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Sample records for gardn asteraceae chaetoglobosinas

  1. Ethnopharmacology of Mexican asteraceae (Compositae).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, M; Robles, M; West, J E; Ortiz de Montellano, B R; Rodriguez, E

    1998-01-01

    Traditional herbal remedies have increased in popularity in Europe and the United States in recent years but have always been important to people living in rural Mexico and to their Mexican American/Chicano descendants in the United States. Mexican American patients will often be ingesting herbal teas at the same time that they are being treated for their ailments with antibiotics or antiinflammatory agents. The plant family Asteraceae (Compositae) has contributed the largest number of plants to this pharmacopoeia; the reasons for the importance of this family include its large number of species in Mexico and its wide array of natural products that are useful in the treatment of the maladies that have afflicted the inhabitants of rural Mexico. These natural products include sesquiterpene lactones, polyacetylenes, alkaloids, monoterpenes, and various phenolics such as flavonoids. In this review, we emphasize the sesquiterpene lactones, a large group of compounds with antiinflammatory properties and the ability to relax smooth muscles and thereby relieve gastrointestinal distress. These compounds also readily form adducts with glutathione or free thiols and can thereby affect the metabolism, activity, and toxicology of a wide array of pharmacological agents. PMID:9597165

  2. Flavanone glycosides from Bidens gardneri Bak. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Okano, Laura Tiemi; Lopes, Norberto P; de Oliveira, Dionéia C R

    2013-12-01

    LC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of the Brazilian medicinal plant Bidens gardneri Bak. (Asteraceae) results in identification of eleven phenolic compounds. HRESIMS, MS/MS and UV data analyses, with phytochemicals isolation guided by MS data, results in flavanones-(-)-4'-methoxy-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3'-dihydroxyflavanone; (-)-7-O-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3',4'-trihydroxyflavanone; and (-)-4'-methoxy-7-O-(6″-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3'-dihydroxyflavanone being identified-together with four known compounds. The absolute configurations of two of the flavanones were determined as 2S via circular dichroism. PMID:24210092

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. PMID:26164759

  4. Phenolics from Rhagadiolus stellatus (Asteraceae, Cichorieae)

    PubMed Central

    Krimplstätter, Romana; Ma, Benjamin; Spitaler, Renate; Ellmerer, Ernst; Zidorn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Rhagadiolus stellatus Gaertn., a Mediterranean member of the Cichorieae tribe of the Asteraceae family used as a food plant, was analyzed for its spectrum of phenolic compounds. Kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside 1, kaempferol 3-O-β-rutinoside (nicotiflorin) 2, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside 3, and luteolin 4 were isolated from the n-butanol layer of a methanolic extract of whole plants of Rh. stellatus of Spanish origin by repeated Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Structures were determined based on NMR and MS data as well as by comparison with literature data. Additionally, chlorogenic acid 5 and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 6 were detected by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/MS. Chemosystematic implications of the presented findings are discussed in comparison with other members of the Cichorieae tribe. PMID:21617781

  5. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  6. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  7. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  8. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  9. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  10. Macroevolutionary dynamics in the early diversification of Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Panero, Jose L; Crozier, Bonnie S

    2016-06-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in ecological opportunity can result in disparity of net species diversification rates and consequently uneven distribution of taxon richness across the tree of life. The largest eudicotyledonous plant family Asteraceae has a global distribution and at least 460 times more species than its South American endemic sister family Calyceraceae. In this study, diversification rate dynamics across Asteraceae are examined in light of the several hypothesized causes for the family's evolutionary success that could be responsible for rate change. The innovations of racemose capitulum and pappus, and a whole genome duplication event occurred near the origin of the family, yet we found the basal lineages of Asteraceae that evolved in South America share background diversification rates with Calyceraceae and their Australasian sister Goodeniaceae. Instead we found diversification rates increased gradually from the origin of Asteraceae approximately 69.5Ma in the late Cretaceous through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at least. In contrast to earlier studies, significant rate shifts were not strongly correlated with intercontinental dispersals or polyploidization. The difference is due primarily to sampling more backbone nodes, as well as calibrations placed internally in Asteraceae that resulted in earlier divergence times than those found in most previous relaxed clock studies. Two clades identified as having transformed rate processes are the Vernonioid Clade and a clade within the Heliantheae alliance characterized by phytomelanic fruit (PF Clade) that represents an American radiation. In Africa, subfamilies Carduoideae, Pertyoideae, Gymnarrhenoideae, Cichorioideae, Corymbioideae, and Asteroideae diverged in a relatively short span of only 6.5millionyears during the Middle Eocene. PMID:26979262

  11. Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a New Species from Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chen; Tong, Tian-Jing; Hong, Yu; Yang, Qin-Er

    2016-01-01

    Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a new species from Muli, Sichuan, southwestern China, is described. It is distinguished in Chinese Senecio s.s. by having lyrate-pinnatisect to pinnatisect leaves and a single terminal large discoid capitulum which is somewhat nodding. Evidence from floral micromorphology, karyology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS/ETS sequence data all support its membership within Senecio s.s. PMID:27050905

  12. Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a New Species from Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chen; Tong, Tian-Jing; Hong, Yu; Yang, Qin-Er

    2016-01-01

    Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a new species from Muli, Sichuan, southwestern China, is described. It is distinguished in Chinese Senecio s.s. by having lyrate-pinnatisect to pinnatisect leaves and a single terminal large discoid capitulum which is somewhat nodding. Evidence from floral micromorphology, karyology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS/ETS sequence data all support its membership within Senecio s.s. PMID:27050905

  13. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies. PMID:27172598

  14. Trypanocidal activity of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Takeara, R; Albuquerque, S; Lopes, N P; Lopes, J L C

    2003-01-01

    In the continuing search for new compounds with trypanocidal activity for use in blood banks to prevent the transmission of Chagas' disease, a trypanocidal extract of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) was fractionated using several chromatographic techniques and afforded the following flavonoids: tectochrysin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin 3-acetate, pinocembrin, chrysin, galangin 3-methyl ether, quercetin 3-methyl ether, chrysoeriol and vicenin-2. The most active compound was quercetin 3-methyl ether, which showed no blood lysis activity and which represents a promising compound for use against T. cruzi in blood banks. PMID:13678232

  15. Chemodiversity of exudate flavonoids in Cassinia and Ozothamnus (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae).

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, Eckhard; Fischer, Ralf; Dörr, Marion; Irvine, Kathryn; Pereira, Cliff; Stevens, Jan F

    2008-01-01

    The lipophilic exudates deposited on aerial parts of four species of Cassinia and twelve species of Ozothamnus (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) have been analyzed for the presence of flavonoid aglycones and some other phenolics. A total of 55 flavonoids were identified, including several rare flavonols. Flavonols are prevailing over flavones, and 8-O-substitution is dominant in both groups. Ozothamnus rosmarinifolius is exceptional in producing several coumarins. Four dihydrobenzofurans have also been identified from this species. Cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis of the flavonoid data provide support for combining species of Cassinia and Ozothamnus into a single genus. PMID:19040114

  16. A chloroplast DNA inversion marks an ancient evolutionary split in the sunflower family (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Robert K.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    1987-01-01

    We determined the distribution of a chloroplast DNA inversion among 80 species representing 16 tribes of the Asteraceae and 10 putatively related families. Filter hybridizations using cloned chloroplast DNA restriction fragments of lettuce and petunia revealed that this 22-kilobase-pair inversion is shared by 57 genera, representing all tribes of the Asteraceae, but is absent from the subtribe Barnadesiinae of the tribe Mutisieae, as well as from all families allied to the Asteraceae. The inversion thus defines an ancient evolutionary split within the family and suggests that the Barnadesiinae represents the most primitive lineage in the Asteraceae. These results also indicate that the tribe Mutisieae is not monophyletic, since any common ancestor to its four subtribes is also shared by other tribes in the family. This is the most extensive survey of the systematic distribution of an organelle DNA rearrangement and demonstrates the potential of such mutations for resolving phylogenetic relationships at higher taxonomic levels. Images PMID:16593871

  17. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  18. Characterization of microsatellite markers for Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Belini, Camila M. B.; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Figueira, Glyn M.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Campos, Jaqueline B.; Viana, João P. G.; Pinheiro, José B.; Zucchi, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) is a native plant of the Atlantic Forest that is used for the production of essential oil. Microsatellite markers were developed for this species to investigate the genetic diversity of three natural populations. Methods and Results: Seventeen out of 27 microsatellite loci identified in a genomic library used for the characterization of 315 individuals derived from three natural populations of B. dracunculifolia resulted in successful amplifications. Eleven polymorphic loci, ranging from two to seven alleles per locus, were obtained with expected and observed heterozygosity values ranging between 0.068 and 0.775 and 0.046 and 0.667, respectively. Conclusions: The microsatellite loci described in this study are tools that can be used for further studies of population genetics of B. dracunculifolia with a focus on deforested areas and conservation of natural populations. PMID:27011894

  19. Development of microsatellite markers for Crepis mollis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Muller, Ludo A. H.; Borsch, Thomas; Ismail, Sascha A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the threatened species Crepis mollis (Asteraceae) to investigate population and conservation genetics. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing was conducted on pooled genomic DNA from 10 individuals of two populations. Ten polymorphic and 10 monomorphic microsatellite loci with di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed and characterized in C. mollis. In the polymorphic markers, up to 17 alleles per locus were detected with an observed and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.120 to 0.780 and 0.102 to 0.834, respectively. Furthermore, the polymorphic markers were tested for cross-amplification in three congeneric species (C. biennis, C. foetida, and C. sancta) and amplified in up to three loci. Conclusions: The markers developed in this study are the first microsatellites tested on C. mollis and will be useful for performing population and conservation genetic studies in this threatened species. PMID:27437177

  20. First report of fasciation in Pitcher's Thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Korte, Megan K; McEachern, Kathryn; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We document the first reported occurrence of fasciation in the federally threatened Pitcher’s thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). In 2013, we discovered two adult plants of Pitcher’s thistle out of a total of 176 plants at West Beach, near Miller, Indiana, USA, that exhibited both normal and fasciated growth. Unlike plants with normal growth, a portion of the upper stems of these plants was flattened, and some flower heads were elongated into a fan-like shape. Each plant had one large fasciated terminal seed head and several less severely fasciated ancillary heads. The fasciated terminal head on one of the plants found produced an estimated 1153 seeds, whereas normal terminal heads typically produced 80 ± 9 viable seeds. The cause of this fasciation is unclear, but may be due to infection with phytoplasma

  1. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Viviana D.; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V.; Tellería, María C.; Bremer, Kåre; Passala, Mauro G.; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Methods The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Key Results The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate–imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. Conclusions This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae–Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously

  2. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. Results The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. Conclusions ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels. PMID:20977734

  3. Revision of endemic Marquesas Islands Bidens (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Clark, John R.; Lorence, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands four new species of Bidens (Coreopsideae, Asteraceae) have come to light and are described herein: Bidens woodii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from Ua Pou, and Bidens microcephala W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence sp. nov., Bidens evapelliana W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov., and Bidens wichmanii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from the undercollected island of Fatu Hiva. In addition to these new species, we recognize the following six species of Bidens previously described from the Marquesas Islands: Bidens beckiana (F. Br.) Sherff (Eiao and Hatutaa), Bidens bipontina Sherff and Bidens cordifolia Sch. Bip. (both in Nuku Hiva), Bidens henryi Sherff (Hiva Oa, Tahuata), Bidens uapensis (F. Br.) Sherff (Ua Pou), and Bidens polycephala Sch. Bip. (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huku, Hiva Oa, Tahuata, and Mohotani). Two names are reduced to synonymy under Bidens polycephala: Bidens collina Degener & Sherff, syn. nov. and Bidens jardinii Sch. Bip., syn. nov. Bidens polycephala has the widest distribution of the Marquesan species on five of the islands and exhibits considerable variation. PMID:25009437

  4. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC–MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 μg/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of β-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  5. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  6. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC-MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 μg/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of β-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  7. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  8. Genome size shifts: karyotype evolution in Crepis section Neglectoides (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Enke, N; Kunze, R; Pustahija, F; Glöckner, G; Zimmermann, J; Oberländer, J; Kamari, G; Siljak-Yakovlev, S

    2015-07-01

    Plant genome size evolution is a very dynamic process: the ancestral genome of angiosperms was initially most likely small, which led to a tendency towards genome increase during evolution. However, findings in several angiosperm lineages demonstrate mechanisms that also led to genome size contraction. Recent molecular investigations on the Asteraceae genus Crepis suggest that several genomic reduction events have occurred during the evolution of the genus. This study focuses on the Mediterranean Crepis sect. Neglectoides, which includes three species with some of the smallest genomes within the whole genus. Crepis neglecta has the largest genome in sect. Neglectoides, approximately twice the size of the two species Crepis cretica and Crepis hellenica. Whereas C. cretica and C. hellencia are more closely related to each other than to C. neglecta the karyotypes of the latter species and C. cretica are similar, while that of C. hellenica differs considerably. Here, the karyotypic organisation of the three species is investigated with fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and studied in a molecular phylogenetic framework based on the nuclear markers Actin, CHR12, CPN60B, GPCR1 and XTH23. Our findings further corroborate the occurrence of genome size contraction in Crepis, and suggest that the difference in genome size between C. neglecta and C. cretica is mostly due to elimination of dispersed repetitive elements, whereas chromosomal reorganisation was involved in the karyotype formation of C. hellenica. PMID:25683604

  9. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Musiał, K; Płachno, B J; Świątek, P; Marciniuk, J

    2013-06-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

  11. Revision of endemic Marquesas Islands Bidens (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Warren L; Clark, John R; Lorence, David H

    2014-01-01

    During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands four new species of Bidens (Coreopsideae, Asteraceae) have come to light and are described herein: Bidens woodii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from Ua Pou, and Bidens microcephala W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence sp. nov., Bidens evapelliana W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov., and Bidens wichmanii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from the undercollected island of Fatu Hiva. In addition to these new species, we recognize the following six species of Bidens previously described from the Marquesas Islands: Bidens beckiana (F. Br.) Sherff (Eiao and Hatutaa), Bidens bipontina Sherff and Bidens cordifolia Sch. Bip. (both in Nuku Hiva), Bidens henryi Sherff (Hiva Oa, Tahuata), Bidens uapensis (F. Br.) Sherff (Ua Pou), and Bidens polycephala Sch. Bip. (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huku, Hiva Oa, Tahuata, and Mohotani). Two names are reduced to synonymy under Bidens polycephala: Bidens collina Degener & Sherff, syn. nov. and Bidens jardinii Sch. Bip., syn. nov. Bidens polycephala has the widest distribution of the Marquesan species on five of the islands and exhibits considerable variation. PMID:25009437

  12. The explosive radiation of Cheirolophus (Asteraceae, Cardueae) in Macaronesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considered a biodiversity hotspot, the Canary Islands have been the key subjects of numerous evolutionary studies concerning a large variety of organisms. The genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) represents one of the largest plant radiations in the Canarian archipelago. In contrast, only a few species occur in the Mediterranean region, the putative ancestral area of the genus. Here, our main aim was to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Cheirolophus with special focus on explaining the origin of the large Canarian radiation. Results We found significant incongruence in phylogenetic relationships between nuclear and plastid markers. Each dataset provided resolution at different levels in Cheirolophus: the nuclear markers resolved the backbone of the phylogeny while the plastid data provided better resolution within the Canarian clade. The origin of Cheirolophus was dated in the Mid-Late Miocene, followed by rapid diversification into the three main Mediterranean lineages and the Macaronesian clade. A decrease in diversification rates was inferred at the end of the Miocene, with a new increase in the Late Pliocene concurrent with the onset of the Mediterranean climate. Diversification within the Macaronesian clade started in the Early-Mid Pleistocene, with unusually high speciation rates giving rise to the extant insular diversity. Conclusions Climate-driven diversification likely explains the early evolutionary history of Cheirolophus in the Mediterranean region. It appears that the exceptionally high diversification rate in the Canarian clade was mainly driven by allopatric speciation (including intra- and interisland diversification). Several intrinsic (e.g. breeding system, polyploid origin, seed dispersal syndrome) and extrinsic (e.g. fragmented landscape, isolated habitats, climatic and geological changes) factors probably contributed to the progressive differentiation of populations resulting in numerous microendemisms. Finally

  13. Evidence for multiple introductions of Centaurea stoebe micranthos (spotted knapweed, Asteraceae) to North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species’ success may depend strongly on the genetic resources they maintain through the invasion process. We ask how many introductions have occurred in the North American weed Centaurea stoebe micranthos (Asteraceae), and explore whether genetic diversity and population structure have chan...

  14. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum. PMID:27097086

  15. Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae: Cynareae) new to North Carolina and an illustrated key to southeastern congeners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krings, A.; Westbrooks, R.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae) is documented for North Carolina. The species had previously been known from Florida to South Carolina and from disjunct populations in Virginia. An illustrated key is provided to aid others in the diagnosis of Cirsium in North Carolina and the southeast.

  16. Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Multifunctional Crop Globe Artichoke and Comparison with Other Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Curci, Pasquale L.; De Paola, Domenico; Danzi, Donatella; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    With over 20,000 species, Asteraceae is the second largest plant family. High-throughput sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast genomes has allowed for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within large plant families. Here, the globe artichoke chloroplast (cp) genome was obtained by a combination of whole-genome and BAC clone high-throughput sequencing. The artichoke cp genome is 152,529 bp in length, consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,155 bp, representing the longest IRs found in the Asteraceae family so far. The large (LSC) and the small (SSC) single-copy regions span 83,578 bp and 18,641 bp, respectively. The artichoke cp sequence was compared to the other eight Asteraceae complete cp genomes available, revealing an IR expansion at the SSC/IR boundary. This expansion consists of 17 bp of the ndhF gene generating an overlap between the ndhF and ycf1 genes. A total of 127 cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the artichoke cp genome, potentially suitable for future population studies in the Cynara genus. Parsimony-informative regions were evaluated and allowed to place a Cynara species within the Asteraceae family tree. The eight most informative coding regions were also considered and tested for “specific barcode” purpose in the Asteraceae family. Our results highlight the usefulness of cp genome sequencing in exploring plant genome diversity and retrieving reliable molecular resources for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, as well as for specific barcodes in plants. PMID:25774672

  17. Complete chloroplast genome of the multifunctional crop globe artichoke and comparison with other Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Curci, Pasquale L; De Paola, Domenico; Danzi, Donatella; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    With over 20,000 species, Asteraceae is the second largest plant family. High-throughput sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast genomes has allowed for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within large plant families. Here, the globe artichoke chloroplast (cp) genome was obtained by a combination of whole-genome and BAC clone high-throughput sequencing. The artichoke cp genome is 152,529 bp in length, consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,155 bp, representing the longest IRs found in the Asteraceae family so far. The large (LSC) and the small (SSC) single-copy regions span 83,578 bp and 18,641 bp, respectively. The artichoke cp sequence was compared to the other eight Asteraceae complete cp genomes available, revealing an IR expansion at the SSC/IR boundary. This expansion consists of 17 bp of the ndhF gene generating an overlap between the ndhF and ycf1 genes. A total of 127 cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the artichoke cp genome, potentially suitable for future population studies in the Cynara genus. Parsimony-informative regions were evaluated and allowed to place a Cynara species within the Asteraceae family tree. The eight most informative coding regions were also considered and tested for "specific barcode" purpose in the Asteraceae family. Our results highlight the usefulness of cp genome sequencing in exploring plant genome diversity and retrieving reliable molecular resources for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, as well as for specific barcodes in plants. PMID:25774672

  18. Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Panero, Jose L; Freire, Susana E; Ariza Espinar, Luis; Crozier, Bonnie S; Barboza, Gloria E; Cantero, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    A backbone phylogeny that fully resolves all subfamily and deeper nodes of Asteraceae was constructed using 14 chloroplast DNA loci. The recently named genus Famatinanthus was found to be sister to the Mutisioideae-Asteroideae clade that represents more than 99% of Asteraceae and was found to have the two chloroplast inversions present in all Asteraceae except the nine genera of Barnadesioideae. A monotypic subfamily Famatinanthoideae and tribe Famatinantheae are named herein as new. Relationships among the basal lineages of the family were resolved with strong support in the Bayesian analysis as (Barnadesioideae (Famatinanthoideae (Mutisioideae (Stifftioideae (Wunderlichioideae-Asteroideae))))). Ancestral state reconstruction of ten morphological characters at the root node of the Asteraceae showed that the ancestral sunflower would have had a woody habit, alternate leaves, solitary capitulescences, epaleate receptacles, smooth styles, smooth to microechinate pollen surface sculpturing, white to yellow corollas, and insect-mediated pollination. Herbaceous habit, echinate pollen surface, pubescent styles, and cymose capitulescences were reconstructed for backbone nodes of the phylogeny corresponding to clades that evolved shortly after Asteraceae dispersed out of South America. No support was found for discoid capitula, multiseriate involucres or bird pollination as the ancestral character condition for any node. Using this more resolved phylogenetic tree, the recently described Raiguenrayun cura+Mutisiapollis telleriae fossil should be associated to a more derived node than previously suggested when time calibrating phylogenies of Asteraceae. PMID:25083940

  19. Development and characterization of SSR markers for Aster savatieri (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Sakaguchi, Shota; Ito, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Aster savatieri (Asteraceae) and the serpentine variety A. savatieri var. pygmaeus to re-evaluate their taxonomic status. Methods and Results: Using RNA-Seq data, 22 expressed sequence tag (EST)–SSR markers were developed. Polymorphisms were assessed in A. savatieri and in A. savatieri var. pygmaeus. The average number of alleles ranged from four to 15, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.417 to 0.870. Transferability was examined in six representative species of Japanese Aster and in Solidago virgaurea subsp. asiatica var. asiatica, a member of the tribe Astereae (Asteraceae); most of the loci were transferable to these examined species. Conclusions: These markers will be useful for genetic studies of variation in A. savatieri and other Aster species that occur in Japan. PMID:27347451

  20. Two new Marquesan species of the southeastern Polynesian genus Oparanthus (Asteraceae, Coreopsidinae)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Lorence, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the recently revised genus Oparanthus (Asteraceae, Subtribe Coreopsidinae) were discovered during the National Tropical Botanical Garden/Smithsonian Institution 1997 expedition to the Marquesas Islands. Oparanthus woodii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, sp. nov. is known from a single population on the island of Nuku Hiva, and Oparanthus tiva W. L. Wagner & Lorence, sp. nov. is known only from Tahuata. Small domatia with a tuft of hairs occur in Oparanthus tiva (and the previously known Oparanthus hivoanus), and similar but naked domatia are found occasionally in Oparanthus woodii. Domatia are of exceedingly rare occurrence in Asteraceae. Both new species are extremely rare and are considered critically endangered (CR) as are the other four species of the genus. PMID:22171186

  1. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  2. Selecting single-copy nuclear genes for plant phylogenetics: a preliminary analysis for the Senecioneae (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Inés; Costa, Andrea; Feliner, Gonzalo Nieto

    2008-03-01

    Compared to organelle genomes, the nuclear genome comprises a vast reservoir of genes that potentially harbor phylogenetic signal. Despite the valuable data that sequencing projects of model systems offer, relatively few single-copy nuclear genes are being used in systematics. In part this is due to the challenges inherent in generating orthologous sequences, a problem that is ameliorated when the gene family in question has been characterized in related organisms. Here we illustrate the utility of diverse sequence databases within the Asteraceae as a framework for developing single-copy nuclear genes useful for inferring phylogenies in the tribe Senecioneae. We highlight the process of searching for informative genes by using data from Helianthus annuus, Lactuca sativa, Stevia rebaudiana, Zinnia elegans, and Gerbera cultivar. Emerging from this process were several candidate genes; two of these were used for a phylogenetic assessment of the Senecioneae and were compared to other genes previously used in Asteraceae phylogenies. Based on the preliminary sampling used, one of the genes selected during the searching process was more useful than the two previously used in Asteraceae. The search strategy described is valid for any group of plants but its efficiency is dependent on the phylogenetic proximity of the study group to the species represented in sequence databases. PMID:18305978

  3. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  4. A Metabolomic Approach to Target Compounds from the Asteraceae Family for Dual COX and LOX Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A.; Zhang, Tong; Da Costa, Fernando B.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2015-01-01

    The application of metabolomics in phytochemical analysis is an innovative strategy for targeting active compounds from a complex plant extract. Species of the Asteraceae family are well-known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory (AI) activity. Dual inhibition of the enzymes COX-1 and 5-LOX is essential for the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, but there is not much investigation reported in the literature for natural products. In this study, 57 leaf extracts (EtOH-H2O 7:3, v/v) from different genera and species of the Asteraceae family were tested against COX-1 and 5-LOX while HPLC-ESI-HRMS analysis of the extracts indicated high diversity in their chemical compositions. Using O2PLS-DA (R2 > 0.92; VIP > 1 and positive Y-correlation values), dual inhibition potential of low-abundance metabolites was determined. The O2PLS-DA results exhibited good validation values (cross-validation = Q2 > 0.7 and external validation = P2 > 0.6) with 0% of false positive predictions. The metabolomic approach determined biomarkers for the required biological activity and detected active compounds in the extracts displaying unique mechanisms of action. In addition, the PCA data also gave insights on the chemotaxonomy of the family Asteraceae across its diverse range of genera and tribes. PMID:26184333

  5. Pollen–pistil interactions and self-incompatibility in the Asteraceae: new insights from studies of Senecio squalidus (Oxford ragwort)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alexandra M.; Thorogood, Christopher J.; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Lexer, Christian; Hiscock, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen–pistil interactions are an essential prelude to fertilization in angiosperms and determine compatibility/incompatibility. Pollen–pistil interactions have been studied at a molecular and cellular level in relatively few families. Self-incompatibility (SI) is the best understood pollen–pistil interaction at a molecular level where three different molecular mechanisms have been identified in just five families. Here we review studies of pollen–pistil interactions and SI in the Asteraceae, an important family that has been relatively understudied in these areas of reproductive biology. Scope We begin by describing the historical literature which first identified sporophytic SI (SSI) in species of Asteraceae, the SI system later identified and characterized at a molecular level in the Brassicaceae. Early structural and cytological studies in these two families suggested that pollen–pistil interactions and SSI were similar, if not the same. Recent cellular and molecular studies in Senecio squalidus (Oxford ragwort) have challenged this belief by revealing that despite sharing the same genetic system of SSI, the Brassicaceae and Asteraceae molecular mechanisms are different. Key cellular differences have also been highlighted in pollen–stigma interactions, which may arise as a consequence of the Asteraceae possessing a ‘semi-dry’ stigma, rather than the ‘dry’ stigma typical of the Brassicaceae. The review concludes with a summary of recent transcriptomic analyses aimed at identifying proteins regulating pollen–pistil interactions and SI in S. squalidus, and by implication the Asteraceae. The Senecio pistil transcriptome contains many novel pistil-specific genes, but also pistil-specific genes previously shown to play a role in pollen–pistil interactions in other species. Conclusions Studies in S. squalidus have shown that stigma structure and the molecular mechanism of SSI in the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae are different. The

  6. [Cytogenetic peculiarities of cell genesis in apical meristems under gametophytic apomixis (using autonomous apomicts of the Asteraceae as an example)].

    PubMed

    Kashin, A S; Tsvetova, M I; Demochko, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    Cytogenetic peculiarities of cell genesis in apical meristems of apomicts has been analyzed using a series of the Asteraceae species as an example. The extent to which aneu- and mixoploids are spread among plants in the investigated populations of the Asteraceae species is so high (up to 30-60% of the studied plants and their offspring), that it seems reasonable to suppose that their rise is a natural phenomenon. It has been shown that in the aposporous facultative apomict Pilosella officinarum microgametophyte is a relatively stable element of the seed reproduction system from the point of view of caryotypical variation. PMID:21574427

  7. Investigation of plant latices of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae regarding proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sytwala, Sonja; Domsalla, André; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of plant latices is widespread, there are more than 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. The appearance of hydrolytic active proteins, incorporated in latices is already characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable, and for several plant families, the occurrence of hydrolytic active proteins is already specified e.g. Apocynaceae Juss., Caricaceae Dumort, Euphorbiaceae Juss., Moraceae Gaudich and Papaveraceae Juss. In our investigation, focused on latex bearing plants of order Asterales, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of proteolytic active enzymes of order Asterales for the first time. 131 different species of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae were tested, and the appearance of plant latex proteases were determined in different quantities. Proteolytic activity was investigated by inhibitory studies and determination of residual activity in the following, enable us to characterize the proteases. Most of the considered species exhibit a serine protease activity and a multiplicity of species exhibited two or more subclasses of proteases. PMID:26458257

  8. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae) plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Macêdo, M E; Consoli, R A; Grandi, T S; dos Anjos, A M; de Oliveira, A B; Mendes, N M; Queiróz, R O; Zani, C L

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis--Diptera: Culicidae). The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l). PMID:9361755

  9. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general. PMID:26261324

  10. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Viviana D.; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C.; Olivero, Eduardo B.; Raine, J. Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-01-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76–66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60–50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general. PMID:26261324

  11. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG NATIVE AND NATURALIZED HIERACIUM (ASTERACEAE) IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES BASED ON PLASTID DNA SEQUENCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of chloroplast DNA to examine the relationships of native North American Hieracium (hawkweeds; Asteraceae) with non-native Hieracium species being studied for classical biological control. Thirty-six taxa were included; these representing the three m...

  12. The initiation of a biological control programme against pompom weed Campuloclinium macrocephalum (LESS.)DC (Asteraceae)in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pompom weed, Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less.) DC. (Asteraceae), is a South American invasive that was first recorded in South Africa in the early 1960s. In the 1980s, C. macrocephalum started slowly extending its range and in the 1990s and 2000s it entered a dramatic expansion phase. It invade...

  13. A Comparison of the First Two Sequenced Chloroplast Genomes in Asteraceae: Lettuce and Sunflower

    SciTech Connect

    Timme, Ruth E.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    Asteraceae is the second largest family of plants, with over 20,000 species. For the past few decades, numerous phylogenetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this family, including comparisons of the fast evolving chloroplast gene, ndhF, rbcL, as well as non-coding DNA from the trnL intron plus the trnLtrnF intergenic spacer, matK, and, with lesser resolution, psbA-trnH. This culminated in a study by Panero and Funk in 2002 that used over 13,000 bp per taxon for the largest taxonomic revision of Asteraceae in over a hundred years. Still, some uncertainties remain, and it would be very useful to have more information on the relative rates of sequence evolution among various genes and on genome structure as a potential set of phylogenetic characters to help guide future phylogenetic structures. By way of contributing to this, we report the first two complete chloroplast genome sequences from members of the Asteraceae, those of Helianthus annuus and Lactuca sativa. These plants belong to two distantly related subfamilies, Asteroideae and Cichorioideae, respectively. In addition to these, there is only one other published chloroplast genome sequence for any plant within the larger group called Eusterids II, that of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae, 156,318 bps, AY582139). Early chloroplast genome mapping studies demonstrated that H. annuus and L. sativa share a 22 kb inversion relative to members of the subfamily Barnadesioideae. By comparison to outgroups, this inversion was shown to be derived, indicating that the Asteroideae and Cichorioideae are more closely related than either is to the Barnadesioideae. Later sequencing study found that taxa that share this 22 kb inversion also contain within this region a second, smaller, 3.3 kb inversion. These sequences also enable an analysis of patterns of shared repeats in the genomes at fine level and of RNA editing by comparison to available EST sequences. In addition, since

  14. Bidensmeyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae): a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands.

    PubMed

    Funk, Vicki A; Wood, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Bidensmeyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae) is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia). This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidenssaint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidensmeyeri may be distinguished from Bidenssaint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm), apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent), smaller leaves (2.0-2.3 cm vs. 5-6 cm), and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidensmeyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française. PMID:25383010

  15. Altitudinal gradients of generalist and specialist herbivory on three montane Asteraceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidel, U.; Röhl, S.; Bruelheide, H.

    Different functional types of herbivory on three montane Asteraceae were investigated in natural populations in central Germany to test the hypothesis that herbivory is decreasing with altitude. Generalist herbivory was assessed as leaf area loss, mainly caused by slugs, and, in Petasites albus, as rhizome mining by oligophagous insect larvae. Capitules were found to be parasitized by oligophagous insects in Centaurea pseudophrygia and by the specialist fly Tephritis arnicae in Arnica montana. Only the damage to leaves of P. albus showed the hypothesized decrease with increasing altitude. No altitudinal gradient could be found in the leaf and capitule damage to C. pseudophrygia. In A. montana, capitule damage increased with increasing elevation. The data suggest that abundance and activity of generalist herbivores are more affected by climatic conditions along altitudinal gradients than specialist herbivores. In all probability, specialist herbivores depend less on abiotic conditions than on their host's population characteristics, such as host population size.

  16. A new acylated flavonol from the aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Marwa I; Ezzat, Shahira M; El Deeb, Kadriya S; El Fishawy, Ahlam M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowering aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of a new compound: patuletin 7-O-β-D-[(2″'S) 6″(3″'-hydroxy-2″'-methyl-propanoyl)] glucopyranoside, together with five known metabolites; β-sitosterol 2, chlorogenic acid 3, P-hydroxy -methylbenzoate 4, luteolin 5 and protocatechuic acid 6. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of its 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and compared with previously known analogues. The ethanolic extract of the flowering aerial parts of A. maritimus was found to be safe (LD50 = 4.6 mg/kg) and possess significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and this was in accordance with its high phenolic content (107.36 ± 0.051 mg GAE/g extract). PMID:26828806

  17. Development of EST-SSR markers for the invasive plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Landi; Zhang, Pin; Ou, Xiaokun; Geng, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) is an invasive plant species that can outcompete natives and thus poses a great threat to biodiversity in introduced areas. Here, expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed and characterized. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from T. diversifolia using transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatic screening. The number of alleles per locus varied from two to four alleles in 48 individuals from three populations. Most of these primers also amplified in T. rotundifolia and some even in Parthenium hysterophorus. Conclusions: These markers are useful for investigating the genetic structure and evolutionary process of T. diversifolia, which may provide important information for better management. PMID:27437174

  18. Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae): a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Vicki A.; Wood, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae) is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia). This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidens saint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidens meyeri may be distinguished from Bidens saint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm), apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent), smaller leaves (2.0–2.3 cm vs. 5–6 cm), and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidens meyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française, PMID:25383010

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from two Asteraceae species.

    PubMed

    Souza, M C; Siani, A C; Ramos, M F S; Menezes-de-Lima, O Júnior; Henriques, M G M O

    2003-08-01

    The essential oils from two Asteraceae species, Porophyllum ruderale (PR) and Conyza bonariensis (CB) were screened for anti-inflammatory activity in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by zymosan (500 microg/cavity) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (250 ng/cavity). The main monoterpene constituents of each oil, beta-myrcene (in PR) and limonene (in CB), were tested in the LPS-induced pleurisy model and assayed also for immunoregulatory activity by measurement of the inhibition of NO and production of the cytokines, gamma-interferon and IL-4. The oils, when administered orally, were able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation including cell migration; with a similar effect being observed for pure limonene. Pure beta-myrcene and limonene were also effective in inhibiting production of nitric oxide at doses below the cytotoxicity of these monoterpenes. A significant inhibition of gamma-interferon and IL-4 production by limonene and beta-myrcene was also observed. PMID:12967039

  20. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

  1. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided. PMID:24596488

  2. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael O.; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided. PMID:24596488

  3. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tubée, Daniel B. Montesinos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to Senecio ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morphological similarities with other species of Senecio, a distribution map, conservation status assessments, and a key to the caespitose Peruvian species of Senecio subser. Caespitosi are provided. The new species are Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio pucapampaensis Beltrán, Senecio sykorae Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio gamolepis Cabrera, and Senecio tassaensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos. PMID:25197221

  4. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru.

    PubMed

    Tubée, Daniel B Montesinos

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to Senecio ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morphological similarities with other species of Senecio, a distribution map, conservation status assessments, and a key to the caespitose Peruvian species of Senecio subser. Caespitosi are provided. The new species are Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio pucapampaensis Beltrán, Senecio sykorae Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio gamolepis Cabrera, and Senecio tassaensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos. PMID:25197221

  5. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Glennon, Kelsey L.; Cron, Glynis V.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Methods and Results: Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. Conclusions: These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species. PMID:27213125

  6. Inbreeding effects on fitness traits in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis L. (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picó, F. X.; Koubek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Heterocarpic plants are characterized by the production of distinct types of fruits that usually differ in their ecological behavior. In the Asteraceae, differences are mainly found between peripheral non-dispersal and central dispersal achenes (single-seeded fruits). Inbreeding depression is considered as an evolutionary force as it may reduce several fitness traits, and in the case of heterocarpic plants, it could influence fitness traits (e.g., seed set, germination rate, growth rate) of each fruit morph, which may have important ecological and evolutionary consequences. In particular, differential effects on fitness traits and dispersal of selfed and outcrossed progeny can strongly determine the viability of extant populations and the potential to colonize new habitats. We conducted a hand-pollination experiment in greenhouse conditions to test whether inbreeding affects the fitness of achene morphs in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis (Asteraceae). Results show that achene morphs significantly differ in their ecological behavior, peripheral achenes germinating more and faster than central achenes. The significant interaction between pollination treatment and achene morph for germination probability might indicate a link between dormancy and mating system in L. autumnalis: germination was higher for outcrossed achenes in central achenes whereas the opposite pattern was exhibited by peripheral achenes. Selfing dramatically reduced seed set, probably as a consequence of strong self-incompatibility mechanisms rather than inbreeding effects. Inbreeding depression significantly affected late life-cycle traits, such as growth rate and biomass at flowering. Overall, results suggest that inbreeding depression seems to be an important selective force maintaining outcrossing in L. autumnalis.

  7. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. PMID:26642998

  8. Vernonieae (Asteraceae) of southern Africa: A generic disposition of the species and a study of their pollen

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Skvarla, John J.; Funk, Vicki A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Current and previously included members of the Tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae) of southern Africa are listed in their presently recognized genera with complete synonymies and keys to genera and species. The genus Vernonia, as presently delimited, does not occur in Africa. Genera of the Vernonieae presently recognized from southern Africa are Baccharoides, Bothriocline, Cyanthillium, Distephanus, Erlangea, Ethulia, Gymnanthemum, Hilliardiella, Oocephala, Orbivestus, Parapolydora, Polydora, Vernonella, Vernoniastrum, plus two genera that are named as new: Namibithamnus and Pseudopegolettia. Twelve new combinations are provided and two species, Vernonia potamiphila and Vernonia collinii Klatt., hom. illeg., remain unplaced because of a lack of material. Pollen types are illustrated including previously recognized types: non-lophate, sublophate, tricolporate lophate, and non-colpate triporate lophate. A type previously unknown in the Asteraceae is described here and in a separate paper for Oocephala and Polydora; a non-colpate pantoporate lophate type with pores not strictly equatorial. PMID:27081344

  9. Vernonieae (Asteraceae) of southern Africa: A generic disposition of the species and a study of their pollen.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold; Skvarla, John J; Funk, Vicki A

    2016-01-01

    Current and previously included members of the Tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae) of southern Africa are listed in their presently recognized genera with complete synonymies and keys to genera and species. The genus Vernonia, as presently delimited, does not occur in Africa. Genera of the Vernonieae presently recognized from southern Africa are Baccharoides, Bothriocline, Cyanthillium, Distephanus, Erlangea, Ethulia, Gymnanthemum, Hilliardiella, Oocephala, Orbivestus, Parapolydora, Polydora, Vernonella, Vernoniastrum, plus two genera that are named as new: Namibithamnus and Pseudopegolettia. Twelve new combinations are provided and two species, Vernonia potamiphila and Vernonia collinii Klatt., hom. illeg., remain unplaced because of a lack of material. Pollen types are illustrated including previously recognized types: non-lophate, sublophate, tricolporate lophate, and non-colpate triporate lophate. A type previously unknown in the Asteraceae is described here and in a separate paper for Oocephala and Polydora; a non-colpate pantoporate lophate type with pores not strictly equatorial. PMID:27081344

  10. Cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants from Asteraceae family on J-45.01 leukemic cell line--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wegiera, Magdalena; Smolarz, Helena D; Jedruch, Marcin; Korczak, Magdalena; Koproń, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    In this study the in vitro cytotoxic properties of ethanol extracts from the herbs, inflorescents and roots of selected Asteraceae species: Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium, Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyanus, Tanacetum vulgare and Tragopogon pratensis on J-45.01 human acute T leukemia cell line was examined. All tested samples possess antileukemic properties and induce cells death via apoptosis. The correlation between antileukemic activity and total polyphenol content was determined. PMID:22568040

  11. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Hui-Qin; Li, Shuo; Huang, Ying-Hua; Liu, Yong; Bauer, Rudolf; Peng, Lian; Tao, Ou; Yan, Su-Rong; Yan, Yong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers' safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose) has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN) classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA) and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC), were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100%) remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model. PMID:25214873

  12. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Teng; Broholm, Suvi K; Tähtiharju, Sari; Mouhu, Katriina; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. PMID:27382139

  13. Recent assembly of the global herbaceous flora: evidence from the paper daisies (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae).

    PubMed

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki A; Meng, Ying; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The global flora is thought to contain a large proportion of herbs, and understanding the general spatiotemporal processes that shaped the global distribution of these communities is one of the most difficult issues in biogeography. We explored patterns of world-wide biogeography in a species-rich herbaceous group, the paper daisy tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae), based on the hitherto largest taxon sampling, a total of 835 terminal accessions representing 80% of the genera, and encompassing the global geographic range of the tribe, with nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequences. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Gnaphalieae originated in southern Africa during the Oligocene, followed by repeated migrations into the rest of Africa and the Mediterranean region, with subsequent entries into other continents during various periods starting in the Miocene. Expansions in the late Miocene to Pliocene appear to have been the driving force that shaped the global distribution of the tribe as forests were progressively broken up by the mid-continent aridification and savannas and grasslands expanded into the interior of the major continents. This pattern of recent colonizations may explain the world-wide distribution of many other organisms in open ecosystems and it is highlighted here as an emerging pattern in the evolution of the global flora. PMID:26528674

  14. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Mariana; Nieto, Antonio; Marin, Juan C; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2005-07-27

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat many ailments, particularly inflammation and migraine. Neither the bioactive components responsible nor the mechanisms involved have been evaluated. Here are reported antioxidant activities of their methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. Samples were evaluated for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activities were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The most active extracts from P. gentianoides in scavenging DPPH radicals and inhibiting TBARS formation were the methanol extract (A) and a further ethyl acetate extract of this (E). Partition E was further divided into eight fractions, and both E and the fractions were compared for activity against butylated hydroxytoluene, quercetin, and tocopherol. Partition E and the most active fractions, 5 and 6, were found to have I(50) values of 14.1, 38.6, and 41.8 ppm, respectively, against DPPH and 18.5, 26.0, and 12.7 ppm, respectively, against TBARS formation. Consistent with this finding, partition E and fractions 4-6 had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values. These results show that these plants could be useful antioxidant sources. PMID:16028970

  15. Cytonuclear Coordination Is Not Immediate upon Allopolyploid Formation in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) Allopolyploids

    PubMed Central

    Sehrish, Tina; Symonds, V. Vaughan; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Tate, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Allopolyploids, formed by hybridization and chromosome doubling, face the immediate challenge of having duplicated nuclear genomes that interact with the haploid and maternally inherited cytoplasmic (plastid and mitochondrial) genomes. Most of our knowledge of the genomic consequences of allopolyploidy has focused on the fate of the duplicated nuclear genes without regard to their potential interactions with cytoplasmic genomes. As a step toward understanding the fates of nuclear-encoded subunits that are plastid-targeted, here we examine the retention and expression of the gene encoding the small subunit of Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; rbcS) in multiple populations of allotetraploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae). These polyploids formed recently (~80 years ago) and repeatedly from T. dubius and T. pratensis in the northwestern United States. Examination of 79 T. miscellus individuals from 10 natural populations, as well as 25 synthetic allotetraploids, including reciprocally formed plants, revealed a low percentage of naturally occurring individuals that show a bias in either gene (homeolog) loss (12%) or expression (16%), usually toward maintaining the maternal nuclear copy of rbcS. For individuals showing loss, seven retained the maternally derived rbcS homeolog only, while three had the paternally derived copy. All of the synthetic polyploid individuals examined (S0 and S1 generations) retained and expressed both parental homeologs. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear coordination does not happen immediately upon polyploid formation in Tragopogon miscellus. PMID:26646761

  16. Sex ratio and spatial distribution of male and female Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Sex ratio, sex spatial distribution and sexual dimorphism in reproduction and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation were investigated in the dioecious clonal plant Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae). Plants were monitored for five consecutive years in six study plots in Oulanka, northern Finland. Sex ratio, spatial distribution of sexes, flowering frequency, number of floral shoots and the number and weight of inflorescences were recorded. In addition, intensity of mycorrhizal fungi in the roots was assessed. Both sexes flowered each year with a similar frequency, but the overall genet sex ratio was strongly female-biased. The bivariate Ripley's analysis of the sex distribution showed that within most plots sexes were randomly distributed except for one plot. Sexual dimorphism was expressed as larger floral and inflorescence production and heavier inflorescences in males. In addition, the roots of both sexes were colonised to a similar extent by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The female sex-biased flowering ratios reported are not consistent among years and cannot be explained in terms of spatial segregation of the sexes or sex lability. The possible reasons for the female-biased sex ratio are discussed.

  17. Difference in defense strategy in flower heads and leaves of Asteraceae: multiple-species approach.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2014-01-01

    Although a vast number of studies have investigated defenses against herbivores in leaves, relatively little is known about defenses in flowers. Using wild individuals of 34 species of Asteraceae, we investigated differences in five traits that are thought to affect the intensity of herbivory (C, N, P, water, and total phenolic contents). Combinations of these traits between flower heads and leaves were studied as well. We also evaluated phylogenetic patterns of flower head and leaf traits. Flower heads had higher P and lower total phenolics than leaves. Water and C contents were negatively correlated both in the flower heads and leaves. N, P, and water contents were positively correlated in the flower heads, whereas this pattern was not found in the leaves. Thus, the traits we measured were more tightly inter-correlated in flower heads than in leaves. Because the flower heads had a lower total phenolic content, the relative allocation of defensive compounds could not be explained solely by fitness values of the organs. Perhaps plants employ an escape strategy rather than a defense strategy to cope with floral herbivores and higher allocation in P may enhance their escape from herbivores by improving the growth rate of flower heads, though our result might be affected in part by the plasticity of plants growing at different sites. Moreover, we found weak phylogenetic signals in the defensive traits. Because we found significant differences in the flower head traits, these weak signals may imply that the traits we measured evolved frequently. PMID:24036932

  18. Growth rates, reproductive phenology, and pollination ecology of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae), a giant Andean caulescent rosette.

