Rubus rosaefolius, Solanum quitoense, Solanum sessiliflorun, Diospyros inconstans and Plinia glomerata, were evaluated for their total phenol content and antioxidant activity in different in vitro free radical scavenging models. In addition, studies were performed on cell viability of extracts of the seeds of G. achachairu against murine melanoma cells. The fruits peel and seeds of G. achachairu were very promising in terms of total phenol content (data in gallic acid equivalent per gram), as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with values of 9.70±3.2 and 8.40±1.1, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay showed that the fruit pulp and peel of P. glomerata presented the best profile, with values of the 16.3±1.8 and 15.9±2.4 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract and guttiferone A from G. achachairu, we have observed that both inhibit the growth of B16F10 tumor cells, with calculated IC50 values of 49.6±2.1 mg/ml and 48.6±5.4 mM, respectively. PMID:27168679

  10. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts of Seven Fruits Found in the Southern Brazilian Flora.

    PubMed

    Bagattoli, P C D; Cipriani, D C; Mariano, L N B; Correa, M; Wagner, T M; Noldin, V F; Filho, V Cechinel; Niero, R

    2016-01-01

    Methanol extracts of seven edible fruits found in southern Brazil: Garcinia achachairu, Rubus imperialis, Rubus rosaefolius, Solanum quitoense, Solanum sessiliflorun, Diospyros inconstans and Plinia glomerata, were evaluated for their total phenol content and antioxidant activity in different in vitro free radical scavenging models. In addition, studies were performed on cell viability of extracts of the seeds of G. achachairu against murine melanoma cells. The fruits peel and seeds of G. achachairu were very promising in terms of total phenol content (data in gallic acid equivalent per gram), as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with values of 9.70±3.2 and 8.40±1.1, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay showed that the fruit pulp and peel of P. glomerata presented the best profile, with values of the 16.3±1.8 and 15.9±2.4 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract and guttiferone A from G. achachairu, we have observed that both inhibit the growth of B16F10 tumor cells, with calculated IC50 values of 49.6±2.1 mg/ml and 48.6±5.4 mM, respectively. PMID:27168679

  11. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  12. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  13. (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid Nourishes Protein Synthesis via Altering Metabolic Directions of Amino Acids in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Ningning; Li, Longlong; Peng, Mengling; Ma, Haitian

    2016-08-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress body weight gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the underlying mechanism of (-)-HCA has not fully understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of long-term supplement with (-)-HCA on body weight gain and variances of amino acid content in rats. Results showed that (-)-HCA treatment reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in rats. The content of hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen, and serum T4 , T3 , insulin, and Leptin were increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Protein content in liver and muscle were significantly increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Amino acid profile analysis indicated that most of amino acid contents in serum and liver, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were higher in (-)-HCA treatment groups. However, most of the amino acid contents in muscle, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were reduced in (-)-HCA treatment groups. These results indicated that (-)-HCA treatment could reduce body weight gain through promoting energy expenditure via regulation of thyroid hormone levels. In addition, (-)-HCA treatment could promote protein synthesis by altering the metabolic directions of amino acids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145492

  14. α-Mangostin: A Dietary Antioxidant Derived from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth in Xenograft Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ala; Fischer, Joseph W.; Singh, Ashok; Zhong, Weixiong; Shekhani, Mohammed Ozair; Meske, Louise; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive malignant disease, ranking as the fourth most leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States. In this study, we provide evidence of chemotherapeutic effects of α-mangostin, a dietary antioxidant isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. against human PC. Results: The chemotherapeutic effect of α-mangostin was determined using four human PC cells (PL-45, PANC1, BxPC3, and ASPC1). α-Mangostin resulted in a significant inhibition of PC cells viability without having any effects on normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. α-Mangostin showed a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in PC cells. Also, α-mangostin inhibited the expression levels of pNF-κB/p65Ser552, pStat3Ser727, and pStat3Tyr705. α-Mangostin inhibited DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator 3 (Stat3). α-Mangostin inhibited the expression levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin D1, and gp130; however, increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) was observed in PC cells. In addition, i.p. administration of α-mangostin (6 mg/kg body weight, 5 days a week) resulted in a significant inhibition of both primary (PL-45) and secondary (ASPC1) human PC cell-derived orthotopic and ectopic xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. No sign of toxicity was observed in any of the mice administered with α-mangostin. α-Mangostin treatment inhibited the biomarkers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]) in the xenograft tumor tissues. Innovation: We present, for the first time, that dietary antioxidant α-mangostin inhibits the growth of PC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of α-mangostin against human PC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 682–699. PMID:24295217

  15. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  16. Bevalac extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  17. In vivo toxicity and antitumor activity of mangosteen extract.

    PubMed

    Kosem, Nuttavut; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Utsumi, Hideo; Moongkarndi, Primchanien

    2013-04-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) has been widely used in the traditional medicine of Thailand to treat various ailments, especially diseases of the digestive system and infections. Many reports show antiproliferation of crude extracts and active constituents from mangosteen against many cancer cell lines. Therefore, the current study is proposed to demonstrate in vivo evidence on the antitumor activity of mangosteen. Crude methanolic extract (CME) from mangosteen pericarp including 25.19 % α-mangostin as an active xanthone was used in this study. The inhibition on tumor cell proliferation of CME was preliminarily evaluated against the murine colon cancer cell line NL-17 with an IC50 value of 17 and 84 μg/ml based on WST-1 and LDH assays, respectively. The safety dose for animal application was assessed by in vivo toxicity studies using female BALB/c mice. Acute toxicity showed an LD50 value and approximate lethal dose at 1,000 mg/kg, whereas the suitable dose for short-term study should be ≤200 mg/kg. The effective dose for antitumor activity of CME was found to be between 100 and 200 mg/kg, with a tumor size reduction of 50-70 %. Histological staining clearly illustrated a decrease of tumor cell density in the footpad in a dose-dependent manner. The median survival time and life span significantly increased in tumor-bearing mice with CME treatment. This study suggests that CME possesses a powerful antitumor activity. Therefore, it is worth undertaking further investigation to identify active compounds and obtain a deeper understanding of their mechanism, in order to acquire novel effective anticancer drugs. PMID:22622784

  18. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  19. A powder X-ray diffraction method for detection of polyprenylated benzophenones in plant extracts associated with HPLC for quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Felipe T; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Coelho, Carla P; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Dias, Gizelly C; Fracca, Mônica P; Neves, Person P; Stringheta, Paulo C; Doriguetto, Antônio C

    2011-02-20

    A robust, direct, rapid and non-destructive X-ray diffraction crystallography method to detect the polyprenylated benzophenones 7-epi-clusianone (1) and guttiferone A (2) in extracts from Garcinia brasiliensis is presented. Powder samples of benzophenones 1 and 2, dried hexane extracts from G. brasiliensis seeds and fruit's pericarp, and the dried ethanolic extract from G. brasiliensis seeds were unambiguously characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry. The calculated X-ray diffraction peaks from crystal structures of analytes 1 and 2, previously determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique, were overlaid to those of the experimental powder diffractograms, providing a practical identification of these compounds in the analyzed material and confirming the pure contents of the powder samples. Using the X-ray diffraction crystallography method, the studied polyprenylated benzophenones were selectively and simultaneously detected in the extracts which were mounted directly on sample holder. In addition, reference materials of the analytes were not required for analyses since the crystal structures of the compounds are known. High performance liquid chromatography analyses also were comparatively carried out to quantify the analytes in the same plant extracts showing to be in agreement with X-ray diffraction crystallography method. PMID:20943341

  20. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  1. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  2. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  3. Mangosteen pericarp extract inhibits the formation of pentosidine and ameliorates skin elasticity.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Rei-Ichi; Moroishi, Narumi; Sugawa, Hikari; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Saigusa, Musashi; Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Nagai, Mime; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Nagai, Ryoji

    2015-07-01

    The inhibition of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) by daily meals is believed to become an effective prevention for lifestyle-related diseases. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of hot water extracts of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp (WEM) on the formation of pentosidine, one of AGEs, in vitro and in vivo and the remedial effect on skin conditions were measured. WEM significantly inhibited pentosidine formation during gelatin incubation with ribose. Several compounds purified from WEM, such as garcimangosone D and rhodanthenone B, were identified as inhibitors of pentosidine formation. Oral administration of WEM at 100 mg/day to volunteer subjects for 3 months reduced the serum pentosidine contents. Because obtaining skin biopsies from healthy volunteers is ethically difficult, AGE accumulation in the skin was estimated by a fluorescence detector. The oral administration of WEM significantly reduced the skin autofluorescence intensity, demonstrating that WEM also reduced AGE accumulation in the skin. Furthermore, the elasticity and moisture content of the skin was also improved by WEM. These results demonstrate that intakes of WEM reduces the glycation stress and results in the improvement of skin conditions. PMID:26236097

  4. Mangosteen pericarp extract inhibits the formation of pentosidine and ameliorates skin elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Rei-ichi; Moroishi, Narumi; Sugawa, Hikari; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Saigusa, Musashi; Yamanaka, Mikihiro; Nagai, Mime; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Nagai, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) by daily meals is believed to become an effective prevention for lifestyle-related diseases. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of hot water extracts of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp (WEM) on the formation of pentosidine, one of AGEs, in vitro and in vivo and the remedial effect on skin conditions were measured. WEM significantly inhibited pentosidine formation during gelatin incubation with ribose. Several compounds purified from WEM, such as garcimangosone D and rhodanthenone B, were identified as inhibitors of pentosidine formation. Oral administration of WEM at 100 mg/day to volunteer subjects for 3 months reduced the serum pentosidine contents. Because obtaining skin biopsies from healthy volunteers is ethically difficult, AGE accumulation in the skin was estimated by a fluorescence detector. The oral administration of WEM significantly reduced the skin autofluorescence intensity, demonstrating that WEM also reduced AGE accumulation in the skin. Furthermore, the elasticity and moisture content of the skin was also improved by WEM. These results demonstrate that intakes of WEM reduces the glycation stress and results in the improvement of skin conditions. PMID:26236097

  5. Histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos incubated in crude extracts of camellia seed and mangosteen pericarp.