    PubMed

    Fagua, J C; Gonzalez, V H

    2007-01-01

    From March 2001 to December 2002, we studied the reproductive phenology, pollination ecology, and growth rates of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. and Bonpl. (Asteraceae), a giant caulescent rosette from the Páramos of the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Espeletia grandiflora was found to be predominantly allogamous and strongly self-incompatible. Bumblebees (Bombus rubicundus and B. funebris) were the major pollinators of E. grandiflora, although moths, hummingbirds, flies, and beetles also visited flowers. Inflorescence development began in March and continued through August to September. Plants flowered for 30 - 96 days with a peak from the beginning of October through November. The percentage of flowering plants strongly differed among size classes and between both years. Seed dispersal occurred as early as September through May of the following year. The average absolute growth rate for juveniles and adults rate was 7.6 cm/year. Given the scarcity of floral visitors at high altitudes due to climatic conditions, we suggest that even small contributions from a wide range of pollinators might be advantageous for pollination of E. grandiflora. Long-term studies on different populations of E. grandiflora are required to determine if the high growth rates are representative, to quantify the variation in the flowering behavior within and among populations, and to establish if nocturnal pollination is a trait that is exclusive to our population of E. grandiflora. PMID:17066366

  19. Determinants of extinction in fragmented plant populations: Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Dornier, Antoine; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Local populations are subject to recurrent extinctions, and small populations are particularly prone to extinction. Both demographic (stochasticity and the Allee effect) and genetic factors (drift load and inbreeding depression) potentially affect extinction. In fragmented populations, regular dispersal may boost population sizes (demographic rescue effect) or/and reduce the local inbreeding level and genetic drift (genetic rescue effect), which can affect extinction risks. We studied extinction processes in highly fragmented populations of the common species Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) in urban habitats exhibiting a rapid turnover of patches. A four-year demographic monitoring survey and microsatellite genotyping of individuals allowed us to study the determinants of extinction. We documented a low genetic structure and an absence of inbreeding (estimated by multilocus heterozygosity), which suggest that genetic factors were not a major cause of patch extinction. On the contrary, local population size was the main factor in extinction, whereas connectivity was shown to decrease patch extinction, which we interpreted as a demographic rescue effect that was likely due to better pollination services for reproduction. This coupling of demographic and genetic tools highlighted the importance of dispersal in local patch extinctions of small fragmented populations connected by gene flow. PMID:22200853

  20. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

    PubMed

    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150 μg/ml) prior exposure to 100 Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6 μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity. PMID:26848834

  1. Evolutionary history and phylogeography of Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) from the Sonoran, Mojave, and Peninsular Deserts.

    PubMed

    Fehlberg, Shannon D; Ranker, Tom A

    2009-02-01

    Pleistocene glaciations have had a profound influence on the genetic structure of plant species throughout the Northern Hemisphere because of range contractions, fragmentations, and expansions. Phylogeographic studies have contributed to our knowledge of this influence in several geographic regions of North America, however, very few phylogeographic studies have examined plant species in the Sonoran, Mojave, and Peninsular deserts. In this study, we used sequence data from the chloroplast DNA psbA-trnH intergenic spacer to obtain information on phylogeographic patterns among 310 individuals from 21 populations of Encelia farinosa ("brittlebush"; Asteraceae) across its range. We applied several population and spatial genetic analyses that allowed us to interpret our data with respect to Pleistocene climate change. These analyses indicate that E. farinosa displays patterns of genetic differentiation and geographic structuring consistent with postglacial range expansion. Populations of E. farinosa are characterized by distinct haplotype lineages significantly associated with geography. Centers of genetic diversity for the species occur in southwestern Arizona, the plains of Sonora, and Baja California Sur, all of which are putative sites of glacial refugia as predicted by analyses of macrofossil and pollen data. Nested clade analysis suggests that genetic structure in E. farinosa has been affected by past fragmentation followed by range expansion. Range expansion in several locations is further supported by significant departures from neutrality for values of Fu's F(S) and Tajima's D, and mismatch analyses. PMID:19059351

  2. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

  3. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Galinsoga parviflora cav. (Asteraceae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Islam; Abd El-Aziz, Ehsan; Hafez, Samia; El-Shazly, Assem

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an aqueous ethanolic extract of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of eleven compounds namely: triacontanol, phytol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 7-hydroxy-beta-sitosterol, 7-hydroxystigmasterol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, protocatechuic acid, fumaric acid, and uracil. Furthermore, 48 volatile constituents were identified in the hydrodistilled oil of the aerial parts. The ethanolic extract at a content of 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) exerted 87% reduction in the alanine aminotransferase enzyme level in cirrhotic rats compared with the standard silymarin (150 mg/kg BW) and also exerted a reduction in the blood glucose level equivalent to that of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg BW) in diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract, light petroleum and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited substantial antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The ethyl acetate fraction showed strong antioxidant activity at a concentration of 150 mg/mL as compared with 0.1 M ascorbic acid. The cytotoxic effect against the MCF-7 cell line was found to be weak. PMID:24066513

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Anaphalis (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) with biogeographic implications in the Northern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki; Sun, Hang; Deng, Tao; Meng, Ying; Wen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Anaphalis is the largest Asian genus in the tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae) and has its greatest species diversity in the eastern Himalayas. The nuclear internal and external transcribed spacers were sequenced for Anaphalis species, with an emphasis on the eastern Himalayan taxa to examine the monophyly and construct the phylogenetic relationships of and within the genus. The results suggest that all species of Anaphalis are nested with Helichrysum, showing a close relationship with a Mediterranean-Asian group of Helichrysum. Although the monophyly of Anaphalis is only weakly supported, two clades within the genus are well recognized, each consisting of two subgroups. The inferred phylogenetic relationships within Anaphalis correspond to the shape of leaf base, rather than the morphology of the capitula and phyllaries that are usually used for species delimitation and classification in the genus. All four subgroups of Anaphalis are common and diversified in the eastern Himalayas with multiple dispersals out of this region. The sole North American species of Anaphalis is best hypothesized to be the result of long-distance dispersal or overland migration via Bering land bridge from Asia. Our analyses suggest that the extant distribution of Anaphalis has most likely resulted one radiation into the eastern Himalayas followed by repeated independent dispersals and/or radiations mostly into eastern Asia but also into the western Himalayas, North America, and southeast Asia. PMID:22776917

  5. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) Endemic to Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Muscolo, Camilla; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Damiano, Silvia; Iannarelli, Romilde; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) is a halophytic shrub endemic to the Canary Islands and traditionally employed as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, and vulnerary. A comprehensive phytochemical investigation was conducted on the flowering aerial parts by analyzing both essential oil constituents and polar compounds. The essential oil was dominated by p-cymene, with the noteworthy occurrence of β-pinene and thymol esters. From the EtOH extract, eight compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated. Essential oil, polar fractions, and isolates (2), (4), and (5) were separately in vitro assayed for antiproliferative activity on human tumor cell lines (A375, MDA-MB 231, and HCT116) by MTT assay, for antioxidant potential by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays, and for antimicrobial activity by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that essential oil and compounds 1 and 2 exert a strong inhibition on tumor cells, and in some cases, higher than that of cisplatin. Fractions containing thymol derivatives (1 and 2) and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives 4 and 5 displayed antioxidant activity comparable to that of Trolox, making S. sericea extract an interesting natural product with potential applications as preservative or in the treatment of diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. PMID:27272544

  6. Evaluation of inflorescence visitors as pollinators of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae): comparison of techniques.

    PubMed

    Wist, Tyler J; Davis, Arthur R

    2013-10-01

    Inflorescences (heads or capitula) of the putative self-incompatible species, purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia (DC) Cronq. (Asteraceae)), were visited by insects representing the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, in accordance with a generalist pollination syndrome. Measurement of the effectiveness of insect species as pollinators was accomplished by permitting solitary visits to receptive, central disc florets of virgin (previously bagged) heads. Four parameters were quantified: total stigmatic pollen load and proportion of pollen grains germinated, numbers of pollen tubes at style bases, and percentages of total receptive florets that had retracted (shrivelled) styles. Quantifying total and germinated pollen grains proved ineffective, partly owing to the tendency of self-pollen to initiate pollen tubes. The most effective pollinators were Apidae, especially bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (mean: 39 - 61% of styles retracted). Other noteworthy pollinators were cloudless sulfur butterflies (Phoebis sennae L.--Pieridae; mean 47% of style bases with pollen tubes), golden blister beetles (Epicauta ferruginea Say--Meloidae; 44%), and grasshopper bee flies (Systoechus vulgaris Loew--Bombyliidae; 22%). Sunflower leafcutter bees (Megachile pugnata Say) were less effective (4% of styles retracted). Promisingly, analysis of the proportion of retracted styles provided similar results to the established technique of pollen-tube quantification, but had the significant advantages of being completed more rapidly, without a microscope, and in the field. The quantitative technique of retracted-style analysis appears well suited for prompt measurement of inflorescence-visiting insects as pollinators of many asteraceans. PMID:24224247

  7. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fotso, Aurélien Fotso; Longo, Frida; Djomeni, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet; Kouam, Siméon Fogue; Spiteller, Michael; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Savineau, J P

    2014-04-01

    Bidens pilosa is an Asteraceae widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including pain and inflammation. The present work was undertaken to assess the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of leaves of Bidens pilosa at the gradual doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic properties of Bidens pilosa were investigated using the acetic acid writhing, hot plate, capsaicin and formalin-induced pain models. This was followed by a study of the antiinflammatory properties using carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin to induce acute inflammation in rat hind paw. The extract provided a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in pain induced by all four models of nociception. It also presented significant (p < 0.05) antiinflammatory activity in all four models of acute inflammation. These results show that the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) of Bidens pilosa has both analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. The qualitative analysis of the fraction by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint revealed the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin and iso-okanin, known to have antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties, which could be responsible for the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects observed. PMID:24242914

  8. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits. PMID:26871494

  9. Key Processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) Diversification on Oceanic Islands Inferred from AFLP Data

    PubMed Central

    Vitales, Daniel; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Cowan, Robyn S.; Fay, Michael F.; Hidalgo, Oriane; Garnatje, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species – nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species – have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i) evaluate species' boundaries, ii) infer their evolutionary relationships and iii) investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here. PMID:25412495

  10. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae), a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Jin; Hu, Hai-Hua; Zhang, Cai-Fei; Tian, Xiao-Juan; Peng, Hui; Gao, Tian-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw.) Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a. PMID:26308863

  11. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Arduin, M; Fernandes, G W; Kraus, J E

    2005-11-01

    The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae). The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1) A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2) A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3) A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4) A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors. PMID:16532179

  12. Genetic and Ecotypic Differentiation in a Californian Plant Polyploid Complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Abigail J.; Moore, William L.; Baldwin, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. PMID:24755840

  13. Genetics of colonization in Hypochaeris tenuifolia (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) on Volcán Lonquimay, Chile.

    PubMed

    Tremetsberger, K; Stuessy, T F; Samuel, R M; Baeza, C M; Fay, M F

    2003-10-01

    Understanding the genetics of colonizing populations has been, and continues to remain, an important focus in evolutionary biology. Different theoretical models predict varying levels of genetic variation in colonizing populations depending upon strength of founder effect, gene flow and rate of population growth and immigration following colonization. We analyse overall genetic variation using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in colonizing populations of Hypochaeris tenuifolia (Asteraceae) in the southern Andes. Volcán Lonquimay newly erupted on 25 December 1988, producing a side cone, La Navidad, and sent lava and ash into surrounding areas. Many domesticated animals (estimated at 10 000) and many natural plant populations were destroyed. Into this new open habitat have come immigrant populations of several angiosperm species, most conspicuously H. tenuifolia that forms leaf rosettes with flowering scapes to 15 cm and orange-yellow heads 1-2 cm in diameter. Genetic diversity in five founder populations in the eruption zone is compared with that from five nearby survivor populations, as well as with eight isolated northern and four southern populations from throughout the entire range of the species in Chile. Results from 477 individuals representing 447 different multilocus phenotypes, yielded 170 DNA fragments of which 144 (85%) were polymorphic. Genetic diversity within founder populations is neither lower than in survivor populations nor in isolated populations throughout the range of the species, but it is lower among founder populations than among other populations immediately and distantly outside the zone of disturbance. Closest genetic similarity occurs between founders and nearby survivor populations as well as those in adjacent southern regions. PMID:12969468

  14. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations. PMID:27602303

  15. Chemical constituents of Papulaspora immersa, an endophyte from Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae), and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Margareth Borges Coutinho; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Barros, Francisco Washington Araújo; Odorico de Moraes, Manoel; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Pessoa, Cláudia; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2010-12-01

    Papulaspora immersa H. H. Hotson was isolated from roots and leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Rob. (Asteraceae), traditionally known as Yacon. The fungus was cultured in rice, and, from the AcOEt fraction, 14 compounds were isolated. Among them, (22E,24R)-8,14-epoxyergosta-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (4), 2,3-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-c-1,c-4,8-triol (10), and the chromone papulasporin (13) were new secondary metabolites. The spectral data of the known natural products were compared with the literature data, and their structures were established as the (24R)-stigmast-4-en-3-one (1), 24-methylenecycloartan-3β-ol (2), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), (-)-(3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein (5), (-)-(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (6), 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (7), (-)-(4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-α-tetralone (8), naphthalene-1,8-diol (9), 6,7,8-trihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (11), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (12), and tyrosol (14). Compound 4 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines MDA-MB435 (melanoma), HCT-8 (colon), SF295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), with IC₅₀ values of 3.3, 14.7, 5.0 and 1.6 μM, respectively. Strong synergistic effects were also observed with compound 5 and some of the isolated steroidal compounds. PMID:21162007

  16. Conservation genetics of the rare Pyreneo-Cantabrian endemic Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Escaravage, Nathalie; Cambecèdes, Jocelyne; Largier, Gérard; Pornon, André

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae) is an endangered species, endemic to the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountain ranges (Spain). For its long-term persistence, this taxon needs an appropriate conservation strategy to be implemented. In this context, we studied the genetic structure over the entire geographical range of the species and then inferred the genetic relationships between populations. Methodology Molecular diversity was analysed for 290 individuals from 12 populations in the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Bayesian-based analysis was applied to examine population structure. Principal results Analysis of genetic similarity and diversity, based on 87 polymorphic ISSR markers, suggests that despite being small and isolated, populations have an intermediate genetic diversity level (P % = 52.8 %, HE = 0.21 ± 0.01, genetic similarity between individuals = 49.6 %). Genetic variation was mainly found within populations (80–84 %), independently of mountain ranges, whereas 16–18 % was found between populations and <5 % between mountain ranges. Analyses of molecular variance indicated that population differentiation was highly significant. However, no significant correlation was found between the genetic and geographical distances among populations (Rs = 0.359, P = 0.140). Geographical structure based on assignment tests identified five different gene pools that were independent of any particular structure in the landscape. Conclusions The results suggest that population isolation is probably relatively recent, and that the outbreeding behaviour of the species maintains a high within-population genetic diversity. We assume that some long-distance dispersal, even among topographically remote populations, may be determinant for the pattern of genetic variation found in populations. Based on these findings, strategies are proposed for genetic conservation and management of the species. PMID:22476499

  17. Antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones and a sucrose ester from Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Krause, Michael A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Tane, Pierre; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Aqueous preparations of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) are used in Cameroonian folk medicine as a general stimulant and to treat various illnesses and conditions including malaria, bacterial infections and helminthic infestations. Materials and methods 10-g samples of the leaf and tuber powders of V. guineensis were extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used in bioassays. These extracts and three compounds previously isolated from V. guineensis [vernopicrin (1), vernomelitensin (2) and pentaisovalerylsucrose (3)] were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (Hb3) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum lines. Results Crude extracts and pure compounds from V. guineensis showed antiplasmodial activity against both Hb3 and Dd2. The IC50 values of extracts ranged from 1.64 – 27.2 μg/ml for Hb3 and 1.82 – 30.0 μg/ml for Dd2; those for compounds 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 0.47 – 1.62 μg/ml (1364 – 1774 nM) for Hb3 and 0.57 – 1.50 μg/ml (1644 – 2332 nM) for Dd2. None of the crude extracts or pure compounds was observed to exert toxic effects on the erythrocytes used to cultivate the P. falciparum lines. Conclusion In Cameroonian folk medicine, V. guineensis may be used to treat malaria in part due to the antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones (1, 2), a sucrose ester (3) and perhaps other compounds present in crude plant extracts. Exploring the safety and antiplasmodial efficacy of these compounds in vivo requires further study. PMID:23542146

  18. Phylogeography and disjunct distribution in Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae), an endangered cerrado shrub species

    PubMed Central

    Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Rabelo, Suelen Gonçalves; Vieira, Roberto F.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae) presents disjunct geographical distribution in cerrado rupestre in the south-east and central Brazil. The phylogeography of the species was investigated to understand the origin of the disjunct geographical distribution. Methods Populations in the south and centre of Serra do Espinhaço, south-east Brazil and on ten other localities in Federal District and Goiás in central Brazil were sampled. Analyses were based on the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnL intron and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. From 12 populations, 192 individuals were sequenced. Network analysis, AMOVA and the Mantel test were performed to understand the relationships among haplotypes and population genetic structure. To understand better the origin of disjunct distribution, demographic parameters and time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) were estimated using coalescent analyses. Key Results A remarkable differentiation between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was found and no haplotype was shared between these two regions. No significant effect of isolation by distance was detected. Coalescent analyses showed that some populations are shrinking and others are expanding and that gene flow between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was probably negligible. Conclusions The results strongly support that the disjunct distribution of L. ericoides may represent a climatic relict and that long-distance gene flow is unlikely. With an estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) dated from approx. 790 655 ± 36 551 years bp (chloroplast) and approx. 623 555 ± 55 769 years bp (ITS), it was hypothesized that the disjunct distribution may be a consequence of an expansion of the geographical distribution favoured by the drier and colder conditions that prevailed in much of Brazil during the Kansan glaciation, followed by the retraction of the distribution due to the

  19. Floral development and evolution of capitulum structure in Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bello, M. Angélica; Álvarez, Inés; Torices, Rubén; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Most of the diversity in the pseudanthia of Asteraceae is based on the differential symmetry and sexuality of its flowers. In Anacyclus, where there are (1) homogamous capitula, with bisexual, mainly actinomorphic and pentamerous flowers; and (2) heterogamous capitula, with peripheral zygomorphic, trimerous and long-/short-rayed female flowers, the floral ontogeny was investigated to infer their origin. Methods Floral morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscope and light microscope techniques Key Results Disc flowers, subtended by paleae, initiate acropetally. Perianth and androecium initiation is unidirectional/simultaneous. Late zygomorphy occurs by enlargement of the adaxial perianth lobes. In contrast, ray flowers, subtended by involucral bracts, initiate after the proximal disc buds, breaking the inflorescence acropetal pattern. Early zygomorphy is manifested through the fusion of the lateral and abaxial perianth lobes and the arrest of the adaxials. We report atypical phenotypes with peripheral ‘trumpet’ flowers from natural populations. The peripheral ‘trumpet’ buds initiate after disc flowers, but maintain an actinomorphic perianth. All phenotypes are compared and interpreted in the context of alternative scenarios for the origin of the capitulum and the perianth identity. Conclusions Homogamous inflorescences display a uniform floral morphology and development, whereas the peripheral buds in heterogamous capitula display remarkable plasticity. Disc and ray flowers follow different floral developmental pathways. Peripheral zygomorphic flowers initiate after the proximal actinomorphic disc flowers, behaving as lateral independent units of the pseudanthial disc from inception. The perianth and the androecium are the most variable whorls across the different types of flowers, but their changes are not correlated. Lack of homology between hypanthial appendages and a calyx, and the perianth double

  20. A volatolomic approach for studying plant variability: the case of selected Helichrysum species (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Claudia; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Calamassi, Roberto; Calamai, Luca; Romoli, Riccardo; Fico, Gelsomina; Foggi, Bruno; Mariotti Lippi, Marta

    2016-10-01

    The species of Helichrysum sect. Stoechadina (Asteraceae) are well-known for their secondary metabolite content and the characteristic aromatic bouquets. In the wild, populations exhibit a wide phenotypic plasticity which makes critical the circumscription of species and infraspecific ranks. Previous investigations on Helichrysum italicum complex focused on a possible phytochemical typification based on hydrodistilled essential oils. Aims of this paper are three-fold: (i) characterizing the volatile profiles of different populations, testing (ii) how these profiles vary across populations and (iii) how the phytochemical diversity may contribute in solving taxonomic problems. Nine selected Helichrysum populations, included within the H. italicum complex, Helichrysum litoreum and Helichrysum stoechas, were investigated. H. stoechas was chosen as outgroup for validating the method. After collection in the wild, plants were cultivated in standard growing conditions for over one year. Annual leafy shoots were screened in the post-blooming period for the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by means of headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The VOC composition analysis revealed the production of overall 386 different compounds, with terpenes being the most represented compound class. Statistical data processing allowed the identification of the indicator compounds that differentiate the single populations, revealing the influence of the geographical provenance area in determining the volatile profiles. These results suggested the potential use of VOCs as valuable diacritical characters in discriminating the Helichrysum populations. In addition, the cross-validation analysis hinted the potentiality of this volatolomic study in the discrimination of the Helichrysum species and subspecies, highlighting a general congruence with the current taxonomic treatment of the genus. The consistency

  1. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. PMID:26667031

  2. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range. PMID:25269662

  3. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations. PMID:27602303

  4. The intriguing complexity of parthenogenesis inheritance in Pilosella rubra (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaumová, Radka; Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2012-09-01

    Neither the genetic basis nor the inheritance of apomixis is fully understood in plants. The present study is focused on the inheritance of parthenogenesis, one of the basic elements of apomixis, in Pilosella (Asteraceae). A complex pattern of inheritance was recorded in the segregating F(1) progeny recovered from reciprocal crosses between the facultatively apomictic hexaploid P. rubra and the sexual tetraploid P. officinarum. Although both female and male reduced gametes of P. rubra transmitted parthenogenesis at the same rate in the reciprocal crosses, the resulting segregating F(1) progeny inherited parthenogenesis at different rates. The actual transmission rates of parthenogenesis were significantly correlated with the mode of origin of the respective F(1) progeny class. The inheritance of parthenogenesis was significantly reduced in F(1) n + n hybrid progeny from the cross where parthenogenesis was transmitted by female gametes. In F(1) n + 0 polyhaploid progeny from the same cross, however, the transmission rate of parthenogenesis was high; all fertile polyhaploids were parthenogenetic. It appeared that reduced female gametes transmitting parthenogenesis preferentially developed parthenogenetically and only rarely were fertilized in P. rubra. The fact that the determinant for parthenogenesis acts gametophytically in Pilosella and the precocious embryogenesis in parthenogenesis-transmitting megagametophytes was suggested as the most probable explanations for this observation. Furthermore, we observed the different expression of complete apomixis in the non-segregating F(1) 2n + n hybrids as compared to their apomictic maternal parent P. rubra. We suggest that this difference is a result of unspecified interactions between the parental genomes. PMID:22710794

  5. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae), a New Critically Endangered Species from China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiao-Juan; Peng, Hui; Gao, Tian-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw.) Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a. PMID:26308863

  6. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  7. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  8. Open field experiment to assess the host specificity of Lixus cardui (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential candidate for biological control of Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae) is native to Europe and Asia and has been accidentally introduced to temperate climates elsewhere, including North America and Australia. In the USA, the weed is most problematic in the semi-arid parts of the Northwest, California and Nevada. Lixus car...

  9. Identity and generic placement of Phestinia costella Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae) reared on the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We provide descriptions and illustrations for identification of Phestinia costella Hampson, a stem gall producer on the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Robinson (Asteraceae) that has been investigated for biological control measures. Specimens collected from C. odorata on Tr...

  10. (Un)targeted metabolomics in Asteraceae: probing the applicability of essential-oil profiles of senecio L. (Senecioneae) taxa in chemotaxonomy.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Mladenović, Marko Z; Blagojević, Polina D

    2014-09-01

    The possible applicability of (un)targeted metabolomics (volatile metabolites) for revealing taxonomic/evolutionary relationships among Senecio L. species (Asteraceae; tribe Senecioneae) was explored. Essential-oil compositional data of selected Senecio/Senecioneae/Asteraceae taxa (93 samples in total) were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analysis (MVA), i.e., agglomerative hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis. The MVA input data set included the very first compositional data on the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of S. viscosus L. as well as on four different Serbian populations of S. vernalis Waldst. & Kit. (oils from aerial parts and roots; eight samples in total). This metabolomic screening of Senecio/Senecioneae/Asteraceae species (herein presented results and data from the literature) pointed to short-chain alk-1-enes (e.g., oct-1-ene, non-1-ene, and undec-1-ene), with up to now restricted general occurrence in Plantae, as characteristic chemotaxonomic markers/targets for future metabolomic studies of Senecio/Senecioneae taxa. The MVA additionally showed that the evolution of the terpene metabolism (volatile mono- and sesquiterpenoids) within the Asteraceae tribe Senecioneae was not genera specific. However, the MVA did confirm plant-organ specific production/accumulation of volatiles within S. vernalis and suggested the existence of at least two volatile chemotypes for this species. PMID:25238075

  11. Identification of volatile compounds emitted by Artemisia ordosica (Artemisia, Asteraceae) and changes due to mechanical damage and weevil infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Dayong; Luo, Youqing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by healthy, mechanically damaged, and weevil-infested Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) were obtained through a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight compounds in all were identified, and the qualitative as well as quantitative differences were compared. The green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were present in all of the damaged plants, but in relatively lower portions when plants were infested by the weevil Adosopius sp., while the terpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-cedrene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and the ester methyl salicylate were only present in weevil-damaged plants. The volatiles from healthy and weevil-infested leaves were dominated by D-limonene, whereas mechanically damaged leaves emitted beta-pinene as the dominant compound. PMID:24066517

  12. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Atalay; Sökmen, Münevver; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Candan, Ferda; Unlü, Mehmet; Akpulat, H Aşkin

    2004-06-01

    The essential oil and methanol extracts from A. biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. The oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Their antioxidant features were also evaluated using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibition of the lipid peroxidation assays. Particularly, polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis of the oil has resulted in the identification of 23 components; piperitone, eucalyptol, camphor, chrysanthenone and borneol were the main components. Antimicrobial activity tests carried out with the fractions of the oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those containing eucalyptol and camphor, in particular, followed by borneol and piperitone. PMID:15287068

  13. Analysis of the free amino acid content in pollen of nine Asteraceae species of known allergenic activity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A K; Parui, S; Mandal, S

    1998-01-01

    The study reports the free amino acid composition of the pollen of nine members of the family Asteraceae, i.e. Ageratum conyzoides L., Blumea oxyodonta DC., Eupatorium odoratum L., Gnaphalium indicum L., Mikania scandens Willd., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Spilanthes acmella Murr., Vernonia cinerea (L.) Lees. and Xanthium strumarium L. by thin layer chromatography. The amino acid content was found to vary from 0.5-4.0% of the total dry weight. Fourteen amino acids were identified, among which amino-n-butyric acid, aspartic acid and proline were present in almost all pollen samples. The other major amino acids present in free form included arginine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, tryptophan and tyrosine. PMID:9852488

  14. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA) and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae), a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing), gene copy number (quantitative PCR) and chromosomal position (FISH) of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in ~200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Results Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases), tribe Gnaphalieae (100%) and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%). The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic structure of rDNA units

  15. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bocco, B.M.; Fernandes, G.W.; Lorena, F.B.; Cysneiros, R.M.; Christoffolete, M.A.; Grecco, S.S.; Lancellotti, C.L.; Romoff, P.; Lago, J.H.G.; Bianco, A.C.; Ribeiro, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  16. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S; Midgley, J

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae), which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Male flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania, Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies. PMID:21708596

  17. Crystal structure of a mixture of lupeol-acetate tautomers isolated from Hieracium plumulosum A. Kerner, Asteraceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argay, Gy.; Kálmán, A.; Kapor, A.; Ribár, B.; Petrović, S.; Gorunović, M.

    1997-11-01

    Transparent single crystals obtained from the purified extract of the plant Hieracium plumulosum A. Kerner, Asteraceae were submitted to spectroscopic and X-ray studies. The spectroscopic (infra-red, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance) investigations suggested the presence of two isomers of lupeol acetate (C 32H 52O 2) with tautomeric relationship. Their mixture crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P2 1: a = 19.170(2) Å, b = 8.128(1) Å, c = 21.832(2) Å, β = 90.24(1)°, V = 3401.7(6) Å3, Z = 4 (two molecules in the asymmetric unit), Dx = 1.095 gcm-3, μ(Cu Kα) = 0.488 mm -1. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined to a final R = 0.071 for 6636 reflections with I > 2 σ( I). The bond lengths around {C20 }/{( C60) } are between single and double bonds indicating the superposition of the tautomers, i.e., lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol and lup-19(20)-en-3β-ol acetates. They are distributed with different ratio in the symmetry-independent positions. In addition, the difference maps revealed that toluene solvent molecules are also captured in the lattice. They substantially hindered the refinement of atomic positions in particular for the {C19 }/{( C59) } functions.

  18. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  19. In vitro anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) on Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined the anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae: Asterales) against Hyalomma rufipes ticks. We obtained the essential oil of T. minuta by hydro-distillation of a combination of fresh flowers, leaves and soft stems, and analysed these by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil had a high percentage of monoterpenes and the major compounds identified were cis-ocimene (28.5%), beta-ocimene (16.83%) and 3-methyl-2-(2-methyl-2-butenyl)-furan (11.94%). Hyalomma rufipes adults displayed a significant (P < 0.05) dose repellent response to the essential oil of T. minuta. Probit analysis indicated a repellent EC50 of T. minuta essential oil for male ticks to be 0.072 mL/mL (CI 0.053 mL/mL to 0.086 mL/mL) and 0.070 mL/mL (CI 0.052 mL/mL to 0.084 mL/mL) for female ticks. There were no significant differences in repellent responses between male and female ticks. The oil also significantly (P < 0.05) delayed moulting of 60% of H. rufipes engorged nymphs. These results suggest that T. minuta may be a potential source of anti-tick agents. PMID:23327307

  20. Multiple Pleistocene refugia and Holocene range expansion of an abundant southwestern American desert plant species (Melampodium leucanthum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rebernig, Carolin A; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Bardy, Katharina E; Schönswetter, Peter; Villaseñor, Jose L; Obermayer, Renate; Stuessy, Tod F; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2010-08-01

    Pleistocene climatic fluctuations had major impacts on desert biota in southwestern North America. During cooler and wetter periods, drought-adapted species were isolated into refugia, in contrast to expansion of their ranges during the massive aridification in the Holocene. Here, we use Melampodium leucanthum (Asteraceae), a species of the North American desert and semi-desert regions, to investigate the impact of major aridification in southwestern North America on phylogeography and evolution in a widespread and abundant drought-adapted plant species. The evidence for three separate Pleistocene refugia at different time levels suggests that this species responded to the Quaternary climatic oscillations in a cyclic manner. In the Holocene, once differentiated lineages came into secondary contact and intermixed, but these range expansions did not follow the eastwardly progressing aridification, but instead occurred independently out of separate Pleistocene refugia. As found in other desert biota, the Continental Divide has acted as a major migration barrier for M. leucanthum since the Pleistocene. Despite being geographically restricted to the eastern part of the species' distribution, autotetraploids in M. leucanthum originated multiple times and do not form a genetically cohesive group. PMID:20670366

  1. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. PMID:24735437

  2. Toxic essential oils: anxiolytic, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the yarrow Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. (Asteraceae) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Dekić, Milan S; Ranđelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z

    2012-06-01

    Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A. umbellata oil revealed the presence of a series of fragranyl esters (six new natural products). The major constituents of this oil, the rare monoterpene alcohol fragranol and fragranyl acetate, and one more ester (benzoate), as well as the oil itself, showed antianxiety, analgesic and, in some instances, paralyzing properties at 50-150 mg/kg but these are very likely sign of intoxication and not of possible beneficial effects of the plant volatiles. Testing of antimicrobial activity demonstrated that the oil possesses moderate activity against pathogenic microorganisms, but the effect of the oil differs in pro- and eukaryotic cells. According to the results obtained, fragranol may be considered as the main active principle responsible for the observed activity/toxicity. PMID:22449535

  3. Next-generation sampling: Pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Beck, James B.; Semple, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 1970 and 2010. Methods: Reduced representation libraries were prepared and Illumina-sequenced from 95 Solidago herbarium specimen DNAs, and resulting reads were processed with the nonreference Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline. Multidimensional clustering was used to assess the correspondence between genetic groups and morphologically defined species. Results: Library construction and sequencing were successful in 93 of 95 samples. The UNEAK pipeline identified 8470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and a filtered data set was analyzed for each of three Solidago subsections. Although results varied, clustering identified genomic groups that often corresponded to currently recognized species or groups of closely related species. Discussion: These results suggest that genotyping by sequencing is broadly applicable to DNAs obtained from herbarium specimens. The data obtained and their biological signal suggest that pairing genomics with large-scale herbarium sampling is a promising strategy in species-rich plant groups. PMID:26082877

  4. Multiple introductions and gene flow in subtropical South American populations of the fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis(Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mäder, Geraldo; Castro, Luana; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; de Freitas, Loreta Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-indigenous plants exhibit different attributes that make them aggressive competitors with indigenous plants and serious threats to biodiversity.Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed, Asteraceae), a native from southern Africa, is a strong competitor in agricultural activities and has toxic alkaloids that may result in high cattle mortality. In Brazil, this weed was collected for the first time in 1995 and has since spread quickly throughout the Pampas region. To better understand the invasion of the fireweed in South America, we used a genetic characterization with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and microsatellite markers. Based on the ITS data, the southern Brazil populations of S. madagascariensis shared genetic homology with samples taken from the Hawaiian Islands and South Africa. Microsatellite analysis showed the genetic diversity split in two clusters, perhaps intimating the independent introduction of each species into South America. Although fireweed was introduced recently in southern Brazil, the considerable levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and inbreeding may indicate success in the species establishment in this environment. PMID:27007907

  5. Microsatellite markers for the Pilosella alpicola group (Hieraciinae, Asteraceae) and their cross-amplification in other Hieraciinae genera1

    PubMed Central

    Vít, Petr; Šingliarová, Barbora; Zozomová-Lihová, Judita; Marhold, Karol; Krak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the Pilosella alpicola group (Asteraceae), comprising four closely related species distributed in subalpine areas of Europe. These species are believed to have diverged recently, but display contrasting cytogeographic patterns and variation in breeding systems, representing a promising model system for studying plant speciation, adaptation, and recent polyploidization. Methods and Results: We developed 17 microsatellite markers for the P. alpicola group using 454 sequencing. Sixteen markers were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from seven to 16 and observed and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.45 to 0.84 and 0.72 to 0.92, respectively. Ten and five loci amplified in the related species, P. echioides and P. officinarum, respectively, but only two in Andryala and one in Hieracium s. str. Conclusions: The developed microsatellite markers have high potential to become useful tools to study microevolutionary processes in the P. alpicola group and related Pilosella species. PMID:26312199

  6. Multiple introductions and gene flow in subtropical South American populations of the fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis(Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Mäder, Geraldo; Castro, Luana; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; Freitas, Loreta Brandão de

    2016-03-01

    Non-indigenous plants exhibit different attributes that make them aggressive competitors with indigenous plants and serious threats to biodiversity.Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed, Asteraceae), a native from southern Africa, is a strong competitor in agricultural activities and has toxic alkaloids that may result in high cattle mortality. In Brazil, this weed was collected for the first time in 1995 and has since spread quickly throughout the Pampas region. To better understand the invasion of the fireweed in South America, we used a genetic characterization with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and microsatellite markers. Based on the ITS data, the southern Brazil populations of S. madagascariensis shared genetic homology with samples taken from the Hawaiian Islands and South Africa. Microsatellite analysis showed the genetic diversity split in two clusters, perhaps intimating the independent introduction of each species into South America. Although fireweed was introduced recently in southern Brazil, the considerable levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and inbreeding may indicate success in the species establishment in this environment. PMID:27007907

  7. Studies on the potential antioxidant properties of Senecio stabianus Lacaita (Asteraceae) and its inhibitory activity against carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This study showed for the first time the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from Senecio stabianus Lacaita, a plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. The antioxidant activities were carried out using two different in vitro assays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) test. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 35.5 and 32.7 µg mL(-1) on DPPH test and ABTS test, respectively. This activity may be related to a good total phenol and flavonoid content. All extracts were also tested for their potential inhibitory activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase digestive enzymes. The n-hexane extract exhibited the highest α-amylase inhibition with an IC(50) value of 0.21 mg mL(-1). Through bioassay-guided fractionation processes seven fractions (A-G) were obtained and tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of n-hexane extract may be related to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. PMID:21644170

  8. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Narjara; Saar, Julia; Santos, Alan Diego C; Barison, Andersson; Sandjo, Louis P; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K.) Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae), three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1)), N-(2-phenethyl)-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2) and (2E,7Z)-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3). While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively) while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM) with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM). PMID:27294907

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae) Transcriptome Permits Large-Scale Unigene Assembly and SSR Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Peng, Hui; Li, Pirui; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59%) unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all) of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. Conclusions/Significance SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera. PMID:23626799

  10. Physiological response and differential leaf proteome pattern in the European invasive Asteraceae Solidago canadensis colonizing a former cokery soil.

    PubMed

    Immel, Françoise; Renaut, Jenny; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-02-01

    Derelict contaminated sites are often colonized spontaneously by plant species leading to a vegetal cover thought to limit particle dispersal and polluted water infiltration. Those plants must cope with soil pollutants through tolerance mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Here, we focused our attention on a particular Asteraceae plant, Solidago canadensis, considered as invasive in Europe. S. canadensis spontaneously growing on either polluted (NM soil) or control soils dumped on experimental plots were studied for their physiological status, oxidative stress and 2D-DIGE of leaf extracts. S. canadensis tolerance to soil pollutants was demonstrated since growth rates, allocation to reproduction ratios and Fv/Fm ratios were similar in plants from control and NM soil. At the cell level, the catalase activity level was increased in plants collected on NM soil while lipoperoxidation was unaffected. Also, the leaf proteomic study revealed thirty down-regulated and sixty-six up-regulated proteins. Abundances of proteins related to oxidative stress, carbohydrate metabolism, ion transport were mainly up-regulated while those of proteins involved in cell cycle and transcription/translation were mostly down-regulated. Proteins associated to protein metabolism were either down- or up-regulated. Considered altogether, we highlighted that S. canadensis exhibited a complex proteome response when experiencing a multicontaminated soil. PMID:22079247

  11. The Evolutionary History Of The White-Rayed Species Of Melampodium (Asteraceae) Involved Multiple Cycles Of Hybridization And Polyploidization1

    PubMed Central

    Rebernig, Carolin A.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Stuessy, Tod F.; Obermayer, Renate; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study Polyploidy plays an important role in race differentiation and eventually speciation. Underlying mechanisms include chromosomal and genomic changes facilitating reproductive isolation and/or stabilization of hybrids. A prerequisite for studying these processes is a sound knowledge on the origin of polyploids. A well-suited group for studying polyploid evolution consists of the three species of Melampodium ser. Leucantha (Asteraceae): M. argophyllum, M. cinereum, and M. leucanthum. Methods The origin of polyploids was inferred using network and tree-based phylogenetic analyses of several plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and of fingerprint data (AFLP). Genome evolution was assessed via genome size measurements, karyotype analysis, and in situ hybridization of ribosomal DNA. Key results Tetraploid cytotypes of the phylogenetically distinct M. cinereum and M. leucanthum had, compared to the diploid cytotypes, doubled genome sizes and no evidence of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Hexaploid M. argophyllum constituted a separate lineage with limited intermixing with the other species, except in analyses from nuclear ITS. Its genome size was lower than expected if M. cinereum and/or M. leucanthum were involved in its origin, and no chromosomal rearrangements were evident. Conclusions Polyploids in M. cinereum and M. leucanthum are of recent autopolyploid origin in line with the lack of significant genomic changes. Hexaploid M. argophyllum also appears to be of autopolyploid origin against the previous hypothesis of an allopolyploid origin involving the other two species, but some gene flow with the other species in early phases of differentiation cannot be excluded. PMID:22645096

  12. Development of a complex floral trait: The pollinator-attracting petal spots of the beetle daisy, Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Meredith M; Rudall, Paula J; Ellis, Allan G; Savolainen, Vincent; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-12-01

    Angiosperms possess a variety of complex floral traits that attract animal pollinators. Dark petal spots have evolved independently many times across the angiosperm phylogeny and have been shown to attract insect pollinators from several lineages. Here we present new data on the ontogeny and morphological complexity of the elaborate insect-mimicking petal spots of the South African daisy species, Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), commonly known as the beetle daisy, although it is fly-pollinated. Using light and scanning electron microscopy and histology, we identified three distinct specialized cell types of the petal epidermis that compose the petal spot. Sophisticated patterning of pigments, cuticular elaborations, and multicellular papillate trichomes make the G. diffusa petal spot a uniquely complex three-dimensional floral ornament. Examination of young inflorescence meristems revealed that G. diffusa ray florets develop (and probably also initiate) basipetally, in the opposite direction to the disc florets-a developmental phenomenon that has been found in some other daisies, but which contradicts conventional theories of daisy inflorescence architecture. Using these ontogenetic and morphological data, we have identified the mechanism by which G. diffusa patterns its insect-mimicking petal spots, and we propose a testable model for the genetic regulation of petal spot identity. PMID:21622334

  13. Phylogenetic position of Mediterranean Astereae and character evolution of daisies (Bellis, Asteraceae) inferred from nrDNA ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Fiz, Omar; Valcárcel, Virginia; Vargas, Pablo

    2002-10-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of nrITS sequences of Asteraceae revealed that the Bellis group is a natural assemblage comprising all the species of Bellis and Bellium, but not Rhynchospermum. In contrast, we propose to include the genera Bellis, Bellium, and Bellidastrum in the subtribe Bellidinae in the interest of circumscribing natural groups. Our results also suggest an early diversification in the western Mediterranean Basin of two monophyletic lineages, Bellis and Bellium. Three major groups can be distinguished within BELLIS: (1) the B. perennis group, containing five annual and perennial species with three ploidy levels (diploid, octoploid, and decaploid), which are distributed throughout the Mediterranean Basin despite lack of pappus; (2) the Bellis sylvestris group, with five annual and perennial species primarily from the western Mediterranean, in which there are five ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid, octoploid, and decaploid); and (3) a basal grade consisting of three diploid, perennial species which displays remarkable diversification of morphologies. Striking characteristics, such as an annual life form, polyploidy, and loss of pappus, seem to have occurred in parallel several times and in different geographical areas during the early diversification of Bellis species in the western Mediterranean. Character evolution reconstructions allow us to describe a putative ancestor of the genus Bellis (proto-Bellis). PMID:12383758

  14. Dispersal, dormancy and life-history tradeoffs at the individual, population and species levels in southern African Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Caroli; Anderson, Bruce; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-04-01

    Dispersal and dormancy are important risk-reducing strategies in unpredictable environments. Negative covariation between these strategies is theoretically expected, but empirical evidence is limited and inconsistent. Moreover, covariation may be affected by other life-history traits and may vary across levels of biological organization. We assessed dispersal (vertical fall time of fruits, a proxy for wind dispersal ability) and dormancy (germination fractions measured during germination trials) in populations of 15 annual and 12 perennial wind-dispersed species in six Asteraceae genera from South Africa. Dormancy was higher in annuals than in perennials, whereas fall time was largely determined by evolutionary history. Controlling for phylogeny, dispersal and dormancy was negatively associated across species and life-history categories. Negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy was not evident at either the individual level (except for seed heteromorphic species) or the population level. Our study provides rare empirical support for the theoretical expectation of tradeoffs between dormancy and the alternative risk-reducing strategies, perenniality and dispersal, but refutes the expectation of increased dispersability in perennials. Although negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy at the species level appears not to be a simple consequence of upscaling individual-level mechanistic tradeoffs, our findings suggest that selection for one strategy may constrain evolution of the other. PMID:26555320

  15. Underestimated diversity in one of the world’s best studied mountain ranges: The polyploid complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) contains four species in the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    GARCÍA, PEDRO ESCOBAR; HÜLBER, KARL; SONNLEITNER, MICHAELA; WINKLER, MANUELA; SAUKEL, JOHANNES; SCHNEEWEISS, GERALD M.; SCHÖNSWETTER, PETER

    2015-01-01

    Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) is an intricate polyploid complex distributed in the European Alps (di-, tetra- and hexaploids) and Carpathians (hexaploids only). Molecular genetic, ecological, and crossing data allowed four evolutionary groups within S. carniolicus to be identified. Here, we establish that these four groups (two vicariant diploid lineages, tetraploids and hexaploids) are also morphologically differentiated. As a consequence, we draw taxonomic conclusions by characterizing four species, including the more narrowly circumscribed S. carniolicus (lectotypified here), the taxonomically elevated S. insubricus comb. nov. (lectotypified here), and the two newly described species S. disjunctus and S. noricus. PMID:26190915

  16. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia. PMID:27395486

  17. Polyploidisation and Geographic Differentiation Drive Diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids—whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates—and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  18. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  19. Chloroplast DNA variation and the recent radiation of the giant senecios (Asteraceae) on the tall mountains of eastern Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E B; Palmer, J D

    1995-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA restriction-site variation was surveyed among 40 accessions representing all 11 species of giant senecios (Dendrosenecio, Asteraceae) at all but one known location, plus three outgroup species. Remarkably little variation (only 9 variable sites out of roughly 1000 sites examined) was found among the 40 giant senecio accessions, yet as a group they differ significantly (at 18 sites) from Cineraria deltoidea, the closest known relative. This pattern indicates that the giant senecios underwent a recent dramatic radiation in eastern Africa and evolved from a relatively isolated lineage within the Senecioneae. Biogeographic interpretation of the molecular phylogeny suggests that the giant senecios originated high on Mt. Kilimanjaro, with subsequent dispersion to the Aberdares, Mt. Kenya, and the Cherangani Hills, followed by dispersion westward to the Ruwenzori Mountains, and then south to the Virunga Mountains, Mt. Kahuzi, and Mt. Muhi, but with dispersion back to Mt. Elgon. Geographic radiation was an important antecedent to the diversification in eastern Africa, which primarily involved repeated altitudinal radiation, both up and down the mountains, leading to morphological parallelism in both directions. In general, the plants on a given mountain are more closely related to each other than they are to plants on other mountains, and plants on nearby mountains are more closely related to each other than they are to plants on more distant mountains. The individual steps of the geographic radiation have occurred at various altitudes, some clearly the result of intermountain dispersal. The molecular evidence suggests that two species are extant ancestors to other species on the same or nearby mountains. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7479782

  20. In and out of Madagascar: Dispersal to Peripheral Islands, Insular Speciation and Diversification of Indian Ocean Daisy Trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Strijk, Joeri S.; Noyes, Richard D.; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Fredéric; Chase, Mark W.; Abbott, Richard J.; Thébaud, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful

  1. Relationship between Seed Bank Expression, Adult Longevity and Aridity in Species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) in Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    ARROYO, M. T. K.; CHACON, P.; CAVIERES, L. A.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Broad surveys have detected inverse relationships between seed and adult longevity and between seed size and adult longevity. However, low and unpredictable precipitation is also associated with seed bank (SB) expression in semi-arid and arid areas. The relationship between adult longevity, SB formation, seed mass and aridity is examined in annual and perennial herbs of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) from the Chilean Mediterranean-type climate and winter-rainfall desert areas over a precipitation range of one order of magnitude. • Methods Seeds of 18 species and subtaxa (32 populations) were buried in field locations, and exhumed after two successive germination periods. Seeds not germinating in the field were tested in a growth chamber, and remnant intact seed tested for viability. Seed banks were classed as transient or persistent. The effect of life form, species, population and burial time on persistent SB size was assessed with factorial ANOVA. Persistent seed bank size was compared with the Martonne aridity index (shown to be a surrogate for inter-annual variation in precipitation) and seed size using linear regression. ANCOVA assessed the effect of life-form on SB size with aridity as covariate. • Key Results Three species had a transient SB and 15 a persistent SB. ANOVA revealed a significant effect of life-form on SB size with annuals having larger SB size and greater capacity to form a persistent SB than perennials. Significant inter-population variation in SB size was found in 64 % of cases. Seed mass was negatively correlated with persistent SB size. Persistent seed bank size was significantly correlated with the Martonne aridity index in the perennial and annual species, with species from more arid areas having larger persistent SBs. However, when aridity was considered as a covariate, ANCOVA revealed no significant differences between the annual and perennial herbs. • Conclusions Persistent seed bank size in Chaetanthera

  2. Are obligatory apomicts invested in the pollen tube transmitting tissue? Comparison of the micropyle ultrastructure between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Świątek, Piotr; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Majeský, Ľuboš; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Stolarczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    With the exception of the sunflower, little information concerning the micropyle ultrastructure of the family Asteraceae is available. The aim of our study was to compare the micropyle structure in amphimictic and apomictic dandelions. Ultrastructural studies using buds and flowers during anthesis have been done on the micropyle of the sexual and apomictic Taraxacum. In all of the species that were examined, the micropylar canal was completely filled with ovule transmitting tissue and the matrix that was produced by these cells. The ovule transmitting tissue was connected to the ovarian transmitting tissue. The micropyle was asymmetrical because the integument epidermis that forms the transmitting tissue was only on the funicular side. There was a cuticle between the obturator cells and epidermal cells on the other side of integument. The micropylar transmitting tissue cells and theirs matrix reached the synergid apex. The cytoplasm of the transmitting tissue cells was especially rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dictyosomes, and mitochondria. No major differences were detected between the micropyle structure of the amphimictic and apomictic species; thus, a structural reduction of obturator does not exist. The ovule transmitting tissue is still active in apomictic dandelions despite the presence of the embryo and endosperm. Differences and similarities between the micropyle structure in the Asteraceae that have been studied to date are discussed. PMID:25652809

  3. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Q Z; Huang, M; Downie, S R; Chen, Z X

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants tend to spread aggressively in new habitats and an understanding of their genetic diversity and population structure is useful for their management. In this study, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed for the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae) from 5548 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 133 microsatellite-containing ESTs (2.4%) were identified, of which 56 (42.1%) were hexanucleotide repeat motifs and 50 (37.6%) were trinucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 24 primer pairs designed from these 133 ESTs, 7 (29.2%) resulted in significant polymorphisms. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 9. The relatively high genetic diversity (H = 0.2667, I = 0.4212, and P = 100%) of P. clematidea was related to high gene flow (Nm = 1.4996) among populations. The coefficient of population differentiation (GST = 0.2500) indicated that most genetic variation occurred within populations. A Mantel test suggested that there was significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distribution (r = 0.3192, P = 0.012). These results further support the transferability of EST-SSR markers between closely related genera of the same family. PMID:27323082

  4. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  5. [Loss of pubescence and their physiological effects on endangered rosette Espeletia paipana (Asteraceae), Boyacá-Colombia].