    PubMed

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-10-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  6. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    PubMed Central

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  7. Mangosteen leaf extract increases melanogenesis in B16F1 melanoma cells by stimulating tyrosinase activity in vitro and by up-regulating tyrosinase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Mariani Abdul; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Park, Chang Seo

    2012-02-01

    Melanin synthesis is stimulated by various effectors, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), cyclic AMP (cAMP)-elevating agents (forskolin, isobutylmethylxantine, glycyrrhizin) and ultraviolet light. Our investigation focused on the identification of the melanogenic efficacy of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) leaf extract with regard to its effects on melanogenesis in B16F1 melanoma cells, since it has been known to possess strong anti-oxidant activities. The mangosteen leaf extract was found to stimulate melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner without any significant effects on cell proliferation. Cytotoxicity of the extract was measured using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; the highest concentration of the extract that did not affect cell viability was 32 µg/ml. Formation of melanin from cultured B16F1 melanoma induced by extract treatment was estimated using spectrophotometry. In order to clarify the subsequent mechanism of tyrosinase activation by the extract, the levels of tyrosinase expression in B16F1 melanoma were examined using an intracellular tyrosinase assay and tyrosinase zymography. Up-regulation of intracellular tyrosinase expression seemed to correlate with an increase in microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) protein levels since MITF is the key factor for genes involved in melanogenesis. Both of the results showed that tyrosinase activity was markedly enhanced from extract-treated cells. The overall results suggest that mangosteen leaf extract may be a promising candidate for the treatment of hypopigmentation disorder and useful for self-tanning cosmetic products. PMID:22089762

  8. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Njume, Collise; Jide, Afolayan A.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:22016616

  9. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  10. Anti-Obesity Effects of Soy Leaf via Regulation of Adipogenic Transcription Factors and Fat Oxidation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Jong-Min; Cho, Moon-Hee; Chung, Young-Jin; Park, Ki Hun; Shin, Dong-Ha; Park, Ho-Yong; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jeong, Tae-Sook

    2015-08-01

    The anti-obesity effects of extracts from soy leaves (SLE) cultivated for 8 weeks (8W) or 16 weeks (16W) were investigated in diet-induced obese mice. The effects of kaempferol, an aglycone of the kaempferol glycosides that are the major component of 8W-SLE, and coumestrol, the major component of 16W-SLE, were also investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), 8W-SLE (HFD+8W-SLE 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), 16W-SLE (HFD+16W-SLE 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), and Garcinia cambogia extracts (GE) (HFD+GE 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) groups. Body weight gain and fat accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) were highly suppressed by daily oral administration of 8W-SLE and 16W-SLE for 10 weeks. Supplementing a HFD with 8W-SLE and 16W-SLE regulated the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (c/EBPα), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), adipocyte protein 2, and fatty acid synthase (FAS), which are related to adipogenesis, in addition to hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which are related to fat oxidation in WAT. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, kaempferol and coumestrol exhibited anti-adipogenic effects via downregulation of PPARγ, c/EBPα, SREBP-1, and FAS. Kaempferol and coumestrol increased the expression of HSL, CPT-1, and UCP2. PMID:25826408

  11. Antitumor and apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L.)in YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Nim; Jang, Hye Yeon; Kim, Hyeong Jin; Shin, Seong Ah; Choo, Gang Sik; Park, Young Seok; Kim, Sang Ki; Jung, Ji Youn

    2016-04-01

    α-mangostin is a dietary xanthone which has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-allergic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects in various types of human cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the apoptosis-inducing effects of α-mangostin on YD-15 tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells. The results from MTT assays revealed that cell proliferation significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the cells treated with α-mangostin. DAPI staining illustrated that chromatin condensation in the cells treated with 15 µM α-mangostin was far greater than that in the untreated cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that α-mangostin suppressed YD-15 cell viability by inducing apoptosis and promoting cell cycle arrest in the sub-G1 phase. Western blot analysis of various signaling molecules revealed that α-mangostin targeted the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways through the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation in a dose‑dependent manner. α-mangostin also increased the levels of Bax (pro-apoptotic), cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), whereas the levels of the anti-apoptotic factors, Bcl-2 and c-myc, decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The anticancer effects of α-mangostin were also investigated in a tumor xenograft mouse model. The α-mangostin-treated nude mice bearing YD-15 tumor xenografts exhibited a significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor weight due to the potent promoting effects of α-mangostin on cancer cell apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL assay. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the level of cleaved caspase-3 increased, whereas the Ki-67, p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 levels decreased in the α-mangostin‑treated mice. Taken together, the findings of our study indicate that α-mangostin induces the apoptosis of YD-15 tongue carcinoma cells through the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26951885

  12. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  13. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (<50 μA). Bradykinin acetate, angiotensin II antipeptide, angiotensin II acetate, neurotensin, angiotensin I trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing 15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3.5 was found to be optimal. The EME efficiency was also dependent on the acceptor solution composition, and the extraction time was found to be an important element for exhaustive extraction. When EME was carried out for 25 min with an extraction voltage of 15 V, the system-current across the SLM was less than 50 μA, and extraction recoveries for the model peptides were in the range of 77-94%, with RSD values less than 10%. PMID:25467476

  15. Update on beam extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, L.P.

    1983-08-26

    At the time of the 1981 Workshop on Experimental Use of the SLC, we published an extraction scheme for the MINIQUAD final focus (FF) optics. Since then a different FF optics design has been selected. With the same achromat section and outboard telescope, it allows a number of options for the inboard telescope. This note describes the new extraction system and briefly considers electron-electron extraction and the consequences of an extraction kicker malfunction. 4 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  16. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  17. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  18. Precolumn for extract concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.; Bloom, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    AUDRI requires test sample separation into organic compound families for subsequent insertion into several parallel chromatographs. Sample is first extracted by selective organic solvents. Solvent is then removed from extract to increase extract-to-solvent ratio, increasing system sensitivity. Backflushing of precolumn serves as cleanser.

  19. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  20. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  1. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  2. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  3. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  4. Endovascular extraction techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction We report our experience with lead extraction in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and discuss the indications for extraction in these patients. Patients Eighteen patients with an ICD (mean age 58±12 years) were referred for lead extraction: two patients with infection and 16 with lead dysfunction. Methods Lead extraction was performed with a laser sheath (Excimer) if traction with a locking device was insufficient. New leads were implanted during the same procedure, if applicable. Results Shock leads were successfully extracted in 16 patients and additional pace-sense leads in seven patients. In two patients, the shock conductor was considered unaffected and only a pace-sense lead was exchanged or an additional pace-sense lead inserted. After extraction, new shock leads were implanted in 14 patients. Major complications occurred in one patient: a pericardial tamponade after perforation of the superior caval vein necessitating acute surgery. Conclusion Lead extraction with a laser sheath is effective in ICD patients, but major complications can occur. Our current policy with malfunctioning leads is to extract all leads in which insulation defects cannot be ruled out to avoid interference, but to abandon leads that are without insulation defects and properly insulated. In case of infection, extraction remains the primary treatment of choice. PMID:25696709

  5. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  7. Extractive distillation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.

    1984-05-08

    A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.

  8. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    PubMed

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  9. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  10. Oilseed extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D. A.

    1985-05-07

    A process is provided for the recovery of a separate lecithin/phosphatide-rich product during the extraction of soybeans with an isopropanol-based solvent. The invention comprises steps for contacting soybeans with solvent to obtain an extracted seed meal and a solvent extract of seedoils and lecithin and related phosphatides, cooling miscella to a temperature in the range from about 30/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ F., phase separating the cooled miscella, recovering from the phase separation an upper solvent-rich phase, an intermediate lecithin/phosphatide-rich phase and a lower crude oil phase, and directly recycling the solvent-rich phase to the extractor.

  11. Solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-01-19

    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent in which primary extract from the extraction zone is cooled to form a secondary raffinate and secondary extract and the secondary and primary raffinates are blended to produce an increased yield of product of desired quality. In a preferred embodiment of the process, the lubricating oil feedstock to the process is first contacted with a stripping medium previously used in the process for the recovery of solvent from at least one of the product streams whereby solvent contained in said stripping medium is recovered therefrom.