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Sindy; Vanegast, Leidy; Ramos, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    Espeletia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to (Asteraceae), Boyacdi-Colombia. Espelelia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to Boyacá department. In order to establish whether a plant disease, characterized by the loss of leaf pubescence (PPF) and attributed to the pathogenic action of endophytic microorganisms, is the cause of the increasing mortality of population, the physiological performance of the species was evaluated with and without PPF. The incidence (% leaves affected in each of the 27 individuals in the current population) and severity (% leaf area affected on 135 leaves) of the PPF were monitored over a period of nine months, in three topographic zones of different heights. During four consecutive days in both dry and wet season, physiological parameters as chlorophyll content index (ICC), stomatal conductance (Gs) and leaf temperature (Tfol) were measured in healthy and affected leaves. The study was complemented with isolations and pathogenicity tests to identify the causal agent of the PPF. Overall, although the disease incidence in E. paipana was constant over time, the severity progressed surpassing 60 % of the leaf area. The increasing of severity in the upper side of leaves was attributed to the photo-oxidative effect of high radiation between 11:00 h and 14:00 h of the day. The reduction of functional leaf area because of the PPF, led to low Gs with serious implications for carbon fixation and thus limiting growth and biomass renewal. The effect of season in Tfol varied according to the topographic zone, while the ICC did not present a defined pattern with respect to the PPF; its low values could be associated with the production of other pigments. Finally, although it is not possible to ensure that Botrytis sp. is the causative of the loss of leaf pubescence, it is postulated as the most probably causal agent due to its high representativeness in the isolates and its infectious potential during

  6. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  7. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Tarun K.; Dewanjee, Saikat; Khanra, Ritu; Joardar, Swarnalata; Barma, Sujata; Das, Shilpa; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF) against Pb toxicity. Methods The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml) + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM). The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured. Results AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p < 0.01) altered the extents of ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation ↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ in vitro. Besides, Pb-acetate significantly (p < 0.01) induced apoptosis in the hepatocytes apparent from the altered expressions of apoptotic proteins viz. Apaf-1 ↑, Bad ↑, Bcl-2 ↓, Cyt C ↑, cleaved caspases↑, Bid ↑ and Fas ↑. However, AEEF (400 μg/ml) could significantly (p < 0.05–0.01) attenuate the Pb-acetate mediated toxic manifestation in vitro. In in vivo assay, Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) treated mice exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) high intracellular Pb content. A high Pb-burden within the tissues caused significant (p < 0.05–0.01) patho-physiological alterations viz. ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, DNA fragmentation ↑, ATP formation ↑, mitochondrial co-enzymes Q ↓, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ within the selected tissues. The haematological and

  8. The selective cytotoxicity elicited by phytochemical extract from Senecio graveolens (Asteraceae) on breast cancer cells is enhanced by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Echiburú-Chau, Carlos; Alfaro-Lira, Susana; Brown, Nelson; Salas, Cristian O; Cuellar, Mauricio; Santander, Javier; Ogalde, Juan Pablo; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of cancer‑related deaths in woman and the incidence of the disease has increased worldwide, in part due to improvements in early detection. Several drugs with anticancer effects have been extracted from plants in the last 20 years, many of which are particularly effective against breast cancer cells. In particular, we have become interested in the ethanolic extract from Senecio graveolens (synonym of S. nutans), a plant commonly called Chachacoma, in an effort to isolate compounds that could demonstrate cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells. Senecio (Asteraceae) is the largest gender in Chile comprising approximatly 200 species. These herbs inhabit areas over 3,500 meters above the sea level in the Andes Mountains. S. graveolens is commonly used by local communities for its medicinal properties, particularly its capacity to ameliorate high-altitude-associated sickness. The cytotoxic effect of the alcoholic extract from S. graveolens, as well as its most abundant compound 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, were tested in the breast cancer cell lines ZR-75-1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB‑231, and non-tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. We show that the phytochemical extract was able to induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells but not in MCF-10F. Importantly, this effect was enhanced under hypoxic conditions. However, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, the main compound, did not by itself show an effective anticarcinogenic activity in comparison to the whole extract. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the phytochemical extract was dependent on the basal MnSOD protein expression. Thus, cytotoxicity was increased when MnSOD levels were low, but resistance was evident when protein levels were high. Additionally, the crude extract seems to trigger cell death by a variety of processes, including autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis, in MCF-7 cells. In summary, S. graveolens extract possess anticancer activity displaying a specific

  9. The antiprotozoal activity of sixteen asteraceae species native to Sudan and bioactivity-guided isolation of xanthanolides from Xanthium brasilicum.

    PubMed

    Nour, Amal M M; Khalid, Sami A; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Abdallah, Wai'l E; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    In vitro screening of the dichloromethane extracts of 16 Asteraceae species native to Sudan for activity against major protozoan pathogens revealed that a Xanthium brasilicum Vell. [syn. X. strumarium var. brasilicum (Vell.) Baker in Mart.] extract was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the etiological agent of East African human trypanosomiasis (IC(50) = 0.1 microg/mL). This plant extract also exhibited noticeable activities against T. cruzi (Chagas disease), Leishmania donovani (Kala-Azar) as well as Plasmodium falciparum (Malaria tropica). Bioactivity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of four bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STL) of the xanthanolide series (4,5-seco-guaianolide-type). They were identified by spectroscopic means as 8-epixanthatin (1), 8-epixanthatin 1beta,5beta-epoxide (2), and as the dimers pungiolide A (4) as well as pungiolide B (5). Two further modified xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactones, xanthipungolide (3) and 4,15-dinor-1,11(13)-xanthadiene-3,5beta:12,8beta-diolide (6) were isolated. While xanthipungolide turned out to be inactive against the tested parasites, the dinor-xanthanlide showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense and L. donovani. All isolated compounds were previously known from other Xanthium species but this is the first report on their occurrence in X. brasilicum, and, most notably, on their antiprotozoal activity. As the most active single compound from this extract, 8-epixanthatin 1beta,5beta-epoxide showed IC(50) values of 0.09, 2.95, 0.16 and 1.71 microg/mL (0.33, 11.3, 0.6 and 6.5 microM) against T. brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, L. donovani and P. falciparum, respectively, while its cytotoxicity against rat myoblast cells used as control was determined at 5.8 microg/mL (22.1 microM). Besides assessment of their antiprotozoal activity, the structural assignments for the dimeric xanthanolides pungiolide A and B were reinvestigated and fully established. PMID:19431098

  10. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  11. Molecular evidence for multiple origins of woodiness and a New World biogeographic connection of the Macaronesian Island endemic Pericallis (Asteraceae: Senecioneae)

    PubMed Central

    Panero, Jose L.; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Jansen, Robert K.; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of woody species in oceanic islands has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than a century. We used a phylogeny based on sequences of the internal-transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA to trace the evolution of woodiness in Pericallis (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a genus endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, and Canaries. Our results show that woodiness in Pericallis originated independently at least twice in these islands, further weakening some previous hypotheses concerning the value of this character for tracing the continental ancestry of island endemics. The same data suggest that the origin of woodiness is correlated with ecological shifts from open to species-rich habitats and that the ancestor of Pericallis was an herbaceous species adapted to marginal habitats of the laurel forest. Our results also support Pericallis as closely related to New World genera of the tribe Senecioneae. PMID:10570168

  12. Investigating the potential of under-utilised plants from the Asteraceae family as a source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Walsh, D; Kelleher, C T; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P

    2014-10-15

    Antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts from eight Asteraceae species were investigated against three Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains. Ethanol extracts from Centaurea scabiosa, Arctium minus, Taraxacum officinale, Centaurea nigra and Cirsium palustre demonstrated antimicrobial activity against strains of S. aureus, MRSA and B. cereus (MIC=187.5-365μg/ml). Ethanol extracts also had higher antioxidant activities and phenolic content demonstrating a link between these compounds and the bioactivity of these extracts. Further investigation into the phenolic content of ethanol extracts using UPLC-MS/MS lead to the identification and quantification of numerous phenolic compounds in all species including; 18 from Cirsium arvense, 16 from Cirsium vulgare, 19 from C. palustre, 15 from C. nigra, 17 from C. scabiosa, 14 from Sonchus asper, 17 from A. minus and 11 from T. officinale. PMID:24837924

  13. Three new genera and three new species of Nearctic Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyiinae) from Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae, and the tribe Rhopalomyiini subsumed under Oligotrophini.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Three new Nearctic genera of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), each with a new species, are described: Helianthecis Gagné for Helianthecis capitum Gagné, new species, that lives in flower heads of Helianthus spp. (Asteraceae) from North Dakota to Texas; Lonicerae Gagné for Lonicerae russoi Gagné, new species, and Lonicerae lonicera (Felt), new combination, that form bud galls on Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) in California; and Chiosperma Gagné for Chiosperma turgidum Gagné, new species, that forms a bud gall on Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake (Caprifoliaceae) in Washington. The three new genera belong to the supertribe Lasiopteridi and are placed in the tribe Oligotrophini. The tribes Oligotrophini and Rhopalomyiini are combined. PMID:27615893

  14. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented. PMID:27395706

  15. Leaf trichome density may explain herbivory patterns of Actinote sp. (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in a montane humid forest (Nor Yungas, Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Ávila, Pamela; Hurtado, Rosember; Valdivia, Alejandra I.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2006-09-01

    Increasing evidence shows that most insect herbivores of tropical forests show specific associations with their hosts. Environmental factors as well as foliar characters can modify insect preference. In the present work, we evaluated in a montane humid forest the preference and herbivory rate of Actinote sp. caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on mature and young leaves of their specific host plant Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in two contrasting sites. Additionally, the density of non-glandular trichomes in young and mature leaves of plant at each site was evaluated. Analysis of variance of herbivory showed significant effects of site, leaf age, and the interaction of these factors. Higher herbivory levels were found on leaves from the site with lower levels of radiation and on mature leaves. On the other hand, trichome density was significantly higher in leaves from the site with higher levels of radiation and in young leaves. This suggests trichomes may explain the observed pattern of herbivory.

  16. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  17. Host Jumps and Radiation, Not Co‐Divergence Drives Diversification of Obligate Pathogens. A Case Study in Downy Mildews and Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Even though the microevolution of plant hosts and pathogens has been intensely studied, knowledge regarding macro-evolutionary patterns is limited. Having the highest species diversity and host-specificity among Oomycetes, downy mildews are a useful a model for investigating long-term host-pathogen coevolution. We show that phylogenies of Bremia and Asteraceae are significantly congruent. The accepted hypothesis is that pathogens have diverged contemporarily with their hosts. But maximum clade age estimation and sequence divergence comparison reveal that congruence is not due to long-term coevolution but rather due to host-shift driven speciation (pseudo-cospeciation). This pattern results from parasite radiation in related hosts, long after radiation and speciation of the hosts. As large host shifts free pathogens from hosts with effector triggered immunity subsequent radiation and diversification in related hosts with similar innate immunity may follow, resulting in a pattern mimicking true co-divergence, which is probably limited to the terminal nodes in many pathogen groups. PMID:26230508

  18. Terpenoid Composition and Base Sequences of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) Grown in the Hengduan Mountain Area in China and a Comment on Drawing Structures.

    PubMed

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A chemical analysis of 30 samples of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) collected in Sichuan province and its adjacent territories in China was reviewed. These samples afforded 146 compounds, 73 of which were novel, and the chemical constituents were classified into 8 categories: (1) simple eremophilanes (without ring C) and eudesmanes including nor-derivatives, (2) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-saturated bond, (3) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-unsaturated bond, 1,10-epoxide, or 10-ol, (4) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-2-one, 1(10)-en-2-ol, or 1-en-3-one, (5) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-9-one, 1(10)-en-9-ol, or 1,10-epoxy-9-one, (6) cacalol and their derivatives, (7) bakkanes and their derivatives, and (8) others, as shown in Tables 1-7. In these studies, five chemotypes were identified in addition to three clades from the DNA sequences of L. virgaurea. The structural determination of some compounds was also discussed and a comment on how to express the real structure was proposed, particularly for spiro compounds. PMID:26936046

  19. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-01

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:25664467

  20. Activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) suggests conserved protein-protein and protein-promoter interactions between the anciently diverged monocots and eudicots.

    PubMed

    Elomaa, Paula; Uimari, Anne; Mehto, Merja; Albert, Victor A; Laitinen, Roosa A E; Teeri, Teemu H

    2003-12-01

    We have identified an R2R3-type MYB factor, GMYB10, from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) that shares high sequence homology to and is phylogenetically grouped together with the previously characterized regulators of anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and Arabidopsis. GMYB10 is able to induce anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), especially in vegetative parts and anthers. In G. hybrida, GMYB10 is involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in leaves, floral stems, and flowers. In flowers, its expression is restricted to petal epidermal cell layers in correlation with the anthocyanin accumulation pattern. We have shown, using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assay, that GMYB10 interacts with the previously isolated bHLH factor GMYC1. Particle bombardment analysis was used to show that GMYB10 is required for activation of a late anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoter, PGDFR2. cis-Analysis of the target PGDFR2 revealed a sequence element with a key role in activation by GMYB10/GMYC1. This element shares high homology with the anthocyanin regulatory elements characterized in maize (Zea mays) anthocyanin promoters, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis have been conserved for over 125 million years not only at the level of transcriptional regulators but also at the level of the biosynthetic gene promoters. PMID:14605235

  1. Activation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) Suggests Conserved Protein-Protein and Protein-Promoter Interactions between the Anciently Diverged Monocots and Eudicots1

    PubMed Central

    Elomaa, Paula; Uimari, Anne; Mehto, Merja; Albert, Victor A.; Laitinen, Roosa A.E.; Teeri, Teemu H.

    2003-01-01

    We have identified an R2R3-type MYB factor, GMYB10, from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) that shares high sequence homology to and is phylogenetically grouped together with the previously characterized regulators of anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and Arabidopsis. GMYB10 is able to induce anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), especially in vegetative parts and anthers. In G. hybrida, GMYB10 is involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in leaves, floral stems, and flowers. In flowers, its expression is restricted to petal epidermal cell layers in correlation with the anthocyanin accumulation pattern. We have shown, using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assay, that GMYB10 interacts with the previously isolated bHLH factor GMYC1. Particle bombardment analysis was used to show that GMYB10 is required for activation of a late anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoter, PGDFR2. cis-Analysis of the target PGDFR2 revealed a sequence element with a key role in activation by GMYB10/GMYC1. This element shares high homology with the anthocyanin regulatory elements characterized in maize (Zea mays) anthocyanin promoters, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis have been conserved for over 125 million years not only at the level of transcriptional regulators but also at the level of the biosynthetic gene promoters. PMID:14605235

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of the Espeletia complex (Asteraceae): evidence from nrDNA ITS sequences on the closest relatives of an Andean adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Jason T

    2002-07-01

    The subtribe Espeletiinae (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) comprises morphologically and ecologically diverse plants endemic to the tropical montane paramos of the Andes of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. Though the ecophysiology and ecology of this adaptive radiation have been well studied, relationships among taxa in the subtribe and between the subtribe and other taxa in the Heliantheae are poorly known. In this study, sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA are used to test previous hypotheses about the phylogenetic position of the Espeletiinae within the Heliantheae and to determine which taxa are the subtribe's closest relatives. Gene phylogenies based on maximum parsimony analyses reveal that the Espeletiinae clade is nested well within the subtribe Melampodiinae and thus should be considered a monophyletic complex of species, not a separate subtribe. The most parsimonious gene trees suggest that the genus Ichthyothere may be the sister taxon to the Espeletia complex and that the genus Smallanthus and a species of Rumfordia are likely among the complex's other closest living relatives. These data offer preliminary insights into the origins of this adaptive radiation and the broader phylogenetic context in which it occurred. PMID:21665707

  3. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations.

    PubMed

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  4. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil and precocene II obtained from Calea serrata (Asteraceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Vera Lucia Sardá; dos Santos, Jaqueline Campiol; Martins, João Ricardo; Schripsema, Jan; Siqueira, Ionara R; von Poser, Gilsane L; Apel, Miriam A

    2011-06-30

    Calea serrata Less. (Asteraceae), an endemic species of south Brazil known as "quebra-tudo", is used in Afro-Brazilian religious rituals and in folk medicine for treating liver disorders. Phytochemical studies of the n-hexane extract of this plant demonstrated the presence of precocene II, a benzopyran derivative known for its insecticidal activity. The aim of this work was to isolate this benzopyran and determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. serrata and further to evaluate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil and precocene II against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The LC(99.9) and LC(50) values obtained with the oil, which presents precocene II and sesquiterpenes, were 3.94 μL/mL and 0.28 μL/mL, respectively. For precocene II this values were 4.25mg/mL and 1.78 mg/mL, respectively. The results indicate a synergistic interaction between the components of the oil and precocene II. PMID:21402447

  5. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Hülber, Karl; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Winkler, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, that is, the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering, and ecological niches as well as patterns of gene flow in parental and hybrid cytotypes in zones of immediate contact of di-, tetra-, and hexaploid Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps. Cytotypes were spatially separated also at the investigated microscale; the strongest spatial separation was observed for the fully interfertile tetra- and hexaploids. The three main cytotypes showed highly significant niche differences, which were, however, weaker than across their entire distribution ranges in the Eastern Alps. Individuals with intermediate ploidy levels were found neither in the diploid/tetraploid nor in the diploid/hexaploid contact zones indicating strong reproductive barriers. In contrast, pentaploid individuals were frequent in the tetraploid/hexaploid contact zone, albeit limited to a narrow strip in the immediate contact zone of their parental cytotypes. AFLP fingerprinting data revealed introgressive gene flow mediated by pentaploid hybrids from tetra- to hexaploid individuals, but not vice versa. The ecological niche of pentaploids differed significantly from that of tetraploids but not from hexaploids. PMID:25859328

  6. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Hülber, Karl; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Winkler, Manuela

    2015-03-01

    Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, that is, the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering, and ecological niches as well as patterns of gene flow in parental and hybrid cytotypes in zones of immediate contact of di-, tetra-, and hexaploid Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps. Cytotypes were spatially separated also at the investigated microscale; the strongest spatial separation was observed for the fully interfertile tetra- and hexaploids. The three main cytotypes showed highly significant niche differences, which were, however, weaker than across their entire distribution ranges in the Eastern Alps. Individuals with intermediate ploidy levels were found neither in the diploid/tetraploid nor in the diploid/hexaploid contact zones indicating strong reproductive barriers. In contrast, pentaploid individuals were frequent in the tetraploid/hexaploid contact zone, albeit limited to a narrow strip in the immediate contact zone of their parental cytotypes. AFLP fingerprinting data revealed introgressive gene flow mediated by pentaploid hybrids from tetra- to hexaploid individuals, but not vice versa. The ecological niche of pentaploids differed significantly from that of tetraploids but not from hexaploids. PMID:25859328

  7. Characterisation of sunflower-21 (SF21) genes expressed in pollen and pistil of Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae) and their relationship with other members of the SF21 gene family.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alexandra M; Lexer, Christian; Hiscock, Simon J

    2010-09-01

    Two related flower-expressed gene copies belonging to the SF21 (sunflower-21) gene family have been isolated from Senecio squalidus (Oxford Ragwort, Asteraceae). These gene copies are differentially expressed in pollen and pistil tissues; ORSF21B (Oxford Ragwort SF21B) is expressed exclusively in mature pollen, whereas ORSF21A (Oxford Ragwort SF21A) is expressed in the transmitting tissue of the style, where it is developmentally regulated. Despite differences in expression, the coding regions of ORSF21A and ORSF21B are highly similar. Amino acid sequence alignments of SF21 genes from a number of angiosperm species indicate that this gene family is conserved in flowering plants and may play an important role in reproductive processes in a wide range of taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of SF21 nucleotide sequence alignments supports this theory, and indicates a complicated history of evolution of this gene family in angiosperms. The putative roles of SF21 genes in reproduction and pollen-pistil interactions are discussed. PMID:20182753

  8. The population genetics of sporophytic self-incompatibility in Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae): avoidance of mating constraints imposed by low S-allele number.

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Adrian C; Harris, Stephen A; Hiscock, Simon J

    2003-01-01

    Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae) has been the subject of several ecological and population genetic studies due to its well-documented history of introduction, establishment and spread throughout Britain in the past 300 years. Our recent studies have focused on identifying and quantifying factors associated with the sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI) system of S. squalidus that may have contributed to its success as a colonist. These findings are of general biological interest because they provide important insights into the short-term evolutionary dynamics of a plant mating system. The number of S-alleles in populations and their dominance interactions were investigated in eight wild British populations using cross-diallel studies. The numbers of S-alleles in British S. squalidus populations are typically low (average of 5.3 S-alleles) and the entire British population is estimated to possess no more than 7-11 S-alleles. Such low numbers of S-alleles are most probably a consequence of population bottlenecks associated with introduction and colonization. Potential evolutionary impacts on SSI caused by a paucity of S-alleles, such as restricted mate availability, are discussed, and we suggest that increased dominance interactions between S-alleles may be an important short-term means of increasing mate availability when S-allele numbers are low. PMID:12831471

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and plastid DNA sequences support dysploid and polyploid chromosome number changes and reticulate evolution in the diversification of Melampodium (Millerieae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Blöch, Cordula; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Barfuss, Michael H.J.; Rebernig, Carolin A.; Villaseñor, José Luis; Stuessy, Tod F.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome evolution (including polyploidy, dysploidy, and structural changes) as well as hybridization and introgression are recognized as important aspects in plant speciation. A suitable group for investigating the evolutionary role of chromosome number changes and reticulation is the medium-sized genus Melampodium (Millerieae, Asteraceae), which contains several chromosome base numbers (x = 9, 10, 11, 12, 14) and a number of polyploid species, including putative allopolyploids. A molecular phylogenetic analysis employing both nuclear (ITS) and plastid (matK) DNA sequences, and including all species of the genus, suggests that chromosome base numbers are predictive of evolutionary lineages within Melampodium. Dysploidy, therefore, has clearly been important during evolution of the group. Reticulate evolution is evident with allopolyploids, which prevail over autopolyploids and several of which are confirmed here for the first time, and also (but less often) on the diploid level. Within sect. Melampodium, the complex pattern of bifurcating phylogenetic structure among diploid taxa overlain by reticulate relationships from allopolyploids has non-trivial implications for intrasectional classification. PMID:19272456

  10. Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug.

    PubMed

    López, Sandra B; López, María L; Aragón, Liliana M; Tereschuk, María L; Slanis, Alberto C; Feresin, Gabriela E; Zygadlo, Julio A; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2011-05-25

    Essential oils from four species of the genus Tagetes L. (Asteraceae, Helenieae) collected in Tucumán province, Argentina, were evaluated for their chemical composition, toxicity, and olfactory activity on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann adults and for repellent properties on Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Chagas disease vector). Yields of essential oils range from 0.2 to 0.8% (v/w). The same main constituents among Tagetes minuta L., Tagestes rupestris Cabrera, and Tagetes terniflora Kunth, (cis-trans)-ocimenes, (cis-trans)-tagetones, and (cis-trans)-ocimenones showed important differences in their relative compositions. Tagetes filifolia Lag. was characterized by the recognized phenylpropanoids methylchavicol and trans-anethole as the main components. LD(50) was ≤20 μg/insect in topical bioassays. T. rupestris was the most toxic to C. capitata females, whereas the other oils presented similar toxicities against males and females. Tagetes rupestris oil attracted both sexes of C. capitata at 5 μg, whereas T. minuta showed opposite activities between males (attractant) and females (repellent). Oils from T. minuta and T. filifolia were the most repellent to T. infestans. The results suggest that compositions of essential oils influence their insecticidal and olfactory properties. The essential oils from Tagetes species show an important potential as infochemical agents on insects' behaviors. This study highlights the chemical variability of essential oils as a source of variation of anti-insect properties. PMID:21469658

  11. The Effect of the Acetone Extract of Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) on the Growth and Ultrastructure of Some Opportunistic Fungi Associated with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Otang, Wilfred M.; Grierson, Donald S.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the acetone extract of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm. (Asteraceae) on the growth and ultrastructure of some opportunistic fungi associated with HIV/AIDS was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Remarkable morphological alterations in the fungal mycelia which were attributed to the loss of cell wall strength ranged from loss of turgidity and uniformity, collapse of entire hyphae to evident destruction of the hyphae. The elements responsible for giving the fungi their characteristic virulence were detected and quantified by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis techniques. X-ray microanalysis showed the specific spectra of sodium, potassium and sulfur as the principal intersection of the four pathogenic fungi studied. Since these ions have the potential of fostering fungal invasion by altering the permeability of hosts’ membranes, their presence was considered inherent to the pathogenicity of the opportunistic fungi. Hence, these findings indicate the potential of the crude extract of A. arctotoides in preventing fungal invasion and subsequent infection of host’s membranes. PMID:22272130

  12. Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)—Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Dorchin, Netta; Astrin, Jonas J.; Bodner, Levona; Harris, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis. PMID:26134526

  13. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    PubMed Central

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  14. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction. PMID:27611687

  15. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-01-01

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided. PMID:25781249

  16. Effects of temperature on survival, development, longevity, and fecundity of Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent against Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asterales: Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2010-06-01

    Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a leaf beetle that is unintentionally introduced in China. It is a potential biological control agent against common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asterales: Asteraceae). The effects of temperature on the development and fecundity of O. communa were studied at eight constant temperature regimens (15, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 36 degrees C) in the laboratory. The results showed that the developmental periods for egg, larva, pupa, and entire immature stages decreased in response to the increasing temperature, with the exception of 30 degrees C. The survival rates at different developmental stages were higher at 25 and 28 degrees C than at other temperatures. Ovipositional period and longevity of female shortened with the increasing temperature. The highest fecundity of female was observed to be 2,712.3 eggs/female at 28 degrees C. Life table of O. communa was constructed based on the data at 20-32 degrees C. The innate capacity for increase (r(m)), the net reproductive rate (R(0)), and the finite rate of increase (lambda) reached the maximum at 28 degrees C, with values of 0.247, 1,773.0, and 1.280, respectively. The shortest period of a generation (T) was 24.6 d at 32 degrees C, whereas the longest T value was recorded as 79.3 d at 20 degrees C. These results offer valuable insight on the establishment potential of O. communa in new environments with diverse temperature regimens and on its mass-rearing techniques in laboratory. PMID:20550818

  17. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5 minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0 mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5 minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus. PMID:23244493

  18. In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. using cell sensitivity and flow cytometry assays.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Kourosh; Shahidi-Hakak, Fatemeh; Asgari, Qasem; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ramin; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar

    2016-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected human diseases with an estimated global burden ranking second in mortality and fourth in morbidity among the tropical infections. Chemotherapy involving the use of drugs like glucantime is the mainstay treatment in endemic areas of Iran. Drug resistance is increasingly prevalent, so search for alternative therapy is gathering pace. Medicinal herbs, like wormwood Artemisia, have chemical compounds effective against a number of pathogens. In this study, the efficacy of ethanol extract from Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. was investigated in vitro. The outcome of different effective doses (1-40 mg/ml) of ethanol extracts from this medicinal herb, A. absinthium, on a standard Iranian parasite strain of L. major was examined. The L. major promastigote cell sensitivity and mortality or viability effects due to the addition of herbal extract were measured using the MTT assay and the flow cytometry technique, respectively. There was complete agreement between the two assays. The lethal concentration (LC50) was measured as 101 mg/ml. Some contrasting relationships between the medicinal herb concentrations and the viability of parasites were observed; so that there was an increased multiplication of the parasite at low concentrations of the drug, but an anti-parasitic apoptotic effect was seen at high concentrations of A. absinthium. It was concluded that there might be one or more chemical constituents within the herbal extract of wormwood which at high concentration controlled cell division and affected the relevant activity within the only one giant mitochondrion in this flagellate parasite. At low doses, however, it showed the opposite effect of leading to mitotic cell divisions. PMID:27605775

  19. Extensive range persistence in peripheral and interior refugia characterizes Pleistocene range dynamics in a widespread Alpine plant species (Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Flatscher, Ruth; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Krejčíková, Jana; Suda, Jan; Hülber, Karl; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that survival of arctic-alpine organisms in peripheral or interior glacial refugia are not mutually exclusive and may both be involved in shaping an organism's Pleistocene history, yet potentially at different time levels. Here, we test this hypothesis in a high-mountain plant (diploid lineage of Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae) from the Eastern European Alps, in which patterns of morphological variation and current habitat requirements suggest survival in both types of refugia. To this end, we used AFLPs, nuclear and plastid DNA sequences and analysed them, among others, within a graph theoretic framework and using novel Bayesian methods of phylogeographic inference. On the basis of patterns of genetic diversity, occurrence of rare markers, distribution of distinct genetic lineages and patterns of range connectivity both interior refugia in the formerly strongly glaciated central Alps and peripheral refugia along the southern margin of the Alps were identified. The presence of refugia congruently inferred by markers resolving at different time levels suggests that these refugia acted as such throughout several glacial cycles. The high degree of range persistence together with gradual range expansion, which contrasts with the extent of range shifts implied for other Alpine species, is likely responsible for incipient lineage differentiation evident from the genetic data. Replacing a simplistic peripheral vs. interior refugia dualism by more complex models involving both types of refugia and considering different time levels will help identifying common phylogeographic patterns with respect to, for instance, location of refugia and colonization routes and elucidating their underlying genetic and/or ecological causes. DNA sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession nos. FR796701–FR797793 and nos. HE614296–HE614583. PMID:22276934

  20. Elemental distribution in reproductive and neural organs of the Epilachna nylanderi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a phytophage of nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asterales: Asteraceae) by micro-PIXE.

    PubMed

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Augustyniak, Maria; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Tarnawska, Monika; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Migula, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal hyperaccumulation by plants is often explained by a pathogen or herbivore defense hypothesis. However, some insects feeding on metal hyperaccumulating plants are adapted to the high level of metals in plant tissues. Former studies on species that feed on the leaves of Berkheya coddii Roessler 1958 (Asteraceae), a nickel-hyperaccumulating plant, demonstrated several protective mechanisms involved in internal distribution, immobilization, and elimination of Ni from the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These species are mainly coleopterans, including the lady beetle, Epilachna nylanderi (Mulsant 1850) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), collected from the ultramafic ecosystem near Barberton in South Africa. By performing particle-induced X-ray emission microanalysis elemental microanalysis (PIXE), this study examined whether Ni may be harmful to internal body systems that decide on insect reactivity (central nervous system [CNS]), their reproduction, and the relationships between Ni and other micronutrients. Data on elemental distribution of nine selected elements in target organs of E. nylanderi were compared with the existing data for other insect species adapted to the excess of metals. Micro-PIXE maps of seven regions of the CNS showed Ni mainly in the neural connectives, while cerebral ganglia were better protected. Concentrations of other bivalent metals were lower than those of Ni. Testis, compared with other reproductive organs, showed low amounts of Ni. Zn was effectively regulated at physiological dietary levels. In insects exposed to excess dietary Zn, it was also accumulated in the reproductive organs. Comparison of E. nylanderii with other insects that ingest hyperaccumulating plants, especially chrysomelid Chrysolina clathrata (Clark) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), showed lower protection of the CNS and reproductive organs. PMID:25399425

  1. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents. PMID:25970043

  2. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  3. Extensive range persistence in peripheral and interior refugia characterizes Pleistocene range dynamics in a widespread Alpine plant species (Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Flatscher, Ruth; Sonnleitner, Michaela; KrejčíKová, Jana; Suda, Jan; HüLber, Karl; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; SchöNswetter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that survival of arctic-alpine organisms in peripheral or interior glacial refugia are not mutually exclusive and may both be involved in shaping an organism’s Pleistocene history, yet potentially at different time levels. Here, we test this hypothesis in a high-mountain plant (diploid lineage of Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae) from the Eastern European Alps, in which patterns of morphological variation and current habitat requirements suggest survival in both types of refugia. To this end, we used AFLPs, nuclear and plastid DNA sequences and analysed them, among others, within a graph theoretic framework and using novel Bayesian methods of phylogeographic inference. On the basis of patterns of genetic diversity, occurrence of rare markers, distribution of distinct genetic lineages and patterns of range connectivity both interior refugia in the formerly strongly glaciated central Alps and peripheral refugia along the southern margin of the Alps were identified. The presence of refugia congruently inferred by markers resolving at different time levels suggests that these refugia acted as such throughout several glacial cycles. The high degree of range persistence together with gradual range expansion, which contrasts with the extent of range shifts implied for other Alpine species, is likely responsible for incipient lineage differentiation evident from the genetic data. Replacing a simplistic peripheral vs. interior refugia dualism by more complex models involving both types of refugia and considering different time levels will help identifying common phylogeographic patterns with respect to, for instance, location of refugia and colonization routes and elucidating their underlying genetic and/or ecological causes. PMID:22276934

  4. Ecological relationships between non-cultivated plants and insect predators in agroecosystems: the case of Dittrichia viscosa (Asteraceae) and Macrolophus melanotoma (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikis, Dionyssios; Favas, Charalampos; Lykouressis, Dionyssios; Fantinou, Argyro

    2007-05-01

    Species of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are thought to be effective predators in reducing the numbers of several pests in vegetable crops. These predators are omnivorous as in addition to prey they also utilize plant sap for growth and development. Populations of these predators build in non-crop host plants and provide inoculum that augments natural control of insect pests in adjacent crops. However, to enhance their effectiveness in crops requires knowledge of their trophic relationships with host plants. In this study, the ecological relationships between the predator Macrolophus melanotoma (Costa) ( = M. caliginosus Wagner) and its most important natural host plant Dittrichia viscosa L. (W. Greuter) (Asteraceae) were investigated in the laboratory and in field studies. A 2-year field study of M. melanotoma populations on D. viscosa was made using the percentage of plants infested by C. inulae as a measure of aphid prey abundance. The field studies revealed that M. melanotoma populations were present throughout the year on D. viscosa reaching highest numbers in June and July despite very low levels of aphid infested plants. Laboratory life table studies were used to compare the survival and reproduction of the predator on D. viscosa leaves alone and leaves plus aphid prey ( Capitophorus inulae (Passerini)). Predators reared on D. viscosa leaves plus aphid prey had an average developmental time of 16.73 days, fecundity was 69.55 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0614/day. When fed only leaves, the developmental time was 21.13 days, fecundity was 10.80 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0229/day. The results of the two studies suggest an important role for D. viscosa in conserving and augmenting M. melanotoma in agro ecosystems, and in the development of natural control augmentation strategies in vegetable crops.

  5. Drought tolerance and plasticity in the invasive knapweed Centaurea stoebe s.l. (Asteraceae): effect of populations stronger than those of cytotype and range

    PubMed Central

    Mráz, Patrik; Tarbush, Elham; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe s.l., Asteraceae) is native to Europe, where it occurs as a diploid (2xEU) and tetraploid cytotype (4xEU), but so far only the tetraploid has been reported in the introduced range in North America (4xNA). In previous studies, significant range shifts have been found towards drier climates in 4xEU compared with 2xEU, and in 4xNA when compared with the native range. In addition, 4x plants showed thicker leaves and reduced specific leaf area compared with 2x plants, suggesting higher drought tolerance in 4x plants. It is thus hypothesized that the 4x cytotype might be better pre-adapted to drought than the 2x, and the 4xNA better adapted than the 4xEU due to post-introduction selection. Methods Plants of the three geocytotypes (2xEU, 4xEU and 4xNA ), each represented by six populations, were subjected to three water treatments over 6 weeks in a greenhouse experiment. Plasticity and reaction norms of above- and below-ground biomasses and their ratio, survival rate, stomatal conductance and carbon isotope discrimination were analysed using linear and generalized linear mixed effect models. Key Results and Conclusions Above-ground and total biomasses of European tetraploids were slightly less affected by drought than those of European diploids, and 4xEU plants maintained higher levels of stomatal conductance under moderate drought than 4xNA plants, thus supporting the pre-adaptation but not the post-introduction evolution hypothesis. Plasticity indexes for most of the traits were generally higher in 2xEU and 4xNA than in 4xEU plants, but these differences were not or were only marginally significant. Interestingly, the effect of population origin and its interaction with treatment was more important than the effects of geocytotype and range. Population means for the control treatment showed several significant associations either with latitude or some aspect of climatic data, suggesting evolution of local adaptations

  6. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. Results The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. Conclusions This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian

  7. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. Results ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. Conclusions We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the

  8. Distribution and habitat segregation on different spatial scales among diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps

    PubMed Central

    Sonnleitner, Michaela; Flatscher, Ruth; Escobar García, Pedro; Rauchová, Jana; Suda, Jan; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Hülber, Karl; Schönswetter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The spatial distribution of cytotypes can provide valuable insights into evolutionary patterns of polyploid complexes. In a previous study the macro-scale distribution of the three main cytotypes in Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) within the Eastern Alps was characterized. Employing a roughly 12-fold extended sampling, the present study focuses on unravelling patterns of cytotype distribution on the meso- and microscale and on correlating those with ecological properties of the growing sites. Methods DAPI flow cytometry of dried samples was used to determine DNA ploidy level in 5033 individuals from 100 populations spread over the entire Eastern Alpine distribution area of S. carniolicus. Descriptors of microhabitats as well as spatial data were recorded in the field, and analysed with a mixed-effects ANOVA. Key Results Extensive variation in DNA ploidy levels (2x, 3x, 4x, 5x, 6x, 7x, 8x, 9x) was detected. Of the main cytotypes, diploids and hexaploids were widespread and had strongly overlapping distributions resulting in the frequent occurrence of cytotype mixtures (half of the investigated populations), whereas tetraploids were disjunctly distributed and occurred in the south-west and the east of the species' distribution area. In spite of the frequent co-occurrence of cytotypes, only 1 % of the samples belonged to secondary cytotypes (3x, 5x, 7x, 8x, 9x). Diploids, tetraploids and hexaploids were altitudinally segregated, but with broad overlap. Similarly, highly significant differences in vegetation and rock cover as well as microhabitat exposure were found between the main cytotypes. Conclusions Senecio carniolicus shows a remarkable diversity of cytotypes. The distribution of the three main cytotypes (2x, 4x, 6x) has been shaped by Pleistocene glaciations to different extents. Whereas tetraploids are nearly entirely restricted to refugia, hexaploids colonized areas that were extensively glaciated. Diploid and hexaploid individuals often

  9. In vivo antiprostate tumor potential of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) tuber extract (VGDE) and the cytotoxicity of its major compound pentaisovaleryl sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) root decoction is used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat some ailments including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to validate the claimed antiprostate cancer activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. in vivo and to investigate the cytotoxicity of a pentaisovaleryl sucrose isolated from Vernonia guineensis on some cancer cell lines. Materials and methods A crude dichloromethane extract of Vernonia guineensis (VGDE) was used for this study. For in vivo antiprostate cancer efficacy, nude mice (n = 16) were injected subcutaneously with prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Upon the formation of the xenograft tumors, the mice were divided into two equal groups with approximately the same mean tumor volume per group. One group was treated with VGDE orally (500 mg/kg) and the other with a vehicle control for 30 days. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured 2 × a week and on the 33rd day, the mice were euthanized and tumors harvested and weighed. For the cytotoxicity study, the WST-1 assay was used to determine the activity of pentaisovaleryl sucrose previously isolated from VGDE. The cancer cell lines used in the cytotoxicity study included breast, colon, leukemia, lung, melanoma, ovarian and prostate. Results Prostate cancer (PC-3) xenograft tumors treated with VGDE showed a significant decrease in tumor size (P = 0.0295) compared to control. Pentaisovaleryl sucrose also demonstrated cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines with IC50 values as follows: MDA-MD-231—6.66 µM; MCF-7—7.50 µM; HCT116—14.12 µM; A549—5.76 µM; HL60—6.43 µM; A375—8.64 µM; OVCAR3—9.53 µM; Capan1—7.13 µM; Mia-Paca 6.47 µM. Conclusion VGDE does possess in vivo activity against prostate tumor and has potential for development into a natural product for the treatment of prostate cancer. This study thus provides preliminary validation for the folk use of Vernonia guineensis against prostate

  10. [Establishment of the feeding methodology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae) in Swiss mice and evaluation of the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae), in populations of Aedes aegypti].