  12. Extraction of cyanobacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, John; Linke, Thomas A; Kapralos, Con; Nicholson, Brenton C; Steffensen, Dennis A

    2004-02-01

    To simplify our efforts in acquiring toxicological information on endotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, a method development study was undertaken to identify relatively hazard-free and efficient procedures for their extraction. One article sourced and two novel methods were evaluated for their ability to extract lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) or endotoxins from cyanobacteria. The Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay was employed to compare the performance of a novel method utilizing a 1-butanol-water (HBW) solvent system to that of Westphal's (1965) phenol-water system (HPW) for the extraction of endotoxin from various cyanobacteria. The traditional HPW method extracted from 3- to 12-fold more endotoxin from six different cyanobacterial blooms and culture materials than did the novel HBW method. In direct contrast, the novel HBW method extracted ninefold more endotoxin from a non-microcystin producing Microcystis aeruginosa culture as compared to the HPW method. A solvent system utilizing N,N'-dimethylformamide-water (HDW) was compared to both the HPW and HBW methods for the extraction of endotoxin from natural samples of Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and a 1:1 mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa/Microcystisflos-aquae. The LAL activities of these extracts showed that the novel HDW method extracted two- and threefold more endotoxin from the Anabaena sample that did the HBW and HPW methods, respectively. The HDW method also extracted approximately 1.5-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae sample as compared to both the HBW and HPW methods. On the other hand, the HBW method extracted 2- and 14-fold more endotoxin from the Microcystis flos-aquae/Microcystis aeruginosa mixture than did the HPW and HDW methods, respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that significant disparities exist between the physicochemical properties of the cell wall constituents not only of different cyanobacterial species but also of different strains of

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  14. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  15. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  16. Extraction processes for bioproduct separation

    SciTech Connect

    Hartl, J.; Marr, R.

    1993-01-01

    The three-phase extraction process, a modification of reactive extraction, was investigated for its applicability in the separation of organic acids from fermentation broth. It was compared with reactive extraction, liquid membrane permeation, and supercritical fluid extraction. These processes are based on the use of amine extractants, which have to be dissolved in nonpolar solvents, for the extraction of carboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, and aminocarboxylic acids. This paper considers the comparison of the above-mentioned processes. Furthermore, the extractability of acids from synthetic aqueous solutions and fermented broths was compared. Principal consideration was paid to the extraction of lactic acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, and L-leucine.

  17. Solvent extraction studies of holmium with acidic extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, A.G.; Damodaran, A.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of holmium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, naphthenic, and Versatic 10 acids have been carried out. The nature of the extracted species and the extraction equilibrium constants of these systems have been determined from aqueous nitrate solution. The extraction mechanism and complexation models have been proposed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Magma energy extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric.

  19. Magma Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Ortega, A.; Hickox, C.E.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Boehm, R.F.

    1987-01-20

    The rate at which energy can be extracted from crustal magma bodies has an important influence on the economic viability of the magma energy concept. Open heat exchanger systems where fluid is circulated through solidified magma offer the promise of high energy extraction rates. This concept was successfully demonstrated during experiments in the molten zone of Kilauea Iki lava lake. Ongoing research is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of open systems in a crustal magma body. These studies show that magma solidifying around a cooled borehole will be extensively fractured and form a permeable medium through which fluid can be circulated. Numerical modeling of the complete magma energy extraction process predicts that high quality thermal energy can be delivered to the wellhead at rates that will produce from 25 to 30 MW electric. 10 figs., 10 refs.

  20. [Femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx)].

    PubMed

    Blum, M; Sekundo, W

    2010-10-01

    Starting in 2006 a new "all femto" method of refractive correction for myopia and myopic astigmatism was introduced. This new method was originally introduced as femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and further developed with a small incision into SMILE (small incision lenticule extraction). To simplify the terminology the manufacturer brought this onto the market in April 2010 as ReLEx (refractive lenticule extraction). In this procedure a lenticule of intrastromal corneal tissue and a flap-like access cut are subsequently cut utilizing the VisuMax® femtosecond system (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). The lenticule is then manually removed and the flap repositioned (only by FLEx). In approximately 1,000 successful surgical operations only few side effects were found. The number of eyes treated is currently being expanded in order to further standardize this new clinical procedure. PMID:20694728

  1. Extraction for ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, J.; Foelsche, H.

    1981-01-01

    The design specifications for ISABELLE, a superconducting proton storage ring facility under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory call for circulating beam intensities of up to 6 x 10/sup 14/ protons at 400 GeV energy in each ring. The energy stored in the beam is 41 Megajoules, an order of magnitude more than what has been dealt with in the past. This beam energy cannot be safely disposed of within the confines of the ISABELLE lattice if damage to the dump or quenching of the superconducting magnets is to be avoided. Therefore the full intensity beam must be extracted from the storage rings under all circumstances of emergency or routine beam disposal. Beam losses in excess of 10/sup -3/ of the full beam can jeoardize the extraction components and lead to magnet quenching as well. In this note a conceptual design of the extraction system is summarized and the major constraints which lead to the parameters chosen are discussed.

  2. Slow extraction of LAMPF 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, E. P.

    Half integer resonant extraction are used to slowly extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extraction efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum.

  3. Slow extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-10-01

    Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extraction efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high-beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  5. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  6. Atraumatic extractions: a biomechanical rationale.

    PubMed

    Misch, Carl E; Perez, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Biomechanical aspects of force have been applied to tooth extraction for centuries. However, the mechanical advantages available to extract the teeth were primarily applied to hold the crown of the tooth, rather than help extract it. An extraction device (Physics Forceps) has been developed to apply a biomechanical rationale to the extraction process of a tooth using a class 1 lever, creep, and shear components of force. PMID:18717405

  7. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

  9. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552

  10. URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.

    1959-09-01

    A method is given for extracting uranium values from ores of high phosphate content consisting of dissolving them in aqueous nitric acid, adjusting the concentration of the aqueous solution to about 2 M with respect to nitric acid, and then contacting it with diethyl ether which has previously been made 1 M with respect to nitric acid.

  11. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction.

    PubMed

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552

  12. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  13. Extracting concentrated guided light.

    PubMed

    Ries, H; Segal, A; Karni, J

    1997-05-01

    The maximum concentration of radiation is proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium in which it propagates. A medium with a high refractive index can also serve as a lightguide for concentrated radiation. However, if concentrated radiation is extracted from one medium, with a high refractive index, to another, whose index is lower (e.g., from fused silica into air), part of the radiation may be lost because of the total internal reflection at the interface. We present polygonal shapes suitable for efficient extraction of the concentrated radiation in a controllable way, without increasing the cross-section area (or diameter) of the lightguide. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the use of a secondary concentrator, followed by such a light extractor, both having a high refractive index, can provide considerably more power to a solar receiver with a specific aperture. PMID:18253285

  14. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  15. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at least two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.

  16. Solid phase extraction membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Kurt C; Langer, Roger L

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  17. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  18. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  19. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  20. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  2. Slow extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extration efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high-beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  4. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  5. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  6. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities. PMID:12696930

  7. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  8. Impurity Extraction by Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G.; Kincaid, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The goals are to model and to measure the phase equilibrium properties of a finely divided fluid containing a large number of chemically similar species. The objective is to develop an accurate, usable model for such phenomena as pollutant extraction of rain clouds, industrial separation in spray towers, and separation in emulsions. The project was designed as a hierarchy of complementary theoretical and experimental steps. A theory was developed to describe the segregation of complex impurities at the interface of a solvent. This phenomenon is important in phase behavior when a large fraction of molecules in a material are near an interface, the situation in a finely divided material. The theory will be modified to account for the effect of surface curvature on the surface tension. The study of mixtures differs from pure fluids not only because of the surface effects but also because composition differences between the droplet and the surrounding vapor can stabilize a droplet with respect to a bulk phase.

  9. Liquefaction for cataract extraction

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  10. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  11. Liquefaction for cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  12. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  13. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  14. Femoral approach to lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Mulpuru, Siva K; Hayes, David L; Osborn, Michael J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2015-03-01

    Laser and radiofrequency energy-assisted lead extraction has greatly facilitated this complex procedure. Although success rates are high, in some instances alternate methods of extraction are required. In this review, we discuss techniques for femoral extraction of implanted leads and retained fragments. The major tools available, including commonly used snares and delivery tools, are discussed. We briefly describe combined internal jugular and femoral venous extraction approaches, as well as complimentary utilization of more than one technique via the femoral vein. Animated and procedural sequences are included to help the reader visualize the key components of these techniques. PMID:25311643

  15. Liquid membrane extraction of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.M.; Breembroek, G.R.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rosmalen, G.M van

    1996-12-31

    Three Liquid Membrane extraction designs are compared by their experimental extraction performance of cadmium ions from an aqueous phase with tri-laurylamine dissolved in an aliphatic kerosene. The compared designs are Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM), Flat Sheet Supported Liquid Membrane (FSSLM) and Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM4) extraction units. The results demonstrated that ELM possesses the best extraction performance per volume of equipment, but that HFSLM is a good alternative because of its less complicated design and greater flexibility. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  17. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  18. Developments in multiple headspace extraction.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Minna

    2007-03-10

    This paper reviews new developments in multiple headspace extraction (MHE), especially its combination with two miniaturized extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME). The combination of the techniques broadens the applicability of SPME and SDME to quantitative determination of analytes in complex liquid and solid matrixes. These new methods offer several advantages over traditional liquid-solid, liquid-liquid and headspace extraction techniques. The potential applications include extraction of volatiles and semivolatiles from environmental and physiological samples and from different polymer products such as medical and biomedical materials, food packaging and building materials. The theoretical principals of the techniques are also briefly reviewed. PMID:17081616

  19. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  20. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  1. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  2. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  4. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  5. Information Extraction: Beyond Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaizauskas, Robert; Wilks, Yorick

    1998-01-01

    Information extraction (IE) is the extraction and recording of information about a prespecified set of entities, relations, or events from natural language texts in structured representations called templates. This article provides an overview of IE from the 1960s to the present, discusses techniques, describes applications, and highlights future…

  6. Metabolomic fingerprinting of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Mattoli, L; Cangi, F; Maidecchi, A; Ghiara, C; Ragazzi, E; Tubaro, M; Stella, L; Tisato, F; Traldi, P

    2006-12-01

    The standardization and quality control of plant extracts is an important topic, in particular, when such extracts are used for medicinal purposes. Consequently, the development of fast and effective analytical methods for metabolomic fingerprinting of plant extracts is of high interest. In this investigation, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and (1)H NMR techniques were employed with further statistical analyses of the acquired data. The results showed that negative ion mode ESI-MS is particularly effective for characterization of plant extracts. Different samples of the same species appear well-clustered and separated from the other species. To verify the effectiveness of the method, two other batches of extracts from a species, in which the principal components were already identified (Cynara scolymus), were analyzed, and the components that were verified by the principal component analysis (PCA) were found to be within the region identified as characteristic of Cynara Scolymus extracts. The data from extracts of the other species were well separated from those pertaining to the species previously characterized. Only the case of a species that was strictly correlated from a botanical point of view, with extracts that were previously analyzed, showed overlapping. PMID:17051519

  7. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  8. Extractive condensation: A new separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitsch, K.J.

    1999-10-01

    A new highly selective vapor-phase extraction process is described. Hydrogen bonding between a scavenging extractant and the substance to be extracted results in a high-boiling complex forming fog droplets readily separable from the remaining vapor. The process is exemplified by the extraction of acetic acid from the predominantly aqueous vapor stream of furfural reactors. Triethylamine is used as the extractant.

  9. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  10. Extraction of fat-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-11-23

    An overview of the different extraction procedures of fat-soluble vitamins from human fluids, foods and pharmaceutical preparations is presented. Methods using organic solvent extraction (both liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction), supercritical fluid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the different types of both vitamins and matrices are discussed. PMID:11762782

  11. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  12. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is...

  13. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is...

  14. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated. PMID:10321141

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  16. Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract

    PubMed Central

    Kanne, Haritha; Burte, Narayan Pandurang; Prasanna, V.; Gujjula, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO3) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S3 O9). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements. PMID:26130934

  17. Specific extraction of chromium(VI) using supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2000-02-01

    In some situations, it is no longer sufficient to give a total concentration of a metal. Instead, what is required to understand the potential toxicity of a sample is the concentration of metal species or oxidation state. When developing species specific methods, the major concern is that the integrity of the species ratio is not changed. In other words, the sample preparation or the analytical method will not convert metal ions from one oxidation state to another. Normal extraction techniques and chromatography methods have shown some tendencies to change species ratios. An ideal extraction method would extract the metal efficiently while retaining the metal's oxidation state. The properties of supercritical fluids should approach the ideal of retention of oxidation states. For example, the need for speciation of chromium is obvious since Cr(III) is considered an essential element while Cr(VI) is thought to be toxic and carcinogenic. This paper presents the results of a species specific extraction of Cr(VI) using two different carbamate derivatives as the chelator. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) coupled with a fluorinated dithiocarbamate and a methanol modifier allows extraction of 1 ppm Cr(VI) from a solid matrix with a recovery level of 88.4+/-2.57% using the NIST standard sample. The optimized conditions using the HP 7680 supercritical fluid extractor were: 0.1 ml of methanol, 0.05 ml of pure water, and 0.01 g of chelate via a saturation chamber. PMID:18967865

  18. Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cure the infection without completely removing all hardware from the body. This requires removal of the ... Footnotes References Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Article Tools Print Citation Tools Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction ...

  19. COMPARING EXTRACTIONS OF SIVERS FUNCTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOGELSANG, W.

    2005-09-07

    A comparison is given of the various recently published extractions of the Sivers functions from the HERMES and COMPASS data on single-transverse spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering.

  20. The fallacy of serial extractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Paul

    2013-11-01

    It is suggested that lingually-positioned lower lateral incisors in young children are anatomically correct and not a symptom of crowding. Primary canines with intact periodontal attachments have an important role to play as proprioceptors to encourage growth of the alveolar arch. Extractions of primary cuspids would deprive the alveolus of important growth stimuli. Clinical evidence suggests that serial extraction is counter-productive. The early extraction of primary cuspids will invariably result in crowding of the permanent cuspids. It is a common belief that serial extraction corrects the crowding of lower incisors but the procedure is not evidence based. In reality, the problem is maintained and the 'crowding' shifts to involve the permanent cuspids. Let us not forget the most basic canon of the health profession which is 'first do no harm, and if it is not broken, do not try to fix it'. PMID:24380143

  1. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  2. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  3. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  4. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  5. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  6. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans...

  7. 21 CFR 73.530 - Spirulina extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirulina extract is prepared by the filtered aqueous extraction of the dried biomass of Arthrospira platensis. The color additive contains phycocyanins as the principal coloring components. (2) Color...

  8. Pulsed electromembrane extraction: a new concept of electrically enhanced extraction.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Esrafili, Ali

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, pulsed electromembrane extraction (PEME) is introduced for the first time as an efficient and inexpensive method for the extraction of ionizable compounds from different matrices. The setup proposed for electromembrane extraction (EME) provides a very stable system and satisfactory repeatability (RSDs<4.4) in comparison with existing methods. In this paper, PEME is conducted for the extraction of model analytes from biological fluids. The effective parameters such as extraction time, applied voltage and the duration of pulse and outage period are optimized using the experimental design. Preconcentration factors in the range of 100-140 and recoveries in the range of 95-108 were obtained in different biological matrices. The linear dynamic ranges of 5-200 ng mL(-1) (with correlation coefficient higher than 0.9955) and limits of detection of 1.0 ng mL(-1) were obtained for both of the drugs. The figures of merit of PEME were compared with the results from conventional EME, which proves the advantages of the proposed technique. PMID:22999198

  9. Isoflavone extraction from okara using water as extractant.

    PubMed

    Jankowiak, Lena; Kantzas, Nikolaos; Boom, Remko; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2014-10-01

    We here report on the use of water as a 'green' extraction solvent for the isolation of isoflavones from okara, a by-product of soymilk production. At a low liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 to 1 and 20 °C, 47% of the isoflavones that can be extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol were extracted. The malonyl-glucosides were fully recovered with a ratio of 20 to 1, while β-glucosides were recovered with an increased liquid-to-solid ratio of 40 to 1. The extraction of aglycones was better at higher ratios, but leveled off before reaching a 100% yield. Temperature hardly affected the total amount of isoflavones. At a 20 to 1 ratio, 20 °C, and pH 10, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between isoflavone extraction in water and in 70% aqueous ethanol. The results suggest that water may be used as a green alternative for separation of isoflavones from okara. PMID:24799251

  10. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  11. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  12. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  13. NEFI: Network Extraction From Images

    PubMed Central

    Dirnberger, M.; Kehl, T.; Neumann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Networks are amongst the central building blocks of many systems. Given a graph of a network, methods from graph theory enable a precise investigation of its properties. Software for the analysis of graphs is widely available and has been applied to study various types of networks. In some applications, graph acquisition is relatively simple. However, for many networks data collection relies on images where graph extraction requires domain-specific solutions. Here we introduce NEFI, a tool that extracts graphs from images of networks originating in various domains. Regarding previous work on graph extraction, theoretical results are fully accessible only to an expert audience and ready-to-use implementations for non-experts are rarely available or insufficiently documented. NEFI provides a novel platform allowing practitioners to easily extract graphs from images by combining basic tools from image processing, computer vision and graph theory. Thus, NEFI constitutes an alternative to tedious manual graph extraction and special purpose tools. We anticipate NEFI to enable time-efficient collection of large datasets. The analysis of these novel datasets may open up the possibility to gain new insights into the structure and function of various networks. NEFI is open source and available at http://nefi.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:26521675

  14. Protein extraction from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Denecke, M

    2006-01-01

    Two methods for the separation of protein originating from activated sludge were compared. In one method, the total protein was isolated out of the activated sludge (crude extract). These samples included all dissolved proteins originating from the bacterial cells and biofilm made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Every time polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was done, the protein bands from samples of crude extract were covered by polymeric substances including carbohydrates, uronic acids or humic compounds. Using the immunoblot technique it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the heat shock protein HSP70 in crude extracts of activated sludge. The comparison of protein fingerprints required that clear and distinct bands appear on the PAGE analysis. To this end, a procedure to separates bacterial cells from the EPS was developed. Bacterial cells were separated by incubation with EDTA and subsequent filtration. The isolated cells were directly incubated in a sample buffer. PMID:16898150

  15. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  16. Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

    Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

  17. Extraction of Silver by Glucose.

    PubMed

    Baksi, Ananya; Gandi, Mounika; Chaudhari, Swathi; Bag, Soumabha; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-06-27

    Unprecedented silver ion leaching, in the range of 0.7 ppm was seen when metallic silver was heated in water at 70 °C in presence of simple carbohydrates, such as glucose, making it a green method of silver extraction. Extraction was facilitated by the presence of anions, such as carbonate and phosphate. Studies confirm a two-step mechanism of silver release, first forming silver ions at the metal surface and later complexation of ionic silver with glucose; such complexes have been detected by mass spectrometry. Extraction leads to microscopic roughening of the surface making it Raman active with an enhancement factor of 5×10(8) . PMID:27119514

  18. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  19. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  20. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  1. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive annatto extract is an extract prepared...