    PubMed

    Lima, Waldemir Pereira; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Zuccari, Débora Aparecida Pires de Campos; Dibo, Margareth Regina

    2009-01-01

    The objectives here were to develop a procedure for feeding females of Aedes aegypti that does not cause stress in Swiss mice and to evaluate the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) in Aedes aegypti populations. Two mice were anesthetized: one was used to observe the duration of sedation and the other was placed in a cage to feed the female mosquitoes. Essential oil was diluted in acetone and used in bioassays to assess the lethal concentrations in larvae from the Cities of Bauru (SP) and São José do Rio Preto (SP) that were sensitive and resistant to temephos, respectively. The data obtained were compared with the American Rockefeller strain. The procedure with mice was approved. There was no difference between the populations regarding susceptibility to Tagetes minuta, and the assays showed LC50 of 0.24, 0.25 and 0.21 ml/l and LC99.9 of 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 ml/l, for Rockefeller, Bauru and São José do Rio Preto, respectively. The solution did not show any residual effect. PMID:20209346

  11. The In Vitro Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of the Leaves of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) on Three Life Cycle Stages of the Parasitic Nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wabo Poné, J.; Fossi Tankoua, Olivia; Yondo, Jeannette; Komtangi, Marie Claire; Mbida, Mpoame; Bilong Bilong, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    A comparative in vitro study was carried out to determine the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) leaves on the eggs (unembryonated and embryonated), first and second larval stages of Heligmosomoides bakeri. Four different concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75 mg·mL−1) of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts were tested. Distilled water and 5% tween were used as negative controls in the bioassay. In fact, they did not affect development of eggs, hatching, and larval survival. The extract activities were dose dependent. The ethanolic extract was more potent against embryonation (39.6 ± 2.9%) than the aqueous extract (53.3 ± 10.9%) at the highest concentration (3.75 mg·ml−1). Both types of extracts killed larvae. Mebendazole proved more lethal (EC50 of 0.745 and 0.323 mg·mL−1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae). The aqueous extracts were the least lethal (EC50 of 4.76 and 2.29 mg·mL−1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae). The ethanolic extracts showed intermediate activity (EC50 of 1.323 and 1.511 mg·mL−1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae). It is concluded that the ovicidal and larvicidal properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides leaves are demonstrated in this work. PMID:21772960

  12. Pollen dispersal by Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterl, Andreas; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Hazeleger, Wilco; Burgers, Gerrit

    2007-10-01

    Using observations covering the last 128 years we show that apparent changes in El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections can be explained by chance and stem from sampling variability. This result is backed by experiments in which an atmosphere model is driven by 123 years of observed sea surface temperature. The possibility of ENSO teleconnection changes in a warming climate is further investigated using coupled GCMs driven by past and projected future greenhouse gas concentrations. These runs do not exclude physical changes in the teleconnection strength but do not agree on their magnitude and location. If existing at all, changes in the strength of ENSO teleconnection, other than obtained by chance, are small and will only be detectable on centennial time scales.

  13. Pollen dispersal by Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Kelly, R. D.; Gerow, K. G.

    2007-08-01

    While the biophysics of anemophilous pollen dispersal is understood in principle, empirical studies for testing such principles are rare, particularly in native ecosystems. This paper describes mechanisms underlying the dispersal of Artemisia pollen in a Wyoming sagebrush steppe. The relationships between meteorological variables and pollen flux were defined during the 1999 Artemisia flowering season, and detailed processes at the individual plant level were experimentally tested in the field in 2000. Results indicated that Artemisia pollen presentation is continuous but with early morning maxima. Atmospheric pollen concentrations and potential dispersal rates are controlled at diurnal time scales by individual flower development together with characteristic changes in temperature/humidity and wind speeds, at multi-day scales by frontal weather patterns, and at week-long scales by flowering phenology.

  14. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes. PMID:11561451

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Jeana M.E.; Chang, Marilene R.; Brito, Daniela Z.; Farias, Katyuce S.; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo A.; Turatti, Izabel C.C.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Santos, Edson A.; Carollo, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima - an abundant plant from the Brazilian Pantanal region - against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extracts and fractions showed activity in all tested microorganisms. The chloroform fraction of the leaves and roots showed the most antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, with an MIC of 500 μg/mL. This fraction was submitted to bioautographic assays to characterize the activity of the compounds. Two bands from the leaves (L-A and L-B) and three bands from the roots (R-C, R-D and R-E) were bioactive. Within the root-derived bands, the terpene derivatives stigmasterol, kaurenoic acid and kaura-9(11), 16-dien-18-oic acid were identified. Antibiotic activity of A. latissima is reported for the first time. PMID:26691468

  16. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Dalla Nora, Gracieli; Pastori, Tamara; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Do Canto-Dorow, Thais Scotti; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2010-12-01

    Mikania glomerata is a plant used in Brazilian traditional medicine, known as 'guaco'. It possesses anti-inflammatory properties and the aqueous extracts of its leaves are indicated for the treatment of diseases of the respiratory tract. This study aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative and genotoxic effect of Mikania glomerata leaf infusions on the cell cycle of onion. The material used was collected in the native environment from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Aqueous extracts through infusions were prepared in two concentrations: 4g/L (usual concentration) and 16g/L (4x more concentrated) of each of the populations. Two groups of four onion bulbs for each plant population were used plus a control group. The rootlets were fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1), conserved in ethanol 70% and slides were prepared using the squashing technique colored with orcein 2%. The cells were observed and analyzed during cell cycle. Per group of bulbs, 2000 cells were analyzed, and the mean values of the cell number of each of the phases of the cell cycle were calculated, determining the mitotic index (MI). Statistic analyses of the data were carried out by the x2 ( p= 0.05) test. We conclude that M. glomerata presents both antiproliferative and genotoxic activity. PMID:21443139

  17. Ethnopharmacological Significance of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Rownak; Al-Nahain, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba can be found growing wild in fallow lands of Bangladesh where it is considered as a weed by farmers. Traditional medicinal systems of the Indian subcontinent countries as well as tribal practitioners consider the plant to have diverse medicinal values and use it commonly for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract disorders (including asthma), fever, hair loss and graying of hair, liver disorders (including jaundice), skin disorders, spleen enlargement, and cuts and wounds. The plant has several phytoconstituents like wedelolactone, eclalbasaponins, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, luteolin, and apigenin. Pharmacological activities of plant extracts and individual phytoconstituents have revealed anticancer, hepatoprotective, snake venom neutralizing, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. Phytoconstituents like wedelolactone and ursolic and oleanolic acids as well as luteolin and apigenin can form the basis of new drugs against cancer, arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, and liver disorders. PMID:27355071

  18. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  19. Chemical characterization of Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) using gas chromatographic methods

    PubMed Central

    Eshiet, Etetor R; Zhu, Jinqiu; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Ernest E

    2014-01-01

    A methanol extract of lyophilized Brickellia cavanillesii was quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatographic (GC) techniques. The chromatographic methods employed were (i) GC-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), (ii) GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and (iii) purge and trap GC-MS (P&T GC-MS). Thirteen compounds were identified with a quality match of 90% and above using GC-MS. The compounds were (1) Cyclohexene, 6-ethenyl-6-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-(1-methylethylidene)-, (S)-; (2) Bicylo (2.2.1) heptan-2-one, 1, 7, 7-trimethyl-(1S, 4S)-; (3) Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-; (4) Benzene, 1-(1, 5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl-; (5) Naphthalene, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8a-hexahydro4, 7-dimethyl-1-1-(1-methylethyl)-, (1S-cis)-; (6) Phenol, 2-methoxy-; (7) Benzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-; (8) 11, 13-Eicosadienoic acid, methyl ester; (9) 2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-methyl-; (10) Maltol; (11) Phenol; (12) Hydroquinone; (13) 1H-Indene, 1-ethylideneoctahydro-7a-methyl-, (1E, 3a.alpha, 7a.beta.). Other compounds (14) 3-methyl butanal; (15) (D)-Limonene; (16) 1-methyl-4-(1-methyl ethyl) benzene; (17) Butanoic acid methyl ester; (18) 2-methyl propanal; (19) 2-butanone; (20) 2-pentanone; and (21) 2-methyl butane were also identified when P&T GC-MS was performed. Of the 21 compounds identified, 12 were validated using chemical standards. The identified compounds were found to be terpenes, derivatives of terpenes, esters, ketones, aldehydes, and phenol-derived aromatic compounds; these are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many plants and flowers. PMID:24804069

  20. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  1. Fungicidal activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mahmoud A; Belal, Mohamed H; el-Baroty, Gamal

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba alba was found to be associated with two major volatile compounds isolated from the fresh leaves of the plant. Carvone and piperitone were isolated and identified by GC/MS, GC/IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Antifungal activity was measured against Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 10499) and Mucora rouxii (ATCC 24905). The antifungal activity (IC50) of the purified compounds was estimated to be 5 microg/ml, 2 microg/ml against Penicillium citrinum and 7 microg/ml, 1.5 microg/ml against Mucora rouxii carvone and piperitone, respectively. PMID:16484084

  2. Seed germination characteristics of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. viridulus (Astereae, Asteraceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.A.; Sankhla, N.; Weber, D.J.; McArthur, E.D.

    1987-04-30

    Rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas) Britt. ssp. viridulus) may prove to be a source of high-quality cis-isoprene rubber, but its establishment is limited by a lack of information on seed germination. Consequently, seeds were germinated at alternating temperatures (5-15, 5-25, 15-25, and 20-30 C) in light and dark as well as constant temperatures (15-40 C with 5-C increments) to determine temperature response. Seeds were also germinated in solutions of polyethylene glycol 6000, salinity regimes at all the above-mentioned temperatures to determine salinity and temperature interaction. The hormones GA/sub 3/ and kinetin were used to study their effect on overcoming salt- and temperature-induced germination inhibition. Seeds of C. nauseosus ssp. viridulus were very sensitive to low temperature. Best germination was achieved at 25 and 30 C, but these seeds also germinated at a higher temperature (35 C). The seeds of rabbit brush germinated at both constant and alternating temperatures. Light appears to play little or no role in controlling germination of the seeds of rubber rabbitbrush. However, seeds of rabbitbrush were sensitive to salinity, and seed germination was progressively inhibited by increase in salt concentration, although a few seeds still germinated at the highest saline level. Progressively higher concentrations of polyethylene glycol also progressively inhibited germination. Suppression of seed germination induced by high salt concentrations and high temperatures can be partially alleviated by the application of either GA/sub 3/ or kinetin. 34 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Chemistry and Biology of the Genus Flourensia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rios, María Yolanda

    2015-11-01

    Flourensia species are dominant plants that are adapted to semidesertic and desertic regions. It is believed that they are successful plants because they employ several protection mechanisms, including the formation of a waxy film on their aerial parts to protect them from dehydration. This waxy film contains chemical compounds that are capable of inhibiting the growth of other plants and of acting as allelopathic and herbicidal agents and as germination inhibitors. These plants also limit herbivory, and they exhibit insecticidal, insect antifeedant, antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal, and antitermite activities. Sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, benzofurans, chromenes, coumarins, lupan triterpenes, aliphatic lactones, and aromatic and acetilenic compounds have all been isolated from the organic extracts of Flourensia species. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons are the main constituents found in their essential oils. This review is an overview of the chemical constituents and of the biological activities of Flourensia species. PMID:26567942

  4. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  5. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata,Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given. PMID:23233810

  6. Transfer of glyphosate resistance: evidence of hybridization in Conyza (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Ian A; Owen, Micheal D K; Vangessel, Mark J

    2007-04-01

    Transfer of herbicide resistance genes between crops and weeds is relatively well documented; however, far less information exists for weed-to-weed interactions. The hybridization between the weedy diploids Conyza canadensis (2n = 18) and C. ramosissima (2n = 18) was investigated by monitoring transmission of the allele conferring resistance to N-phosphonomethyl glycine (glyphosate). In a multivariate quantitative trait analysis, we described the phylogenic relationship of the plants, whereas we tested seed viability to assess potential postzygotic reproductive barriers (PZRB) thus affecting the potential establishment of hybrid populations in the wild. When inflorescences were allowed to interact freely, approximately 3% of C. ramosissima or C. canadensis ova were fertilized by pollen of the opposing species and produced viable seeds; >95% of the ova were fertilized under no-pollen competition conditions (emasculation). The interspecific Conyza hybrid ( ) demonstrated an intermediate phenotype between the parents but superior resistance to glyphosate compared to the resistant C. canadensis parent. Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in the selfed ( ) followed the partially dominant nuclear, single-gene model; backcrosses confirmed successful introgression of the resistance allele to either parent. Negligible PZRB were observed in the hybrid progenies, confirming fertility of the C. canadensis × C. ramosissima nothotaxa. The implications of introgressive hybridization for herbicide resistance management and taxonomy of Conyza are discussed. PMID:21636434

  7. Rapid Chromosome Evolution in Recently Formed Polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K. Yoong; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Tate, Jennifer; Matyasek, Roman; Srubarova, Hana; Kovarik, Ales; Pires, J. Chris; Xiong, Zhiyong; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Polyploidy, frequently termed “whole genome duplication”, is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome divergence in the establishment of young polyploid populations. Here we investigate synthetic lines and natural populations of two recently and recurrently formed allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (formed within the past 80 years) to assess the role of aberrant meiosis in generating chromosomal/genomic diversity. That diversity is likely important in the formation, establishment and survival of polyploid populations and species. Methodology/Principal Findings Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and other chromosomal changes are common in both allotetraploids. We detected extensive chromosomal polymorphism between individuals and populations, including (i) plants monosomic and trisomic for particular chromosomes (perhaps indicating compensatory trisomy), (ii) intergenomic translocations and (iii) variable sizes and expression patterns of individual ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci. We even observed karyotypic variation among sibling plants. Significantly, translocations, chromosome loss, and meiotic irregularities, including quadrivalent formation, were observed in synthetic (S0 and S1 generations) polyploid lines. Our results not only provide a mechanism for chromosomal variation in natural populations, but also indicate that chromosomal changes occur rapidly following polyploidisation. Conclusions/Significance These data shed new light on previous analyses of genome and transcriptome structures in de novo and establishing polyploid species. Crucially our results highlight the necessity of studying karyotypes in young (<150 years old) polyploid species and synthetic polyploids that resemble natural species. The data also provide insight into the mechanisms that perturb inheritance patterns of genetic markers in synthetic polyploids and populations of young natural polyploid species. PMID:18843372

  8. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata, Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given. PMID:23233810

  9. A putative hybrid swarm within Oonopsis foliosa (Asteraceae: Astereae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, J.F.; Brown, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    Oo??nopsis foliosa var. foliosa and var. monocephala are endemic to short-grass steppe of southeastern Colorado and until recently were considered geographically disjunct. The only known qualitative feature separating these 2 varieties is floral head type; var. foliosa has radiate heads, whereas var. monocephala heads are discoid. Sympatry between these varieties is restricted to a small area in which a range of parental types and intermediate head morphologies is observed. We used distribution mapping, morphometric analyses, chromosome cytology, and pollen stainability to characterize the sympatric zone. Morphometrics confirms that the only discrete difference between var. foliosa and var. monocephala is radiate versus discoid heads, respectively. The outer florets of putative hybrid individuals ranged from conspicuously elongated yet radially symmetric disc-floret corollas, to elongated radially asymmetric bilabiate- or deeply cleft corollas, to stunted ray florets with appendages remnant of corolla lobes. Chromosome cytology of pollen mother cells from both putative parental varieties and a series of intermediate morphological types collected at the sympatric zone reveal evidence of translocation heterozygosity. Pollen stainability shows no significant differences in viability between the parental varieties and putative hybrids. The restricted distribution of putative hybrids to a narrow zone of sympatry between the parental types and the presence of meiotic chromosome-pairing anomalies in these intermediate plants are consistent with a hybrid origin. The high stainability of putative-hybrid pollen adds to a growing body of evidence that hybrids are not universally unfit.

  10. Mycobiota of the weed Conyza canadensis (Asteraceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Lidiane Leal; Santos, Fabiana Maria Coutinho; Barreto, Robert Weingart

    2016-09-01

    Conyza canadensis is a noxious and notably problematic weed in Brazil whose control is greatly challenging due to the appearance, in the last years, of herbicide resistant populations. An investigation regarding the associated pathogenic fungi of this plant was conducted in Brazil aimed at starting a biological control program to help mitigate its economic impact. Ten fungal species were yielded and described: two ascomycetes (Leptosphaerulina conyzicola sp. nov. and Wentiomyces melioloides), five hyphomycete asexual morphs (Alternaria tenuissima, Cercospora conyzicola sp. nov., Cercosporella virgaureae, and Fusarium fujikuroi), two coelomycete asexual morphs (Phoma conyzaphthora sp. nov., Septoria erigerontis), one rust fungus (Aecidium conyzicola sp. nov.), and one oomycete (Basidiophora entospora). Four among the fungi that were collected represent new taxa, and the others represented either new host-records of known fungal species or new geographic records or both, except for C. virgaureae that had already been recorded on C. canadensis in Brazil. None of the discovered species have any potential to be used as a mycoherbicide or to be introduced somewhere else, nevertheless, the knowledge about this mycobiota will help guide the selection of potential biocontrol agents to be introduced in Brazil. PMID:27567718

  11. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae), a new species from North China.

    PubMed

    Sennikov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group Hieracium sect. Aestiva (Hieracium sect. Prenanthoidea × Hieracium sect. Umbellata) and is most similar to Hieracium veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements. PMID:25197222

  12. Antimicrobial phenolic derivatives from Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Aziz Abdur; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2007-11-01

    A phytochemical study on the root of Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura, using a series of silica gel column chromatography and reversed phase C-18 HPLC chromatography, led to the isolation of (1S, 2S)-1, 2, 3-trihydroxy-1-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane (1), 4-methoxycinnamic acid (2), acacetin (3) and caffeic acid methyl ester (4). The structures of these compounds were determined using spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRTOFMS and NMR), with comparison of their spectral data with previously reported values. Compound 1 was isolated for the first time, with compounds 2 and 4 from this plant reported for the first time. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the isolated compounds were measured using the disc diffusion method. Also, their cytotoxicities against the cancer cell lines, A549, B16F1 and SK-Mel-2, and brine shrimp lethalities were evaluated. PMID:18087803

  13. Dendrazawaynes A and B, antifungal polyacetylenes from Dendranthema zawadskii (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Aziz Abdur; Cho, Soon-Chang; Song, Junsik; Mun, Hyeong-Tae; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2007-08-01

    Two new C(14) polyacetylenes dendrazawayne A(7) and dendrazawayne B (9) together with known C(13) polyacetylenes (2, 3), C(14) polyacetylenes (1, 4, and 8) and polyacetylene amides (5 and 6) were isolated from the roots of Dendranthema zawadskii. The structures of 7 and 9 were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR, HR-TOF-MS, IR, and UV. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 showed moderate activity against tumor cell lines (human small lung cancer cell line A549, melanoma SK-Mel-2, and mouse melanoma B16F1) with IC(50) values in the range of 7.4 - 30 microg/mL. Compounds 7 and 9, including other polyacetylenes, showed strong activity against the fungus Trichophyton (MIC: 5 - 10 microg/mL). PMID:17691057

  14. Mineral nutrition and in vitro growth of Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gerbera hybrida (G. jamesonii x G. viridifolia) or gerbera daisy is one of the most popular flowering ornamental plants worldwide and is sold as bedding, potted plants, and cut flowers. Gerbera daisies are propagated by in vitro culture because conventional propagation methods, by division of clumps...

  15. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  16. Genomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in the genus Parthenium (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray) is a perennial hardwood shrub native to the North American Chihuahuan Desert that holds promise as a sustainable source of natural rubber and hypoallergenic latex. The improvement of guayule for commercial-scale production could be potentially accelerated thro...

  17. THE RARE PERENNIAL BALDUINA ATROPURPUREA (ASTERACEAE) AT FORT STEWART, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. military installations are refuges to many threatened and endangered ecosystems and species. They are also sites of intensive military training and testing. The U.S. Army is committed to conservation of biological diversity on its lands through the adoption of comprehensive ...

  18. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Helicobacter Activities of Eryngium foetidum (Apiaceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), and Galinsoga ciliata (Asteraceae) against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Nguepi, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extracts of Bidens pilosa, Galinsoga ciliata, and Eryngium foetidum against 6 clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. Broth microdilution method was used in vitro. In vivo, Swiss mice were inoculated with H. pylori and divided into 5 groups; the control group received the vehicle and the four others received 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum and ciprofloxacin (500 mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively. Helicobacter pylori colonization and number of colonies in gastric biopsies culture were assessed on days 1 and 7 after treatment. The lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) and the best spectrum of bactericidal effect (MBC/MIC = 1) were obtained with the methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum. The number of H. pylori infected animals was 17% (plant-extract) and 0% (ciprofloxacin) compared to 100% for the infected untreated group. Plant-extract (381.9 ± 239.5 CFU) and ciprofloxacin (248 ± 153.2 CFU) significantly reduced bacterial load in gastric mucosa compared to untreated, inoculated mice (14350 ± 690 CFU). Conclusion. The present data provided evidence that methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum could be a rich source of metabolites with antimicrobial activity to fight Helicobacter pylori infections.

  20. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC) McLeisch (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silvério, Marcelo S; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Pinto, Míriam A O; Alves, Maria S; Sousa, Orlando V

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of different parts of Eremanthus erythropappus, including leaves, branches and inflorescences, was investigated by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of the oils was assessed by the disc diffusion and microdilution methods, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and reducing power tests. The main compounds found in the essential oils derived from the inflorescences and leaves were β-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, α-copaene and β-pinene. α-Bisabolol was the major component in the branches. The oils were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and fungi, but not Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC values ranged from 0.01 to 0.50 mg/mL. Using the DPPH test, the IC50 values ranged from 38.77 ± 0.76 to 102.24 ± 1.96 μg/mL, while the reducing power test produced IC50 values between 109.85 ± 1.68 and 169.53 ± 0.64 μg/mL. The results revealed that the E. erythropappus oils are new promising potential sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds with good future practical applications for human health. PMID:23959191

  1. Dysaster cajamarcensis, a new shrubby genus and species of Astereae (Asteraceae) from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dysaster cajamarcensis is a spreading broad-leaved shrub named as a new genus and species of the tribe Astereae subtribe Hinterhuberinae collected in northern Peru. It has bisexual disc florets, disc style branches with strong stigmatic lines and hairy appendages, compressed achenes in both ray and disc florets, and papyraceous involucral bracts. PMID:24843292

  2. Chemical composition of the tuber essential oil from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Đorđević, Miljana R

    2014-03-01

    Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) is cultivated in Europe and other parts of the world as a food crop and ornamental plant. The volatile oils of the aerial parts of H. tuberosus were investigated more than 30 years ago, but no study could be found to date on the constituents of the tuber essential oil. Herein, the first characterization by GC-FID, GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses of a hydrodistilled essential oil of Jerusalem artichoke tubers was reported. Fresh plant material collected in Serbia (Sample A) and a commercial sample (Sample B) yielded only small amounts of oil (0.0014 and 0.0021% (w/w), resp.). In total, 195 constituents were identified, representing 88.2 and 93.6% of the oil compositions for Samples A and B, respectively. The main constituents identified were β-bisabolene (1; 22.9-30.5%), undecanal (0-12.7%), α-pinene (7.6-0.8%), kauran-16-ol (2; 6.9-9.8%), 2-pentylfuran (0.0-5.7%), and (E)-tetradec-2-enal (0.0-4.9%). Several rare compounds characteristic for Helianthus ssp. were also detected: helianthol A (6; 2.1-1.9%), dihydroeuparin (10; 0.0-2.3%), euparin (9; 0.0-0.4%), desmethoxyencecalin (7; traces - 0.2%), desmethylencecalin (8; 0.0-0.4%), and an isomer of desmethylencecalin (0.0%-traces). The essential oils isolated from the tuber and the aerial parts share the common major component 1. PMID:24634072

  3. Golovinomyces spadaceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on a Coreopsis cultivar in the Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Garden on the Washington State University campus, Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. White to off-white sporulating mycelial areas were ~5mm in diam to confluent and confined to adaxial...

  4. The genus Fleischmannia in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Fleischmannia from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay are reviewed, and keys are provided that cover the species in each country. New taxa described are Fleischmannia hatschbachii, Fleischmannia matogrosensis, Fleischmannia microstemon var. paniculata from Brazil, Fleischmannia hassleri from Paraguay and Fleischmannia neei and Fleischmannia steinbachii from Bolivia, and one new combination for a Fleischmannia prasiifolia variety is provided. The additions bring the total known species of the genus to 102. PMID:26752962

  5. Mosquito ovicidal properties of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternativ...

  6. Nerolidol, an antiulcer constituent from the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Klopell, Fernando Canani; Lemos, Marivane; Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Comunello, Eros; Maistro, Edson Luis; Bastos, Jairo Kennup; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the antiulcerogenic effect of essential oil from Baccharis dracunculifolia was evaluated using the model of acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The ulcerative lesion index (ULI) was significantly reduced by oral administration of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia at doses of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg which reduced the lesions by 42.79, 45.70 and 61.61%, respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from B. dracunculifolia by GC showed that this was composed mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenes and the majority compound was nerolidol. Therefore, antiulcerogenic activity of nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was investigated using ethanol-, indomethacin- and stress-induced ulcer models in rat. In the stress-induced ulcer model, a significant reduction of the ULI in animals treated with nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) was observed, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 41.22, 51.31, 56.57 and 53.50% in groups treated with 50, 250, 500 mg/kg of nerolidol and 100 mg/kg of cimetidine (positive control), respectively. Regarding ethanol- and indomethacin-induced ulcer models, it was observed that the treatment with nerolidol (250 and 500 mg/ kg) significantly reduced the ULI in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). The dose of 50 mg/kg reduced the parameters analyzed but this was not statistically significant. In the ethanol-induced model percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 34.20, 52.63, 87.63 and 50.87% in groups treated with 50, 250, 500 mg/kg of nerolidol and 30 mg/kg of omeprazol (positive control), respectively. In indomethacin-ulcer the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 34.69, 40.80, 51.02 and 46.93% in groups treated with 50, 250, 500 mg/kg of nerolidol and 100 mg/ kg of cimetidine (positive control), respectively. The results of this study show that nerolidol displays antiulcer activity, as it significantly inhibited the formation of ulcers induced in different animal models. However, further pharmacological and toxicological investigations, to delineate the mechanism(s) of action and the toxic effects, are required to allow the use of nerolidol for the treatment of gastric ulcer. PMID:17913068

  7. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. Methods The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. Results B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and >117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50=3.1 μg/ml; SI= 37.9), which showed antiviral activity during the first 4 h of the viral replication cycle of PV-2 and from which the flavonoid apigenin (EC50 = 12.2 ± 3.3 μM) was isolated as a major compound. Conclusions The results showed that, among the species studied, B. gaudichaudiana seemed to be the most promising species as a source of antiviral agents. PMID:23890410

  8. Antioxidant and antidiabetic profiles of two African medicinal plants: Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) and Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia generally associated with oxidative stress. The present study aims at evaluating the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of methanol and hydroethanol extracts of the stem bark and leaves of Pricralima nitida and the Sonchus oleraceus whole plant respectively. Methods The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) for free radical-scavenging properties of the extracts, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method in determining their phenol contents. The antidiabetic activity was tested in mice following streptozotocin diabetes induction, and selected oxidative stress markers (Malondialdehyde, Hydrogen peroxides and Catalase) were measured in order to evaluate the level of oxidative stress in treated animals. Results The in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH showed IC50 ranging from 0.19 ± 0.08 to 1.00 ± 0.06 mg/mL. The highest activity was obtained with the hydroethanol extracts of S. oleraceus (0.19 mg/mL and P. nitida (0.24 mg/mL). Polyphenol contents ranged from 182.25 ± 16.76 to 684.62 ± 46.66 μg Eq Cat/g. The methanol extract of P. nitida showed the highest activity, followed by the hydroethanol extract of S. oleraceus (616.89 ± 19.20 μEq Cat/g). The hydroethanol extract of whole plants (150 mg/Kg) and methanol leave extract of P. nitida (300 mg/Kg) exhibited significant antidiabetic activities with 39.40% and 38.48% glycaemia reduction, respectively. The measurement of stress markers in plasma, liver and kidney after administration of both extracts showed significant reduction in MDA and hydrogen peroxide levels, coupled with a substantial increase in catalase activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that S. oleraceus whole plant and P. nitida leaves possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties, and therefore could be used as starting point for the development of herbal medicines and/or source of new drug molecules against diabetes. PMID:23855679

  9. Antifungal Activity of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson(Asteraceae) of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngono Ngane, A; Ebelle Etame, R; Ndifor, F; Biyiti, L; Amvam Zollo, P H; Bouchet, P

    2006-01-01

    An aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata and some of its fractions were examined for their antifungal properties by dilution methods on solid and liquid media, using yeasts and filamentous fungi. Extract and fractions inhibit the in vitro growth of Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum with a minimal inhibitory concentration range from 62.5 to 500 microg/ml for the extract and from 25 to 100 microg/ml for fractions. A qualitative chemical analysis of the extract and fractions showed the presence of biologically active constituents such as some coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and sterols. No toxic effect was observed in mice treated per os with the extract. This study provides a scientific confirmation of the use of Chromolaena odorata in traditional medicine. PMID:16567942

  10. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Atalay; Vardar-Unlü, Gülhan; Polissiou, Moschos; Daferera, Dimitra; Sökmen, Münevver; Dönmez, Erol

    2003-11-01

    The essential oil, obtained by Clevenger distillation, and water-soluble and water-insoluble parts of the methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. were individually assayed for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacteria and two yeasts, Candida albicans and C. krusei. No activity was exhibited by the water-soluble subfraction, whereas both the water-insoluble subfraction of the methanol extracts and the essential oil were found to be active against some test microorganisms studied. Since the essential oil possessed stronger activity than the other extracts tested, it was further fractionated and the fractions were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, followed by GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of 32 compounds which constituted 90.2% of the total oil. The GC-MS analysis of the oil and its fractions revealed that the main components of the oil, e.g. camphor and eucalyptol, possessed appreciable activity against C. albicans and Clostridium perfringens. The fi ndings presented here also suggest that the other constituents of the oil, e.g. borneol and piperitone can also be taken into account for the activity observed. PMID:14595577

  11. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Leontopodium (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) based on AFLP data

    PubMed Central

    SAFER, STEFAN; TREMETSBERGER, KARIN; GUO, YAN-PING; KOHL, GUDRUN; SAMUEL, MARY R.; STUESSY, TOD F.; STUPPNER, HERMANN

    2012-01-01

    The genus Leontopodium comprises 30–41 species. The centre of diversity is the Sino-Himalayan region in south-western China, where about 15 species occur. The two species native to Europe, L. alpinum (known as the common ‘Edelweiss’) and L. nivale, are part of the cultural heritage of the people living there. Despite its importance, very little is known about the systematics of the genus. Because recent molecular studies have shown that species within this genus are closely related and difficult to distinguish with rDNA and cpDNA data, we used AFLPs to obtain a more detailed understanding of the phylogeny of the genus. Our main aims were as follows: (1) to clarify species relationships within the genus; and (2) to reveal information about the biogeography of the genus. We used AFLPs with six primer combinations to investigate 216 individuals in 38 populations of 16 different species. With AFLPs, we were able to recognize 10 different groups, all of which had strong bootstrap support. These results were also congruent with the morphology-based taxonomy of the genus. Most private and rare fragments were found in the Yunnan region (south-western China) relative to Europe and Mongolia/central China, suggesting a long-lasting in situ history of populations in the centre of diversity of the genus. Our results illustrate the utility of AFLPs to resolve phylogenetic relationships between these closely related species. PMID:23258943

  12. Intra- and interspecific chromosome polymorphisms in cultivated Cichorium L. species (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Ebenézer C S; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Carvalho, Reginaldo; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C

    2013-09-01

    Endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and chicory (C. intybus L.) both have 2n = 18, but until now, there has been no detailed karyomorphological characterization. The present work evaluated five accessions of each species using FISH with rDNA probes and fluorochrome staining with CMA and DAPI. Both species presented distinct banding patterns after fluorochrome staining: while endive had proximal CMA(++)/DAPI(-) bands in the short arms of pairs 1, 2 and 3, chicory had proximal CMA-positive bands in chromosomes 1 and 3 and interstitial in the short arm of chromosome 8. Among endive accessions, FISH procedures revealed conserved position and number of 5S and 45S rDNA sites (two and three pairs, respectively), associated with the CMA-positive bands. Notwithstanding, polymorphisms were detected within chicory accessions regarding the number and the distribution of rDNA sites in relation to the most frequent karyotype (two pairs with 45S and one with 5S rDNA). The karyological markers developed allowed karyotypic differentiation between both species, uncovering peculiarities in the number and position of rDNA sites, which suggest chromosome rearrangements, such as translocations in chicory cultivars. The interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms observed emphasize the potential of karyomorphological evaluations, helping our understanding of the relationships and evolution of the group. PMID:24130443

  13. Microsatellite primers in the weedy annual herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and four closely related species1

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Alicia; Picó, F. Xavier; Álvarez, Inés

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. • Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus. PMID:25202498

  14. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide. PMID:23295821

  15. Expression and inheritance of sporophytic self-incompatibility in synthetic allohexaploid Senecio cambrensis (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Brennan, Adrian C; Hiscock, Simon J

    2010-04-01

    Allopolyploid speciation is common in plants and is frequently associated with shifts from outcrossing, for example self-incompatibility, to inbreeding (i.e. selfing). Senecio cambrensis is a recently evolved allohexaploid species that formed following hybridization between diploid self-incompatible S. squalidus and tetraploid self-compatible S. vulgaris. Studies of reproduction in wild populations of S. cambrensis have concluded that it is self-compatible. Here, we investigated self-compatibility in synthetic lines of S. cambrensis generated via hybridization and colchicine-induced polyploidization and wild S. cambrensis using controlled crossing experiments. Synthetic F(1)S. cambrensis individuals were all self-compatible but, in F(2) and later generations, self-incompatible individuals were identified at frequencies of 6.7-9.2%. Self-incompatibility was also detected in wild sampled individuals at a frequency of 12.2%. The mechanism and genetics of self-incompatibility were tested in synthetic S. cambrensis and found to be similar to those of its paternal parent S. squalidus (i.e. sporophytic). These results show, for the first time, that functional sporophytic self-incompatibility can be inherited and expressed in allopolyploids as early as the second (F(2)) generation. Wild S. cambrensis should therefore be considered as possessing a mixed mating system with the potential for evolution towards either inbreeding or outcrossing. PMID:19895670

  16. Synthetic polyploids of Tragopogon miscellus and T. mirus (Asteraceae): 60 Years after Ownbey's discovery.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jennifer A; Symonds, V Vaughan; Doust, Andrew N; Buggs, Richard J A; Mavrodiev, Evgeny; Majure, Lucas C; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2009-05-01

    In plants, polyploidy has been a significant evolutionary force on both recent and ancient time scales. In 1950, Ownbey reported two newly formed Tragopogon allopolyploids in the northwestern United States. We have made the first synthetic lines of T. mirus and T. miscellus using T. dubius, T. porrifolius, and T. pratensis as parents and colchicine treatment of F(1) hybrids. We also produced allotetraploids between T. porrifolius and T. pratensis, which are not known from nature. We report on the crossability between the diploids, as well as the inflorescence morphology, pollen size, meiotic behavior, and fertility of the synthetic polyploids. Morphologically, the synthetics resemble the natural polyploids with short- and long-liguled forms of T. miscellus resulting when T. pratensis and T. dubius are reciprocally crossed. Synthetic T. mirus was also formed reciprocally, but without any obvious morphological differences resulting from the direction of the cross. Of the 27 original crosses that yielded 171 hybrid individuals, 18 of these lineages have persisted to produce 386 S(1) progeny; each of these lineages has produced S(2) seed that are viable. The successful generation of these synthetic polyploids offers the opportunity for detailed comparative studies of natural and synthetic polyploids within a nonmodel system. PMID:21628250

  17. Genetic guidelines for the conservation of the endangered polyploid Centaurea borjae (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Lua; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate management of species of conservation concern requires designing strategies that should include genetic information as small population size and restricted geographic range can reduce genetic variation. We used AFLPs to investigate genetic variation within and among populations of the endangered narrow endemic Centaurea borjae, and found no evidence for genetic impoverishment despite its <40 km range and potential for vegetative propagation. Genetic variation was comparable to other plants with similar life history (88 % occurring within populations) and potential clone mates were less frequent than expected. Nonetheless, populations separated by few hundred meters showed signs of significant genetic differentiation suggesting low gene flow between them. Our results suggested that the three geographically closer populations located at the center of the range might be treated as a single management unit, while the remaining ones could be considered independent units. We found evidence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure up to 80 m indicating that the collection of germplasm for ex-situ conservation should focus on individuals separated >80 m to maximize genetic variation. PMID:22678690

  18. Phylogeography and palaeodistribution modelling of Nassauvia subgenus Strongyloma (Asteraceae): exploring phylogeographical scenarios in the Patagonian steppe

    PubMed Central

    Nicola, Marcela V; Sede, Silvana M; Pozner, Raúl; Johnson, Leigh A

    2014-01-01

    The Patagonian steppe is an immense, cold, arid region, yet phylogeographically understudied. Nassauvia subgen. Strongyloma is a characteristic element of the steppe, exhibiting a continuum of morphological variation. This taxon provides a relevant phylogeographical model not only to understand how past environmental changes shaped the genetic structure of its populations, but also to explore phylogeographical scenarios at the large geographical scale of the Patagonian steppe. Here, we (1) assess demographic processes and historical events that shaped current geographic patterns of haplotypic diversity; (2) analyze hypotheses of isolation in refugia, fragmentation of populations, and/or colonization of available areas during Pleistocene glaciations; and (3) model extant and palaeoclimatic distributions to support inferred phylogeographical patterns. Chloroplast intergenic spacers, rpl32–trnL and trnQ–5′rps16, were sequenced for 372 individuals from 63 populations. Nested clade analysis, analyses of molecular variance, and neutrality tests were performed to assess genetic structure and range expansion. The present potential distribution was modelled and projected onto a last glacial maximum (LGM) model. Of 41 haplotypes observed, ten were shared among populations associated with different morphological variants. Populations with highest haplotype diversity and private haplotypes were found in central-western and south-eastern Patagonia, consistent with long-term persistence in refugia during Pleistocene. Palaeomodelling suggested a shift toward the palaeoseashore during LGM; new available areas over the exposed Atlantic submarine platform were colonized during glaciations with postglacial retraction of populations. A scenario of fragmentation and posterior range expansion may explain the observed patterns in the center of the steppe, which is supported by palaeomodelling. Northern Patagonian populations were isolated from southern populations by the Chubut and the Deseado river basins during glaciations. Pleistocene glaciations indirectly impacted the distribution, demography, and diversification of subgen. Strongyloma through decreased winter temperatures and water availability in different areas of its range. PMID:25540689

  19. Effects of mating system on adaptive potential for leaf morphology in Crepis tectorum (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Stefan; Ofori, Jones K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims A shift from outcrossing to selfing is thought to reduce the long-term survival of populations by decreasing the genetic variation necessary for adaptation to novel ecological conditions. However, theory also predicts an increase in adaptive potential as more of the existing variation becomes expressed as homozygous genotypes. So far, relatively few studies have examined how a transition to selfing simultaneously affects means, variances and covariances for characters that might be under stabilizing selection for a spatially varying optimum, e.g. characters describing leaf morphology. Methods Experimental crosses within an initially self-sterile population of Crepis tectorum were performed to produce an outbred and inbred progeny population to assess how a shift to selfing affects the adaptive potential for measures of leaf morphology, with special emphasis on the degree of leaf dissection, a major target of diversifying selection within the study species. Key Results Three consecutive generations of selfing had a minor impact on survival, the total number of heads produced and the mean leaf phenotype, but caused a proportional increase in the genetic (co)variance matrix for foliar characters. For the degree of leaf dissection, the lowest 50th percentile of the inbred progeny population showed a disproportionate increase in the genetic variance, consistent with the recessive nature of the weakly lobed phenotype observed in interpopulation crosses. Comparison of inbreeding response with large-scale patterns of variation indicates a potential for selection in a (recently) inbred population to drive a large evolutionary reduction in degree of leaf dissection by increasing the frequency of particular sibling lines. Conclusions The results point to a positive role for inbreeding in phenotypic evolution, at least during or immediately after a rapid shift in mating system. PMID:23912696

  20. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  1. Synergids and filiform apparatus in the sexual and apomictic dandelions from section Palustria (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Musiał, Krystyna; Swiątek, Piotr; Tuleja, Monika; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    An evolutionary trend to reduce "unnecessary costs" associated with the sexual reproduction of their amphimictic ancestors, which may result in greater reproductive success, has been observed among the obligatory apomicts. However, in the case of the female gametophyte, knowledge about this trend in apomicts is not sufficient because most of the ultrastructural studies of the female gametophyte have dealt with amphimictic angiosperms. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that, in contrast to amphimictic plants, synergids in apomictic embryo sacs do not form a filiform apparatus. We compared the synergid structure in two dandelions from sect. Palustria: the amphimictic diploid Taraxacum tenuifolium and the apomictic tetraploid, male-sterile Taraxacum brandenburgicum. Synergids in both species possessed a filiform apparatus. In T. brandenburgicum, both synergids persisted for a long time without any degeneration, in spite of the presence of an embryo and endosperm. We propose that the persistent synergids in apomicts may play a role in the transport of nutrients to the embryo. PMID:23974526

  2. Inferring possible population divergence in Espeletia pycnophylla (Asteraceae) through morphometric and paleogeographic approaches.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Felipe; Burbano, Jorge; Burbano, Diana; Prieto, Rodrigo; Torres, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Abstract: The phenotypic structure within and between plant populations is generally influenced by their distribution patterns in space and time; therefore, the study of their divergence is a central issue for the understanding of their microevolutive processes. We boarded the hypothesis that three populations of Espeletia pycnophylla show phenotypic divergence as one of the possible implications of their geographic isolation in the Southern Colombian Andes. We used the Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (leaf shape) and traditional leaf morphometry (leaf size) of 347 leaves to measure inter and intra-population variation and a comparison between a paleogeographic reconstruction with an actual estimate of the distribution areas of E. pycnophylla in order to identify their main changes during the last 14 000 years. The three populations showed significant differences in leaf morphometry and a positive correlation between the matrices of morphometric and geographic dissimilarities, indicating that the inter-population divergence increases between further populations, so that the morphometric structure reflects their spatial distribution. The geographical and paleogeographical estimates evidenced a conspicuous process of reduction and fragmentation of the distribution area of E. pycnophylla since the Late-Glacial until the Holocene. We suggest that these results support possible scenarios of vicariance events, which allow us to approach the divergence of these populations in terms of their historic biogeographic relations. However, genetic analyses are still needed to support these results. PMID:21246990

  3. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1-)4-6(-7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km(2), this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  4. In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (Asteraceae) Baker

    PubMed Central

    Colares, Aracélio Viana; Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    The search for new immunopharmacological chemical agents to treat various diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, such as leishmaniasis, for example, has led to the exploration of potential products from plant species and their main active ingredients. Antimonial drugs are the current treatment for leishmaniasis. These drugs cause major side effects and frequent discontinuation of treatment. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (VAEO) and its major compound α-bisabolol against Leishmania amazonensis. The essential oil and α-bisabolol showed activity against promastigotes (IC50 7.35 and 4.95 μg/mL resp.) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 12.58 and 10.70 μg/mL, resp.). Neither product showed any cytotoxicity on treated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis of promastigotes incubated with VAEO or α-bisabolol at 30 μg/mL, showed morphological changes with the accumulation of vesicles electrodense lipid inclusions. The results give evidence that both VAEO and α-bisabolol have potential as new therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis. PMID:23935675

  5. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction – The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid...

  6. Genus-wide microsatellite primers for the goldenrods (Solidago; Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Beck, James B.; Semple, John C.; Brull, Justin M.; Lance, Stacey L.; Phillips, Mai M.; Hoot, Sara B.; Meyer, Gretchen A.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for studies of polyploid evolution, ecological genetics, conservation genetics, and species delimitation in the genus Solidago. • Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing of a shotgun library from S. gigantea identified ca. 1900 putative single-copy loci. Fourteen loci were subsequently shown to be amplifiable, single-copy, and variable in a broad range of Solidago species. • Conclusions: The utility of these markers both across the genus and in herbarium specimens of a wide age range will facilitate numerous inter- and intraspecific studies in the ca. 120 Solidago species. PMID:25202617

  7. Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sestras, Adriana F.; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Sestras, Radu E.

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerance was evaluated in twelve cultivars of three ornamental Tagetes species (T. patula, T. tenuifolia and T. erecta). A stress treatment was performed by completely stopping watering of plants maintained in controlled greenhouse conditions. After three weeks, several plant growth parameters (stem length (SL), fresh weight (FW) and water content (WC)), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids (Car)), osmolytes (proline (Pro), glycine betaine (GB) and total soluble sugars (TSS)), an oxidative stress maker (malondialdehyde (MDA)) and antioxidants (total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF)) were measured. Considerable differences in the evaluated traits were found among the control and drought-stressed plants. Drought stress generally caused a marked reduction in plant growth and carotenoid pigments, and an increase in soluble solutes and oxidative stress. For most cultivars, proline levels in stressed plants increased between 30 and 70-fold compared to the corresponding controls. According to the different measured parameters, on average T. erecta proved to be more tolerant to drought than T. patula and T. tenuifolia. However, a considerable variation in the tolerance to drought was found within each species. The traits with greater association to drought tolerance as well as the most tolerant cultivars could be clearly identified in a principal components analysis (PCA). Overall, our results indicate that drought tolerant cultivars of Tagetes can be identified at early stages using a combination of plant growth and biochemical markers. PMID:27326384

  8. Mycorrhizal fungi modulate phytochemical production and antioxidant activity of Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) under metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rozpądek, P; Wężowicz, K; Stojakowska, A; Malarz, J; Surówka, E; Sobczyk, Ł; Anielska, T; Ważny, R; Miszalski, Z; Turnau, K

    2014-10-01

    Cichorium intybus (common chicory), a perennial plant, common in anthropogenic sites, has been the object of a multitude of studies in recent years due to its high content of antioxidants utilized in pharmacy and food industry. Here, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants under toxic metal stress was studied. Plants inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and non-inoculated were grown on non-polluted and toxic metal enriched substrata. The results presented here indicate that AMF improves chicory fitness. Fresh and dry weight was found to be severely affected by the fungi and heavy metals. The concentration of hydroxycinnamates was increased in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants cultivated on non-polluted substrata, but no differences were found in plants cultivated on metal enriched substrata. The activity of SOD and H2O2 removing enzymes CAT and POX was elevated in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants regardless of the cultivation environment. Photochemical efficiency of inoculated chicory was significantly improved. Our results indicate that R. irregularis inoculation had a beneficial role in sustaining the plants ability to cope with the deleterious effects of metal toxicity. PMID:25048909

  9. Genome Size Variation in the Genus Carthamus (Asteraceae, Cardueae): Systematic Implications and Additive Changes During Allopolyploidization

    PubMed Central

    GARNATJE, TERESA; GARCIA, SÒNIA; VILATERSANA, ROSER; VALLÈS, JOAN

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant genome size is an important biological characteristic, with relationships to systematics, ecology and distribution. Currently, there is no information regarding nuclear DNA content for any Carthamus species. In addition to improving the knowledge base, this research focuses on interspecific variation and its implications for the infrageneric classification of this genus. Genome size variation in the process of allopolyploid formation is also addressed. • Methods Nuclear DNA samples from 34 populations of 16 species of the genus Carthamus were assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide. • Key Results The 2C values ranged from 2·26 pg for C. leucocaulos to 7·46 pg for C. turkestanicus, and monoploid genome size (1Cx-value) ranged from 1·13 pg in C. leucocaulos to 1·53 pg in C. alexandrinus. Mean genome sizes differed significantly, based on sectional classification. Both allopolyploid species (C. creticus and C. turkestanicus) exhibited nuclear DNA contents in accordance with the sum of the putative parental C-values (in one case with a slight reduction, frequent in polyploids), supporting their hybrid origin. • Conclusions Genome size represents a useful tool in elucidating systematic relationships between closely related species. A considerable reduction in monoploid genome size, possibly due to the hybrid formation, is also reported within these taxa. PMID:16390843

  10. Toxicity of thiophenes from echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six known thiophenes, 5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (3), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (4), 5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (5), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (6), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3-acetoxy-4-hydr...