  2. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents. PMID:24088789

  3. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  4. SAM -- A Spectral Extraction Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. R.

    In this note a description is given of SAM, a package written at RGO for the extraction of spectra from two dimensional data frames. The need to extract spectra from two dimensional frames in an optimal manner (e.g. one in which the signal to noise ratio was maximised) was the primary reason for the writing of the package. The programs were originally written with FOS, ISIS and IDS in mind, but contain nothing which is instrument specific and hence should be applicable to any two dimensional spectral data frame.

  5. The Overview of Entity Relation Extraction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xian-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Jin

    The Information extraction can be defined as the task of extracting information of specified events or facts, and then stored in a database for the users' querying. Only with the correct relationship between the various entities, the database can be correctly store in. Entity relation extraction becomes a key technology of information Extraction system. In this paper, we analyze the status of entity relation extraction method; propose several problems for this field to be solved.

  6. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides based on a combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Chimuka, Luke; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2011-02-01

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of membrane assisted solvent extraction and molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for triazine herbicides in food samples was developed. Simazine, atrazine, prometon, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and prometryn were extracted from aqueous food samples into a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane bag containing 1000μL of toluene as the acceptor phase along with 100mg of MIP particles. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the type of organic acceptor solvent, amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time and addition of salt. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazine binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and cyclohexane. Extraction time of 120min and 100mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Addition of salt increased the extraction efficiency for more polar triazines. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked cow pea and corn extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to only membrane assisted solvent extraction or only molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The study revealed that this combination may be a simple way of selectively extracting compounds in complex samples. PMID:21190688

  7. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  9. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-06-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

  10. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  11. Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

  12. Extracting energy from natural flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.; Wilhold, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    Three concepts for extracting energy from wind, waterflow, and tides utilize flow instability to generate usable energy. Proposed converters respond to vortex excitation motion, galloping or plunging motion, and flutter. Fluid-flow instability is more efficient in developing lift than is direct flow.

  13. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  14. IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

  15. Tool Extracts Smooth, Fragile Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Fred G.

    1988-01-01

    When laterally compressible tube too slippery to pull, simple tool does job. Consists of three linked sections of steel tube with sticky rubber on inside and handles on outside. Hinged sections encircle tube to be pulled. User pulls on handles to extract tube.

  16. Ant Ecdysteroid Extraction and Radioimmunoassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroids are a group of steroid compounds present in many plant and invertebrate species. In arthropods, they function primarily as hormones involved in the regulation of molting. This protocol describes how to extract ecdysteroid hormones from ant specimens and subsequently quantify circulating...

  17. Development of new natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Périchet, Christine; Schnaebele, Nicolas; Humbert, Marina

    2014-11-01

    For over the past 20 years, a remarkable development in the study and search of natural products has been observed. This is linked to a new market trend towards ecology and also due to new regulations. This could be a rupture, but also a real booster for creativity. Usually, in the flavor and fragrance field, creativity was boosted by the arrival of new synthetic molecules. Naturals remained the traditional, century-old products, protected by secrecy and specific know-how from each company. Regulatory restrictions or eco-friendly certification constraints like hexane-free processes triggered an important brainstorming in the industry. As a result, we developed new eco-friendly processes including supercritical CO2 extraction, allowing fresh plants to be used to obtain industrial flower extracts (Jasmine Grandiflorum, Jasmine Sambac, Orange blossom). These extracts are analyzed by GC, GC/MS, GCO, and HPTLC techniques. New or unusual raw materials can also be explored, but the resulting extracts have to be tested for safety reasons. Some examples are described. PMID:25408324

  18. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  19. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  20. Optimal Extraction of Echelle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Nikolai

    The extraction of the echelle spectra registered with a CCD detector represents a big challenge because of three reasons: (1) the pixel sampling is often close or worse then optimal, (2) spectral orders are curved and tilted with respect to the CCD rows (or columns) and (3) every pixel contains additional noise coming from various sources as illustrated in Figure 1. The main goal of an optimal extraction is to recover as much of the science signal while minimizing the contribution of the noise. Here we present the Slit Function Decomposition algorithm which replaces the summation in a sliding window with a reconstruction of the slit illumination profile. The reconstruction is formulated as an inverse problem solved by iterations and it is robust against most of the systematic problems including cosmic rays and cosmetic defects.

  1. Extracting concealed information from groups.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Smulders, Fren T Y; Merckelbach, Harald L G J

    2010-11-01

    Lie detection procedures are typically aimed at determining guilt or innocence of a single suspect. Serious security threats, however, often involve groups, such as terrorist networks or criminal organizations. In this report, we describe a variant of the skin conductance-based Concealed Information Test (CIT) that allows for the extraction of critical information from such groups. Twelve participants were given information about an upcoming (mock) terrorist attack, with specific instructions not to reveal this information to anyone. Next, each subject was subjected to a CIT, with questions pertaining to the details of the attack. Results showed that for every question, the average skin conductance response to the correct answer option differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those to all other options. These results show that the information about the upcoming attack could be extracted from the group of terror suspects as a whole. PMID:20533975

  2. Extracting aluminum from dross tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, A. M.

    2002-11-01

    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

  3. Galaxy Classification without Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsterer, K. L.; Gieseke, F.; Kramer, O.

    2012-09-01

    The automatic classification of galaxies according to the different Hubble types is a widely studied problem in the field of astronomy. The complexity of this task led to projects like Galaxy Zoo which try to obtain labeled data based on visual inspection by humans. Many automatic classification frameworks are based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in combination with a feature extraction step in the pre-processing phase. These approaches rely on labeled catalogs for training the models. The small size of the typically used training sets, however, limits the generalization performance of the resulting models. In this work, we present a straightforward application of support vector machines (SVM) for this type of classification tasks. The conducted experiments indicate that using a sufficient number of labeled objects provided by the EFIGI catalog leads to high-quality models. In contrast to standard approaches no additional feature extraction is required.

  4. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, N.R.

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ‘no visible scarring’ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  6. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Metallurgists and solution geochemists are joining forces to develop processes for extraction of metals from low-grade ores. The processes, which come under the name hydrometallurgy, include several new applications of solvent extraction techniques. Aqueous solutions are employed, leaching metals from ores, mine waste dumps, and even from deposits still in the ground. It was notable, for example, that Chemical and Engineering News (Feb. 8, 1982) recently featured the subject of hydrometallurgy in a special report. They noted that ‘recovering metals by use of aqueous solutions at relatively low temperatures increasingly is competing with dry, high-temperature pyrometallurgical methods.’ The relatively new techniques have caused a revolution, of sorts, in engineering programs of university metallurgy departments. The challenge of developing selective metal dissolution processes is drawing upon the best national talent in the fields of solution geochemistry and metallurgy.

  7. Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Internation Flavors and Fragrances Inc. proprietary research technology, Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) utilizes a special fiber needle placed directly next to the bloom of the living flower to collect the fragrance molecules. SPME was used in the Space Flower experiment aboard STS-95 space shuttle mission, after which Dr. Braja Mookherjee (left) and Subha Patel of IFF will analyze the effects of gravity on the Overnight Scentsation rose plant.

  8. Information based universal feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Brause, Rüdiger

    2015-02-01

    In many real world image based pattern recognition tasks, the extraction and usage of task-relevant features are the most crucial part of the diagnosis. In the standard approach, they mostly remain task-specific, although humans who perform such a task always use the same image features, trained in early childhood. It seems that universal feature sets exist, but they are not yet systematically found. In our contribution, we tried to find those universal image feature sets that are valuable for most image related tasks. In our approach, we trained a neural network by natural and non-natural images of objects and background, using a Shannon information-based algorithm and learning constraints. The goal was to extract those features that give the most valuable information for classification of visual objects hand-written digits. This will give a good start and performance increase for all other image learning tasks, implementing a transfer learning approach. As result, in our case we found that we could indeed extract features which are valid in all three kinds of tasks.

  9. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect

    Gambogi, Joseph; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  10. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  11. Injection and extraction for SUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderer, G.; Hiuterberger, F.; Kieule, P.; Schott, W.; Triuks, U.; Wilhelm, W.; Zech, E.

    1983-08-01

    The injection onto the first cyclotron orbit differs essentially from injection schemes for normal conducting sector cyclotrons because of two reasons: the central region is occupied by the RF-cavities, and the stray field between the sectors is strongly nonscaling with the mean field level. An appropriate injection and extraction system was developed using a series of superconducting channel magnets which cause practically no field perturbation outside and produce field levels of several Tesla inside. These magnets have a closed structure - like a shielding Faraday box in the electrostatic analogon. Therefore the injection path is below the median plane in the region of the circulating orbits. The accelerated beam will be extracted with an electrostatic septum (10 MV/m). Single turn extraction is achieved primarily by the acceleration voltage of 2 MV/turn, giving a turn-separation of 2.5 mm for 300 MeV/u and Q/A = 0.5. The separation may be increased by coherent betatron-oscillations.

  12. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  13. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. PMID:24295710

  14. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  15. Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.

    PubMed

    Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

  16. Beam transfer and extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Protons will be single-turn extracted from the LAMPF II synchrotron at 30 Hz. On alternate pulses they will be single-turn injected into a storage ring. Both processes utilize fast kickers and Lambertson septum magnets. Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow-extract the beam from the storage ring over a time spread of 1/15 s. The slow extraction occurs using electrostatic wire and iron septa.

  17. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  18. Improved extraction technique for biological fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction technique speeds up separation of biological fluids into number of compounds. This eliminates agitation, emulsion formation, centrifugation, mechanical separation of phases, filtration, and other steps that have been used previously. Extraction efficiencies are equal or better than current manual liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

  19. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1030 Annatto extract. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive annatto extract...

  20. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  1. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  2. PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1958-11-11

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

  3. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted. PMID:26675848

  4. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  5. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  6. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  8. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  9. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  11. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  13. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  15. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  17. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  18. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  19. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  20. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  1. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  2. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  4. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  5. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  6. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  8. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  9. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  12. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  13. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  15. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  18. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  19. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  20. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  1. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  2. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  4. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  5. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  6. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  8. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  9. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  11. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  12. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  13. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  15. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  17. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  18. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  19. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  20. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  1. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  2. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  3. Extraction parameters significantly influence the quantity and the profile of PLFAs extracted from soils.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evagelia S; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2011-10-01

    Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis is a robust method for characterizing soil microbial communities. We determined the effects of extraction solvent (chloroform vs dichloromethane) and buffer (phosphate vs citrate) on the yield and the profile of PLFAs extracted from an acidic (pH 5.5) and an alkaline (pH 8.6) soil following two 2-h sequential extractions. The yield and the profile of the PLFAs obtained separately by the first and the second 2-h extraction were compared to identify the impact of sequential extractions on the PLFA extraction efficiency. Chloroform-citrate and a 2 × 2-h extraction maximized PLFA yields in both soils. Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the choice of the extraction mixture did not significantly influence the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the first 2-h extraction, whereas it had a profound effect on the profile of the PLFAs obtained by the second 2-h extraction. Most PLFAs were extracted during the first extraction except 18:2ω6,9 and 22:0 which were almost equally extracted by the two sequential extractions. The choice of organic solvent significantly influenced the profile of the PLFAs extracted; their yield increased with chloroform with the exception of 18:2ω6,9 and 22:0 which were favored by dichloromethane. Overall, a 2 × 2-h extraction with chloroform/methanol/citrate is expected to provide maximum PLFA yields. PMID:21556882

  4. Parameter extraction and transistor models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rykken, Charles; Meiser, Verena; Turner, Greg; Wang, QI

    1985-01-01

    Using specified mathematical models of the MOSFET device, the optimal values of the model-dependent parameters were extracted from data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Three MOSFET models, all one-dimensional were used. One of the models took into account diffusion (as well as convection) currents. The sensitivity of the models was assessed for variations of the parameters from their optimal values. Lines of future inquiry are suggested on the basis of the behavior of the devices, of the limitations of the proposed models, and of the complexity of the required numerical investigations.

  5. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Barbara E.

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straight pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.

  6. Membrane clarification of tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Kumar, Chandini S; Sharma, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    The ready-to-drink (RTD) tea beverages are becoming increasingly popular owing to the health benefits associated with tea polyphenols, but instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is a common problem encountered in the product. Membrane technology provides a scope to produce natural, additive-free RTD teas while overcoming the major disadvantages associated with the conventional decreaming methods. Approaches employing membranes for the clarification of extracts from black and green tea have been discussed together with their relative advantages and limitations. The article also outlines the concerns to be addressed in the future attempts employing membrane technology. PMID:24499147

  7. Plant tissue extraction for metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Roessner, Ute; Dias, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Plants are not only important producers of foods and energy storages (e.g., sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) in the form of grains, fruits, and vegetables, they also provide many valuable products to human existence including wood, fibers, oils, resins, pigments, antioxidants, and sources of medicine. Most importantly in light of this book, plants have been a source of therapeutic and health promoting compounds throughout history. This chapter describes several essential considerations for the extraction process when aiming to study plant metabolism or to characterize the chemical composition of plant originated samples using metabolomics technologies. PMID:23963900

  8. New AGS fast extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1980-09-01

    Both the high energy physics program and ISA injection require an improved fast extraction system from the AGS. The proposed new system consists of a fast kicker at H5 and an ejector magnet at H10. The H5 kicker is capable of producing 1.2 mrad deflection and rising up to 99% strength in 150 nsec with flat top ripple within +- 1%. It is found that the focusing strengths and positions of UQ3-UQ7 have to be modified to achieve an achromatic condition at the end of 8/sup 0/-bend. Also, the conceptual design of the H5 magnet and the pulser system are discussed.

  9. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straightmore » pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.« less

  10. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  11. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Epilobium spp. extracts.

    PubMed

    Battinelli, L; Tita, B; Evandri, M G; Mazzanti, G

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the Epilobium angustifolium, E. hirsutum, E. palustre, E. tetragonum and E. rosmarinifolium ethanolic extracts was studied in vitro on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also evaluated using the Artemia salina test. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity in a range of concentrations between 10 and 650 microgml of dry extract. E. angustifolium and E. rosmarinifolium had the most broad spectrum of action inhibiting bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The extracts were devoid of toxicity on Artemia salina within the range of antimicrobial concentrations, suggesting that the action is selective on microorganisms. PMID:11482755

  13. Guidance in feature extraction to resolve uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalerchuk, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Michael; Streltsov, Simon; Best, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Automated Feature Extraction (AFE) plays a critical role in image understanding. Often the imagery analysts extract features better than AFE algorithms do, because analysts use additional information. The extraction and processing of this information can be more complex than the original AFE task, and that leads to the "complexity trap". This can happen when the shadow from the buildings guides the extraction of buildings and roads. This work proposes an AFE algorithm to extract roads and trails by using the GMTI/GPS tracking information and older inaccurate maps of roads and trails as AFE guides.

  14. Antibacterial activity of some Artemisia species extract.

    PubMed

    Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Ivănescu, Bianca; Ionescu, A; Lazăr, M I

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol and hexane extracts from Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua and Artemisia vulgaris were studied. Plant extracts were tested against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. The results indicated that Artemisia annua alcoholic extracts are more effective against tested microorganisms. However, all plants extracts have moderate or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results confirm the justification of extracts of Artemisia species use in traditional medicine as treatment for microbial infections. PMID:20191854

  15. Personal Keyword Extraction from the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Junichiro; Matsuo, Yutaka; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    With the currently growing interest in the Semantic Web, personal metadata to model a user and the relationship between users is coming to play an important role in the Web. This paper proposes a novel keyword extraction method to extract personal information from the Web. The proposed method uses the Web as a large corpus to obtain co-occurrence information of words. Using the co-occurrence information, our method extracts relevant keywords depending on the context of a person. Our evaluation shows better performance to other keyword extraction methods. We give a discussion about our method in terms of general keyword extraction for the Web.

  16. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  17. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23099617

  18. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used. PMID:25155095

  19. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  20. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-10-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Versatile document image content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Moll, Michael A.; Nonnemaker, Jean; Casey, Matthew R.; Delorenzo, Don L.

    2006-01-01

    We offer a preliminary report on a research program to investigate versatile algorithms for document image content extraction, that is locating regions containing handwriting, machine-print text, graphics, line-art, logos, photographs, noise, etc. To solve this problem in its full generality requires coping with a vast diversity of document and image types. Automatically trainable methods are highly desirable, as well as extremely high speed in order to process large collections. Significant obstacles include the expense of preparing correctly labeled ("ground-truthed") samples, unresolved methodological questions in specifying the domain (e.g. what is a representative collection of document images?), and a lack of consensus among researchers on how to evaluate content-extraction performance. Our research strategy emphasizes versatility first: that is, we concentrate at the outset on designing methods that promise to work across the broadest possible range of cases. This strategy has several important implications: the classifiers must be trainable in reasonable time on vast data sets; and expensive ground-truthed data sets must be complemented by amplification using generative models. These and other design and architectural issues are discussed. We propose a trainable classification methodology that marries k-d trees and hash-driven table lookup and describe preliminary experiments.

  2. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans.

    PubMed

    Werkmeister, René M; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A; Leitgeb, Rainer A; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26503332

  3. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    PubMed Central

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26503332

  4. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  5. Phenolic compounds from the fruit of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Deachathai, S; Mahabusarakam, W; Phongpaichit, S; Taylor, W C

    2005-10-01

    Dulcinoside (1), dulcisisoflavone (2), dulcisxanthone A (3) and sphaerobioside acetate (6) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the green fruit of G. dulcis. Dulcisflavan (4), dulcisxanthone B (5) and isonormangostin (7) together with 22 known compounds were isolated from the ripe fruit. Compounds 6 and 7 were synthetic known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The radical scavenging and antibacterial activities of some of the compounds were investigated. PMID:16111726

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  7. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  8. Effect of various phenomena in the organic phase on metal extraction with chelating reagents in countercurrent and crosscurrent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacki, M.B.