  11. Breeding biology and bee guild of Douglas' dustymaiden, Chaenactis douglasii (Asteraceae, Helenieae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dusty Maiden, Chaenactis douglasii, is a widespread if inconspicuous short-lived perennial wildflower that blooms late in spring from basin sage-steppe to upper montane areas throughout the Intermountain West. It is proving practical to grow for seed and is expected to be used for western rangeland ...

  12. Integument cell differentiation in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae, Lactuceae) with special attention paid to plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Kurczyńska, Ewa; Świątek, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine what happens with plasmodesmata when mucilage is secreted into the periplasmic space in plant cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the periendothelial zone mucilage cells was performed on examples of the ovule tissues of several sexual and apomictic Taraxacum species. The cytoplasm of the periendothelial zone cells was dense, filled by numerous organelles and profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum and active Golgi dictyosomes with vesicles that contained fibrillar material. At the beginning of the differentiation process of the periendothelial zone, the cells were connected by primary plasmodesmata. However, during the differentiation and the thickening of the cell walls (mucilage deposition), the plasmodesmata become elongated and associated with cytoplasmic bridges. The cytoplasmic bridges may connect the protoplast to the plasmodesmata through the mucilage layers in order to maintain cell-to-cell communication during the differentiation of the periendothelial zone cells. PMID:26454638

  13. Water deficit on the accumulation of biomass and artemisinin in annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L., Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of Artemisia annua as the only source of the anti-parasitic drug artemisinin, little can be found on the role of biotic and abiotic stress on artemisinin. Water stress is the most limiting factor on plant growth, but can trigger secondary metabolite accumulation, depending on...

  14. Genetic diversity of the Chinese traditional herb Blumea balsamifera (Asteraceae) based on AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y X; Wang, W Q; Zhang, Y B; Yuan, Y; Yu, J B; Zhu, M; Chen, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    Blumea balsamifera is a commercially important medicinal herb in China and other parts of Asia. It is used to produce borneol. This plant grows in the wild, but resources have diminished greatly in recent years. We examined the genetic diversity of this species to help develop conservation strategies; 35 plants from five provinces were analyzed using AFLPs. Eight AFLP primer combinations generated 1367 fragments, giving a mean of 172 fragments per primer combination. Polymorphism in the germplasm analysis was found for 1360 (99.48%) of the fragments, of which 264 (19.27%) fragments were unique (accession specific) and 423 (25.33%) of the fragments were rare (present in less than 10% of the accessions). The polymorphic fragments were used to group the accessions in a UPGMA phenogram. Most grouping was geographical. In general, accessions coming from Guizhou and Guangxi showed higher diversities as these accessions were scattered in different groups. The genetic distance estimated by Jaccard similarity coefficient index showed low variability among genotypes (coefficient value ranged from 0.60 to 0.95). More attention should be given to the study and conservation of the biodiversity of this economically important genus. PMID:24782086

  15. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  16. Development of microsatellite loci for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii (Asteraceae)1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii and will permit genetic and conservation studies of the species. Methods and Results:A microsatellite enriched library was used to develop 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for P. ruthii. The loci ...

  17. Megachile (Megachile) montivaga (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nesting in live thistle (Asteraceae: Cirsium)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rare genus Trachusoides, previously known only from a single species inhabiting the Western Ghats of India, is reviewed. Trachusoides elsieae, new species, is described from Laos, an additional record for T. simplex is documented, and a key to separate the species is provided....

  18. Cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres S Moore [Asteraceae] ethanolic leaf extract in some experimental animal paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Musabayane, Cephas T; Kamadyaapa, Dave R; Gondwe, Mavuto; Moodley, Kogi; Ojewole, John AO

    2008-01-01

    Summary Summary The aim of this study was to examine some in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres leaf ethanolic extract (HCE) in experimental animal paradigms. The acute effects of HCE on blood pressure were studied in anaesthetised normotensive male Wistar rats challenged with intravenous hypotonic saline infusion after a 3.5-hour equilibration for four hours of one-hour control, 1.5-hour treatment and 1.5-hour recovery periods. HCE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Sub-chronic hypotensive effects of HCE were examined in weanling Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) genetically hypertensive rats, which progressively develop hypertension with age, treated with HCE (80 mg/kg) every third consecutive day for seven weeks. Isolated atrial muscle strips, portal veins and descending thoracic aortic rings of healthy normotensive Wistar rats were used to investigate the vascular effects of HCE. Acute HCE administration caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in blood pressure in the normotensive anaesthetised Wistar rats. DSS hypertensive rats treated with HCE displayed low arterial blood pressure and heart rate values from weeks five to seven. HCE produced concentration-dependent negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat isolated electrically driven left, and spontaneously beating right atrial muscle preparations, respectively. HCE also evoked concentration-dependent relaxation responses of endothelium-intact aortic rings and portal veins isolated from healthy normotensive Wistar rats. The vasorelaxant effects of HCE in intact aortic rings were significantly reduced, but not completely abolished by adding endothelial-derived factor (EDRF) inhibitor, L-NAME, suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect of the extract is mediated via EDRF-dependent and independent mechanisms. The results of the study suggest that the hypotensive action of HCE is elicited, in part, directly by decreasing myocardial contractile performance and total peripheral vascular resistance due to its negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat isolated atrial muscle strips; and vasorelaxant effects on isolated vascular smooth muscles. The observed cardiovascular effects of HCE partly support the basis for its use in the management of high blood pressure in folkloric medicine. PMID:18997985

  19. New Reports on Surface Flavonoids from Chamaebatiaria (Rosaceae), Dodonaea (Sapindaceae), Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) and Silphium (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipophilic exudates of one species each of Chamaebatiara and Elsholtzia, two species of Silphium and four Dodonaea species were analyzed for flavonoid aglycones. In addition to a number of well-known and widely distributed flavonoids, several very rare and one novel natural flavonol were isolated a...

  20. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de las; del Prado, Gema; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  1. Meiotic Studies in Some Species of Tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae) from Western Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Goyal, Henna; Singh, Vijay; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n = 10) and Lactuca lessertiana (2n = 2x = 16). Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n = 2x = 10 and 2n = 6x = 54), Tragopogon dubius (2n = 2x = 14 and 2n = 4x = 28), and T. gracilis (2n = 2x = 14). The chromosome report of 2n = 2x = 10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability. PMID:25489603

  2. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid. PMID:25956500

  3. Isolation and characterisation of plant defensins from seeds of Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Hippocastanaceae and Saxifragaceae.

    PubMed

    Osborn, R W; De Samblanx, G W; Thevissen, K; Goderis, I; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Attenborough, S; Rees, S B; Broekaert, W F

    1995-07-17

    From seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum, Clitoria ternatea, Dahlia merckii and Heuchera sanguinea five antifungal proteins were isolated and shown to be homologous to plant defensins previously characterised from radish seeds and gamma-thionins from Poaceae seeds. Based on the spectrum of their antimicrobial activity and the morphological distortions they induce on fungi the peptides can be divided into two classes. The peptides did not inhibit any of three different alpha-amylases. PMID:7628617

  4. Molecular evidence for an African origin of the Hawaiian endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyi-Gyung; Keeley, Sterling C.; Vroom, Peter S.; Jansen, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the progenitors of plants endemic to oceanic islands often is complicated by extreme morphological divergence between island and continental taxa. This is especially true for the Hawaiian Islands, which are 3,900 km from any continental source. We examine the origin of Hesperomannia, a genus of three species endemic to Hawaii that always have been placed in the tribe Mutisieae of the sunflower family. Phylogenetic analyses of representatives from all tribes in this family using the chloroplast gene ndhF (where ndhF is the ND5 protein of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase) indicate that Hesperomannia belongs to the tribe Vernonieae. Phylogenetic comparisons within the Vernonieae using sequences of both ndhF and the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA reveal that Hesperomannia is sister to African species of Vernonia. Long-distance dispersal northeastward from Africa to southeast Asia and across the many Pacific Ocean island chains is the most likely explanation for this unusual biogeographic connection. The 17- to 26-million-year divergence time between African Vernonia and Hesperomannia estimated by the DNA sequences predates the age of the eight existing Hawaiian Islands. These estimates are consistent with an hypothesis that the progenitor of Hesperomannia arrived at one of the low islands of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain between the late Oligocene and mid-Miocene when these islands were above sea level. Subsequent to its arrival the southeast Pacific island chains served as steppingstones for dispersal to the existing Hawaiian Islands. PMID:9860987

  5. Ovicidal efficacy of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the...

  6. Bridging global and microregional scales: ploidy distribution in Pilosella echioides (Asteraceae) in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Pavel; Dočkalová, Zuzana; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Kubátová, Barbora; Szeląg, Zbigniew; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A detailed knowledge of cytotype distribution can provide important insights into the evolutionary history of polyploid systems. This study aims to explore the spatial distribution of different cytotypes in Pilosella echioides at various spatial scales (from the whole distributional range to the population level) and to outline possible evolutionary scenarios for the observed geographic pattern. Methods DNA-ploidy levels were estimated using DAPI flow cytometry in 4410 individuals of P. echioides from 46 populations spread over the entire distribution range in central Europe. Special attention was paid to the cytotype structure in the most ploidy-diverse population in south-west Moravia. Key Results Five different cytotypes (2x, 3x, 4x, 5x and 6x) were found, the last being recorded for the first time. Although ploidy-uniform (di- or tetraploid) sites clearly prevailed, nearly one-quarter of the populations investigated harboured more (up to all five) cytotypes. Whereas penta- and hexaploids constituted only a minority of the samples, a striking predominance of the triploid cytotype was observed in several populations. Conclusions The representative sampling confirmed previous data on cytotype distribution, i.e. the spatial aggregation of mixed-ploidy populations in south-west Moravia and Lower Austria and the predominance of ploidy-uniform populations in other parts of the area investigated. Recurrent origin of polyploids from diploid progenitors via unreduced gametes and their successful establishment are considered the key factors promoting intrapopulational ploidy mixture (‘primary hybrid zones’). As an alternative to the generally accepted theory of cytotype co-existence based on the development of different means of inter-ploidy reproductive isolation, it is suggested that a long-term ploidy mixture can also be maintained in free-mating populations provided that the polyploids originate with a sufficient frequency. In addition, the prevalence (or subdominance) of the triploid cytotype in several mixed-ploidy populations represents the first evidence of such a phenomenon in plant systems with exclusively sexual reproduction. PMID:21208933

  7. Genome size in Hieracium subgenus Hieracium (Asteraceae) is strongly correlated with major phylogenetic groups

    PubMed Central

    Chrtek, Jindřich; Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Krak, Karol; Fehrer, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Hieracium subgenus Hieracium is one of the taxonomically most intricate groups of vascular plants, due to polyploidy and a diversity of breeeding systems (sexuality vs. apomixis). The aim of the present study was to analyse nuclear genome size in a phylogenetic framework and to assess relationships between genome size and ploidy, breeding system and selected ecogeographic features. Methods Holoploid and monoploid genome sizes (C- and Cx-values) of 215 cultivated plants from 89 field populations of 42 so-called ‘basic’ Hieracium species were determined using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Chromosome counts were available for all analysed plants, and all plants were tested experimentally for their mode of reproduction (sexuality vs. apomixis). For constructing molecular phylogenetic trees, the external transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA was used. Key Results The mean 2C values differed up to 2·37-fold among different species (from 7·03 pg in diploid to 16·67 in tetraploid accessions). The 1Cx values varied 1·22-fold (between 3·51 and 4·34 pg). Variation in 1Cx values between conspecific (species in a broad sense) accessions ranged from 0·24% to 7·2%. Little variation (not exceeding the approximate measurement inaccurracy threshold of 3·5%) was found in 33 species, whereas variation higher than 3·5% was detected in seven species. Most of the latter may have a polytopic origin. Mean 1Cx values of the three cytotypes (2n, 3n and 4n) differed significantly (average of 3·93 pg in diploids, 3·82 pg in triploids and 3·78 pg in tetraploids) indicating downsizing of genomes in polyploids. The pattern of genome size variation correlated well with two major phylogenetic clades which were composed of species with western or eastern European origin. The monoploid genome size in the ‘western’ species was significantly lower than in the ‘eastern’ ones. Correlation of genome size with latitude, altitude and selected ecological characters (light and temperature) was not significant. A longitudinal component was only apparent for the whole data set, but absent within the major lineages. Conclusions Phylogeny was the most important factor explaining the pattern of genome size variation in Hieracium sensu stricto, species of western European origin having significantly lower genome size in comparison with those of eastern European origin. Any correlation with ecogeographic variables, including longitude, was outweighed by the divergence of the genus into two major phylogenetic lineages. PMID:19433417

  8. Nonadditive changes to cytosine methylation as a consequence of hybridization and genome duplication in Senecio (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Matthew J; Batstone, Tom; Barker, Gary L; Edwards, Keith J; Abbott, Richard J; Hiscock, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    The merger of two or more divergent genomes within an allopolyploid nucleus can facilitate speciation and adaptive evolution in flowering plants. Widespread changes to gene expression have been shown to result from interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy in a number of plant species, and attention has now shifted to determining the epigenetic processes that drive these changes. We present here an analysis of cytosine methylation patterns in triploid F(1) Senecio (ragwort) hybrids and their allohexaploid derivatives. We observe that, in common with similar studies in Arabidopsis, Spartina and Triticum, a small but significant proportion of loci display nonadditive methylation in the hybrids, largely resulting from interspecific hybridisation. Despite this, genome duplication results in a secondary effect on methylation, with reversion to additivity at some loci and novel methylation status at others. We also observe differences in methylation state between different allopolyploid generations, predominantly in cases of additive methylation with regard to which parental methylation state is dominant. These changes to methylation state in both F(1) triploids and their allohexaploid derivatives largely mirror the overall patterns of nonadditive gene expression observed in our previous microarray analyses and may play a causative role in generating those expression changes. These similar global changes to DNA methylation resulting from hybridisation and genome duplication may serve as a source of epigenetic variation in natural populations, facilitating adaptive evolution. Our observations that methylation state can also vary between different generations of polyploid hybrids suggests that newly formed allopolyploid species may display a high degree of epigenetic diversity upon which natural selection can act. PMID:21073590

  9. Analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and evaluation of some biological activities of Algerian Senecio delphinifolius (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Tidjani, Soukaina; Okusa, Philippe N; Zellagui, Amar; Banuls, Laetitia Moreno Y; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Rhouati, Salah

    2013-04-01

    Although Senecio species are known as sources of potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), some species of this genus are traditionally used as remedies, notably in Algeria. In this paper, the evaluation of biological activities and the analysis of PAs of Algerian specimens of Senecio delphinifolius Vahl are reported. The n-butanolic extract of the herb showed a weak antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli with a MIC of 1 mg/mL, but was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The n-butanolic extracts of the roots, stems and herb showed a modest antioxidant activity, scavenging the free radical DPPH with respective IC50 values of 55.3, 50.2 and 13.3 microg/mL. A cytotoxic effect against a series of human tumor cell lines was observed with the n-butanolic extract from stems (IC50 ranging between 34 and 88 microg/mL). The herb of the evaluated sample contains 140 ppm of PAs (senecionine, seneciphylline, integerrimine, senkirkine) and PA-related alkaloids (dehydrosenkirkine and neosenkirkine). As the major PAs belong to the toxic series (1,2-unsaturation in the pyrrolizidine cycle and macrocyclic diester), the use of S. delphinifolius should be discouraged in traditional medicine. PMID:23738446

  10. Seasonal variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration and plant development in Senecio madagascariensis poir. (Asteraceae) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents the results of studies conducted in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in July and October 2007 and January and May 2008 to measure the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) concentrations of S. madagascariensis plant material (including leaves, flow...

  11. The genomic bases of morphological divergence and reproductive isolation driven by ecological speciation in Senecio (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Chapman, M A; Hiscock, S J; Filatov, D A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological speciation, driven by adaptation to contrasting environments, provides an attractive opportunity to study the formation of distinct species, and the role of selection and genomic divergence in this process. Here, we focus on a particularly clear-cut case of ecological speciation to reveal the genomic bases of reproductive isolation and morphological differences between closely related Senecio species, whose recent divergence within the last ~200,000 years was likely driven by the uplift of Mt. Etna (Sicily). These species form a hybrid zone, yet remain morphologically and ecologically distinct, despite active gene exchange. Here, we report a high-density genetic map of the Senecio genome and map hybrid breakdown to one large and several small quantitative trait loci (QTL). Loci under diversifying selection cluster in three 5 cM regions which are characterized by a significant increase in relative (F(ST)), but not absolute (d(XY)), interspecific differentiation. They also correspond to some of the regions of greatest marker density, possibly corresponding to 'cold-spots' of recombination, such as centromeres or chromosomal inversions. Morphological QTL for leaf and floral traits overlap these clusters. We also detected three genomic regions with significant transmission ratio distortion (TRD), possibly indicating accumulation of intrinsic genetic incompatibilities between these recently diverged species. One of the TRD regions overlapped with a cluster of high species differentiation, and another overlaps the large QTL for hybrid breakdown, indicating that divergence of these species may have occurred due to a complex interplay of ecological divergence and accumulation of intrinsic genetic incompatibilities. PMID:26414668

  12. Characterization of microsatellite markers for the vulnerable grassland forb Senecio macrocarpus (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Collin W.; James, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Development of microsatellite markers for the vulnerable forb Senecio macrocarpus was performed to begin an assessment of its population structure and breeding method to aid in the conservation of the species in Victoria, Australia. • Methods and Results: Fifteen microsatellite markers were developed for S. macrocarpus from 454 pyrosequencing. The markers were tested on 104 individuals from four populations. The markers produced between two and seven alleles per locus while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.20 to 0.67 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00. The observed heterozygosity is suggestive that the populations may be apomictic. • Conclusions: The microsatellite markers developed for S. macrocarpus are intended to be used on future studies that aim to assess the population genetics and local breeding dynamics of the species with an emphasis on conservation. PMID:25202496

  13. Population structure in the endangered Mauna Loa silversword, Argyroxiphium kauense (Asteraceae), and its bearing on reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Friar, E A; Boose, D L; LaDoux, T; Roalson, E H; Robichaux, R H

    2001-07-01

    Reintroduction of populations of endangered species is a challenging task, involving a number of environmental, demographic and genetic factors. Genetic parameters of interest include historical patterns of genetic structure and gene flow. Care must be taken during reintroduction to balance the contrasting risks of inbreeding and outbreeding depression. The Mauna Loa silversword, Argyroxiphium kauense, has experienced a severe decline in population size and distribution in the recent past. Currently, three populations with a total of fewer than 1000 individuals remain. We measured genetic variation within and among the remnant populations using seven microsatellite loci. We found significant genetic variation remaining within all populations, probably related to the recent nature of the population impact, the longevity of the plants, and their apparent self-incompatibility. We also found significant genetic differentiation among the populations, reinforcing previous observations of ecological and morphological differentiation. With respect to reintroduction, the results suggest that, in the absence of additional data to the contrary, inbreeding depression may not be a substantial risk as long as propagules for the founding of new populations are adequately sampled from within each source population before additional inbreeding takes place. The results further suggest that if mixing of propagules from different source populations is not required to increase within-population genetic variation in the reintroduced populations, it may best be avoided. PMID:11472534

  14. Dimorphic cypsela germination and plant growth in Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Souza Filho, P R M; Takaki, M

    2011-05-01

    Synedrella nodiflora is a weed species that has dimorphic cypselas: winged peripheral and lanceolate shaped central. The aim of this work is to describe the reproductive capability by measuring dimorphic cypselas morphology, imbibition rates and germinative patterns under temperature, light quality and water availability gradients, and compare the plant growth between two light treatments. The central cypselas were lighter, longer and its pappi were more elongated than the peripheral ones, favoring its dispersion. Neither type had deep dormancy and both of them germinated with the same pattern under the optimum conditions. Both cypselas showed higher germinability in temperatures between 25 and 30 °C, under white light and high water availability, although there are some differences between the types, mainly at dark treatments. Plants grown in direct sunlight accumulated more biomass, allowing for higher plant development and inflorescence production, although shaded light plants capitulum had a higher central: peripheral ratio than the direct sunlight treatment. S. nodiflora cypselas germinate better in unfiltered light places, although the plants are adapted to shady conditions. The species showed high germination potential over a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as fast plant development. All of these features favor distribution in environmental sites. PMID:21755175

  15. Physiological host range of Ceratapion basicorne, a prospective biological control agent of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a weevil native to Europe and western Asia has been proposed as a prospective classical biological control agent of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), which is an important invasive alien weed in the western United States. Host plant specifi...

  16. Study of phylogenetic relationship of Turkish species of Klasea (Asteraceae) based on ISSR amplification

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Bekir; Duran, Ahmet; Şeker, Meryem; Çetin, Özlem; Martin, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Klasea is a taxonomically complex genus in which there are many problems, mostly with Klasea kotschyi and Klasea hakkiarica. It is challenging to differentiate the genera based on morphological characters alone. Revision studies performed on the basis of molecular data obtained from studies conducted in recent years have made the phylogenetic relationships and systematic positions of the taxa more apparent and reliable. In this study, Klasea, Serratula, Jurinea and Centaurea species native to Turkey, were collected from different localities of Anatolia and DNA was isolated from the collected samples. The data were analyzed ordination analyses including UPGMA and PCA using NTSYSpc 2.1. The infrageneric and intergeneric phylogenetic relationships between Klasea and other related genera were also characterized. The Klasea species were grouped into three clusters. It was determined that taxa Klasea kotschyi and Klasea hakkiarica are separate but closely related. Moreover, it was observed that the Klasea lasiocephala a separate group within the genera. Clearly the genera Klasea, Serratula, Jurinea and Centaurea are phylogenetically differentiated on the dendogram. PMID:26491384

  17. Dispersal Pathways and Genetic Differentiation among Worldwide Populations of the Invasive Weed Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Renée L.; Hierro, José L.; Eren, Özkan; Andonian, Krikor; Török, Katalin; Becerra, Pablo I.; Montesinos, Daniel; Khetsuriani, Liana; Diaconu, Alecu; Kesseli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of introduced species is often unclear due to a lack of historical records. Even when historical information is readily available, important factors of the invasions such as genetic bottlenecks, hybridization, historical relationships among populations and adaptive changes are left unknown. In this study, we developed a set of nuclear, simple sequence repeat markers and used these to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure among native (Eurasian) and non-native (North and South American) populations of Centaurea solstitialis L., (yellow starthistle). We used these data to test hypotheses about the invasion pathways of the species that were based on historical and geographical records, and we make inferences about historical relationships among populations and demographic processes following invasion. We confirm that the center of diversity and the native range of the species is likely the eastern Mediterranean region in the vicinity of Turkey. From this region, the species likely proceeded to colonize other parts of Europe and Asia via a slow, stepwise range expansion. Spanish populations were the primary source of seed to invade South America via human-mediated events, as was evident from historical records, but populations from the eastern Mediterranean region were also important. North American populations were largely derived from South America, but had secondary contributors. We suggest that the introduction history of non-native populations from disparate parts of the native range have allowed not just one, but multiple opportunities first in South America then again in North America for the creation of novel genotypes via intraspecific hybridization. We propose that multiple intraspecific hybridization events may have created especially potent conditions for the selection of a noxious invader, and may explain differences in genetic patterns among North and South America populations, inferred differences in demographic processes, as well as morphological differences previously reported from common garden experiments. PMID:25551223

  18. Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Cicevan, Raluca; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Sestras, Radu E; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerance was evaluated in twelve cultivars of three ornamental Tagetes species (T. patula, T. tenuifolia and T. erecta). A stress treatment was performed by completely stopping watering of plants maintained in controlled greenhouse conditions. After three weeks, several plant growth parameters (stem length (SL), fresh weight (FW) and water content (WC)), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids (Car)), osmolytes (proline (Pro), glycine betaine (GB) and total soluble sugars (TSS)), an oxidative stress maker (malondialdehyde (MDA)) and antioxidants (total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF)) were measured. Considerable differences in the evaluated traits were found among the control and drought-stressed plants. Drought stress generally caused a marked reduction in plant growth and carotenoid pigments, and an increase in soluble solutes and oxidative stress. For most cultivars, proline levels in stressed plants increased between 30 and 70-fold compared to the corresponding controls. According to the different measured parameters, on average T. erecta proved to be more tolerant to drought than T. patula and T. tenuifolia. However, a considerable variation in the tolerance to drought was found within each species. The traits with greater association to drought tolerance as well as the most tolerant cultivars could be clearly identified in a principal components analysis (PCA). Overall, our results indicate that drought tolerant cultivars of Tagetes can be identified at early stages using a combination of plant growth and biochemical markers. PMID:27326384

  19. Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): Botanical Properties, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Bartolome, Arlene P.; Villaseñor, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    There are 230 to 240 known Bidens species. Among them, Bidens pilosa is a representative perennial herb, globally distributed across temperate and tropical regions. B. pilosa has been traditionally used in foods and medicines without obvious adverse effects. Despite significant progress in phytochemical and biological analyses of B. pilosa over the past few years, comprehensive and critical reviews of this plant are anachronistic or relatively limited in scope. The present review aims to summarize up-to-date information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of B. pilosa from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of B. pilosa in over 40 diseases, scientific studies investigating the potential medicinal uses of this species and its constituent phytochemicals for a variety of disorders are presented and discussed. The structure, bioactivity, and likely mechanisms of action of B. pilosa and its phytochemicals are emphasized. Although some progress has been made, further rigorous efforts are required to investigate the individual compounds isolated from B. pilosa to understand and validate its traditional uses and develop clinical applications. The present review provides preliminary information and gives guidance for further basic and clinical research into this plant. PMID:23935661

  20. A new species of Centaurea sect. Pseudoseridia (Asteraceae) from north-eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yüzbaşıoğlu, İbrahim Sırrı; Bona, Mehmet; Genç, İlker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Centaurea ziganensis Yüzb., M. Bona & İ. Genç, a new species is described and illustrated from Gümüşhane province, NE Turkey. The new species grows in rocky places on the south face of Zigana Mountains, and is closely related to Centaurea drabifolioides, from which it differs mainly in stem, achene and phyllary appendage characters. Micromorphological structures of achenes and karyological features of Centaurea ziganensis and Centaurea drabifolioides were examined in this study. PMID:26312039

  1. Antioxidant Effect of Nanoemulsions Containing Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam) D.C.-Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Giovanni Konat; Caregnato, Fernanda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Carvalho, Edison Luis Santana

    2016-08-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Achyrocline satureioides have pronounced antioxidant activity mainly due to the presence of the flavonoid quercetin. However, direct topical application of the extract is not possible due to the presence of high amounts of ethanol. In this sense, nanoemulsions arise as an alternative for topical formulation associating molecules with limited aqueous solubility. This article describes the development of topical nanoemulsions containing either A. satureioides extract or one of its most abundant flavonoid, quercetin. Nanoemulsions composed of octyldodecanol, egg lecithin, water and extract (NEE), or quercetin (NEQ) were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. This process led to monodisperse nanoemulsions presenting a mean droplet size of approximately 200-300 nm, negative zeta potential, and high association efficiency. A study of quercetin skin retention using porcine skin which was performed using a Franz diffusion cell revealed a higher accumulation of quercetin in skin for NEE when compared to NEQ. Finally, the antioxidant activity of formulations was measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive species and the APPH model. A lower lipoperoxidation for the extract in respect to quercetin solution was observed. However, no difference between NEQ and NEE lipoperoxidation could be seen. The protection against lipoperoxidation by the formulations was also measured in the skin, where lower formation of reactive species was observed after treatment with NEE. In conclusion, this study shows the formulation effect on the physicochemical properties of nanoemulsions as well as on the skin retention and antioxidant activity of quercetin. PMID:26361953

  2. Syncyte formation in the microsporangium of Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae): a pathway to infraspecific polyploidy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Sung; Oginuma, Kazuo; Tobe, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Polyploidy, which is thought to have played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, is prevalent in Chrysanthemum (x = 9). In fact, polyploid series are known in C. zawadskii (2x, 4x, 6x, 8x, and 10x) and C. indicum (2x, 4x, and 6x), but the mechanism by which polyploidization occurs is unknown. Here we show that in diploid individuals of both C. zawadskii and C. indicum, the fusion between two adjacent pollen mother cells (PMCs) occurs at a frequency of 1.1-1.3% early in the first meiotic division. While possessing the chromosomes of both PMCs, the fused cell or syncyte undertakes subsequent meiotic division processes as a single large PMC, producing four 2n pollen grains that are able to germinate. Despite their low frequency, syncyte formation may have played a major role in the production of infraspecific polyploids in Chrysanthemum. PMID:19367445

  3. Toxicological study of Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae) extracts as alternative control strategies for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Junhirun, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L)) is an economically important pest in Thailand and the indiscriminant use of chemical pesticides against this pest has been responsible for environmental hazards. Present research, therefore, is trying to develop alternative strategies by using plant based-products for the control of this pest. Wedelia trilobata (L) Hitchc extracts prepared in hexane, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol were used initially against the second instars of P. xylostella by topical application to determine the dose dependent toxicity. The highest yield of the extracts was obtained with EtOH extract followed by hexane, EtOAc and dichloroethane. However, the EtOAc extract exhibited the highest toxicity (24h-LC50 = 442.8 ppm) that became more prominent after 48 h (LC50 = 376.71 ppm). This suggests there was an increase in toxicity with the duration of exposure to the treatment. With the exception of the hexane extract, all other treatments were significantly correlated, which suggests that W. trolobata contains a varied profile of anti-insect allelochemicals that can be exploited in any integrated pest management strategy. The identification of the active ingredients is in progress. PMID:23885442

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of procirsin, an active aspartic protease precursor from Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Faro, Rosário; Castanheira, Pedro; Parisi, Gustavo; Veríssimo, Paula; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra; Simões, Isaura; Faro, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Typical aspartic proteinases from plants of the Astereaceae family like cardosins and cyprosins are well-known milk-clotting enzymes. Their effectiveness in cheesemaking has encouraged several studies on other Astereaceae plant species for identification of new vegetable rennets. Here we report on the cloning, expression and characterization of a novel aspartic proteinase precursor from the flowers of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. The isolated cDNA encoded a protein product with 509 amino acids, termed cirsin, with the characteristic primary structure organization of plant typical aspartic proteinases. The pro form of cirsin was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to be active without autocatalytically cleaving its pro domain. This contrasts with the acid-triggered autoactivation by pro-segment removal described for several recombinant plant typical aspartic proteinases. Recombinant procirsin displayed all typical proteolytic features of aspartic proteinases as optimum acidic pH, inhibition by pepstatin, cleavage between hydrophobic amino acids and strict dependence on two catalytic Asp residues for activity. Procirsin also displayed a high specificity towards κ-casein and milk-clotting activity, suggesting it might be an effective vegetable rennet. The findings herein described provide additional evidences for the existence of different structural arrangements among plant typical aspartic proteinases. PMID:22727116

  5. Shifts in leaf vein density through accelerated vein formation in C4 Flaveria (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    McKown, Athena D.; Dengler, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf venation in many C4 species is characterized by high vein density, essential in facilitating rapid intercellular diffusion of C4 photosynthetic metabolites between different tissues (mesophyll, bundle sheath). Greater vein density has been hypothesized to be an early step in C4 photosynthesis evolution. Development of C4 vein patterning is thought to occur from either accelerated or prolonged procambium formation, relative to ground tissue development. Methods Cleared and sectioned tissues of phylogenetically basal C3 Flaveria robusta and more derived C4 Flaveria bidentis were compared for vein pattern in mature leaves and vein pattern formation in developing leaves. Key Results In mature leaves, major vein density did not differ between C3 and C4 Flaveria species, whereas minor veins were denser in C4 species than in C3 species. The developmental study showed that both major and minor vein patterning in leaves of C3 and C4 species were initiated at comparable stages (based on leaf length). An additional vein order in the C4 species was observed during initiation of the higher order minor veins compared with the C3 species. In the two species, expansion of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells occurred after vein pattern was complete and xylem differentiation was continuous in minor veins. In addition, mesophyll cells ceased dividing sooner and enlarged less in C4 species than in C3 species. Conclusions Leaf vein pattern characteristic to C4 Flaveria was achieved primarily through accelerated and earlier offset of higher order vein formation, rather than other modifications in the timing of vein pattern formation, as compared with C3 species. Earlier cessation of mesophyll cell division and reduced expansion also contributed to greater vein density in the C4 species. The relatively late expansion of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells shows that vein patterning precedes ground tissue development in C4 species. PMID:19759038

  6. Cytotype distribution at a diploid–hexaploid contact zone in Aster amellus (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Castro, S.; Loureiro, J.; Procházka, T.; Münzbergová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The present study aims to assess the diversity and distribution of cytotypes of Aster amellus in central and eastern Europe, contributing with data to improve understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the contact zone between diploids and hexaploids of this polyploid complex. Methods Large-scale cytotype screening of 4720 individuals collected in 229 populations was performed using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) flow cytometry. Fine-scale cytotype screening was performed in the mixed-ploidy population. Reproductive variables, such as number of florets per flower head, seed set and seedling emergence, as well as ploidy level of seeds and seedlings were recorded in this population. Key Results The diploid–hexaploid contact zone is large and complex, reaching the Czech Republic in the west, Austria in the south, Poland in the north-east and Romania in the extreme east of the surveyed areas. Most populations presented only one cytotype, either diploid or hexaploid. In several areas of the contact zone both cytotypes were found to grow in parapatry. One mixed-ploidy population of diploids and hexaploids was detected for the first time, but no signs of hybridization were detected. In this population, diploids had a significantly lower reproductive success, and significantly higher production of intercytotype offspring, being in reproductive disadvantage in comparison with hexaploids. Conclusions The contact zone of diploid and hexaploid A. amellus in central and eastern Europe seems to be highly dynamic and diffuse, with both primary and secondary contacts being possible. The obtained results suggest the origin of hexaploids through diploids, overall supporting previous hypotheses that this species is autopolyploid. Data from the only mixed-ploidy population detected so far suggest that the minority cytotype exclusion is an important evolutionary mechanisms driving the prevalence of single-cytotype populations, and thus contributing to the current distributional patterns of the cytotypes of A. amellus. PMID:22887024

  7. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1–)4–6(–7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  8. Intra- and interspecific chromosome polymorphisms in cultivated Cichorium L. species (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Ebenézer C.S.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Carvalho, Reginaldo; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and chicory (C. intybus L.) both have 2n = 18, but until now, there has been no detailed karyomorphological characterization. The present work evaluated five accessions of each species using FISH with rDNA probes and fluorochrome staining with CMA and DAPI. Both species presented distinct banding patterns after fluorochrome staining: while endive had proximal CMA++/DAPI− bands in the short arms of pairs 1, 2 and 3, chicory had proximal CMA-positive bands in chromosomes 1 and 3 and interstitial in the short arm of chromosome 8. Among endive accessions, FISH procedures revealed conserved position and number of 5S and 45S rDNA sites (two and three pairs, respectively), associated with the CMA-positive bands. Notwithstanding, polymorphisms were detected within chicory accessions regarding the number and the distribution of rDNA sites in relation to the most frequent karyotype (two pairs with 45S and one with 5S rDNA). The karyological markers developed allowed karyotypic differentiation between both species, uncovering peculiarities in the number and position of rDNA sites, which suggest chromosome rearrangements, such as translocations in chicory cultivars. The interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms observed emphasize the potential of karyomorphological evaluations, helping our understanding of the relationships and evolution of the group. PMID:24130443

  9. Arnica (Asteraceae) phylogeny revisited using RPB2: complex patterns and multiple d-paralogues.

    PubMed

    Ekenäs, Catarina; Heidari, Nahid; Andreasen, Katarina

    2012-08-01

    The region coding for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) was explored for resolving interspecific relationships in Arnica and lower level taxa in general. The region between exons 17 and 23 was cloned and sequenced for 33 accessions of Arnica and four outgroup taxa. Three paralogues of the RPB2-d copy (RPB2-dA, B and C) were detected in Arnica and outgroup taxa, indicating that the duplications must have occurred before the divergence of Arnica. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of separate alignments of the three copies reveal complex patterns in Arnica, likely reflecting a history of lineage sorting in combination with apomixis, polyploidization, and possibly hybridization. Cloned sequences of some taxa do not form monophyletic clades within paralogues, but form multiple strongly supported clades with sequences of other taxa. Some well supported groups are present in more than one paralogue and many groups are in line with earlier hypotheses regarding interspecific relationships within the genus. Low levels of homoplasy in combination with relatively high sequence variation indicates that the introns of the RPB2 region could be suitable for phylogenetic studies in low level taxonomy. PMID:22425730

  10. Radiation of southern African daisies: biogeographic inferences for subtribe Arctotidinae (Asteraceae, Arctotideae).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Robert J; Barker, Nigel P

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the approximately 80-90 species in subtribe Arctotidinae occur in southern Africa with the centre of diversity in the winter-rainfall region. Three species are restricted to afromontane eastern Africa and three species are endemic to Australia. To investigate biogeographic and phylogenetic relationships within Arctotidinae, sequence data from four cpDNA regions (psbA-trnH, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF spacers and trnL intron) and the ITS nrDNA region for 59 Arctotidinae species were analyzed with parsimony and Bayesian-inference approaches. Eight well-supported major lineages were resolved. The earliest-diverging extant lineages are afromontane or inhabit mesic habitats, whereas almost all sampled taxa from the winter-rainfall and semi-arid areas have diverged more recently. Molecular dating estimated that the major clades diverged during the Miocene and Pliocene, which is coincident with the trend of increasing rainfall seasonality, aridification and vegetation changes in southwestern Africa. Trans-oceanic dispersal to Australia was estimated to have occurred during the Pliocene. PMID:18675920

  11. Cape diversification and repeated out-of-southern-Africa dispersal in paper daisies (Asteraceae-Gnaphalieae).

    PubMed

    Bergh, Nicola G; Linder, H Peter

    2009-04-01

    The large daisy tribe Gnaphalieae occurs in extra-tropical habitats worldwide, but is most diverse in southern Africa and in Australia. We explore the age and evolutionary history of the tribe by means of a phylogenetic hypothesis based on Bayesian analysis of plastid and nuclear DNA sequences, maximum likelihood reconstruction of ancestral areas, and relaxed Bayesian dating. Early diversification occurred in southern Africa in the Eocene-Oligocene, resulting in a grade of mostly Cape-centred lineages which subsequently began speciating in the Miocene, consistent with diversification times for many Cape groups. Gnaphalieae from other geographic regions are embedded within a southern African paraphylum, indicating multiple dispersals out of southern Africa since the Oligocene to Miocene which established the tribe in the rest of the world. Colonisation of Australia via direct long-distance trans-oceanic dispersal in the Miocene resulted in the radiation which produced the Australasian gnaphalioid flora. The similarly diverse regional gnaphalioid floras of Australasia and southern Africa thus exhibit very different temporal species accumulation histories. An examination of the timing and direction of trans-Indian Ocean dispersal events in other angiosperms suggests a role for the West Wind Drift in long-distance dispersal eastwards from southern Africa. PMID:18822381

  12. Antimalarial activities of Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Rubiaceae) on mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Elufioye, T O; Agbedahunsi, J M

    2004-08-01

    Ethanolic extracts of the aerial part of Tithonia diversifolia and the stem bark of Crossopteryx febrifuga were investigated against early, residual (repository) and established malaria infections in vivo using Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 50-400 mg/kg per day. Chloroquine at 5 mg/kg per day was used as the positive control for the early and established infections while Pyrimethamine at 1.2 3/kg per day was used as the positive control for the residual infection test. Dose dependent chemo suppressive activities were obtained at the different levels of the infection tested. Tithonia diversifolia and Crossopteryx febrifuga gave some level of suppression of parasitaemia in the early and established infection stages. Tithonia diversifolia was active at 200 mg/kg per day in the repository test. The mean survival period of the mice treated with the extract in the established infection test was low, a possible indication of toxicity as a result of sub chronic administration of the extract. Crossopteryx febrifuga was inactive in the repository test. Beside the above limitations, the suppression of parasitaemia by the extracts at the highest dose was similar to chloroquine and pyrimathamine. PMID:15234749

  13. PATTERNS OF ALLOZYME DIVERSITY IN THE THREATENED PLANT ERIGERON PARISHII (ASTERACEAE). (R826102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-one occurrences of Erigeron parishii, a narrowly endemic plant threatened by mining, were sampled for allozyme diversity. This taxon held considerable genetic variation at the [4 allozyme loci surveyed. Species (e.g., alleles per locus [A] = 4.3 and proportion of polymorph...

  14. Seasonal variation of responses to herbivory and volatile communication in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Satomi; Shiojiri, Kaori; Karban, Richard; Ohara, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Plants can respond to insect herbivory in various ways to avoid reductions in fitness. However, the effect of herbivory on plant performance can vary depending on the seasonal timing of herbivory. We investigated the effects of the seasonal timing of herbivory on the performance of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Sagebrush is known to induce systemic resistance by receiving volatiles emitted from clipped leaves of the same or neighboring plants, which is called volatile communication. Resistance to leaf herbivory is known to be induced most effectively after volatile communication in spring. We experimentally clipped 25 % of leaves of sagebrush in May when leaves were expanding, or in July when inflorescences were forming. We measured the growth and flower production of clipped plants and neighboring plants which were exposed to volatiles emitted from clipped plants. The treatment conducted in spring reduced the growth of clipped plants. This suggests that early season leaf herbivory is detrimental because it reduces the opportunities for resource acquisition after herbivory, resulting in strong induction of resistance in leaves. On the other hand, the late season treatment increased flower production in plants exposed to volatiles, which was caused mainly by the increase in the number of inflorescences. Because the late season treatment occurred when sagebrush produces inflorescences, sagebrush may respond to late herbivory by increasing compensation ability and/or resistance in inflorescences rather than in leaves. Our results suggest that sagebrush can change responses to herbivory and subsequent volatile communication seasonally and that the seasonal variation in responses may reduce the cost of induced resistance. PMID:27056097

  15. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  16. No evolutionary shift in the mating system of north American Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae) following its introduction to China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Meng; Liao, Wan-Jin; Wolfe, Lorne M; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2012-01-01

    The mating system plays a key role during the process of plant invasion. Contemporary evolution of uniparental reproduction (selfing or asexuality) can relieve the challenges of mate limitation in colonizing populations by providing reproductive assurance. Here we examined aspects of the genetics of colonization in Ambrosia artemisiifolia, a North American native that is invasive in China. This species has been found to possess a strong self-incompatibility system and have high outcrossing rates in North America and we examined whether there has been an evolutionary shift towards the dependence on selfing in the introduced range. Specifically, we estimated outcrossing rates in one native and five invasive populations and compared levels of genetic diversity between North America and China. Based on six microsatellite loci we found that, like the native North American population, all five Chinese populations possessed a completely outcrossing mating system. The estimates of paternity correlations were low, ranging from 0.028-0.122, which suggests that populations possessed ~8-36 pollen donor parents contributing to each maternal plant in the invasive populations. High levels of genetic diversity for both native and invasive populations were found with the unbiased estimate of gene diversity ranging from 0.262-0.289 for both geographic ranges based on AFLP markers. Our results demonstrate that there has been no evolutionary shift from outcrossing to selfing during A. artemisiifolia's invasion of China. Furthermore, high levels of genetic variation in North America and China indicate that there has been no erosion of genetic variance due to a bottleneck during the introduction process. We suggest that the successful invasion of A. artemisiifolia into Asia was facilitated by repeated introductions from multiple source populations in the native range creating a diverse gene pool within Chinese populations. PMID:22384104

  17. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%). PMID:26982621

  18. Genetic and behavioral differences among purported species of the weevil Trichosirocalus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for biological control of thistles (Asteraceae, Cardueae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract and Interpretive Summary: Provide electronically in Word. Trichosirocalus horridus was introduced to North America, New Zealand and Australia for biological control of Carduus nutans. Since then two more species of Trichosirocalus have been described (Alonso-Zarazaga and Sánchez-...

  19. Parental Ploidy Strongly Affects Offspring Fitness in Heteroploid Crosses among Three Cytotypes of Autopolyploid Jacobaea carniolica (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sonnleitner, Michaela; Weis, Birgit; Flatscher, Ruth; García, Pedro Escobar; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Winkler, Manuela; Schönswetter, Peter; Hülber, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive interactions among cytotypes in their contact zones determine whether these cytotypes can co-exist and form stable contact zones or not. In autopolyploids, heteroploid cross-compatibilities might depend on parental ploidy, but tests of this hypothesis in autopolyploid systems with more than two ploidies are lacking. Here, we study Jacobaea carniolica, which comprises diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid individuals regularly forming contact zones. Seeds obtained from in situ cross-pollinations within and among cytotypes were subjected to DNA flow cytometry and greenhouse germination experiments. Hybrid fitness and parental effects on hybrid fitness were tested with regression models comparing fitness parameters of early life stages. Irrespective of the direction of crosses, seed viability and seedling survival in diploid-polyploid crosses were substantially lower than in tetraploid-hexaploid crosses. In contrast, seedling growth traits indicated neither transgressive character expression nor any selection against hybrid offspring. Congruent with a model of genome dosage effects, these traits differed between reciprocal crosses, especially of diploids and tetraploids, where trait values resembled those of the maternal parent. The strong effect of parental ploidy on offspring fitness in heteroploid crosses may cause contact zones involving exclusively polyploid cytotypes to be less stable over longer terms than those involving diploids and polyploids. PMID:24265735

  20. Patterns of genetic diversity in colonizing plant species: Nassauvia lagascae var. lanata (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) on Volcan Lonquimay, Chile.

    PubMed

    López, Patricio G; Tremetsberger, Karin; Stuessy, Tod F; Gómez-González, Susana; Jiménez, Alejandra; Baeza, Carlos M

    2010-03-01

    The effect of colonization on the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations in relation to species characteristics remains an open empirical question. The objective of this study was to contrast genetic diversity within and among established and colonizing populations of Nassauvia lagascae var. lanata on Volcán Lonquimay (Araucanía Region, Chile), which erupted on 25 December 1988, and relate genetic diversity to biological characteristics of the populations. We analyzed a total of 240 individuals from 15 populations distributed along the Andes Cordillera using AFLP and obtained a total of 307 AFLP bands, of which 97.7% are polymorphic. Values of population differentiation (F(ST)) did not differ significantly among established and colonizing populations, but colonizing populations did have reduced levels of genetic divergence (as indicated by private and rare bands) and genetic variation (e.g., Shannon index). We conclude that a founder effect through limited numbers of founding propagules derived from nearby source populations has not yet been compensated for by subsequent population growth and migration. Low rates of secondary dispersal via running water, kin-structure within populations, and slow population growth seem to contribute to the slow recovery of genetic diversity. PMID:21622405

  1. Molecular confirmation of the hybrid origin of the critically endangered western Mediterranean endemic Sonchus pustulatus (Asteraceae: Sonchinae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Chul; Mejías, Jose A; Lubinsky, Pesach

    2008-07-01

    The critically endangered composite Sonchus pustulatus Willk. despite being known from fewer than ten locations in southern Spain and northern Africa, has never been characterized in robust phylogenetic context. Here, we report molecular evidence that strongly supports a hybrid origin for S. pustulatus. Although parentage cannot be identified with certainty, analysis of DNA sequence variation from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) supports a phylogenetic placement of S. pustulatus close to other species in the poorly known section Pustulati, whereas examination of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) places S. pustulatus most closely with species from the sections Sonchus and Asperi. This is one of several instances of topological non-concordance reported for the genus Sonchus. Monophyly of S. pustulatus in both gene genealogies supports the null hypothesis of a single origin, and the relatively large amount of nucleotide substitutions is indicative of an origin in the range of millions of years. A hypothesis of a northern African origin of S. pustulatus followed by dispersal to the Iberian Peninsula during the Messinian salinity crisis/later Quaternary glaciations is proposed on the basis of biogeographic patterns and calibrated estimations of molecular evolution. PMID:18491031

  2. Yacon diet (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) improves hepatic insulin resistance via reducing Trb3 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, H; Audrey Nguyen, M T; Kudoh, A; Watanabe, T

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Yacon is a perennial plant forming a clump of >20 big, edible underground tubers. Yacon, which originates from South America, has become increasingly popular in the Japanese diet for tubers have a lower caloric value and a high fiber content. Recent studies have suggested that yacon feeding ameliorates diabetes as indicated by reduced blood glucose. Methods: We fed male Zucker fa/fa rats for 5 weeks with isocaloric normal chow diet containing from 6.5% control aroid or 6.5% yacon. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study. Results: Body weight was comparable between yacon- and aroid-fed rats. In the basal state, yacon feeding had an effect to lower fasting glucose levels from 184.1±4.1 to 167.8±2.7 mg dl−1 (P<0.01), as well as basal hepatic glucose output (HGO) from 9.9±0.4 to 7.4 ± 0.2 mg kg−1 per min (P<0.01). During the clamp studies, the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia was increased by 12.3% in yacon-fed rat. The insulin suppression of HGO was also increased in yacon-fed rats compared with control rats (85.3±2.4% vs 77.0±3.0% P<0.05), whereas the glucose disposal rate was not different between the two groups. Consistent with the clamp data, the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was significantly enhanced in liver but not in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, tribbles 3 (Trb3) expression, which is a negative regulator of Akt activity, was markedly reduced in the liver of yacon-fed rats compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that the effect of yacon feeding to reduce blood glucose is likely due to its beneficial effects on hepatic insulin sensitivity in the insulin resistant state. PMID:23712282

  3. Coniochaeta ligniaria: antifungal activity of the cryptic endophytic fungus associated with autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have addressed the presence and bioactivity of endophytic fungi living in plantlets growing under in vitro conditions. We isolated a fungus UM 109 from autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon). The species was identified as Coniochaeta ligniaria using ...

  4. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  5. Ecophysiology of seed germination of wild Dahlia coccinea (Asteraceae) in a spatially heterogeneous fire-prone habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivar-Evans, Susana; Barradas, Víctor L.; Sánchez-Coronado, María E.; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

    2006-03-01

    Dahlia coccinea grows on fire-prone xerophilous shrubland, on a lava field located in Mexico City. Two kinds of experiments were performed to test the role of fire and environmental heterogeneity on germination. The first experiment tested the effect of environmental conditions (constant and alternating temperatures, cold stratification and light). The second one tested the effects of fire and high temperatures (dry and moist heat) on germination. Seeds of Dahlia were indifferent to light. The seeds showed physiological dormancy, which was lost by after-ripening or by gibberellins. During simulated fires, dry seeds tolerated high temperatures of short duration and also withstood prolonged exposure to 60 °C. Dry heat treatment reduced the mechanical restriction for embryo growth in dormant seeds. Ash and prolonged exposure to moist heat inhibited germination. Exogenous gibberellins reversed the deleterious effects of prolonged exposure to moist heat. The effect of cold stratification was related to the seeds' physiological stage and to light conditions; stratification in the dark reduced germination. Seeds of D. coccinea could tolerate, evade, or be slightly favored by the effects of low intensity fires occurring in their habitat. Seed responses to treatments suggest that the spatially heterogeneous lava field could provide a wide variety of micro-sites where physiological dormancy could be broken and during fires seeds could maintain their viability and subsequently germinate and/or develop a seed bank.

  6. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v) of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml). Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v) and gentamycin (reference drug) eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw) did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides were significantly (p < 0.05) affected positively. Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections. PMID:21615960

  7. Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) by In Vivo Excision and Incision Models

    PubMed Central

    Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Koca, Ufuk; Pesin, Ipek; Yilmazer, Demet

    2011-01-01

    Achillea species are widely used for diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomachache and healing of wounds in folk medicine. To evaluate the wound healing activity of the plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively from the roots of Achillea biebersteinii. Linear incision by using tensiometer and circular excision wound models were employed on mice and rats. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol. The n-hexane extract treated groups of animals showed 84.2% contraction, which was close to contraction value of the reference drug Madecassol (100%). On the other hand the same extract on incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (40.1%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histoptological examination supported the outcome of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. The experimental data demonstrated that A. biebersteinii displayed remarkable wound healing activity. PMID:19546149

  8. Metabolic fingerprinting of Leontopodium species (Asteraceae) by means of 1H NMR and HPLC–ESI-MS

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Stefan; Cicek, Serhat S.; Pieri, Valerio; Schwaiger, Stefan; Schneider, Peter; Wissemann, Volker; Stuppner, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    The genus Leontopodium, mainly distributed in Central and Eastern Asia, consists of ca. 34–58 different species. The European Leontopodium alpinum, commonly known as Edelweiss, has a long tradition in folk medicine. Recent research has resulted in the identification of prior unknown secondary metabolites, some of them with interesting biological activities. Despite this, nearly nothing is known about the Asian species of the genus. In this study, we applied proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) metabolic fingerprinting to reveal insights into the metabolic patterns of 11 different Leontopodium species, and to conclude on their taxonomic relationship. Principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR fingerprints revealed two species groups. Discriminators for these groups were identified as fatty acids and sucrose for group A, and ent-kaurenoic acid and derivatives thereof for group B. Five diterpenes together with one sesquiterpene were isolated from Leontopodium franchetii roots; the compounds were described for the first time for L. franchetii: ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, methyl-15α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oate, methyl-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oate, 8-acetoxymodhephene, 19-acetoxy-ent-kaur-16-ene, methyl-15β–angeloyloxy-16,17-epoxy-ent-kauran-19-oate. In addition, differences in the metabolic profile between collected and cultivated species could be observed using a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). PCA of the LC–MS fingerprints revealed three groups. Discriminating signals were compared to literature data and identified as two bisabolane derivatives responsible for discrimination of group A and C, and one ent-kaurenoic acid derivative, discriminating group B. A taxonomic relationship between a previously unidentified species and L. franchetii and Leontopodium sinense could be determined by comparing NMR fingerprints. This finding supports recent molecular data. Furthermore, Leontopodium dedekensii and L. sinense, two closely related species in terms of morphology and DNA-fingerprints, could be distinguished clearly using 1H NMR and LC–MS metabolic fingerprinting. PMID:21550615

  9. Effects of steam-distilled shoot extract of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) and entomopathogenic fungi on larval Tetanops myopaeformis.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Florence V; Jaronski, Stefan T; Sedlak, Christopher W; Meiler, Svenja U; Veo, Kendra D

    2010-06-01

    Interactions of a biopesticidal formulation of steam distilled shoot extract of Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta, and entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for management of the sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder). Shoot extract plus surfactant (E-Z Mulse) (=T. minuta oil) was used in a 65:35 ratio to test the hypothesis that this fungicidal and nematocidal biopesticide causes dose-dependent mortality and developmental arrest of T. myopaeformis but does not interfere with the action of entomopathogenic fungi when applied together. A soil-petri dish bioassay system was developed to test the hypothesis. For diapausing, nonfeeding but active 12-mo-old third-instar larvae, 0.5% T. minuta oil treatment (=0.325% active ingredient [AI]) was sufficient to prevent pupation without mortality, but 0.75% T. minuta oil treatment (=0.458% AI) was lethal for 93% of the test insects. The effect of T. minuta oil on fungal efficacy under simultaneous use was studied using a model system of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin. TM28 and Metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin MA 1200, in a soil-based bioassay with larval sugarbeet root maggots. No adverse effects of T. minuta oil on action of entomopathogenic fungi and no synergy were found; an additive effect of the T. minuta oil and each fungal isolate separately was found. PMID:20550813

  10. A “Novel” Protocol for the Analysis of Hydroxycinnamic Acids in Leaf Tissue of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Meriem; Hance, Philippe; Grec, Sébastien; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Trotin, Francis; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Hendriks, Theo

    2012-01-01

    A “novel” protocol is presented for easy and reliable estimation of soluble hydroxycinnamate levels in Cichorium intybus L. leaf tissue in large-scale experiments. Samples were standardized by punching 6 discs per leaf, and hydroxycinnamates were extracted by submerging the discs in 80% ethanol with 5% acetic acid for at least 48 h in the darkness at 4°C. Residual dry mass of the discs was used for a posteriori correction of compound levels. Chlorophyll was eliminated by chloroform, and the aqueous phases were transferred to microplates, dried, and dissolved in 50% methanol for HPLC analysis and storage. An HPLC program of 8 min was developed for the analysis of the extracts. Comparisons with extractions of liquid nitrogen powders indicated that the novel extraction method was reliable. No degradation of the major hydroxycinnamates—caftaric, chlorogenic, and chicoric acids—was observed, during maceration at ambient temperatures, or after storage for 1 year. PMID:23304076

  11. Contrasting genetic diversity and differentiation of populations of two successional stages in a Neotropical pioneer tree (Eremanthus erythropappus, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, V L O; Lemos-Filho, J P; Lovato, M B

    2008-01-01

    Eremanthus erythropappus, commonly known as "candeia", is an abundant pioneer tree species, forming dense populations known as "candeial", but it is also found in forests at middle stages of succession. Trees from forests are bigger and occur in lower density than in the "candeial". The objectives of the present study were to investigate if the decrease in population density during successional process is accompanied by 1) changes in within-population genetic diversity, and 2) differentiation of populations. Eight populations, four of early successional stage ("candeial") and four of middle successional stages (forest), were analyzed with RAPD markers. The genetic diversity found was high compared to other tree species analyzed with RAPD markers. AMOVA revealed that most of the genetic variations of E. erythropappus were found within populations (85.7%), suggesting that this species is predominantly outcrossing. The relatively low differentiation among the populations can be attributed to small distances among the populations analyzed (0.2 to 10.8 km). No indication that populations from middle successional habitats show lower genetic variation than populations from early successional stages was found. The percentage of polymorphic fragments (82.8 and 84.8%) and the Shannon indexes (0.442 and 0.455) were similar in "candeial" and forest, respectively. These results suggest that if an increase in selection intensity occurred during succession, it did not result in a decrease in genetic diversity or that the selection effect was balanced by other factors, such as gene flow. Higher significant differentiation among E. erythropappus populations from "candeial" in relation to that among populations from forest was also not detected. PMID:18551405

  12. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  13. Genetic diversity and structure of Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium Trevir./Sch./Bip., Asteraceae) within the Balkan refugium.

    PubMed

    Grdiša, Martina; Liber, Zlatko; Radosavljević, Ivan; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Kolak, Ivan; Satovic, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium Trevir./Sch./Bip.) is an outcrossing, perennial insecticidal plant, restricted to the eastern Adriatic coast (Mediterranean). Amplified fragment-length polymorphisms (AFLP) were used to investigate the genetic diversity and structure within and among 20 natural plant populations. The highest level of gene diversity, the number of private alleles and the frequency down-weighted marker values (DW) were found in northern Adriatic populations and gradually decreased towards the southern boundary of the species range. Genetic impoverishment of these southern populations is most likely the result of human-related activities. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that most of the genetic diversity was attributed to differences among individuals within populations (85.78%), which are expected due to the outcrossing nature of the species. A Bayesian analysis of the population structure identified two dominant genetic clusters. A spatial analysis of the genetic diversity indicated that 5.6% of the genetic differentiation resulted from isolation by distance (IBD), while 12.3% of the genetic differentiation among populations followed the pattern of isolation by environmental distance (IBED). Knowledge of the genetic diversity patterns of the natural populations and the mechanism behind these patterns is required for the exploitation and possible conservation management of this endemic and economically important species. PMID:25121763

  14. A "novel" protocol for the analysis of hydroxycinnamic acids in leaf tissue of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Bahri, Meriem; Hance, Philippe; Grec, Sébastien; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Trotin, Francis; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Hendriks, Theo

    2012-01-01

    A "novel" protocol is presented for easy and reliable estimation of soluble hydroxycinnamate levels in Cichorium intybus L. leaf tissue in large-scale experiments. Samples were standardized by punching 6 discs per leaf, and hydroxycinnamates were extracted by submerging the discs in 80% ethanol with 5% acetic acid for at least 48 h in the darkness at 4°C. Residual dry mass of the discs was used for a posteriori correction of compound levels. Chlorophyll was eliminated by chloroform, and the aqueous phases were transferred to microplates, dried, and dissolved in 50% methanol for HPLC analysis and storage. An HPLC program of 8 min was developed for the analysis of the extracts. Comparisons with extractions of liquid nitrogen powders indicated that the novel extraction method was reliable. No degradation of the major hydroxycinnamates-caftaric, chlorogenic, and chicoric acids-was observed, during maceration at ambient temperatures, or after storage for 1 year. PMID:23304076

  15. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): An apomictic invader on three continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing the propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive populations using molecular markers provides insights into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) is an apomictic perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, Argentina, Canada and the USA. Invasive biotypes...

  16. Effect of environmental gradient in coastal vegetation on communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Ixeris repens (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Yamato, Masahide; Yagame, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yuko; Iwase, Koji

    2012-11-01

    The community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Ixeris repens was studied in coastal vegetation near the Tottori sand dunes in Japan. I. repens produces roots from a subterranean stem growing near the soil surface which provides an opportunity to examine the effects of an environmental gradient related to distance from the sea on AM fungal communities at a regular soil depth. Based on partial sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, AM fungi in root samples were divided into 17 phylotypes. Among these, five AM fungal phylotypes in Glomus and Diversispora were dominant near the seaward forefront of the vegetation. Redundancy analysis of the AM fungal community showed significant relationships between the distribution of phylotypes and environmental variables such as distance from the sea, water-soluble sodium in soil, and some coexisting plant species. These results suggest that environmental gradients in the coastal vegetation can be determinants of the AM fungal community. PMID:22476581

  17. Cytotaxonomy of two species of genus Chrysolaena H. Robinson, 1988 (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) from Northeast Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Pico, Gisela M Via Do; Dematteis, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome counts and karyotypes of two species of Chrysolaena H. Robinson 1988 are presented in this paper. Mitotic analysis revealed that both taxa have x=10, a basic chromosome number considered characteristic of the genus. The chromosome number and the karyotype of Chrysolaena cristobaliana are reported for the first time, as well as a new cytotype and the karyotype of Chrysolaena sceptrum. Chrysolaena cristobaliana showed heptaploid cytotype with 2n=7x=70 and a karyotype composed of 46 m + 24 sm chromosomes. On the other hand, Chrysolaena sceptrum presented tetraploid cytotype with 2n=4x=40 and a karyotype with 30 m + 10 sm chromosomes. Accessory chromosomes were observed in cells of both species. The chromosome analysis showed that these species differ in the chromosome number and the total chromosome length, although they showed similar chromosome morphology and asymmetry indexes. The results support the use of chromosome data in taxonomic treatments of the American members of the tribe Vernonieae. PMID:25147624

  18. Cytotaxonomy of two species of genus Chrysolaena H. Robinson, 1988 (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) from Northeast Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Pico, Gisela M. Via Do; Dematteis, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chromosome counts and karyotypes of two species of Chrysolaena H. Robinson 1988 are presented in this paper. Mitotic analysis revealed that both taxa have x=10, a basic chromosome number considered characteristic of the genus. The chromosome number and the karyotype of Chrysolaena cristobaliana are reported for the first time, as well as a new cytotype and the karyotype of Chrysolaena sceptrum. Chrysolaena cristobaliana showed heptaploid cytotype with 2n=7x=70 and a karyotype composed of 46 m + 24 sm chromosomes. On the other hand, Chrysolaena sceptrum presented tetraploid cytotype with 2n=4x=40 and a karyotype with 30 m + 10 sm chromosomes. Accessory chromosomes were observed in cells of both species. The chromosome analysis showed that these species differ in the chromosome number and the total chromosome length, although they showed similar chromosome morphology and asymmetry indexes. The results support the use of chromosome data in taxonomic treatments of the American members of the tribe Vernonieae. PMID:25147624

  19. Regional gene flow and population structure of the wind-dispersed plant species Hypochaeris radicata (Asteraceae) in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Mix, C; Arens, P F P; Rengelink, R; Smulders, M J M; Van Groenendael, J M; Ouborg, N J

    2006-06-01

    Using microsatellites, we investigated population structure and gene flow of the short-lived, wind-dispersed plant species Hypochaeris radicata in a fragmented agricultural landscape where more than 99% of the nutrient-poor grasslands have disappeared over the last century. We sampled populations in the few remaining high density populations in conservation areas, as well as individuals that occurred, with lower densities, in linear landscape elements, at two spatial scales. In a re-inventory of the landscape, after 3 years, both extinctions and colonizations of populations were observed. Contrary to expectations, no differences in genetic diversity between high and low density populations were observed. Both types of populations had relatively high levels of diversity. Overall genetic differentiation (theta) was 0.04 and significantly different from zero (P < 0.01). A significant isolation-by-distance pattern was found when all populations were simultaneously analysed (r = 0.24, P = 0.013). Isolation by distance was (marginally) significant at the small scale (r = 0.32, P = 0.06), whereas nonsignificant at the large spatial scale (r = -0.05, P = 0.66). A maximization-of-explained-variance procedure resulted in a threshold distance of 3.5 km above which populations were effectively genetically isolated. An additional partial exclusion Bayesian-based assignment test showed that overall 32.3% of the individuals were assigned to their population of origin, 48% were assigned to another population in the area and 19.7% were not assigned. Together, these results suggest high levels of gene flow. Seed dispersal contributes to the observed gene flow up to several hundred metres, which is higher than previously modelled using aerodynamic models on seed dispersal of H. radicata. We discuss the consequences of these results for an evaluation of the probability of persistence of this species in the fragmented landscape. PMID:16689895

  20. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. PMID:26880289

  1. The Biological Activity and Composition of the Essential Oil of Sclerorhachis leptoclada (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sonboli, Ali; Mirjalili, Mohammad Hossein; Hadian, Javad; Yousefzadi, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    The biological activity and composition of the essential oil of Sclerorhachis leptoclada Rech. f. an endemic species from northeast of Iran was studied. The essential oil was isolated from the aerial flowering parts of the plant and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Fifty-four compounds accounting for 95.9% of the total oil were characterized. The main constituents were (E)-nerolidol (14.5%), terpinen-4-ol (13.3%), camphor (6.1%), 1,8-cineole (4.8%) and p-cymene (4.5%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of S. leptoclada was tested against eight microbial strains and a fungi. The results of the bioassays showed that the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were the most sensitive to the oil than others with the MIC value of 1.8 mg/mL. The tested fungi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was highly inhibited by the oil of S. leptoclada with MIC value of 10 mg/mL. In the case of cytotoxicity, IC50 values estimated to be 312, 1250, 625 and 1250 μg oil/mL respectively, for the Vero, SW480, MCF7, and JET 3 cancer cell lines. PMID:25276213

  2. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Norbert; Djavadi, Seyyedeh Bahereh; Eskandari, Majid

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed. PMID:22577334

  3. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Norbert; Djavadi, Seyyedeh Bahereh; Eskandari, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed. PMID:22577334

  4. Molecular genetic and quantitative trait divergence associated with recent homoploid hybrid speciation: a study of Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Brennan, A C; Barker, D; Hiscock, S J; Abbott, R J

    2012-02-01

    Hybridization is increasingly seen as a trigger for rapid evolution and speciation. To quantify and qualify divergence associated with recent homoploid hybrid speciation, we compared quantitative trait (QT) and molecular genetic variation between the homoploid hybrid species Senecio squalidus and its parental species, S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius, and also their naturally occurring Sicilian hybrids. S. squalidus originated and became invasive in the United Kingdom following the introduction of hybrid plants from Mount Etna, Sicily, about 300 years ago. We recorded considerable molecular genetic differentiation between S. squalidus and its parents and their Sicilian hybrids in terms of both reduced genetic diversity and altered allele frequencies, potentially due to the genetic bottleneck associated with introduction to the United Kingdom. S. squalidus is also distinct from its parents and Sicilian hybrids for QTs, but less so than for molecular genetic markers. We suggest that this is due to resilience of polygenic QTs to changes in allele frequency or lack of selection for hybrid niche divergence in geographic isolation. While S. squalidus is intermediate or parental-like for most QTs, some trangressively distinct traits were observed, which might indicate emerging local adaptation in its invasive range. This study emphasizes the important contribution of founder events and geographic isolation to successful homoploid hybrid speciation. PMID:21829224

  5. Composition and antioxidant activity of Senecio nudicaulis Wall. ex DC. (Asteraceae): a medicinal plant growing wild in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Shah, G C

    2015-01-01

    The composition of essential oil isolated from Senecio nudicaulis Wall. ex DC. growing wild in Himachal Pradesh, India, was analysed, for the first time, by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. A total of 30 components representing 95.3% of the total oil were identified. The essential oil was characterised by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (54.97%) with caryophyllene oxide (24.99%) as the major component. Other significant constituents were humulene epoxide-II (21.25%), α-humulene (18.75%), β-caryophyllene (9.67%), epi-α-cadinol (2.90%), epi-α-muurolol (2.03%), β-cedrene (1.76%), longiborneol (1.76%), 1-tridecene (1.16%) and citronellol (1.13%). The oil was screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide-scavenging assay. The oil was found to exhibit significant antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals with IC50 values of 10.61 ± 0.14 μg mL(- 1), 11.85 ± 0.28 μg mL(- 1) and 11.29 ± 0.42 μg mL(- 1), respectively. PMID:25515495

  6. Molecular genetic and quantitative trait divergence associated with recent homoploid hybrid speciation: a study of Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, A C; Barker, D; Hiscock, S J; Abbott, R J

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization is increasingly seen as a trigger for rapid evolution and speciation. To quantify and qualify divergence associated with recent homoploid hybrid speciation, we compared quantitative trait (QT) and molecular genetic variation between the homoploid hybrid species Senecio squalidus and its parental species, S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius, and also their naturally occurring Sicilian hybrids. S. squalidus originated and became invasive in the United Kingdom following the introduction of hybrid plants from Mount Etna, Sicily, about 300 years ago. We recorded considerable molecular genetic differentiation between S. squalidus and its parents and their Sicilian hybrids in terms of both reduced genetic diversity and altered allele frequencies, potentially due to the genetic bottleneck associated with introduction to the United Kingdom. S. squalidus is also distinct from its parents and Sicilian hybrids for QTs, but less so than for molecular genetic markers. We suggest that this is due to resilience of polygenic QTs to changes in allele frequency or lack of selection for hybrid niche divergence in geographic isolation. While S. squalidus is intermediate or parental-like for most QTs, some trangressively distinct traits were observed, which might indicate emerging local adaptation in its invasive range. This study emphasizes the important contribution of founder events and geographic isolation to successful homoploid hybrid speciation. PMID:21829224

  7. The population genetics of sporophytic self-incompatibility in three hybridizing senecio (asteraceae) species with contrasting population histories.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Adrian C; Harris, Stephen A; Hiscock, Simon J

    2013-05-01

    Hybridization generates evolutionary novelty and spreads adaptive variation. By promoting outcrossing, plant self-incompatibility (SI) systems also favor interspecific hybridization because the S locus is under strong negative frequency-dependent balancing selection. This study investigates the SI mating systems of three hybridizing Senecio species with contrasting population histories. Senecio aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius native to Sicily, form a hybrid zone at intermediate altitudes on Mount Etna, and their neo-homoploid hybrid species, S. squalidus, has colonized disturbed urban habitats in the UK during the last 150 years. We show that all three species express sporophytic SI (SSI), where pollen incompatibility is controlled by the diploid parental genome, and that SSI is inherited and functions normally in hybrids. Large-scale crossing studies of wild sampled populations allowed direct comparison of SSI between species and found that the main impacts of colonization in S. squalidus compared to Sicilian Senecio was a reduced number of S alleles, increased S allele frequencies, and increased interpopulation S allele sharing. In general, many S alleles were shared between species and the S locus showed reduced intra- and interspecific population genetic structure compared to molecular genetic markers, indicative of enhanced effective gene flow due to balancing selection. PMID:23617913

  8. Genetic structure and outcrossing rates in Flourensia cernua (Asteraceae) growing at different densities in the South-western Chihuahuan Desert

    PubMed Central

    FERRER, MIRIAM M.; EGUIARTE, LUIS E.; MONTAÑA, CARLOS

    2004-01-01

    • Backgrounds and aims Flourensia cernua is a partially self-incompatible, wind-pollinated shrub that grows in two scrub types of contrasting densities. It was anticipated that differences in plant density would affect the amount of genotype availability, and thus higher outcrossing rates and less genetic differentiation would be found at high-density sites. • Methods At five high-density sites and at five low-density sites, 11 allozyme loci were analysed in adults. Outcrossing rates were estimated using five allozyme loci sampled from eight families from each scrub type. • Key results High levels of genetic variation were found at all sites (ranging from P = 82–100 %, He = 0·33–0·45, and Ho = 0·4–0·59). Heterozygotes were found in excess (FIS = −0·15 ± 0·06 s.d.), suggesting that natural selection favours heterozygosity, and there was little differentiation between sites (FST = 0·08 ± 0·02 s.d.). Life history attributes, such as long-lived habit and wide geographic distribution, as well as the presence of a self-incompatibility system may explain these results. Outcrossing rates did not differ from 1·0 in both scrub types, and there was no genetic differentiation between scrub types (FST = −0·01 ± 0·004 s.d.). • Conclusions The high rate of outcrossing favoured by partial incompatibility may generate unrestricted gene flow between scrub types and thus may explain the lack of differentiation between them. High heterozygosity could be expected in long-lived plants of arid zones as they confront a variable and stressing environment. PMID:15277246

  9. The influence of contemporary and historic landscape features on the genetic structure of the sand dune endemic, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Fant, J B; Havens, K; Keller, J M; Radosavljevic, A; Yates, E D

    2014-01-01

    Narrow endemics are at risk from climate change because of their restricted habitat preferences, lower colonization ability and dispersal distances. Landscape genetics combines new tools and analyses that allow us to test how both past and present landscape features have facilitated or hindered previous range expansion and local migration patterns, and thereby identifying potential limitations to future range shifts. We have compared current and historic habitat corridors in Cirsium pitcheri, an endemic of the linear dune ecosystem of the Great Lakes, to determine the relative contributions of contemporary migration and post-glacial range expansion on genetic structure. We used seven microsatellite loci to characterize the genetic structure for 24 populations of Cirsium pitcheri, spanning the center to periphery of the range. We tested genetic distance against different measures of geographic distance and landscape permeability, based on contemporary and historic landscape features. We found moderate genetic structure (Fst=0.14), and a north–south pattern to the distribution of genetic diversity and inbreeding, with northern populations having the highest diversity and lowest levels of inbreeding. High allelic diversity, small average pairwise distances and mixed genetic clusters identified in Structure suggest that populations in the center of the range represent the point of entry to the Lake Michigan and a refugium of diversity for this species. A strong association between genetic distances and lake-level changes suggests that historic lake fluctuations best explain the broad geographic patterns, and sandy habitat best explains local patterns of movement. PMID:24398882

  10. A refined concept of the Critoniopsis bogotana species group in Colombia with two new species (Vernonieae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Keeley, Sterling C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Critoniopsis bogotana is more precisely delimited, and two related Colombian species are described as new. The form of trichomes on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves is found to be of major importance. A short key to the Critoniopsis bogotana group is provided. PMID:25931974

  11. Modeling the growth of individuals in plant populations: local density variation in a strand population of Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Weiner, J; Kinsman, S; Williams, S

    1998-11-01

    We studied the growth of individual Xanthium strumarium plants growing at four naturally occurring local densities on a beach in Maine: (1) isolated plants, (2) pairs of plants ≤1 cm apart, (3) four plants within 4 cm of each other, and (4) discrete dense clumps of 10-39 plants. A combination of nondestructive measurements every 2 wk and parallel calibration harvests provided very good estimates of the growth in aboveground biomass of over 400 individual plants over 8 wk and afforded the opportunity to fit explicit growth models to 293 of them. There was large individual variation in growth and resultant size within the population and within all densities. Local crowding played a role in determining plant size within the population: there were significant differences in final size between all densities except pairs and quadruples, which were almost identical. Overall, plants growing at higher densities were more variable in growth and final size than plants growing at lower densities, but this was due to increased variation among groups (greater variation in local density and/or greater environmental heterogeneity), not to increased variation within groups. Thus, there was no evidence of size asymmetric competition in this population. The growth of most plants was close to exponential over the study period, but half the plants were slightly better fit by a sigmoidal (logistic) model. The proportion of plants better fit by the logistic model increased with density and with initial plant size. The use of explicit growth models over several growth intervals to describe stand development can provide more biological content and more statistical power than "growth-size" methods that analyze growth intervals separately. PMID:21680325

  12. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment. PMID:27273012

  13. Genome Size Variation and Species Relationships in Hieracium Sub-genus Pilosella (Asteraceae) as Inferred by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Jan; Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Peckert, Tomáš; Krahulec, František

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Hieracium sub-genus Pilosella (hawkweeds) is a taxonomically complicated group of vascular plants, the structure of which is substantially influenced by frequent interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. Two kinds of species, ‘basic’ and ‘intermediate’ (i.e. hybridogenous), are usually recognized. In this study, genome size variation was investigated in a representative set of Central European hawkweeds in order to assess the value of such a data set for species delineation and inference of evolutionary relationships. Methods Holoploid and monoploid genome sizes (C- and Cx-values) were determined using propidium iodide flow cytometry for 376 homogeneously cultivated individuals of Hieracium sub-genus Pilosella, including 24 species (271 individuals), five recent natural hybrids (seven individuals) and experimental F1 hybrids from four parental combinations (98 individuals). Chromosome counts were available for more than half of the plant accessions. Base composition (proportion of AT/GC bases) was cytometrically estimated in 73 individuals. Key Results Seven different ploidy levels (2x–8x) were detected, with intraspecific ploidy polymorphism (up to four different cytotypes) occurring in 11 wild species. Mean 2C-values varied approx. 4·3-fold from 3·53 pg in diploid H. hoppeanum to 15·30 pg in octoploid H. brachiatum. 1Cx-values ranged from 1·72 pg in H. pilosella to 2·16 pg in H. echioides (1·26-fold). The DNA content of (high) polyploids was usually proportional to the DNA values of their diploid/low polyploid counterparts, indicating lack of processes altering genome size (i.e. genome down-sizing). Most species showed constant nuclear DNA amounts, exceptions being three hybridogenous taxa, in which introgressive hybridization was suggested as a presumable trigger for genome size variation. Monoploid genome sizes of hybridogenous species were always between the corresponding values of their putative parents. In addition, there was a good congruency between actual DNA estimates and theoretical values inferred from putative parental combinations and between DNA values of experimental F1 hybrids and corresponding established hybridogenous taxa. Conclusions Significant differences in genome size between hawkweed species from hybridogenous lineages involving the small-genome H. pilosella document the usefulness of nuclear DNA content as a supportive marker for reliable delineation of several of the most problematic taxa in Hieracium sub-genus Pilosella (including classification of borderline morphotypes). In addition, genome size data were shown to have a good predictive value for inferring evolutionary relationships and genome constitution (i.e. putative parental combinations) in hybridogenous species. PMID:17921526

  14. Karyotypes of metaphase chromosomes in diploid populations of Dendranthema zawadskii and related species (Asteraceae) from Korea: diversity and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Sung; Pak, Jae-Hong; Seo, Bong-Bo; Tobe, Hiroshi

    2003-02-01

    Although the Dendranthema zawadskii complex has been known to comprise a series of polyploids (4x, 6x, 8x), we found diploid individuals (with 2 n=18) to occur in four populations of D. zawadskii var. latilobum in the southern region of Korea. Karyotypes of metaphase chromosomes were diverse because numbers of metacentric, submetacentric, and acrocentric chromosomes differ even within a population. A total of 17 karyotypes were found in 31 diploid individuals collected from the four populations. The karyotypes were also diverse in the presence or absence of chromosomes with a secondary constriction on a short or long arm and, if present, in the number of such chromosomes. They were further diverse in the presence or absence of non-homologous chromosome(s), the presence or absence of a chromosome with a satellite, and, if present, how many and where satellites are present. Almost the same pattern of diversity was found in diploid individuals (with 2 n=18) of D. boreale and D. indicum as well, irrespective of whether they occur together with D. zawadskii var. latilobum or not. Structural features of chromosomes in the variously different karyotypes suggest that reciprocal translocation and the hybridization between individuals with different karyotypes had repeatedly occurred not only in D. zawadskii var. latilobum, but also in D. boreale and D. indicum. Morphologically intermediate individuals between D. zawadskii var. latilobum and D. indicum suggests that the hybridization occur with different species as well. PMID:12605299

  15. Field garden experiments to assess the host specificity of Aceria solstitialis (Acari: Eriophyoidea), potential biocontrol agent for Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is an annual noxious weed that currently infests millions of acres of rangelands, non-cultivated and natural areas in the Western USA. It displaces native plant communities reducing plant diversity and forage production for livestock and wildlife. Aceria s...

  16. Pleistocene refugia and polytopic replacement of diploids by tetraploids in the Patagonian and Subantarctic plant Hypochaeris incana (Asteraceae, Cichorieae).

    PubMed

    Tremetsberger, Karin; Urtubey, Estrella; Terrab, Anass; Baeza, Carlos M; Ortiz, María Angeles; Talavera, María; König, Christiane; Temsch, Eva M; Kohl, Gudrun; Talavera, Salvador; Stuessy, Tod F

    2009-09-01

    We report the phylogeographic pattern of the Patagonian and Subantarctic plant Hypochaeris incana endemic to southeastern South America. We applied amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis to 28 and 32 populations, respectively, throughout its distributional range and assessed ploidy levels using flow cytometry. While cpDNA data suggest repeated or simultaneous parallel colonization of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego by several haplotypes and/or hybridization, AFLPs reveal three clusters corresponding to geographic regions. The central and northern Patagonian clusters (approximately 38-51 degrees S), which are closer to the outgroup, contain mainly tetraploid, isolated and highly differentiated populations with low genetic diversity. To the contrary, the southern Patagonian and Fuegian cluster (approximately 51-55 degrees S) contains mainly diploid populations with high genetic diversity and connected by high levels of gene flow. The data suggest that H. incana originated at the diploid level in central or northern Patagonia, from where it migrated south. All three areas, northern, central and southern, have similar levels of rare and private AFLP bands, suggesting that all three served as refugia for H. incana during glacial times. In southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, the species seems to have expanded its populational system in postglacial times, when the climate became warmer and more humid. In central and northern Patagonia, the populations seem to have become restricted to favourable sites with increasing temperature and decreasing moisture and there was a parallel replacement of diploids by tetraploids in local populations. PMID:19674310

  17. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Dalmatian Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium Trevir. /Sch./ Bip., Asteraceae) within the Balkan Refugium

    PubMed Central

    Grdiša, Martina; Liber, Zlatko; Radosavljević, Ivan; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Kolak, Ivan; Satovic, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium Trevir. /Sch./ Bip.) is an outcrossing, perennial insecticidal plant, restricted to the eastern Adriatic coast (Mediterranean). Amplified fragment-length polymorphisms (AFLP) were used to investigate the genetic diversity and structure within and among 20 natural plant populations. The highest level of gene diversity, the number of private alleles and the frequency down-weighted marker values (DW) were found in northern Adriatic populations and gradually decreased towards the southern boundary of the species range. Genetic impoverishment of these southern populations is most likely the result of human-related activities. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that most of the genetic diversity was attributed to differences among individuals within populations (85.78%), which are expected due to the outcrossing nature of the species. A Bayesian analysis of the population structure identified two dominant genetic clusters. A spatial analysis of the genetic diversity indicated that 5.6% of the genetic differentiation resulted from isolation by distance (IBD), while 12.3% of the genetic differentiation among populations followed the pattern of isolation by environmental distance (IBED). Knowledge of the genetic diversity patterns of the natural populations and the mechanism behind these patterns is required for the exploitation and possible conservation management of this endemic and economically important species. PMID:25121763

  18. Antifungal, antiradical and cytotoxic activities of extractives obtained from Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae), a potential acaricide plant species.

    PubMed

    Politi, Flávio A S; Queiroz-Fernandes, Geisiany M; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Freitas, Jolindo A; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2016-06-01

    Tagetes patula L. shows a complex chemical composition, ranging from glycosylated flavonoids and thiophenes in extracts until terpenoids in the essential oil. In the present study, due to this rich flavonoidic constitution, its antioxidant potential was determined, having shown values of antiradical percentage superior to reference compounds, mainly the extracts prepared with flowers. Previous studies performed emphasized the acaricide potential of T. patula and thus, the present study aimed to verify the action of extractives obtained from aerial parts on growth of entomopathogenic fungi related to biological control of brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the action against pathogenic fungi closely associated with pets. None of the samples inhibited the growth of strains of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae, enabling feasible future studies of synergism on acaricide activity of formulations containing fungi and extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of flowers (FlEtOH70%) against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum was significant (193.3 μg/mL and 253.9 μg/mL, respectively), as well as ethanolic extract from aerial parts (APEtOH70%) against T. rubrum (312.5 μg/mL). In order to ensure the safety of a topical formulation containing the extractives of T. patula, the cytotoxic potential of these samples were tested in murine macrophages cells. At higher concentrations all extracts were quite lethal, with IC50 ranging from 210.96 μg/mL to 468.75 μg/mL for APEtOH70% and FlEtOH70%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of a product containing T. patula extractives in the control of ticks could be used, at principle, only on the environment. PMID:26945559

  19. Volatile constituents of aerial parts of two Mediterranean species of Inula: Inula crithmoides L. and I. verbascifolia (Willd.) Hausskn. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fontana, Gianfranco; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice; Formisano, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Inula crithmoides L. grows along the Mediterranean coasts and is used as an edible vegetable as the young leaves or shoots are eaten raw, cooked or pickled. Inula verbascifolia (Willd.) Hausskn. is a quite localised species growing mainly along the Adriatic Sea coasts. In this study the volatile components of the aerial part of both species are described. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of 41 components in I.crithmoides and 75 compounds in I.verbascifolia, respectively, and a very different profile in the composition of the two species. The chemotaxonomy of I. crithmoides, by comparison with other data reported in the literature, is discussed. PMID:24716642

  20. Age-dependent susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ali, Elnour A; Bushara, Hamid O; Ali, Faisal S; Hussein, Mansour F

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails, immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails. The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus ages. PMID:19842431

  1. The promiscuous and the chaste: frequent allopolyploid speciation and its genomic consequences in American daisies (Melampodium sect. Melampodium; Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Villaseñor, José L; Stuessy, Tod F; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidy, an important factor in eukaryotic evolution, is especially abundant in angiosperms, where it often acts in concert with hybridization to produce allopolyploids. The application of molecular phylogenetic techniques has identified the origins of numerous allopolyploids, but little is known on genomic and chromosomal consequences of allopolyploidization, despite their important role in conferring divergence of allopolyploids from their parental species. Here, using several plastid and nuclear sequence markers, we clarify the origin of tetra- and hexaploids in a group of American daisies, allowing characterization of genome dynamics in polyploids compared to their diploid ancestors. All polyploid species are allopolyploids. Among the four diploid gene pools, the propensity for allopolyploidization is unevenly distributed phylogenetically with a few species apparently more prone to participate, but the underlying causes remain unclear. Polyploid genomes are characterized by differential loss of ribosomal DNA loci (5S and 35S rDNA), known hotspots of chromosomal evolution, but show genome size additivity, suggesting limited changes beyond those affecting rDNA loci or the presence of processes counterbalancing genome reduction. Patterns of rDNA sequence conversion and provenance of the lost loci are highly idiosyncratic and differ even between allopolyploids of identical parentage, indicating that allopolyploids deriving from the same lower-ploid parental species can follow different evolutionary trajectories. PMID:22220876

  2. Alteration of plasma biochemical, haematological and ocular oxidative indices of alloxan induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Linn (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ikewuchi, Jude Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Tridax procumbens on the haematology, plasma biochemistry and ocular indices of oxidative stress was investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of alloxan (80 mg/kg body weight), via the tail vein. The extract was administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (both to normal and diabetic rats), and metformin at 50 mg/kg. On gas chromatographic analysis of the alkaloid fraction of the aqueous extract, thirty nine known alkaloids were detected, consisting mainly of 73.91 % akuamidine, 22.33 % voacangine, 1.27 % echitamine, 0.55 % echitamidine, 0.36 % lupanine, 0.27 % crinamidine, 0.23 % augustamine and 0.10 % 6-hydroxypowelline. Tannic acid and β-sitosterol were detected in high quantities. Compared to Test control, the treatment dose-dependently, significantly lowered (P<0.05) plasma glucose, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total bilirubin, urea, blood urea nitrogen; plasma alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, and ocular superoxide dismutase activities, and lymphocyte count. It also significantly increased (P<0.05) plasma calcium and ocular ascorbic acid contents, haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil count. This study showed that the extract was hypoglycemic, positively affected the haemopoietic system and integrity and function (dose dependently) of the liver and kidney of the diabetic rats; improved the lipid profile and had no deleterious effect on red cell morphology and protected against oxidative stress in ocular tissues. This study also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active compounds in the leaf extract. All of these, highlight the cardioprotective potential of the leaves of Tridax procumbens, and support its use in traditional health care practices for the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27418906

  3. Molecular Phylogeny of the Lactuca Alliance (Cichorieae Subtribe Lactucinae, Asteraceae) with Focus on Their Chinese Centre of Diversity Detects Potential Events of Reticulation and Chloroplast Capture

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze-Huan; Peng, Hua; Kilian, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The first comprehensive molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of the Cichorieae subtribe Lactucinae is provided. Sequences for two datasets, one of the nuclear rDNA ITS region, the other of five concatenated non-coding chloroplast DNA markers including the petD region and the psbA-trnH, 5′trnL(UAA)-trnF, rpl32-trnL(UAG) and trnQ(UUG)-5′rps16 spacers, were, with few exceptions, newly generated for 130 samples of 78 species. The sampling spans the entire subtribe Lactucinae while focusing on its Chinese centre of diversity; more than 3/4 of the Chinese Lactucinae species are represented. The nuclear and plastid phylogenies inferred from the two independent datasets show various hard topological incongruences. They concern the internal topology of major lineages, in one case the placement of taxa in major lineages, the relationships between major lineages and even the circumscription of the subtribe, indicating potential events of ancient as well as of more recent reticulation and chloroplast capture in the evolution of the subtribe. The core of the subtribe is clearly monophyletic, consisting of the six lineages, Cicerbita, Cicerbita II, Lactuca, Melanoseris, Notoseris and Paraprenanthes. The Faberia lineage and the monospecific Prenanthes purpurea lineage are part of a monophyletic subtribe Lactucinae only in the nuclear or plastid phylogeny, respectively. Morphological and karyological support for their placement is considered. In the light of the molecular phylogenetic reconstruction and of additional morphological data, the conflicting taxonomies of the Chinese Lactuca alliance are discussed and it is concluded that the major lineages revealed are best treated at generic rank. An improved species level taxonomy of the Chinese Lactucinae is outlined; new synonymies and some new combinations are provided. PMID:24376566

  4. Phylogeny of Rhaponticum (Asteraceae, Cardueae–Centaureinae) and Related Genera Inferred from Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA Sequence Data: Taxonomic and Biogeographic Implications

    PubMed Central

    HIDALGO, ORIANE; GARCIA-JACAS, NÚRIA; GARNATJE, TERESA; SUSANNA, ALFONSO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The precise generic delimitation of the Rhaponticum group is not totally resolved. The lack of knowledge of the relationships between the basal genera of Centaureinae could imply that genera whose position is as yet unresolved could belong to the Rhaponticum group. On the other hand, the affinities among the genera that are considered as members of this group are not well known. The aim of the study is to contribute to the phylogenetic and generic delineation of the Rhaponticum group on the basis of molecular data. • Methods Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the combined sequences of one plastid (trnL-trnF) and two nuclear (ITS region and ETS) molecular markers were carried out. The results of these analyses are discussed in the light of the biogeographic history. • Key Results The Rhaponticum group appears as monophyletic, and closely related to the genus Klasea. The results confirm the preliminary generic delimitation of the Rhaponticum group, with the new incorporation of the genus Centaurothamnus. Ochrocephala is supported as a separate genus from Rhaponticum and, contrary to this, Acroptilon and Leuzea appear as merged into the genus Rhaponticum. Several nomenclatural rearrangements are made in Klasea and Rhaponticum. • Conclusions The new molecular evidence is consistent with the morphological and karyological data, and suggests particularly coherent biogeographic routes of migration and speciation processes for the genus Rhaponticum. The biogeographic inference proposes a Near East and/or Caucasian origin for the genus. Furthermore, representatives of Rhaponticum could have reached Europe in two different ways: (1) expansion across central Asia to eastern Europe, and (2) expansion through the Near East, North Africa and then to the Iberian Peninsula and the Alps. PMID:16495316

  5. Quantitative determination of enhydrin in leaf rinse extracts and in glandular trichomes of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Karin; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2005-01-01

    A simple, reliable and rapid reversed-phase HPLC-PAD procedure for the characterisation and quantitative determination of the anti-diabetic sesquiterpene lactone enhydrin (1) from Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón) has been evaluated and validated. The approach focused on the analysis of various leaf rinse extracts, as well as the glandular trichomes of intact leaves, in which 1 was the major compound detected. The best sample preparation of a rinse extract yielded 0.67 mg/mL of 1, whilst a rapid rinse of a small piece of one dried leaf gave 0.09 mg/mL of 1; the highest concentration obtained from a glandular extract was 0.07 mg/mL. The dried leaves of S. sonchifolius were found to contain a total of 0.97% of 1. PMID:15997848

  6. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia - Italy).