    1999-04-01

    The effect of the association phenomena (extractant association, modifier association, and extractant-modifier co-association) on the recovery of metal species in extraction-stripping multistage countercurrent and cross current processes is discussed. The association phenomena change the optimum strength of extractant extraction ability needed to obtain the maximal metal transfer. The extraction-stripping isotherms depend mainly on the extraction constant, the extractant association constant, the ratio of extractant to modifier, and the acidity of the aqueous phase. The effect of modifier extractant co-association on extraction-stripping isotherms is observed for modifier/extractant mole ratios above 1.5. The countercurrent extraction-stripping process depends mainly on the extraction constant and the extractant association constant. Extractant association decreases the extraction ability and facilitates the stripping. Co-association of extractant with a modifier may play the same role as the extractant association. As a result, a maximum transfer of metal from the feed to the loaded electrolyte is observed for appropriate combinations of the equilibrium constants of extraction, association, and co-association. Extraction association and co-association have a negative effect for weak extractants and a positive one for strong extractants. Similar effects are observed for crosscurrent reagent flows. The association of a modifier and especially its co-association with extractant change the optimum strength of extractant (extraction equilibrium constant) for both the multistage countercurrent and crosscurrent processes.

  9. Extracting information from multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ̃(S) for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science. PMID:27368796

  10. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects. PMID:23594449

  11. High recall document content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

  12. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  13. Extracting inorganics from scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, R.; Wertz, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Scrap tires contain several inorganic moieties in abundances >0.5% which are impregnated into their carbonaceous matrix. These inorganic species are known to produce acid rain, toxic aerosols, and boiler scale and could produce unwanted catalytic effects as well. It is our position that the potential of recycling scrap tires would be considerably enhanced if the inorganics in question - S, Ca, and Zn - were removed prior to attempts to upgrade the carbonaceous matrix. Using non-mechanical methods, we are attempting to cleave the adherence between the co-polymer matrix and to extract the inorganics. The efficiency of our methods is being measured by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometry and by other methods.

  14. Region extraction from complex shapes.

    PubMed

    Nevins, A J

    1982-05-01

    An algorithm is described which extracts primitive regions (i.e., convex, spiral shaped, and biconcave lens) from complex shapes. The interior region bounded by the shape is decomposed by first slicing it into a set of convex subregions and then rotating and dissolving the various boundaries between subregions until a satisfactory decomposition is obtained. The same algorithm also is used to decompose the exterior region between the shape and its convex hull. The algorithm has been implemented as an Algol-W computer program for the UNIVAC 90/80 and results of running the program are presented for a wide variety of complex shapes. These results compare favorably with the experience reported by previous programs. PMID:21869069

  15. Evaluation of extraction method on the chemical composition in Apeiba tibourbou Aubl's extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the potential of Apeiba tibourbou Aubl, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of fatty acid, rosmarinic (Ra) and caffeic (Ca) acid from A. tibourbou. Materials and Methods: Determinations of residual moisture (Rm), proteins (Pt), lipids (Lp), total fiber (Tf), and carbohydrate (Cy) were performed in triplicate samples according assessment of antioxidant capacity. Extraction of fatty acids was carried out by two different methods: (i) By shoxlet and (ii) bligh and dyer. The optimized conditions were determined by surface response methodology (RSM), and the criterion of desirability was the maximum extraction of Ra and Ca. Results: The method of bligh and dyer was able to extraction more total Lp than the shoxlet. However, the extraction of fatty acid was different for the two methods. The optimized conditions to extract RA and Ca was calculated by RSM, 42°C, 30% (alcohol degree) and 24 min, this conditions maximize simultaneously the extraction of Ca (0, 04%) and Ry (1.89), Conclusion: It was observed that the extraction method alters the chemical composition of extract, and it is possible to extract Ca and Ra from A. tibourbou's leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction. PMID:25829777

  16. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  17. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, re-circulation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; isc-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  18. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, recirculation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; iso-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for (co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  19. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  20. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanghui; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhu, Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and intensity of 552 W/g TSS. Under the optimum condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and a small part of intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound intensity was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of intensity during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics. PMID:19402423

  1. Cytotoxic activity of Vitex trifolia purpurea extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mortada M; El-Hashash, Maher M; Mohamed, Mona A; Korany, Tamer M

    2011-08-01

    Defatted 85% crude hot aqueous methanol extract of Vitex trifolia purpurea (AME) successively extracted with, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Cytotoxicity of (AME), chloroform methanol extract (CE), ethyl acetate methanol extract (EE) and the residue obtained from methanol extract after successive extraction (RME) have been evaluated on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and Hep-G2 cell lines as well. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay the results revealed that the (RME) is the most potent one with LC50 value 173 microg/ml while LC50 values of (AME), (CE) and (EE) was 180, 199 and 286 microg/ml, respectively. As well as the results of cytotoxic assay against Hep-G2 cell lines are in full agreement with previous results, with IC50 values 6, 10.7, 20.8 and 65.8 microg/ml for (RME), (AME), (CE) and (EE), respectively. PMID:21980779

  2. Extraction of TNT from aggregate soil fractions.

    PubMed

    Williford, C W; Mark Bricka, R

    1999-04-23

    Past explosives manufacture, disposal, and training activities have contaminated soil at many military facilities, posing health and environmental risks through contact, potential detonation, and leaching into ground water. While methods have been confirmed for extraction and measuring explosives concentration in soil, no work has addressed aggregate size material (the >2 mm gravel and cobbles) that often occurs with the smaller soil fractions. This paper describes methods and results for extraction and measurement of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in aggregate material from 1/2 to 2-1/1 from a WWII era ammunition plant. TNT was extracted into acetonitrile by both Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction methods. High pressure liquid chromatography analyses of extracts showed expected variation among samples. Also effective extraction and determination of TNT concentration for each aggregate size fraction was achieved. PMID:10379027

  3. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  4. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  5. DNA Extraction: Organic and Solid-Phase.

    PubMed

    Altayari, Wafa

    2016-01-01

    DNA extraction remains a critical step in DNA profiling of biological material recovered from scenes of crime. In the forensic community several methods have gained popularity, including Chelex(®), organic extraction, and solid-phase extraction. While some laboratories streamlined their processes and only use one method we have retained several methods and continue to use these for different sample types. In this chapter we present three methods that have been used for several years in our laboratory. PMID:27259731

  6. Optimization of Protein Extraction for Lichen Thalli

    PubMed Central

    Kondratiuk, Anna S.; Savchuk, Oleksiy M.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen-forming fungal proteins have been seldom searched due to many difficulties in their extraction. Phenols, quinones, proteases, and other components released during cell disruption have been known to be the greatest challenges related to protein extraction from lichens. To overcome these problems and maintain good electrophoretic resolution and high protein concentration, an extraction buffer containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, ascorbic acid, Triton X-100, polyethylene glycol, proteinase, and oxidase inhibitors in sodium phosphate buffer was developed. This extraction buffer showed high efficiency for all lichen species tested in the study. PMID:26190923

  7. Characteristic Extraction of Speech Signal Using Wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriai, Shogo; Hanazaki, Izumi

    In the analysis-synthesis coding of speech signals, realization of the high quality in the low bit rate coding depends on the extraction of its characteristic parameters in the pre-processing. The precise extraction of the fundamental frequency, one of the parameters of the source information, guarantees the quality in the speech synthesis. But its extraction is diffcult because of the influence of the consonant, non-periodicity of vocal cords vibration, wide range of the fundamental frequency, etc.. In this paper, we will propose a new fundamental frequency extraction of the speech signals using the Wavelet transform with the criterion based on its harmonics structure.

  8. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  9. Extraction of antimony with tertiary amines.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W

    1967-06-01

    The extractability of antimony(III) and (V) with tridodecylamine from various aqueous solutions is reported. Extraction from nitric and hydrofluoric acid solutions is low, but extraction from sulphuric, hydrochloric and hydrobromic solutions is high. Antimony-(III) can be separated from antimony(V) in 7M nitric acid or 0.64M hydrobromic acid. The extraction of antimony from hydrochloric acid solutions in methanol, ethanol, and acetone-water mixtures is greater than from pure aqueous solutions of the same acidity. The elements from which antimony can be separated with tertiary amines are given. PMID:18960147

  10. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels. PMID:26685670

  11. Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6 mg mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5 mg mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3 mg mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08 mg mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  12. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  13. Image segmentation by background extraction refinements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

    1990-01-01

    An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

  14. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  16. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

  17. [Decision to extract for periodontal reasons].