    PubMed

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. PMID:26327252

  7. Limited DNA methylation variation and the transcription of MET1 and DDM1 in the genus Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae): following the track of polyploidy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Qi, Xiangyu; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy has been recognized as a widespread and common phenomenon among flowering plants. DNA-5'-CCGG site cytosine methylation (C-methylation) is one of the major and immediate epigenetic responses of the plant genome. Elucidating the ways in which altered C-methylation patterns, either at the whole genomic level or at specific sites can affect genome stability in polyploidy will require substantial additional investigation. Methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism profiling was used to evaluate variation in C-methylation among a set of 20 Chrysanthemum species and their close relatives of varying ploidy levels from diploid to decaploid. The range in relative C-methylation level was within 10%, and there was no significant difference neither between different ploidy levels nor between different species in the same ploidy level (U-values < 1.96). The transcript abundances of MET1 and DDM1 genes, which both involved in the regulation of C-methylation at CpG sites, were enhanced with increased ploidy level, but only MET1 was positively correlated with the nuclear DNA content. Considering the key role and efficiency of MET1 in maintaining CpG methylation, the limited variation observed with respect to C-methylation may reflect a balance between the increased activity of MET1 in the higher ploidy genomes and the larger number of CpG dinucleotide sites available for methylation. PMID:26379692

  8. Phylogeography of the high alpine plant Senecio halleri (Asteraceae) in the European Alps: in situ glacial survival with postglacial stepwise dispersal into peripheral areas.

    PubMed

    Bettin, O; Cornejo, C; Edwards, P J; Holderegger, R

    2007-06-01

    Whether alpine plant species survived Pleistocene glaciations in situ on high alpine nunatak mountains is still under debate. To test this hypothesis, Senecio halleri, a high alpine and endemic species with a narrow distribution range in the European Alps, was chosen as a model organism. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA PCR-RFLPs) were used in a phylogeographic analysis of 14 populations of S. halleri, covering its total distribution area. The results of haplotype diversity and distribution gave evidence of in situ glacial survival on siliceous central-alpine nunatak mountains in two areas, southwest and northeast of the Aosta valley. According to the absence of genetic differentiation between these two nunatak areas (based on amova), nested clade analysis implied a history of preglacial gene flow, in situ survival and extinction of intermediate populations during glaciation and postglacial stepwise recolonization of peripheral and intermediate areas. PMID:17561910

  9. A source of almost pure methyl chavicol: volatile oil from the aerial parts of Tagetes lucida (Asteraceae) cultivated in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cicció, José F

    2004-12-01

    The plant Tagetes lucida Cav. (syn. T. florida Sweet, T. schiedeana Less.) is an aromatic herb distributed naturally from Mexico to Honduras, at elevations between 1 000 and 2 000 m. It is used as a spice, for medicine, as insecticide and as ornamental plant. It is cultivated commercially in Costa Rica as a spice herb; it contains an oil having an anise-like odor, and the fresh aerial parts of this plant are sold in the supermarket as a substitute of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.). The essential oils isolated from aerial parts bought, at May and October, in a supermarket in San José (Costa Rica). Fresh flowering aerial parts, flowers and leaves plus stems, were subjected to hydrodistillation for 3 hr using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The distilled oils were collected and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored in a freezer (0-10 degrees C). The light yellow green oil yield was about 0.07% (v/w). GC/MS analyses were performed using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP5050 apparatus and CLASS 5000 software with Wiley 139 computer database. Identification of the components of the oil was performed using the retention indices, which were calculated in relation to a homologous series of hydrocarbons, and by comparison of their mass spectra with those published in the literature or those of our own database. Thirty compounds were identified, of which methyl chavicol (95-97%) was the major constituent. From flower oil, two bithienyls were detected as minor constituents. PMID:17354394

  10. Protective action of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a cattle pen trial.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Renato; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante

    2013-10-18

    The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is globally regarded as the most economically important ectoparasite of livestock, and the evolution of resistance to commercial acaricides among cattle tick populations is of great concern. The essential oil derived from Tagetes minuta may be efficacious against cattle tick infestation, and the results of a cattle pen trial using this essential oil for the control of ticks are reported here. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of four major components in the essential oil. These components represent more than 70% of the essential oil: limonene (6.96%), β-ocimene (5.11%), dihydrotagetone (54.10%) and tagetone (6.73%). The results of the cattle pen trial indicated significant differences among the average values of the analyzed biological parameters, including the number of ticks, the average weight of the ticks, the average egg weight per engorged female and larval viability. Treatment with the T. minuta essential oil prepared in this study promoted significant effects on all biological indicators analyzed. Based on the biological indicators, the essential oil showed 99.98% efficacy compared to the control group when used at a 20% concentration. The results obtained in this study suggest that the T. minuta essential oil is a potential R. microplus tick control agent and may be used to mitigate the economic losses caused by tick infestation. PMID:23778081

  11. Antifungal and phytotoxic activity of essential oil from root of Senecio amplexicaulis Kunth. (Asteraceae) growing wild in high altitude-Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Naresh; Prakash Sati, Om; Sati, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum. The oil demonstrated remarkable phytotoxic activity in tested concentration and significant reduction in seed germination percentage of Phalaris minor and Triticum aestivum at higher concentrations. The roots essential oil showed high yield for one of its marker compound (α-phellandrene) which makes it important natural source of this compound. PMID:27498832

  12. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L.

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  13. Development and validation of a stability indicative HPLC-PDA method for kaurenoic acid in spray dried extracts of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Fucina, Giovana; Block, Luciana Catia; Baccarin, Thaisa; Ribeiro, Thiago Ruiz Gutierrez; Quintão, Nara Lins Meira; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Silva, Ruth Meri Lucinda; Bresolin, Tania Mari Bellé

    2012-11-15

    A gradient stability indicative HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for assay of the marker kaurenoic acid (KA) in spray dried extract of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski. The marker, and another unidentified polar component, were separated on a Luna Phenomenex C(18) column (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile:acidified water pH 3.0 with phosphoric acid, in a gradient run of 40 min; at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), 35 °C, using wavelengths of 210 and 338 nm. The method was linear over a KA concentration range of 4.5-30.0 μg mL(-1), without interference of the herbal matrix on the linearity of the method. The RSD% values for the intra- and inter-day precision studies were <2.0 and <8.0% for inter-laboratorial study. The method showed excellent KA recovery (99.0%). The LOQ value was found to be 1.13 μg mL(-1) and the method proved to be robust for small, deliberate changes in temperature and pH of the mobile phase with RSD%<2.5% for the KA assay. A forced degradation study of S. trilobata dried extract was conducted under conditions of visible light (1.200.000 l×h(-1)) and UV (200 Whm(-2)) irradiation, acid (0.5 mol L(-1) HCl, 30 min), basic (1 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2 h) and oxidative (30% H(2)O(2), 4h) hydrolysis, in order to develop a gradient stability-indicating LC-UV method for KA quantification, the selected marker, and also to detect the major polar components of the extract, under investigation. The KA contents remaining after these stress conditions were 72.3, 70.0, 97.6, 65.8 and 87.0%, respectively. The alkaline conditions resulted in higher degradation for the unknown polar components of the extract, without interference of supplementary peaks at the retention time of the KA. This method can be used for the KA assay and qualitative analysis of polar components in stability study of spray dried extracts of S. trilobata, for subsequent use in the quality control of dosage forms. PMID:23158359

  14. The role of pectic composition of cell walls in the determination of the new shape-functional design in galls of Baccharis reticularia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Formiga, Anete Teixeira; de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; de Castro, Ariane Chagas; Fernandes, G Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    The pectic composition of cell wall is altered during the processes of cell differentiation, plant growth, and development. These alterations may be time-dependent, and fluctuate in distinct regions of the same cell or tissue layer, due to the biotic stress caused by the activity of the gall inducer. Among the roles of the pectins in cell wall, elasticity, rigidity, porosity, and control of cell death may be crucial during gall development. Galls on Baccharis reticularia present species-specific patterns of development leading to related morphotypes where pectins were widely detected by Ruthenium red, and the pectic epitopes were labeled with specific monoclonal antibodies (LM1, LM2, LM5, LM6, JIM5, and JIM7) in distinct sites of the non-galled and the galled tissues. In the studied system B. reticularia, the epitopes for extensins were not labeled in the non-galled tissues, as well as in those of the rolling and kidney-shaped galls. The high methyl-esterified homogalacturonans (HGA) were labeled all over the tissues either of non-galled leaves or of the three gall morphotypes, while the intense labeling for arabinogalactans was obtained just in the rolling galls. The pectic composition of non-galled leaves denotes their maturity. The kidney-shaped gall was the most similar to the non-galled leaves. The pectic dynamics in the gall tissues was particularly altered in relation to low methyl-esterified HGA, which confers elasticity and expansion, as well as porosity and adhesion to cell walls, and are related to the homogenization and hypertrophy of gall cortex, and to translocation of solutes to the larval chamber. Herein, the importance of the pectic dynamics of cell walls to the new functional design established during gall development is discussed for the first time. The repetitive developmental patterns in galls are elegant models for studies on cell differentiation. PMID:23255001

  15. Anti-ulcerogenic mechanisms of the sesquiterpene lactone onopordopicrin-enriched fraction from Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae): role of somatostatin, gastrin, and endogenous sulfhydryls and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Cola, Maíra; Di Pietro Magri, Luciana; Batista, Leonia Maria; de Paiva, Joseilson Alves; Trigo, José Roberto; Souza-Brito, Alba R M

    2012-04-01

    Arctium lappa L. has been used in folk medicine as a diuretic, depurative, and digestive stimulant and in dermatological conditions. The mechanisms involved in the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the sesquiterpene onopordopicrin (ONP)-enriched fraction (termed the ONP fraction), obtained from A. lappa leaves, were studied. The gastroprotective mechanism of the ONP fraction was evaluated in experimental in vivo models in rodents, mimicking this disease in humans. ONP fraction (50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the mucosal injury induced by ethanol/HCl solution (75%), indomethacin/bethanecol (68.9%), and stress (58.3%). When the ONP fraction was investigated in pylorus ligature, it did not induce alteration in the gastric volume but did modify the pH and total acid concentration of gastric juice. ONP fraction significantly increased serum somatostatin levels (82.1±4.1 vs. control group 12.7±4 pmol/L) and decreased serum gastrin levels (62.6±6.04 vs. control group 361.5±8.2 μU/mL). Mucus production was not significantly altered by the ONP fraction. Gastroprotection by the ONP fraction was completely inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide treatment and did not modify the effect in the animals pretreated with l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester. These results suggest an antisecretory mechanism involved with the antiulcerogenic effect of the ONP fraction. However, only endogenous sulfhydryls play an important role in gastroprotection of the ONP fraction. PMID:22191571

  16. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field tested over several ...

  17. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Chirumamilla, Anitha; Knodel, Janet J; Charlet, Laurence D; Hulke, Brent S; Foster, Stephen P; Ode, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field-tested, over several years, the effects of seven sunflower accessions, rated as resistant to C. hospes in previous screening trials, and a susceptible control (Par 1673-2), on the ovipositional preference and larval performance of C. hospes and its larval parasitoids. Of the resistant accessions, PI 494859 was the most preferred for oviposition, receiving a significantly greater number of eggs per head than did the susceptible Par 1673-2 in 2 of 3 yr. However, the numbers of larvae, and consequently the rate of seed infestation, found in PI 494859 heads were significantly lower than those in Par 1673-2 heads over all 3 yr. Female moths laid relatively few eggs on accessions PI 170385, 291403, and 251902, compared with on Par 1673-2, resulting in lower numbers of larvae per head and lower percentages of seed damaged. No association was observed between the concentrations of two diterpenoid alcohols or two diterpenoid acids in sunflower bracts and the numbers of eggs laid on the heads of the accessions. The number of banded sunflower moth larvae and the proportion of seeds damaged were positively correlated with kaurenoic acid concentrations and negatively correlated with kauranol concentrations. A positive association between resistance to larval feeding and parasitism was found in years 2006 and 2008, with resistant accessions having significantly greater proportions of parasitized larvae than did the susceptible Par 1673-2. PMID:24367911

  18. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water distilled essential oils from the air dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-seven and 3...

  19. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Duran, Ahmet; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, K Husnu Can

    2014-07-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 32 components were identified representing 97.2 and 98.7% of essential oils of subsp. argenteum and canum, respectively. Main compounds of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum were alpha-pinene (67.9%) and beta-pinene (4.8%), whereas alpha-pinene (53.6%), 1, 8-cineole (14.8%), and camphor (4.7%) were the major constituents of subsp. canum. Essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. canum at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrent Index (BDI) value of 0.73 showed activity similar to N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at 25 mol/cm2, whereas the activity of essential oil of subsp. argenteum was lower (BDI = 0.47) than subsp. canum and DEET. Based on 95% CIs, activity of beta-caryophyllene (BDI value = 0.54) and caryophyllene oxide (BDI = 0.66) were significantly lower than DEET. In larval bioassays, essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum showed LC50 value of 93.34 ppm, whereas T. argenteum subsp. canum killed only 40% of the larvae at the highest dose of 125 ppm. Among the pure compounds, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 = 26 ppm) was the most potent compound followed by caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 29 ppm), which was also similar to (-)-beta-pinene (LC50 = 35.9 ppm) against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Compounds (-)-alpha-pinene and (+)-beta-pinene showed similar larvicidal activity. Activity of (+)-alpha-pinene with LC50 value of was similar to the essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum. PMID:25118415

  20. High-density genetic maps for loci involved in nuclear male sterility (NMS1) and sporophytic self-incompatibility (S-locus) in chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Gonthier, Lucy; Blassiau, Christelle; Mörchen, Monika; Cadalen, Thierry; Poiret, Matthieu; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-01

    High-density genetic maps were constructed for loci involved in nuclear male sterility (NMS1-locus) and sporophytic self-incompatibility (S-locus) in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). The mapping population consisted of 389 F1' individuals derived from a cross between two plants, K28 (male-sterile) and K59 (pollen-fertile), both heterozygous at the S-locus. This F1' mapping population segregated for both male sterility (MS) and strong self-incompatibility (SI) phenotypes. Phenotyping F1' individuals for MS allowed us to map the NMS1-locus to linkage group (LG) 5, while controlled diallel and factorial crosses to identify compatible/incompatible phenotypes mapped the S-locus to LG2. To increase the density of markers around these loci, bulked segregant analysis was used. Bulks and parental plants K28 and K59 were screened using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, with a complete set of 256 primer combinations of EcoRI-ANN and MseI-CNN. A total of 31,000 fragments were generated, of which 2,350 showed polymorphism between K59 and K28. Thirteen AFLP markers were identified close to the NMS1-locus and six in the vicinity of the S-locus. From these AFLP markers, eight were transformed into sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers and of these five showed co-dominant polymorphism. The chromosomal regions containing the NMS1-locus and the S-locus were each confined to a region of 0.8 cM. In addition, we mapped genes encoding proteins similar to S-receptor kinase, the female determinant of sporophytic SI in the Brasicaceae, and also markers in the vicinity of the putative S-locus of sunflower, but none of these genes or markers mapped close to the chicory S-locus. PMID:23689744

  1. Changes in mesophyll element distribution and phytometabolite contents involved in fluoride tolerance of the arid gypsum-tolerant plant species Atractylis serratuloides Sieber ex Cass. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Boukhris, Asma; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Rabier, Jacques; Salducci, Marie-Dominique; El Kadri, Lefi; Tonetto, Alain; Tatoni, Thierry; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Atractylis serratuloides is an abundant native spiny species that grows in the surroundings of superphosphate factories in Tunisia. This plant species is adapted to arid environments and tolerates a high level of fluoride pollution in soils. The aim of this study was to better understand the physiological mechanisms of fluoride tolerance of this species, comparing the fluoride-contaminated sites of Gabes and Skhira with the reference site of Smara. Results demonstrated the involvement of leaf element and phytometabolite balances in the in situ response of A. serrulatoides to fluoride. Calcium, sulphur and magnesium were differently distributed between the sites of Gabes and Smara in all plant organs. No specific tissue fluorine accumulation in root, stem and leaf, even in the most contaminated site at Gabes, was detected by EDAX mapping. Lower anthocyan and flavonol levels but enhanced nitrogen balance index were found in A. serrulatoides leaves from Gabes compared to the two other sites. A. serratuloides appeared as a fluoride excluder and its tolerance involved calcium interactions with fluoride. Moreover, an occurrence of dark septate endophytes and arbuscular mycorhizal fungi in root systems of A. serratuloides was reported for the first time, and these symbioses were present but low at all sites. We suggest the use of this plant species for fluoride-polluted soil stabilization. PMID:25510616

  2. TLC-Direct Bioautography and LC/MS as Complementary Methods in Identification of Antibacterial Agents in Plant Tinctures from the Asteraceae Family.

    PubMed

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Kocsis, Béla; Horváth, Györgyi; Choma, Irena M

    2015-01-01

    Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) are very common herbs growing in meadows, pathways, crop fields, and home gardens. Preparations from these plants, e.g., infusions or alcohol extracts, are widely used as remedies. Both chamomile and yarrow have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Most microbiological assays used today give information only on activity of whole extracts and do not provide information on the composition and activity of individual components. This problem can be solved by using TLC with direct microbiological detection, i.e., TLC-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), followed by LC/MS of active fractions. The aim of our study was chemical and microbiological screening of plant components of chamomile and yarrow tinctures using derivatization reagents and TLC-DB against eight bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Xanthomonas campestis pv. vesicatoria, Aliivibrio fischeri, and Bacillus subtilis. The identity of compounds exhibiting the widest range of activity (apigenin and α-linolenic acid) was confirmed by LC/MS. PMID:26268962

  3. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Pulicaria vulgaris var. graeca (Sch.-Bip.) Fiori (Asteraceae) growing wild in Sicily and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Riccobono, Luana; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Pulicaria vulgaris var. graeca (Sch.-Bip.) Fiori collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of P. vulgaris var. graeca oil were hexadecanoic acid (21.7%), β-caryophyllene (14.3%) and geranyl propionate (8.2%). The comparison with other studied oils of genus Pulicaria is discussed. Antibacterial activity against several bacteria, including some ones infesting historical art craft, was also determined. PMID:26180932

  4. Sporophytic self-incompatibility in Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae): S allele dominance interactions and modifiers of cross-compatibility and selfing rates

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, A C; Tabah, D A; Harris, S A; Hiscock, S J

    2011-01-01

    Understanding genetic mechanisms of self-incompatibility (SI) and how they evolve is central to understanding the mating behaviour of most outbreeding angiosperms. Sporophytic SI (SSI) is controlled by a single multi-allelic locus, S, which is expressed in the diploid (sporophyte) plant to determine the SI phenotype of its haploid (gametophyte) pollen. This allows complex patterns of independent S allele dominance interactions in male (pollen) and female (pistil) reproductive tissues. Senecio squalidus is a useful model for studying the genetic regulation and evolution of SSI because of its population history as an alien invasive species in the UK. S. squalidus maintains a small number of S alleles (7–11) with a high frequency of dominance interactions. Some S. squalidus individuals also show partial selfing and/or greater levels of cross-compatibility than expected under SSI. We previously speculated that these might be adaptations to invasiveness. Here we describe a detailed characterization of the regulation of SSI in S. squalidus. Controlled crosses were used to determine the S allele dominance hierarchy of six S alleles and effects of modifiers on cross-compatibility and partial selfing. Complex dominance interactions among S alleles were found with at least three levels of dominance and tissue-specific codominance. Evidence for S gene modifiers that increase selfing and/or cross-compatibility was also found. These empirical findings are discussed in the context of theoretical predictions for maintenance of S allele dominance interactions, and the role of modifier loci in the evolution of SI. PMID:20372180

  5. Neoerysiphe kerribeeensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Erysiphales), a new species of Neoerysiphe on native and introduced species of Senecio (Asteraceae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Beilharz, Vyrna; Cunnington, James H; Pascoe, Ian G

    2010-04-01

    Anamorphic powdery mildew fungi on introduced taxa of Senecio and Pericallis × hybrida in Australia have previously been identified as Neoerysiphe cumminsiana on the basis of a combination of Euoidium-type conidiophores and lobed mycelial and germ tube appressoria. But, two specimens with chasmothecia on the indigenous Senecio glossanthus did not agree with published descriptions of N. cumminsiana. The teleomorph of the S. glossanthus mildew differed from that of N. cumminsiana in the morphology of its peridial cells, the pigmentation of its appendages, and the morphology and pigmentation of some secondary hyphae. Ribosomal DNA ITS sequences from the two S. glossanthus mildew specimens and five other specimens of Senecio mildews from south-eastern Australia demonstrated that all Australian Senecio mildews are conspecific and distinct from the northern hemisphere Senecio mildew (N. cumminsiana) and from other Neoerysiphe taxa. Based on morphological characters and rDNA sequence data, the Australian Senecio mildew is described as a new species, Neoerysiphe kerribeeensis. This is the first native teleomorphic powdery mildew described from Australia. PMID:20943143

  6. Sporophytic self-incompatibility in Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae): S allele dominance interactions and modifiers of cross-compatibility and selfing rates.

    PubMed

    Brennan, A C; Tabah, D A; Harris, S A; Hiscock, S J

    2011-01-01

    Understanding genetic mechanisms of self-incompatibility (SI) and how they evolve is central to understanding the mating behaviour of most outbreeding angiosperms. Sporophytic SI (SSI) is controlled by a single multi-allelic locus, S, which is expressed in the diploid (sporophyte) plant to determine the SI phenotype of its haploid (gametophyte) pollen. This allows complex patterns of independent S allele dominance interactions in male (pollen) and female (pistil) reproductive tissues. Senecio squalidus is a useful model for studying the genetic regulation and evolution of SSI because of its population history as an alien invasive species in the UK. S. squalidus maintains a small number of S alleles (7-11) with a high frequency of dominance interactions. Some S. squalidus individuals also show partial selfing and/or greater levels of cross-compatibility than expected under SSI. We previously speculated that these might be adaptations to invasiveness. Here we describe a detailed characterization of the regulation of SSI in S. squalidus. Controlled crosses were used to determine the S allele dominance hierarchy of six S alleles and effects of modifiers on cross-compatibility and partial selfing. Complex dominance interactions among S alleles were found with at least three levels of dominance and tissue-specific codominance. Evidence for S gene modifiers that increase selfing and/or cross-compatibility was also found. These empirical findings are discussed in the context of theoretical predictions for maintenance of S allele dominance interactions, and the role of modifier loci in the evolution of SI. PMID:20372180

  7. Effect of variation in self-incompatibility on pollen limitation and inbreeding depression in Flourensia cernua (Asteraceae) scrubs of contrasting density

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Miriam M.; Good-Avila, Sara V.; Montaña, Carlos; Domínguez, César A.; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Selection may favour a partial or complete loss of self-incompatibility (SI) if it increases the reproductive output of individuals in the presence of low mate availability. The reproductive output of individuals varying in their strength of SI may also be affected by population density via its affect on the spatial structuring and number of S-alleles in populations. Modifiers increasing levels of self-compatibility can be selected when self-compatible individuals receive reproductive compensation by, for example, increasing seed set and/or when they become associated with high fitness genotypes. Methods The effect of variation in the strength of SI and scrub density (low versus high) on seed set, seed germination and inbreeding depression in seed germination (δgerm) was investigated in the partially self-incompatible species Flourensia cernua by analysing data from self-, cross- and open-pollinated florets. Key Results Examination of 100 plants in both high and low scrub densities revealed that 51% of plants were strongly self-incompatible and 49 % varied from being self-incompatible to self-compatible. Seed set after hand cross-pollination was higher than after open-pollination for self-incompatible, partially self-incompatible and self-compatible plants but was uniformly low for strongly self-incompatible plants. Strongly self-incompatible and self-incompatible plants exhibited lower seed set, seed germination and multiplicative female fitness (floral display × seed set × seed germination) in open-pollinated florets compared with partially self-incompatible and self-compatible plants. Scrub density also had an effect on seed set and inbreeding depression: in low-density scrubs seed set was higher after open-pollination and δgerm was lower. Conclusions These data suggest that (a) plants suffered outcross pollen limitation, (b) female fitness in partially self-incompatible and self-compatible plants is enhanced by increased mate-compatibility and (c) plants in low-density scrubs received higher quality pollen via open-pollination than plants in high-density scrubs. PMID:19218580

  8. Comparative study of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. and Achillea santolina L. (Asteraceae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, A M; Hafez, S S; Wink, M

    2004-03-01

    Essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. and the flower, leaf and stem of A. santolina L. as well as their lipophilic constituents obtained by solvent extraction were analysed using GLC and GLC-mass spectrometry. Nineteen constituents in the essential oil of A. fragrantissima were identified, in addition to 41 compounds from its n-hexane-ether extract. The hydrodistilled oil and the solvent extract contain santolina alcohol, artemisia alcohol, artemisia ketone, cis-thujone and trans-thujone as major constituents. In A. santolina altogether 54 volatile components were detected. The major components were 1,8-cineole, fragranol, fragranyl acetate and terpin-4-ol. Furthermore, the essential oils and the n-hexane-ether extracts of the two plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity. PMID:15074599

  9. Ceratapion basicorne (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): laboratory and open field trials to assess its specificity as biocontrol agent of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prospective biological control agents generally must be demonstrated to not pose risks to non-target plants. Laboratory experiments evaluating host plant specificity are the most common method of evaluating such risk; however, they are constrained by limitations of space and number of replicates, gi...

  10. Negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of flavonoids in glandular trichomes of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports a method for the analysis of secondary metabolites stored in glandular trichomes, employing negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses of glandular trichomes from Lychnophora ericoides, a plant endemic to the Brazilian 'cerrado' and used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, led to the identification of five flavonoids (chrysin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin and 3-O-acetylpinobanksin) by direct infusion of the extracts of glandular trichomes into the nanospray ionisation source. All the flavonoids have no oxidation at ring B, which resulted in a modification of the fragmentation pathways compared with that of the oxidised 3,4-dihydroflavonoids already described in the literature. The absence of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant di-C-glucosylflavone vicenin-2, or any other flavonoid glycosides, in the glandular trichomes was also demonstrated. The use of the 'chip-based' nanospray QqTOF apparatus is a new fast and useful tool for the identification of secondary metabolites stored in the glandular trichomes, which can be useful for chemotaxonomic studies based on metabolites from glandular trichomes. PMID:18980260

  11. Limited DNA methylation variation and the transcription of MET1 and DDM1 in the genus Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae): following the track of polyploidy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Qi, Xiangyu; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy has been recognized as a widespread and common phenomenon among flowering plants. DNA-5′-CCGG site cytosine methylation (C-methylation) is one of the major and immediate epigenetic responses of the plant genome. Elucidating the ways in which altered C-methylation patterns, either at the whole genomic level or at specific sites can affect genome stability in polyploidy will require substantial additional investigation. Methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism profiling was used to evaluate variation in C-methylation among a set of 20 Chrysanthemum species and their close relatives of varying ploidy levels from diploid to decaploid. The range in relative C-methylation level was within 10%, and there was no significant difference neither between different ploidy levels nor between different species in the same ploidy level (U-values < 1.96). The transcript abundances of MET1 and DDM1 genes, which both involved in the regulation of C-methylation at CpG sites, were enhanced with increased ploidy level, but only MET1 was positively correlated with the nuclear DNA content. Considering the key role and efficiency of MET1 in maintaining CpG methylation, the limited variation observed with respect to C-methylation may reflect a balance between the increased activity of MET1 in the higher ploidy genomes and the larger number of CpG dinucleotide sites available for methylation. PMID:26379692

  12. High-Resolution α-Glucosidase Inhibition Profiling Combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for Identification of Antidiabetic Compounds in Eremanthus crotonoides (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Eder Lana E; Lobo, Jonathas Felipe Revoredo; Vinther, Joachim Møllesøe; Borges, Ricardo Moreira; Staerk, Dan

    2016-01-01

    α-Glucosidase inhibitors decrease the cleavage- and absorption rate of monosaccharides from complex dietary carbohydrates, and represent therefore an important class of drugs for management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a defatted ethyl acetate extract of Eremanthus crotonoides leaves with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL towards α-glucosidase was investigated by high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. This led to identification of six α-glucosidase inhibitors, namely quercetin (16), trans-tiliroside (17), luteolin (19), quercetin-3-methyl ether (20), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid n-butyl ester (26) and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid n-butyl ester (29). In addition, nineteen other metabolites were identified. The most active compounds were the two regioisomeric di-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives 26 and 29, with IC50 values of 5.93 and 5.20 μM, respectively. This is the first report of the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of compounds 20, 26, and 29, and the findings support the important role of Eremanthus species as novel sources of new drugs and/or herbal remedies for treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27322221

  13. Expressivity of apomixis in 2n + n hybrids from an apomictic and a sexual parent: insights into variation detected in Pilosella (Asteraceae: Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František; Rosenbaumová, Radka

    2011-03-01

    Reproductive variation was studied in the tetraploid Pilosella aurantiaca, hexaploid P. rubra (both species with facultative autonomous apospory) and in their 2n + n hybrids, which were obtained by crossing with a sexual pollen parent (tetraploid P. officinarum). The different DNA content in P. aurantiaca and P. officinarum demonstrated the actual 2n + n origin, both spontaneous from the field and through experimental crosses, of their hexaploid hybrids. The octoploid 2n + n progeny were recovered from an experimental cross of P. rubra and P. officinarum. The reproductive pathways operating in two maternal facultatively apomictic species and in the hybrids were quantified using a flow cytometric analysis of seeds obtained from either open-pollinated or emasculated plants. Whereas both maternal species displayed a high penetrance of apomixis, the level of apomixis among the majority of 2n + n hybrids was much lower and variable. Some of the hexaploid hybrids had a reduced seed set. Compared to the respective maternal parents, the decrease in apomixis due to haploid parthenogenesis and/or n + n mating was evident in almost all unreduced hybrids, irrespective of their field/experimental origin and ploidy. Hence, the reproductive behaviour in the apomictic maternal parent was profoundly different from that of the 2n + n hybrids with a sexual parent in spite of the preservation of the complete maternal genome in the hybrids. The regulatory interactions in hybrid genomes, such as effects of modifiers, heterochrony, and epigenetic control, may be consistent with the different expressivity of apomixis observed under different genetic backgrounds. PMID:20978805

  14. Microsatellite analysis of a population crash and bottleneck in the Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Asteraceae), and its implications for reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Friar, E A; Ladoux, T; Roalson, E H; Robichaux, R H

    2000-12-01

    The Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense, has experienced both a severe population crash associated with an increase in alien ungulate populations on Mauna Kea, and a population bottleneck associated with reintroduction. In this paper, we address the genetic consequences of both demographic events using eight microsatellite loci. The population crash was not accompanied by a significant reduction in number of alleles or heterozygosity. However, the population bottleneck was accompanied by significant reductions in observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, and expected heterozygosity, though not in observed heterozygosity. The effective size of the population bottleneck was calculated using both observed heterozygosities and allele frequency variances. Both methods corroborated the historical census size of the population bottleneck of at most three individuals. The results suggest that: (i) small populations, even those that result from severe reductions in historical population size and extent, are not necessarily genetically depauperate; and (ii) species reintroduction plans need to be conceived and implemented carefully, with due consideration to the genetic impact of sampling for reintroduction. PMID:11123615

  15. Patterns of genetic variability and habitat occupancy in Crepis triasii (Asteraceae) at different spatial scales: insights on evolutionary processes leading to diversification in continental islands

    PubMed Central

    Mayol, Maria; Palau, Carles; Rosselló, Josep A.; González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Molins, Arántzazu; Riba, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Archipelagos are unique systems for studying evolutionary processes promoting diversification and speciation. The islands of the Mediterranean basin are major areas of plant richness, including a high proportion of narrow endemics. Many endemic plants are currently found in rocky habitats, showing varying patterns of habitat occupancy at different spatial scales throughout their range. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of varying patterns of population distribution on genetic diversity and structure to shed light on demographic and evolutionary processes leading to population diversification in Crepis triasii, an endemic plant from the eastern Balearic Islands. Methods Using allozyme and chloroplast markers, we related patterns of genetic structure and diversity to those of habitat occupancy at a regional (between islands and among populations within islands) and landscape (population size and connectivity) scale. Key Results Genetic diversity was highly structured both at the regional and at the landscape level, and was positively correlated with population connectivity in the landscape. Populations located in small isolated mountains and coastal areas, with restricted patterns of regional occupancy, were genetically less diverse and much more differentiated. In addition, more isolated populations had stronger fine-scale genetic structure than well-connected ones. Changes in habitat availability and quality arising from marine transgressions during the Quaternary, as well as progressive fragmentation associated with the aridification of the climate since the last glaciation, are the most plausible factors leading to the observed patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of gene flow in preventing genetic erosion and maintaining the evolutionary potential of populations. They also agree with recent studies highlighting the importance of restricted gene flow and genetic drift as drivers of plant evolution in Mediterranean continental islands. PMID:22167790

  16. Studies on bioactivity and secondary metabolites of crude extracts of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): A medicinal plant used in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Njume, Collise; Gqaza, Bomkazi M; Rozani, Carina; Goduka, Nomalungelo I

    2016-05-01

    Whole plant-parts of Bidens pilosa were powdered and extracted in concentrated hexane, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (25922), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051), Enterococcus faecalis (51299) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC127853), using standard microbiological techniques. Active crude extracts were macerated in concentrated methanol and tested for secondary metabolites including tannins, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, steroids and flavonoids using standard phytochemical procedures. Hexane and methanol extracts demonstrated similar activity producing 8-17 mm and 11-18 mm inhibition zone-diameter ranges respectively. Further analysis for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC(50)) recorded 1.25-20mg/mL and 2.5-20mg/mL for hexane and methanol extracts respectively. The highest zones of inhibition diameters (22-36mm) and lowest MIC(50) values (0.0002-0.0006mg/mL) were recorded for Gentamicin, the positive control. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges were between 10-80mg/mL and 0.001-0.005mg/mL for extracts and control antibiotic respectively. With the exception of anthraquinones, the plant crude extracts tested positive for all secondary metabolites analyzed. These results provide scientific basis for the use of B. pilosa in South African traditional medicine. The antibacterial activity reported herein may be attributed to one or more of the 6 secondary metabolites detected in the plant crude extracts. PMID:27166532

  17. Post-column sodiation to enhance the detection of polyacetylene glycosides in LC-DAD-MS analyses: an example from Bidens gardneri (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; da Silva, Gil Valdo José; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Oliveira, Dionéia Camilo Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    The use of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) in dereplication studies of medicinal plants is a common strategy, but the analyses of polyacetylenes by LC-ESI-MS are little explored and require huge efforts, especially if there are low concentrations in the extracts. A post-column sodiation strategy was successfully applied to enhance the detection of polyacetylene glycosides. Their molecular formulae were proposed by HRESI, whereas the polyacetylene chromophores were determined by UV data. The use of acetic acid in the mobile phase was essential to obtain satisfactory chromatographic resolution, and only the addition of sodium chloride solution allowed good mass spectra, internal calibration and undoubtedly the molar mass determination of polyacetylenes. This new approach has allowed the identification of polyacetylene glycosides from Bidens gardneri extract, guiding the isolation procedures, and two new compounds were obtained. The structures of the isolated polyacetylenes have been confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS. PMID:25640130

  18. An experimental investigation of the shear-layer and acoustic sources produced by a leading edge slat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Richard, Patrick; Hall, Joseph; Turbulence; Flow Noise Laboratory Team

    2013-11-01

    Leading edge slats are a common addition to airfoils as part of a high lift configuration employed during take-off and landing; the unsteady flow caused by these slats is a major contributor to the overal airframe noise. As the next generation of aircraft seeks to reduce these noise concerns, a better understanding of the sources of aeroacoustic noise generation is sought. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and simultaneous multipoint measurements of the unsteady surface pressure are used herein to investigate the unsteady flow around a leading edge slat coupled with an airfoil for several different configurations and a range of Reynolds numbers (Re = 156 , 000 to Re = 1 . 2 million based on the wing chord). Shear-layer development off the slat cusp and the related unsteady vortex structures are examined in detail to better establish and understand the mechanisms responsible for the generation of aeroacoustic slat noise. The authors are grateful for the support provided by GARDN.

  19. Synergistic insecticidal mode of action between sesquiterpene lactones and a phototoxin, alpha-terthienyl.

    PubMed

    Guillet, G; Harmatha, J; Waddell, T G; Philogène, B J; Arnason, J T

    2000-02-01

    The synergistic insecticidal action of characteristic defensive substances produced by the plant family Asteraceae was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Asteraceae that may form, through a Michael addition process, conjugates with glutathione were administered in a meridic diet to a herbivorous insect, Manduca sexta. By administering sesquiterpenes, variable in vivo reduced glutathione levels were observed in the insect larvae. When the Asteraceae-derived photooxidant alpha-terthienyl was co-administered, lipid peroxidation and larval mortality were significantly enhanced in the treated groups of insects with lowered in vivo glutathione levels. PMID:10687381

  20. Molecular studies on the species complex of Trichosirocalus horridus in the biological control of Carduinae weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Trichosirocalus Colonnelli, 1979, (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Ceutorhynchinae) includes 17 Palaearctic species mainly feeding on Plantaginaceae and Asteraceae. We studied the taxonomic status of the species complex of Trichosirocalus horridus (TH) by means of molecular markers. We used bot...

  1. Hydroxylic solvent-induced ring opening of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids riddelliine and seneciphylline: implications for toxicity and analytical studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    etabolites that can also cause various cancers in animal models. Riddelliine and seneciphylline are closely-related, macrocyclic diester dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids produced by various species in the Asteraceae. Despite the evidence of carcinogenicity in animal models, and the increasing concerns...

  2. New host plant and distribution records for Peruvian Tephritinae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distribution and host plant records (all Asteraceae) are reported for 17 species of Tephritinae: Acinia reticulata (stem galls on Tessaria integrifolia); Dracontomyia footei (Baccharis salicifolia); Ensina hyalipennis (Argentina; flowerheads of Sonchus asper); E. longiceps (flowerheads of Hypochaeri...

  3. Morphology delimits more species than molecular genetic clusters of invasive Pilosella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Reliable identifications of invasive species are essential for effective management. Several species of Pilosella (syn. Hieracium, Asteraceae) hawkweeds invade North America, where unreliable identification hinders their control. Here we ask (i) do morphological traits dependab...

  4. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  5. New records of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-feeding insects. Hemiptera and Coleoptera on Senecio brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Klitzke; Trigo

    2000-04-01

    New records are reported for a Hemipteran (Largus rufipennis) and a Coleopteran (Chauliognathus fallax) feeding on Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) and sequestering pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Both insects are warningly colored and rejected by predators. PMID:10725590

  6. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  7. Broad-nosed weevils feeding on Centaurea solstitialis L. in Turkey, with a description of the new species Araxia cristofario sp. n. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During exploration for new biological control agents of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae) in eastern Turkey, we observed four species of broad-nosed weevils (Curculionidae) that are newly associated with this plant. They are Epiphanops persicus, Eusomomorphus oligops, Altonomus...

  8. Natural history studies for the preliminary evaluation of a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies on the life history, behavior and ecology of Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to determine if it is worthy of further evaluation as a classical biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae). Larinus filiformis occurs ...

  9. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  10. Nine eriophyoid mite species from Iran (Acari, Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Sinaie, Samira

    2011-01-01

    Nine eriophyoid mites, including two new species and five new records, from Iran are described and illustrated. They are Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev, 1974, rec. n. on Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo (Asteraceae); Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa, 1892), rec. n. on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae); Aceria lactucae (Canestrini, 1893), rec. n. on Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae); Aceria pulicarissp. n. on Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. (Asteraceae); Aceria tosichella Keifer, 1969 on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae); Eriophyes rotundae Mohanasundaram, 1983 on Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae); Aculops maroccensis Keifer, 1972, rec. n. on Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae); Aculus medicagersp. n. on Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae); Tetra lycopersici Xue & Hong, 2005, rec. n. on Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae). PMID:22144865

  11. Some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro as the potential sources of drugs.

    PubMed

    Aljancić, I S; Vajs, V E; Tesević, V V; Milosavljević, S M

    2008-01-01

    The results of phytochemical investigation, over the last decade, of some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro belonging to the families Asteraceae, Guttiferae and Gentianaceae are reported. Most of the investigated species are endemites and the emphasis in this report is on those exhibiting biological activities that could be regarded as the potential sources of drugs. This review comprises 154 compounds, e.g. sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids (Asteraceae), xanthones, secoiridoids and C-glucoflavonoids (Gentanaceae) and prenylated phloroglucinols (Guttiferae) as well as some other secondary metabolites, produced by the above families, which could be of pharmacological interest. PMID:19075693

  12. Gelsemine alleviates both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in partial sciatic nerve ligation mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-er; Li, Ya-dong; Luo, Yan-jia; Wang, Tian-xiao; Wang, Hui-jing; Chen, Shuo-nan; Qu, Wei-min; Huang, Zhi-li

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gelsemine, an alkaloid from the Chinese herb Gelsemium elegans (Gardn & Champ) Benth., is effective in mitigating chronic pain in rats. In the present study we investigated whether the alkaloid improved sleep disturbance, the most common comorbid symptoms of chronic pain, in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Methods: Mice were subjected to partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). After the mice were injected with gelsemine or pregabalin (the positive control) intraperitoneally, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed, and electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG) recording was performed. Motor performance of the mice was assessed using rota-rod test. c-Fos expression in the brain was analyzed with immunohistochemical staining. Results: In PSNL mice, gelsemine (2 and 4 mg/kg) increased the mechanical threshold for 4 h and prolonged the thermal latencies for 3 h. Furthermore, gelsemine (4 mg/kg, administered at 6:30 AM) increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep, decreased wakefulness, but did not affect REM sleep during the first 3 h in PSNL mice. Sleep architecture analysis showed that gelsemine decreased the mean duration of wakefulness and increased the total number of episodes of NREM sleep during the first 3 h after the dosing. Gelsemine (4 mg/kg) did not impair motor coordination in PSNL mice. Immunohistochemical study showed that PSNL increased c-Fos expression in the neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex, and gelsemine (4 mg/kg) decreased c-Fos expression by 58%. Gelsemine (4 mg/kg, administered at either 6:30 AM or 8:30 PM) did not produce hypnotic effect in normal mice. Pregabalin produced similar antinociceptive and hypnotic effects, but impaired motor coordination in PSNL mice. Conclusion: Gelsemine is an effective agent for treatment of both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in PSNL mice; anterior cingulate cortex might play a role in the hypnotic effects of gelsemine. PMID:26388157

  13. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF KNAPWEEDS AND YELLOW STARTHISTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant genus Centaurea (family Asteraceae) includes many species that are important invasive alien weeds in the western U.S. These include spotted, diffuse, squarrose and meadow knapweeds and yellow starthistle. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is closely related and was once included in th...

  14. Volatile constituents of the leaves of Munnozia senecionidis from the Venezuelan Andes.

    PubMed

    Lara, Joel; Rojas, Luis B; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Carmona, Juan

    2009-07-01

    The essential oil of Munnozia senecionidis Benth. (Asteraceae), obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified, accounting for 93.9% of the oil. The most abundant components were caryophyllene oxide (19.9%), trans-nerolidol (12.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (9.4%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.8%). PMID:19731606

  15. Effectiveness of Capitula Damaging Insects on Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) is an annual weed in the Family Asteraceae. It is a competitive rangeland weed that decreases forage availability in pastures. Yellow starthistle was identified in several different crops and field margins in Turkey. Biological control is an important tool...