    PubMed

    Bercy, P; Blase, D

    1995-01-01

    The decisions to extract that are discussed here mainly relate to severe periodontal bone losses and plain interradicular attacks. Extractions for periodontal reasons appear at several treatment stages: immediate extraction in terminal stages, e.g. for teeth without any strategic importance, or deferred extraction if one chooses to wait for treatment response. The elements of the decision are various: function and strategic importance of the tooth, extension of the lesion, level of the interradicular attack, any endoperiodontal lesions, fractures and luxations, radicular proximity, implication of wisdom teeth, evolution after treatment. All these factors are discussed. PMID:7480928

  18. Parameter extraction with neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzanti, Luca; Khan, Mumit; Cerrina, Franco

    1998-06-01

    In semiconductor processing, the modeling of the process is becoming more and more important. While the ultimate goal is that of developing a set of tools for designing a complete process (Technology CAD), it is also necessary to have modules to simulate the various technologies and, in particular, to optimize specific steps. This need is particularly acute in lithography, where the continuous decrease in CD forces the technologies to operate near their limits. In the development of a 'model' for a physical process, we face several levels of challenges. First, it is necessary to develop a 'physical model,' i.e. a rational description of the process itself on the basis of know physical laws. Second, we need an 'algorithmic model' to represent in a virtual environment the behavior of the 'physical model.' After a 'complete' model has been developed and verified, it becomes possible to do performance analysis. In many cases the input parameters are poorly known or not accessible directly to experiment. It would be extremely useful to obtain the values of these 'hidden' parameters from experimental results by comparing model to data. This is particularly severe, because the complexity and costs associated with semiconductor processing make a simple 'trial-and-error' approach infeasible and cost- inefficient. Even when computer models of the process already exists, obtaining data through simulations may be time consuming. Neural networks (NN) are powerful computational tools to predict the behavior of a system from an existing data set. They are able to adaptively 'learn' input/output mappings and to act as universal function approximators. In this paper we use artificial neural networks to build a mapping from the input parameters of the process to output parameters which are indicative of the performance of the process. Once the NN has been 'trained,' it is also possible to observe the process 'in reverse,' and to extract the values of the inputs which yield outputs

  19. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  20. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  1. Improvements in aircraft extraction programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.; Maine, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Flight data from an F-8 Corsair and a Cessna 172 was analyzed to demonstrate specific improvements in the LRC parameter extraction computer program. The Cramer-Rao bounds were shown to provide a satisfactory relative measure of goodness of parameter estimates. It was not used as an absolute measure due to an inherent uncertainty within a multiplicative factor, traced in turn to the uncertainty in the noise bandwidth in the statistical theory of parameter estimation. The measure was also derived on an entirely nonstatistical basis, yielding thereby also an interpretation of the significance of off-diagonal terms in the dispersion matrix. The distinction between coefficients as linear and non-linear was shown to be important in its implication to a recommended order of parameter iteration. Techniques of improving convergence generally, were developed, and tested out on flight data. In particular, an easily implemented modification incorporating a gradient search was shown to improve initial estimates and thus remove a common cause for lack of convergence.

  2. Water Extraction from Martian Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, J.; Bommarito, F.; Blumenstein, E.; Ellsworth, M.; Cisar, T.; McKinney, B.; Knecht, B.

    2001-01-01

    With the projected growth in space exploration, several milestones have been set for future space programs. One milestone in particular is the landing of a human on the planet Mars. However, one major barrier to the successful placement of persons on Mars is a lack of water on the Martian surface. Because of the massive quantity of water that would be necessary for a mission to Mars, it is not possible to transport the amount necessary from Earth to Mars. Water would be necessary for human consumption as well as a base for jet propulsion fuel. Past unmanned missions to Mars, such as the Viking missions of the 1970's, have revealed the presence of small quantities of water in Martian soil. Research has determined that the water in the soil can be recovered when the soil is heated to a temperature between 200 C and 500 C. Team JFEET has designed a system with the capability to extract water from the soil of Mars, and then meter and deliver the water to a storage tank for later use.

  3. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

  4. Antiulcerogenic activity of Zizyphus lotus (L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Wahida, Borgi; Abderrahman, Bouraoui; Nabil, Chouchane

    2007-06-13

    Oral administration of aqueous extracts of Zizyphus lotus root barks (50-200 mg/kg) leaves (50-200 mg/kg) and fruits (200-400 mg/kg) produced a significant (p<0.01) and dose dependent inhibition to the acute ulcer induced by HCl/ethanol solution. The methanolic (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and chloroformic (CHCl(3)) leaves extracts when administered orally at the dose of 200 mg/kg, exhibited a significant (p<0.01) inhibition of gastric lesions by 45%, 76% and 33%, respectively. Indeed, methanolic and ethyl acetate root barks extracts significantly reduced the gastric lesions by 47% and 41%, respectively. While the chloroformic root barks extract had no significant activity (19%). The effect of all extracts was compared with cimetidine (100 mg/kg, 62%) and omeprazole (30 mg/kg, 93%). Volume, pH and acidity of gastric juice were studied in pylorus-ligated rats. Root barks (200 mg/kg, p<0.01), leaves (200 mg/kg, p<0.01) and fruits (400 mg/kg, p<0.05) aqueous extracts showed significant reduction of gastric juice secretion in pylorus ligated rats, whereas the other extracts did not show any significance. Thus, Zizyphus lotus extracts act essentially as cytoprotective agents, which support the antiulcer effect of this plant in the traditional medicine. PMID:17408894

  5. Extraction and characterization of corn germ proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was conducted to develop methods to extract corn germ protein economically and characterize and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Protein was extracted from both wet germ and finished (dried) germ using 0.1M NaCl as solvent. The method involved homogenization, sti...

  6. Soil moisture by extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merek, E. L.; Carle, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    To determine moisture content of soils rapidly and conveniently extract moisture with methanol and determine water content of methanol extract by gas chromatography. Moisture content of sample is calculated from weight of water and methanol in aliquot and weight of methanol added to sample.

  7. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME III

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume is the third of a three-volume report documenting the results of an evaluation of ground-water extraction remedies at hazardous waste sites. It consists of a collection of 112 data base reports presenting general information on sites where ground-water extraction sys...

  8. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for coloring ingested drugs. (b) Uses and restrictions. Annatto extract may be safely used...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for coloring ingested drugs. (b) Uses and restrictions. Annatto extract may be safely used...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for coloring ingested drugs. (b) Uses and restrictions. Annatto extract may be safely used...

  12. Antityrosinase activity of Euphorbia characias extracts

    PubMed Central

    Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a well-known key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and its inhibitors have become increasingly important because of their potential use as hypopigmenting agents. In the present study, the anti-melanogenic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Euphorbia characias leaves, stems, and flowers in cell-free and cellular systems was examined. All the extracts showed inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase with leaf extracts exhibiting the lowest IC50 values of 24 and 97 µg/mL for aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that leaf aqueous extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor, while ethanolic extract shows a competitive inhibition effect on mushroom tyrosinase using L-DOPA as substrate. In addition, the inhibitory effect of leaf extracts on tyrosinase activity and melanin production was examined in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Cellular tyrosinase activity as well as levels of melanin synthesis are reduced in a dose-dependent manner by extracts in cells treated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). The effects are comparable, and sometimes even better, than that of kojic acid, a well known tyrosinase inhibitor used for reference. All these results suggest that E. characias could be a great source of the natural inhibitors from tyrosinase and has the potential to be used as a whitening agent in therapeutic fields. PMID:26500815

  13. Biomedical Relation Extraction: From Binary to Complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Dayou

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical relation extraction aims to uncover high-quality relations from life science literature with high accuracy and efficiency. Early biomedical relation extraction tasks focused on capturing binary relations, such as protein-protein interactions, which are crucial for virtually every process in a living cell. Information about these interactions provides the foundations for new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, more interests have been shifted to the extraction of complex relations such as biomolecular events. While complex relations go beyond binary relations and involve more than two arguments, they might also take another relation as an argument. In the paper, we conduct a thorough survey on the research in biomedical relation extraction. We first present a general framework for biomedical relation extraction and then discuss the approaches proposed for binary and complex relation extraction with focus on the latter since it is a much more difficult task compared to binary relation extraction. Finally, we discuss challenges that we are facing with complex relation extraction and outline possible solutions and future directions. PMID:25214883

  14. Differential extraction of axonally transported proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, J.S. )

    1990-10-01

    Axonally transported proteoglycans were differentially solubilized by a sequence of extractions designed to infer their relationship to nerve terminal membranes. Groups of goldfish were injected unilaterally with 35SO4 and contralateral optic tecta containing axonally transported molecules were removed 16 h later. Tecta were homogenized in isotonic buffer and centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 min to create a total supernatant fraction. Subsequent homogenizations followed by recentrifugation were with hypotonic buffer (lysis extract), 1 M NaCl, Triton X-100 or alternatively Triton-1 M NaCl. Populations of proteoglycans in each extract were isolated on DEAE ion exchange columns and evaluated for content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Results show the distribution of transported proteoglycans to be 26.3% total soluble, 13.7% lysis extract, 13.8% NaCl extract, 12.2% Triton extract, and 46.2% Triton-NaCl extract. Proteoglycans from all fractions contained heparan sulfate as the predominant GAG, with lesser amounts of chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate. The possible localizations of transported proteoglycans suggested by the extraction results are discussed.

  15. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  16. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  17. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for coloring ingested drugs. (b) Uses and restrictions. Annatto extract may be safely used...

  18. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  19. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... appropriate combination of the food-grade extractants listed in paragraph (a)(1) (i) and (ii) of this...

  20. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...