  16. The Biology and Biological Activity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Pst) is a disease of plants in the family Asteraceae. A distinctive characteristic of this bacterial pathogen is the symptom of apical chlorosis in infected plants, caused by the phytotoxin tagetitoxin. Strains of Pst have been isolated from several plant species ...

  17. Oligofructans content and yield of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) cultivated in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson (Asteraceae), also known as yacon, is an herbaceous tropical species native to the high mountains of Andes. It has been introduced to several countries, including Japan and Brazil. We are attempting to acclimatize yacon to Mississippi as a poten...

  18. Expression of the cytoplasmic mevalonate pathway in chloroplasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parthenium argentatum, commonly known as guayule, is a shrub in the Asteraceae family that is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. P. argentatum produces high quality rubber in bark tissue. As an industrial crop that grows in temperate climates, P. argentatum represents a vi...

  19. METAL CONTENT OF DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE) LEAVES IN RELATION TO SOIL CONTAMINATION AND AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R826602)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global distribution of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato; Asteraceae), along with its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, make this `species' a particularly attractive candidate to evaluate for its ...

  20. Elemanolide sesquiterpenes and eudesmane sesquiterpene glycosides from Centaurea hierapolitana.

    PubMed

    Karamenderes, Canan; Bedir, Erdal; Pawar, Rahul; Baykan, Sura; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2007-03-01

    Two elemanolide sesquiterpenes and two eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glycosides named hierapolitanins A-D, were isolated, together with five known compounds, two flavones; hispidulin and jaceosidin, a flavon-C-glycoside, shaftoside, a flavonol glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and a neolignan, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol from the aerial parts of Centaurea hierapolitana Boiss. (Asteraceae). Structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic evidence. PMID:17126864

  1. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine "asmachilca"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respir...

  2. Prospects for biological control of Cape-ivy with the Cape-ivy fly and the cape-ivy moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata, Asteraceae), native to coastal floodplains and mountain riparian zones in eastern South Africa, is an invasive vine in coastal riparian, woodland and scrub habitats in California and southern Oregon. Cape-ivy smothers native vegetation and may impair water flow in coastal...

  3. Biology and host range of the moth Digitivalva delaireae as one of two candidate agents for biological control of Cape-ivy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata, Asteraceae), native to coastal floodplains and mountains in eastern South Africa, is an invasive vine in coastal riparian, woodland and scrub habitats in California and southern Oregon, as well as mid-elevation regions on some of the Hawaiian Islands. Cape-ivy smothers na...

  4. First report of rust caused by Puccinia carduorum on Italian thistle in Tunisia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus L.), family Asteraceae, is a common weed in rangelands, pasturelands, and cereal crops in Tunisia where it is rapidly spreading and becoming agriculturally important due to its competitive ability. It is also a problematic invasive weed in the western United S...

  5. Furanoheliangolides from leaves of Neurolaena macrocephala.

    PubMed

    Passreiter, C M; Stöber, S; Ortega, A

    2000-01-01

    Six sesquiterpene lactones, two new (3 and 6) and four known (1, 2, 4 and 5) were isolated from the leaves of the Mexican Neurolaena macrocephala (Asteraceae). The furanoheliangolide 6, containing 4beta,5-dihydro-9alpha-hydroxy-atripliciolide as basic structure, was found for the first time in nature. The chemotaxonomic importance of this phytochemical work is discussed. PMID:11204181

  6. Simultaneous determination of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the rhizomes of petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV and LC-TOF methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common Butterbur (Petasites hybridus) is a herbaceous perennial plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe and northern Asia. Petasites hybridus exists in two chemo-varieties: those containing petasins and those with furano-petasins which have been reported to be effective in reducing the occ...

  7. Cercosporoid leaf pathogens from whorled milkweed and spineless safflower in California.

    PubMed

    Koike, Steven T; Baameur, Aziz; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2011-06-01

    Two cercosporoid species are respectively described from Mexican whorled milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis), and spineless safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) from California. Passalora californica represents a new pathogen on Asclepias fascicularis, while Ramularia cynarae is confirmed on Carthamus tinctorius and Cynara cardunculus (Asteraceae), and an epitype designated. Pathogenicity is also established for both pathogens based on Koch's postulate. PMID:22679582

  8. Using Peat Pellets in Liquid Media to Root Sunflower Tissue Culture Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional plant breeding is often limited by the genetic diversity within a species. The use of biotechnology allows introducing into a plant, specific traits that come from the same or another plant species. In this paper, we focus on tissue culture of sunflower (Helianthus annus L., Asteraceae...

  9. Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium Essential Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. flabellifolium (Boiss. & Heldr.) Grierson of Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey. Hydrodistillation of aerial parts using a Clevenger apparatus yielded an essential oil, which was subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). ...

  10. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Arnica longifolia, Aster hesperius and Chrysothamnus nauseosus Essential Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils from three different Asteraceae obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Main compounds obtained from each taxon were found as follows: Arnica longifolia: carvacrol 37.3%, a-bisabolol 8.2%...

  11. Potential ecological roles of Artemisinin produced by Artemisis annua L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin is a complex structure that is requires a significant amount of energy for ...

  12. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  13. Ecological characterization of wild Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris germplasm in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris (Asteraceae) are wild sunflowers native to North America but have become naturalized in central Argentina covering an area of about 5 million hectares. Wild H. annuus has been recognized as invader species in several countries, but no research has been done to stu...

  14. CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a univoltine weevil native to Eurasia whose larvae develop in root-crowns of Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle, Asteraceae). This insect was "rejected" as a prospective biological control agent about 15 years ago after preliminary evaluation ...

  15. INTERCROPPING SUNFLOWER VARIETIES WITH BELL PEPPER: EFFECT ON POPULATIONS OF THE MINUTE PIRATE BUG, ORIUS INSIDIOSUS AND THRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight varieties of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) (Bashful, Double Quick Orange, Pro Cut Bicolor, Pro Cut Lemon, Sundance Kid, Sunrich Lemon, Teddy Bear and Zebulon) were evaluated for attractiveness to predators, mostly the minute pirate bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemipte...

  16. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  17. Accumulation of zinc and cadmium and localization of zinc in Picris divaricata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picris divaricata Vant., native to subtropical China, was recently identified as the first Cd/Zn hyper-accumulator from Asteraceae. Wild collected seed of P. divaricata was grown in a series of pH buffered test soils with Zn levels 00-7000 gkg-1 and Cd levels 00-150 gkg-1 for four months. Plants d...

  18. Effect of harvest timing on leaf production and yield of diterpene glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bert: a specialty perennial crop for Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stevia rebaundiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub of the Asteraceae, is one of the most important sources of non-caloric natural sweeteners. Stevia’s plant extracts and glycosides have been used for several years in Paraguay and Brazil. Several studies suggest that Stevia and its glycosides exert ben...

  19. Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense – Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants worldwide. Native to Eurasia, its unintentional introduction into North America now threatens the native flora and imposes enormous agricultural losses. The goals of this study are to: (i) conduct bioclim...

  20. Invasion history of North American Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canada thistle (CIRSIUM ARVENSE – Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive plants worldwide. Native to Eurasia, its unintentional introduction into North America now threatens the native flora and imposes enormous agricultural losses. The goals of this study were to: (i) conduct bioclimati...

  1. Intercropping sunflower varieties with bell pepper: effect on populations of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight varieties of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) (Bashful, Double Quick Orange, Pro Cut Bicolor, Pro Cut Lemon, Sundance Kid, Sunrich Lemon, Teddy Bear and Zebulon) were evaluated for attractiveness to predators, mostly the minute pirate bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemipte...

  2. High risk of plant invasion in the understory of eucalypt plantations in South China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Dongmei; Huang, Yong; Zhou, Xi-Le; Chen, Bin; Ma, Jinshuang; Yan, Yue-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Eucalypt plantations expand rapidly out of their natural distribution zones, thus inducing a concern on their effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functions. We compare the understory plant diversity of 46 plots of eucalypt plantations, including early and later stages in rotation, with that of 21 plots of contrast vegetation, including other types of plantations and secondary shrub grassland, in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces, South China. Although the overall plant diversity did not change significantly in eucalypt plantations relative to the contrast vegetation, the community structures changed dramatically. The Asteraceae family, which is the most important source of destructive invasive plant species in China, is ranked 3rd (7.42%) and 7th (3.14%) in species importance in the early and later stages in eucalypt plantations, respectively. Nevertheless, Asteraceae is ranked 15th (1.73%) in other types of plantations and 21st (0.94%) in secondary shrub grassland. Significant increases in the richness and frequency of invasive species were also observed in eucalypt plantations. Among the 20 invasive species recorded in the eucalypt plantations, 9 species were destructive invasive species and 7 of these species belonged to Asteraceae. This study highlights an enhanced plant invasion risk in eucalypt plantations in South China, particularly by Asteraceae. PMID:26686825

  3. Agronomic and Natural Rubber Characteristics of Sunflower as a Rubber-Producing Plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) is a genus native to North American and is a potential natural rubber (NR) producing crop. The objectives of the study were to: 1) evaluate commercial sunflower cultivars to determine biomass production and how they partition biomass into leaves, stems, ...

  4. Chemical constituents from Echinops nanus and Echinops transiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echinops, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, comprises about one hundred and twenty species. They are native to Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and south of the mountains of tropical Africa. The roots of Echinops nanus and Echinops transiliensis were both collected at the flowering stage in Kaza...

  5. Chemical and biological diversity of the volatiles of five Artemisia species from far east of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from aerial parts of Artemisia argyi, A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, A. olgensis (Asteraceae). Plants were collected in the Far East region (Primorski Krai) of the Russian Federatio...

  6. Life cycle of Puccinia crupinae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Crupina vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crupina vulgaris (Common crupina, Asteraceae) is an introduced weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Puccinia crupinae from the Greece is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of C. crupina in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) containment greenhou...

  7. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Mongolia Medicine Artemisia frigida and Phylogenetic Relationships with Other Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuixian; Young, Hugh A.; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yong Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. Conclusion The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be

  8. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435

  9. Caffeic acid derivatives in the roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Makiko; Yan, Xiaojun; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Nagata, Tadahiro; Nakanishi, Tateo

    2003-01-29

    Five caffeic acid derivatives were found in the roots of yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae, as the major water-soluble phenolic compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. Two of these were chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, common phenolic compounds in plants of the family Asteraceae. Three were esters of caffeic acid with the hydroxy groups of aldaric acid, derived from hexose. The structure of the aldaric moiety was determined by hydrolysis and comparison of NMR spectra with those of standard aldaric acids. The compounds were novel caffeic acid esters of altraric acid: 2,4- or 3,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, 2,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, and 2,3,5- or 2,4,5-tricaffeoylaltraric acid. PMID:12537459

  10. Spasmolytic activity of some plants used by the Otomi Indians of Quéretaro (México) for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Rojas, A; Bah, M; Rojas, J I; Serrano, V; Pacheco, S

    1999-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from Baccharis heterophylla H. B. K (Asteraceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae), Dyssodia pinnata var. pinnata Rob. (Asteraceae), Gentiana spathacea H. B. K. (Gentianaceae), Loeselia mexicana Brand. (Polemoniaceae), Selaginella pallescens Spring. (Selaginellaceae) and Zornia diphylla Pers. (Fabaceae) on the spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum. The concentration-response curves and IC50 values were obtained and the respective relaxant potencies were compared with that of the CHCl3-MeOH (1:1) extract of Datura lanosa. The data showed that all the extracts produce a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous ileum contractions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against pathogenic enterobacteria was tested. The pharmacological actions shown by the extracts of the selected species tend to support ethnomedical use of the plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:11962546

  11. Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Nolan, Justin M

    2002-04-01

    In rural Dominican ethnophysiology worms reside in a human organ called the 'worm bag'. Unchecked, worms can cause illness by growing in size and number, spreading out of the worm bag and into other organs. In this study of 'bush medicine', we use a measure of cognitive salience in free-listing tasks, which reveals five plants commonly used to treat intestinal worms. These were Ambrosia hispida (Asteraceae), Aristolochia trilobata (Aristlochiaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae). Bioactive compounds appear to be present in all of these plants. The cognitive salience of these plant remedies coupled with evidence of biochemical properties suggest that they provide efficacious treatments for controlling intestinal parasite loads. PMID:11891089

  12. Flavonoid profile and antileukemic activity of Coreopsis lanceolata flowers.

    PubMed

    Pardede, Antoni; Mashita, Koharu; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-06-15

    Coreopsis lanceolata is a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. In this study, flavonoid profile and antileukemic potential of yellow flowers of the plant were investigated. The total flavonoid content in EtOAc fraction of the flower methanol extract was found to be 420mg/g and showed the inhibition of cell proliferation and possible induction of apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Our phytochemical research led to the isolation of rare flavonoids including a flavanone, chalcones, and aurones; in particular, 4-methoxylanceoletin demonstrated the potent antiproliferative activity. Comparison with other Asteraceaeous flowers by UPLC-MS analysis indicated that the isolates are characteristic constituents of C. lanceolata. PMID:27155901

  13. A greenhouse and field-based study to determine the accumulation of arsenic in common homegrown vegetables grown in mining-affected soils

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.

    2012-01-01

    The uptake of arsenic by plants from contaminated soils presents a health hazard that may affect home gardeners neighboring contaminated environments. A controlled greenhouse study was conducted in parallel with a co-created citizen science program (home garden experiment) to characterize the uptake of arsenic by common homegrown vegetables near the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site in southern Arizona. The greenhouse and home garden arsenic soil concentrations varied considerably, ranging from 2.35 to 533 mg kg−1. In the greenhouse experiment four vegetables were grown in three different soil treatments and in the home garden experiment a total of 63 home garden produce samples were obtained from 19 properties neighboring the site. All vegetables accumulated arsenic in both the greenhouse and home garden experiments, ranging from 0.01 to 23.0 mg kg−1 dry weight. Bioconcentration factors were determined and show that arsenic uptake decreased in the order: Asteraceae > Brassicaceae > Amaranthaceae > Cucurbitaceae > Liliaceae > Solanaceae > Fabaceae. Certain members of the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families have been previously identified as hyperaccumulator plants, and it can be inferred that members of these families have genetic and physiological capacity to accumulate, translocate, and resist high amounts of metals. Additionally, a significant linear correlation was observed between the amount of arsenic that accumulated in the edible portion of the plant and the arsenic soil concentration for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Fabaceae families. The results suggest that home gardeners neighboring mining operations or mine tailings with elevated arsenic levels should be made aware that arsenic can accumulate considerably in certain vegetables, and in particular, it is recommended that gardeners limit consumption of vegetables from the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families. PMID:23201696

  14. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Lychnophora pinaster: a study for the conservation of a native medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Haber, L H; Cavallari, M M; Santos, F R C; Marques, M O M; Gimenes, M A; Zucchi, M I

    2009-05-01

    Lychnophora pinaster Mart. (Asteraceae) is a Brazilian medicinal plant, extensively employed in popular medicine as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and healing agent. Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and optimized for L. pinaster from an enriched genomic library. The markers were used to analyse 37 plants from two native populations, generating an average number of 6.6 alleles per polymorphic locus. These loci are important tools for future studies of population genetics. PMID:21564752

  15. Extraction and identification of antioxidants in the roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Yan, X; Suzuki, M; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Sada, Y; Nakanishi, T; Nagata, T

    1999-11-01

    Yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae, an important economic species grown for its juicy tuberous root, is potentially beneficial in the diet to diabetics. The antioxidative activity of yacon root was studied by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Antioxidants were extracted by methanol and isolated and purified by gel permeation chromatography and preparative reverse-phase HPLC. Two of the major antioxidants were identified as chlorogenic acid and tryptophan by NMR and mass spectrometry. PMID:10552877

  16. A new polymorphic Hemilophini Thomson, 1868 from the Tumuc Humac inselbergs, French Guiana (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).

    PubMed

    Touroult, Julien; Dalens, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    A new Zeale Pascoe, 1866, Zeale granvillei sp. nov., is described from open areas at Mitaraka Mounts, French Guiana. The key to the species of Zeale is updated and the different forms of the new species are illustrated. A list of the material from Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris) in this genus is provided. Some aspects of its behavior are given, including its possible host plant, Ichtyothere granvillei H. Robinson (Asteraceae). PMID:26623863

  17. Antiprotozoal activity of Neurolaena lobata.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Passreiter, C M; Cáceres, A; Kubelka, W

    2001-06-01

    Extracts, fractions and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. (Asteraceae), a traditional medicinal plant from Guatemala, were tested in vitro against Leishmania spp. promastigotes, Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes and epimastigotes and Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites. The ethanol extract inhibited the parasite growth of L. mexicana, T. cruzi and T. vaginalis significantly. The pure germacranolides 1 and a mixture of 2 and 3, isolated from the ethonal extract, were highly active against L. mexicana and T. cruzi. PMID:11406857

  18. Antiplasmodial activities and cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata.

    PubMed

    François, G; Passreiter, C M; Woerdenbag, H J; Van Looveren, M

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous and lipophilic extracts of Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), obtained from Guatemala, were tested against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Moreover, sesquiterpene lactones, of the germacranolide and furanoheliangolide type, isolated from N. lobata, were shown to be active against P. falciparum in vitro. In addition to their antiplasmodial activity, their cytotoxic effects on human carcinoma cell lines were evaluated. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:8657743

  19. In vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by crude plant extracts from Colombian flora.

    PubMed

    Niño, Jaime; Hernández, Jimmy A; Correa, Yaned M; Mosquera, Oscar M

    2006-11-01

    The methanol extracts from five different plant families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae) collected at Regional Natural Park Ucumarí (Colombia), were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity through the modified Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The best inhibitory activities on this study were shown by the extracts of Solanum leucocarpum Dunal (IC50 = 204.59 mg/l) and Witheringia coccoloboides (Damm) (IC50 = 220.68 mg/l), both plants belonging to the Solanaceae family. PMID:17160288

  20. A review on ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacology of Vernonia cinerea Less.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Nittya K; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Vernonia cinerea Less. (ash-coloured fleabane; Asteraceae) is a widely distributed plant throughout India. The plant has reputation as folklore medicine in various traditional systems of medicine. The plant has been evaluated for varied pharmacological activities to validate its traditional claims, and has been scientifically reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, renoprotective, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial activities, etc. This review emphasises on ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of V. cinerea. PMID:25426778

  1. Culcitiolides E-J, six new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene derivatives from Senecio culcitioides.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Taichi; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kawai, Mikiko; Kido, Masahiro; Tani, Hiroyuki; Takaoka, Daisuke; Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Culcitiolides E-J (1-6), six new eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes, were isolated from the stem of Senecio culcitioides SCH. BIP. (Asteraceae). The structures were determined by detailed NMR spectral analysis. The inhibitory activities of these compounds against nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-dependent gene expression were assessed. Culcitiolides E, H, and I potently inhibited NF-κB-induced gene expression at 20 µM. PMID:23902864

  2. Culcitiolides A-D, four new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene derivatives from Senecio culcitioides.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kawai, Mikiko; Mitsui, Taichi; Kido, Masahiro; Tani, Hiroyuki; Takaoka, Daisuke; Uno, Hidemitsu; Ohira, Susumu; Kuboki, Atsuto; Matsuura, Nobuyasu

    2012-04-01

    Four new eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes, culcitiolides A-D, were isolated from the stem of Senecio culcitioides Sch. Bip (Asteraceae). Their structures were established by detailed 2D NMR spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray experiments. These compounds were assessed for inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). Culcitiolides C and D at 20 microM showed 97 and 100% inhibition of NF-kappaB activity, respectively. PMID:22574434

  3. Pectate Lyase Pollen Allergens: Sensitization Profiles and Cross-Reactivity Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Maria Livia; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Weiss, Richard; Ebner, Christof; Yokoi, Hidenori; Takai, Toshiro; Didierlaurent, Alain; Rafaiani, Chiara; Briza, Peter; Mari, Adriano; Behrendt, Heidrun; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background Pollen released by allergenic members of the botanically unrelated families of Asteraceae and Cupressaceae represent potent elicitors of respiratory allergies in regions where these plants are present. As main allergen sources the Asteraceae species ragweed and mugwort, as well as the Cupressaceae species, cypress, mountain cedar, and Japanese cedar have been identified. The major allergens of all species belong to the pectate lyase enzyme family. Thus, we thought to investigate cross-reactivity pattern as well as sensitization capacities of pectate lyase pollen allergens in cohorts from distinct geographic regions. Methods The clinically relevant pectate lyase pollen allergens Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1, Jun a 1, and Cry j 1 were purified from aqueous pollen extracts, and patients´ sensitization pattern of cohorts from Austria, Canada, Italy, and Japan were determined by IgE ELISA and cross-inhibition experiments. Moreover, we performed microarray experiments and established a mouse model of sensitization. Results In ELISA and ELISA inhibition experiments specific sensitization pattern were discovered for each geographic region, which reflected the natural allergen exposure of the patients. We found significant cross-reactivity within Asteraceae and Cupressaceae pectate lyase pollen allergens, which was however limited between the orders. Animal experiments showed that immunization with Asteraceae allergens mainly induced antibodies reactive within the order, the same was observed for the Cupressaceae allergens. Cross-reactivity between orders was minimal. Moreover, Amb a 1, Art v 6, and Cry j 1 showed in general higher immunogenicity. Conclusion We could cluster pectate lyase allergens in four categories, Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1/Jun a 1, and Cry j 1, respectively, at which each category has the potential to sensitize predisposed individuals. The sensitization pattern of different cohorts correlated with pollen exposure, which should be considered for

  4. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Eart&hacute;s interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birc&hacute;s law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Eart&hacute;s interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6

  5. An Approach to Calculate Mineralś Bulk Moduli KS from Chemical Composition and Density ρ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, S.; Schilling, F. R.; Mueller, B.; Drüppel, K.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are fundamental parameters for technical and geotechnical applications and an important research topic towards a better understanding of the Earth's interior. Published elastic properties, chemical composition, and density data of 86 minerals (total of 258 data including properties of minerals at various p, T conditions) were collected into a database. It was used to test different hypotheses about relationships between these properties (e.g. water content in minerals and their Poisson's ratio). Furthermore, a scheme to model the average elastic properties, i.e. the bulk modulus KS, based on mineral density and composition was developed. Birch's law, a linearity between density ρ and wave velocity (e.g. vp.), is frequently used in seismic and seismology to derive density of the Earth's interior from seismic velocities. Applying the compiled mineral data contradicts the use of a simple velocity-density relation (e.g. Gardneŕs relation, 1974). The presented model-approach to estimate the mineralś bulk moduli Ks (as Voigt-Reuss-Hill average) is based on the idea of pressure-temperature (p-T) dependent ionś bulk moduli. Using a multi-exponential regression to ascertain the ionś bulk moduli and by applying an exponential scaling with density ρ, their bulk moduli could be modelled. As a result, > 88 % of the 258 bulk moduli data are predicted with an uncertainty of < 20 % compared to published values. Compared to other models (e.g. Anderson et al. 1970 and Anderson & Nafe 1965), the here presented approach to model the bulk moduli only requires the density ρ and chemical composition of the mineral and is not limited to a specific group of minerals, composition, or structure. In addition to this, by using the pressure and temperature dependent density ρ(p, T), it is possible to predict bulk moduli for varying p-T conditions. References:Gardner, G.H.F, Gardner, L.W. and Gregory, A.R. (1974). Geophysics, 39, No. 6, 770

  6. Green Roots: Photosynthesis and Photoautotrophy in an Underground Plant Organ.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, H. E.; Dai, Yr.; Cuello, J. L.; Maldonado-Mendoza, I. E.; Loyola-Vargas, V. M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for photosynthetic and photoautotrophic growth was studied in hairy root cultures of Asteraceae and Solanaceae species. Upon transfer to light, initially heterotrophic root cultures of Acmella oppositifolia and Datura innoxia greened rapidly, differentiated chloroplasts, and developed light-dependent CO2 fixation in the cortical cells. Photosynthetic potential was expressed in root cultures of all the Asteraceae genera examined (Acmella, Artemisia, Rudbeckia, Stevia, and Tagetes). Hairy roots of A. oppositifolia and D. innoxia were further adapted to photoautotrophy by growing in the presence of light and added CO2 (1-5%) and by direct or sequential transfers into media containing progressively lower sugar concentrations. The transition to photoautotrophy was accompanied by an increase in CO2 fixation and in the specific activity of 1,5-ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (Rubisco). During the adaptation of A. oppositifolia roots to photoautotrophy, the ratio of Rubisco to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase increased significantly, approaching that found in the leaves. The levels and patterns of alkaloids and polyacetylenes produced by Solanaceae and Asteraceae hairy roots, respectively, were dramatically altered in photomixotrophic and photoautotrophic cultures. Photoautotrophic roots of A. oppositifolia have been mainitained in vitro for over 2 years. PMID:12231691

  7. Chemotaxonomic Metabolite Profiling of 62 Indigenous Plant Species and Its Correlation with Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah; Oh, Dong-Gu; Lee, Sunmin; Kim, Ga Ryun; Lee, Jong Seok; Son, Youn Kyoung; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Yeo, Joohong; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxonomic metabolite profiling of 62 indigenous Korean plant species was performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap (LTQ-IT) mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis. In partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the 62 species clustered depending on their phylogenetic family, in particular, Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae were distinguished from Rosaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae. Quinic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, quercetin derivatives, kaempferol, and kaempferol derivatives were identified as family-specific metabolites, and were found in relatively high concentrations in Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae. Fagaceae and Asteraceae were selected based on results of PLS-DA and bioactivities to determine the correlation between metabolic differences among plant families and bioactivities. Quinic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin derivatives, and kaempferol derivatives were found in higher concentrations in Fagaceae than in Asteraceae, and were positively correlated with antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities. These results suggest that metabolite profiling was a useful tool for finding the different metabolic states of each plant family and understanding the correlation between metabolites and bioactivities in accordance with plant family. PMID:26540030

  8. DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric vs sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, C M; De Barba, M; Boyer, F; Mercier, C; da Silva Filho, P J S; Heidtmann, L M; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Langone, P; Garcias, F M; Gielly, L; Coissac, E; de Freitas, T R O; Taberlet, P

    2015-01-01

    Closely related sympatric species commonly develop different ecological strategies to avoid competition. Ctenomys minutus and C. flamarioni are subterranean rodents parapatrically distributed in the southern Brazilian coastal plain, showing a narrow sympatric zone. To gain understanding on food preferences and possible competition for food resources, we evaluated their diet composition performing DNA metabarcoding analyzes of 67 C. minutus and 100 C. flamarioni scat samples, collected along the species geographical ranges. Thirteen plant families, mainly represented by Poaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae, were identified in the diet of C. minutus. For C. flamarioni, 10 families were recovered, with a predominance of Poaceae, Araliaceae and Asteraceae. A significant correlation between diet composition and geographical distance was detected in C. minutus, whereas the diet of C. flamarioni was quite homogeneous throughout its geographical distribution. No significant differences were observed between males and females of each species. However, differences in diet composition between species were evident according to multivariate analysis. Our results suggest some level of diet partitioning between C. flamarioni and C. minutus in the sympatric region. While the first species is more specialized on few plant items, the second showed a more varied and heterogeneous diet pattern among individuals. These differences might have been developed to avoid competition in the region of co-occurrence. Resource availability in the environment also seems to influence food choices. Our data indicate that C. minutus and C. flamarioni are generalist species, but that some preference for Poaceae, Asteraceae and Araliaceae families can be suggested for both rodents. PMID:25649502

  9. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    PubMed

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  10. Comparative Analysis of Pistil Transcriptomes Reveals Conserved and Novel Genes Expressed in Dry, Wet, and Semidry Stigmas1[W

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alexandra M.; Lexer, Christian; Hiscock, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Fertilization in angiosperms depends on a complex cellular “courtship” between haploid pollen and diploid pistil. These pollen-pistil interactions are regulated by a diversity of molecules, many of which remain to be identified and characterized. Thus, it is unclear to what extent these processes are conserved among angiosperms, a fact confounded by limited sampling across taxa. Here, we report the analysis of pistil-expressed genes in Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae), a species from euasterid II, a major clade for which there are currently no data on pistil-expressed genes. Species from the Asteraceae characteristically have a “semidry stigma,” intermediate between the “wet” and “dry” stigmas typical of the majority of angiosperms. Construction of pistil-enriched cDNA libraries for S. squalidus allowed us to address two hypotheses: (1) stigmas of S. squalidus will express genes common to wet and dry stigmas and genes specific to the semidry stigma characteristic of the Asteraceae; and (2) genes potentially essential for pistil function will be conserved between diverse angiosperm groups and therefore common to all currently available pistil transcriptome data sets, including S. squalidus. Our data support both these hypotheses. The S. squalidus pistil transcriptome contains novel genes and genes previously identified in pistils of species with dry stigmas and wet stigmas. Comparative analysis of the five pistil transcriptomes currently available (Oryza sativa, Crocus sativus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, and S. squalidus), representing four major angiosperm clades and the three stigma states, identified novel genes and conserved genes potentially regulating pollen-pistil interaction pathways common to monocots and eudicots. PMID:20813907

  11. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    PubMed Central

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  12. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantitative determination of native 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and its polyglutamyl derivatives in raw vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    Folate deficiency is a prevalent phenomenon worldwide especially in underprivileged countries. Polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) species are the naturally occurring principle folate in store-bought vegetables. Here we report a simple and complete extraction method for the determination of native polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in vegetables using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-MS/MS). Coarsely chopped samples (18 different vegetables) were steamed to inactivate glutamylase enzymes and liberate folate from binding proteins and extracted in a reducing buffer with (13)C(5) 5MTHF stable isotope added as internal standard. The polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species were separated in 9 min on a C(18) column using a reversed phase system. HPLC eluate was interfaced with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in electrospray positive mode. The respective pseudomolecular cation of each polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species was selected for fragmentation to a common daughter ion for detection. We quantitated polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in store-bought vegetables from families Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae (including mustard greens, romaine lettuce and Swiss chard) of which most have not been quantitated previously. Most vegetables from Asteraceae and those from Amaranthaceae contained similar amounts of monoglutamyl 5MTHF and polyglutamyl 5MTHF while Brassicaceae were dominated by polyglutamyls and endive species (Asteraceae) contained mainly monoglutamyl 5MTHF. The precision of the method for the various polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate forms was 1-9% RSD, recovery 84-91%, limit of detection 64-658 fmol and limit of quantitation 193-1994 fmol. Herein we describe a rapid, sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS technique to quantitate polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species. This method may be suitable for analyzing the polyglutamyl 5

  13. A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method for quantitative determination of native 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and its polyglutamyl derivatives in raw vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Folate deficiency is a prevalent phenomenon worldwide especially in underprivileged countries. Polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) species are the naturally occurring principle folate in store-bought vegetables. Here we report a simple and complete extraction method for the determination of native polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in vegetables using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC–MS/MS). Coarsely chopped samples (18 different vegetables) were steamed to inactivate glutamylase enzymes and liberate folate from binding proteins and extracted in a reducing buffer with 13C5 5MTHF stable isotope added as internal standard. The polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species were separated in 9 min on a C18 column using a reversed phase system. HPLC eluate was interfaced with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in electrospray positive mode. The respective pseudomolecular cation of each polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species was selected for fragmentation to a common daughter ion for detection. We quantitated polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in store-bought vegetables from families Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae (including mustard greens, romaine lettuce and Swiss chard) of which most have not been quantitated previously. Most vegetables from Asteraceae and those from Amaranthaceae contained similar amounts of monoglutamyl 5MTHF and polyglutamyl 5MTHF while Brassicaceae were dominated by polyglutamyls and endive species (Asteraceae) contained mainly monoglutamyl 5MTHF. The precision of the method for the various polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate forms was 1–9% RSD, recovery 84–91%, limit of detection 64–658 fmol and limit of quantitation 193–1994 fmol. Herein we describe a rapid, sensitive and selective HPLC–MS/MS technique to quantitate polyglutamyl 5-methyltetrahydrofolate species. This method may be suitable for analyzing the polyglutamyl 5

  14. Transgenic Production of Epoxy Fatty Acids by Expression of a Cytochrome P450 Enzyme from Euphorbia lagascae Seed

    PubMed Central

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Ripp, Kevin G.; Hall, Sarah E.; McGonigle, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Seed oils of a number of Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae species are enriched in 12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid (vernolic acid), an unusual 18-carbon Δ12-epoxy fatty acid with potential industrial value. It has been previously demonstrated that the epoxy group of vernolic acid is synthesized by the activity of a Δ12-oleic acid desaturase-like enzyme in seeds of the Asteraceae Crepis palaestina and Vernonia galamensis. In contrast, results from metabolic studies have suggested the involvement of a cytochrome P450 enzyme in vernolic acid synthesis in seeds of the Euphorbiaceae species Euphorbia lagascae. To clarify the biosynthetic origin of vernolic acid in E. lagascae seed, an expressed sequence tag analysis was conducted. Among 1,006 randomly sequenced cDNAs from developing E. lagascae seeds, two identical expressed sequence tags were identified that encode a cytochrome P450 enzyme classified as CYP726A1. Consistent with the seed-specific occurrence of vernolic acid in E. lagascae, mRNA corresponding to the CYP726A1 gene was abundant in developing seeds, but was not detected in leaves. In addition, expression of the E. lagascae CYP726A1 cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by production of vernolic acid in cultures supplied with linoleic acid and an epoxy fatty acid tentatively identified as 12-epoxyoctadeca-9,15-dienoic acid (12-epoxy-18:2Δ9,15) in cultures supplied with α-linolenic acid. Consistent with this, expression of CYP726A1 in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus or somatic soybean (Glycine max) embryos resulted in the accumulation of vernolic acid and 12-epoxy-18:2Δ9,15. Overall, these results conclusively demonstrate that Asteraceae species and the Euphorbiaceae E. lagascae have evolved structurally unrelated enzymes to generate the Δ12-epoxy group of vernolic acid. PMID:11842164

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of solidago canadensis linn. Root essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-06-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans. PMID:24825986

  16. Cichorium intybus: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Street, Renée A.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cichorium (Asteraceae) is made up of six species with major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium intybus, commonly known as chicory, is well known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Although this plant has a rich history of use in folklore, many of its constituents have not been explored for their pharmacological potential. Toxicological data on C. intybus is currently limited. This review focuses on the economic and culturally important medicinal uses of C. intybus. Traditional uses, scientific validation, and phytochemical composition are discussed in detail. PMID:24379887

  17. Chemical and genetic similarity and diversity of Ligularia anoleuca and L. fischeri collected in the Hengduan Mountains of China.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Anna; Suzuki, Yurika; Hanai, Ryo; Okamoto, Yasuko; Tori, Motoo; Gong, Xun; Kuroda, Chiaki

    2014-06-01

    The sesquiterpenoid composition in the root and the DNA sequences of evolutionarily neutral regions were studied in Ligularia anoleuca and Ligularia fischeri (Asteraceae) collected in the Sichuan Province of China. LC-MS analysis showed that L. anoleuca populations from different localities had different chemical compositions. However, the isolated compounds were similar to each other, indicating that the differences in chemical composition were not large. The DNA analysis suggested that the two species were indistinguishable. Seventeen furanoeremophilanes and an eremophilane acetal were isolated. PMID:24725977

  18. Purification and identification of antimicrobial sesquiterpene lactones from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fengqiu; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Kodama, Osamu

    2003-10-01

    The extraction of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson; Asteraceae] leaves and chromatographic separation yielded two new antibacterial melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, 8beta-tigloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester and 8beta-methacryloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester, as well as the four known melampolides, sonchifolin, uvedalin, enhydrin and fluctuanin. The newly identified compound, 8beta-methacryloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester, exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Pyricularia oryzae, while 8beta-tigloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester showed lower activity. Fluctuanin exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis among these six sesquiterpene lactones. PMID:14586103

  19. Investigation of Ni hyperaccumulation by true elemental imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Pineda, C. A.; Prozesky, V. M.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.

    1995-09-01

    The newly implemented Dynamic Analysis method for on-line elemental imaging was used to study Ni hyperaccumulation in Senecio coronatus (Thunb.) Harv. Asteraceae, one of only nine Ni hyperaccumulating plants found in the African continent. Elemental maps were obtained from samples with thicknesses varying from 0.4 to 5 mg/cm 2 by assuming cellulose (C 6H 10O 5) as constant matrix composition for the whole scanned area. The agreement between point analyses and results inferred from maps is good for small thickness variations within scanned regions. Maps of very inhomogeneous samples require a more time-consuming approach of thickness corrections in every pixel.

  20. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Gary M.; Malmstrom, Robert D.; Kipp, Erica; Paul, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants. PMID:22500074

  1. A new Bisabolane Derivative of Leontopodium andersonii

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiger, Stefan; Hehenberger, Stefanie; Ellmerer, Ernst P.; Stuppner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the roots of Leontopodium andersonii C. B. Clarke (Asteraceae) resulted in the isolation of a new bisabolane sesquiterpene derivative. The structure of the highly substituted derivative (1R*, 5S*, 6S*)-5-(acetyloxy)-6-[3-(acetyloxy)-1,5-dimethylhex-4-enyl]-3-methylcyclohex-2-en-4-on-1-yl (2Z)-2-methyl-but-2-enoate was established by 1- and 2-D-NMR spectroscopy and is the first report of a bisabolone derivative of the genus Leontopodium. PMID:20521527

  2. Cichorium intybus: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Street, Renée A; Sidana, Jasmeen; Prinsloo, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cichorium (Asteraceae) is made up of six species with major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium intybus, commonly known as chicory, is well known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Although this plant has a rich history of use in folklore, many of its constituents have not been explored for their pharmacological potential. Toxicological data on C. intybus is currently limited. This review focuses on the economic and culturally important medicinal uses of C. intybus. Traditional uses, scientific validation, and phytochemical composition are discussed in detail. PMID:24379887

  3. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins with collagen synthesis-promoting activity from the flowers of Bellis perennis.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Takamori, Yasunobu; Nishida, Eriko; Yasue, Misato; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu; Li, Xuezheng; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-08-01

    The methanol extract from Bellis perennis (Asteraceae) flowers was found to promote collagen synthesis in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Seven oleanane-type triterpene saponins, perennisosides XIII-XIX, and two known saponins, bellissaponins BS5 and BS9, were isolated from the methanol extract. The structures were determined based on chemical and physicochemical data, and confirmed using previously isolated related compounds as references. Among the isolates, including 19 previously reported saponins, perennisosides XVIII, I, II, VII, IX, and XI, asterbatanoside D, bernardioside B2, and bellissaponins BS5 and BS9 significantly promoted collagen synthesis at 3-30μM without cytotoxicity. PMID:26028520

  4. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

  5. O-heterocyclic embeurekols from Embellisia eureka, an endophyte of Cladanthus arabicus.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Weaam; Aly, Amal H; Mándi, Attila; Wray, Victor; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ouchbani, Tarik; Bouhfid, Rachid; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter; Kurtán, Tibor; Debbab, Abdessamad

    2013-04-01

    Three new polyketides ((-)-1, (+)-1, and 2) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fungus Embellisia eureka, an endophyte of the Moroccan plant Cladanthus arabicus (Asteraceae). The structures of these new compounds were determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configurations of (-)-1, (+)-1, and 2 were determined by TDDFT ECD calculations of solution conformers, online HPLC-ECD analysis, and the modified Mosher method. PMID:23532999

  6. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils. PMID:25937227

  7. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

  8. Repellent effect of plant essential oils against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pin; Ma, Yajun

    2005-12-01

    Six essential oils: asteraceae oil, rutaceae oil, mentha piperta oil, carvacryl oil, citronella oil, and eucalyptus oil were tested for evaluation of their repellent effects against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. Only citronella oil and eucalyptus oil were tested with human beings. There was considerable protection for mice. Carvacryl oil (7%) provided 100% protection for mice after 7 h. Eucalyptus oil (15%) gave protection to humans for least 3 h; the protection time was prolonged to 5 h after adding 5% vanillin. The mixture could be developed into a practical product after the field evaluation. PMID:16599157

  9. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal. PMID:27395518

  10. Amberinone, a new guaianolide from Amberboa ramosa.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Hussain, Iqbal; Hussain, Nusrat; Hameed, Arruje; Farooq, Tahir; Hussain, Amjad; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Hussain, Shabbir

    2016-01-01

    The Amberboa is a medicinally important genus present in the family Asteraceae; members of this genus are mainly distributed in Pakistan and India. It has been used in different systems of traditional medicines for different diseases. Amberinone (1), a new sesquiterpene lactone, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction of Amberboa ramosa together with chrysin (2), quercitine (3), eriodictyol (4) and keamferol (5). This is the first report of these compounds from this species. The structures of the isolated compounds have been elucidated by 1D and 2D (1)H (13)C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:25981583

  11. [Herbal textural research on species of Xanthii Fructus].

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong-mei; Qin, Min-jian; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    Xanthii Fructus is a traditional medicine for the treatment of nasal diseases in clinic, mainly come from the burs of Xanthium sibiricum with a worldwide distribution. By sorting and studying literature of Chinese medicine and comparing different figures recorded with the morphological description of several species from Xanthium (Asteraceae) in the Flora of China, combining the biological investigation in resource survey, the article pointed out that the burs or the whole herbs of X. mongolicum, as well as X. sibiricum, has been used by the traditional Chinese medicine in ancient time. It provides a reference for further studies in the future. PMID:26323160

  12. (-)-Xanthienopyran, a new inhibitor of superoxide anion generation by activated neutrophils, and further constituents of the seeds of Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Po-Ching; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hou, Yu-Yi; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2008-08-01

    The dried seeds of XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM (Asteraceae) are used after thorough stir-frying as an ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines for relieving allergy. Two new compounds, xanthialdehyde ( 2) and (-)-xanthienopyran ( 7), as well as 26 known compounds were isolated in the present study. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compound 7 exhibited significant selective inhibition of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils induced by formyl- L-methionyl- L-leucyl- L-phenylalanine, with an IC50 value of 1.72 microg/mL. PMID:18622908

  13. Xanthatin anti-tumor cytotoxicity is mediated via glycogen synthase kinase-3β and β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Sheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Lei; Li, Weidong; Wei, Zhonghong; Zhu, Pinting; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Aiyun; Woodgett, James R; Lu, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Xanthatin, a xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae), has prominent anti-tumor activity. Initial mechanism of action studies suggested xanthatin triggered activation of Wnt/β-catenin. We examined the effects of xanthatin on signaling pathways in A459 lung cancer cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to ascertain requirements for xanthatin-induced cell death and tumor growth in xenografts. Genetic inactivation of GSK-3β, but not the related isoform GSK-3α, compromised xanthatin cytotoxicity while inactivation of β-catenin enhanced xanthatin-mediated cell death. These data provide insight into how xanthatin and related molecules could be effectively targeted toward certain tumors. PMID:27321043

  14. GC/MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of Vernonia cinerea.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2015-07-01

    The hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the roots of V. cinerea Less. (Asteraceae) was investigated by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-five constituents were identified, which represented 97.4% of the total oil. The major compounds were α-muurolene (30.7%), β-caryophyllene (9.6%), α-selinene (8.7%), cyperene (6.7%) and α-gurjunene (6.5%). The essential oil was dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (87.8%). PMID:26411040

  15. Occurrence of a novel cis,cis,cis-octadeca-3,9,12-trienoic (Z,Z,Z-octadeca-3,9,12-trienoic) acid in Chrysanthemum (tanacetum) zawadskii herb. (Compositae) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Tsevegsuren, Nanzad; Fujimoto, Kenshiro; Christie, William W; Endo, Yasushi

    2003-05-01

    A new octadecatrienoic acid (6.9%), found as a component of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herb. (Asteraceae) seed oil, was shown to be the hitherto unknown cis,cis,cis-octadeca-3,9,12-trienoic acid. The oil also contained 8.6% of crepenynic acid in addition to the other common FA. The structures of the new unusual FA and other FA were confirmed by chromatographic (TLC, GC), spectroscopic (IR, UV, and NMR), and MS methods by using different chemical derivatizations (preparation of methyl ester, pyrrolidide, picolinyl esters, and dimethyloxazoline derivatives). PMID:12880115

  16. Phytochemicals isolated from leaves of Chromolaena odorata: impact on viability and clonogenicity of cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kouamé, Prevost Bi-Koffi; Jacques, Camille; Bedi, Gustave; Silvestre, Virginie; Loquet, Denis; Barillé-Nion, Sophie; Robins, Richard J; Tea, Illa

    2013-06-01

    The leaves of Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) are exploited extensively in West and Central African ethnopharmacy for the treatment of a wide range of conditions, despite this being a non-native species established in the last 50 years. With the objective of seeking bioactive principles, the nonvolatile compounds, an ethanolic (80% v/v) extract was made and fractionated. From the hexane-soluble fraction, three compounds were isolated. Two of these, 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone and 2'-hydroxy-4,4',5',6'-tetramethoxychalcone, have previously been identified in C. odorata leaves. The third was fully characterised spectroscopically and found to be 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)naphthalene (cadalene), not previously isolated from the Asteraceae. All three compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity and anticancer properties. 2'-Hydroxy-4,4',5',6'-tetramethoxychalcone was found to be both cytotoxic and anticlonogenic at 20 µm in cell lines Cal51, MCF7 and MDAMB-468, and to act synergistically with the Bcl2 inhibitor ABT737 to enhance apoptosis in Cal51 breast cancer cells. PMID:22899281

  17. Implication of an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene and a Phosphinothricin N-Acetyltransferase Gene in the Diversity of Pseudomonas cichorii Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Wali, Ullah Md; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii harbors the hrp genes. hrp-mutants lose their virulence on eggplant but not on lettuce. A phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene (pat) is located between hrpL and an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (aldH) in the genome of P. cichorii. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and composition of the genes among pseudomonads suggests a common ancestor of hrp and pat between P. cichorii strains and P. viridiflava strains harboring the single hrp pathogenicity island. In contrast, phylogenetic diversification of aldH corresponded to species diversification amongst pseudomonads. In this study, the involvement of aldH and pat in P. cichorii virulence was analyzed. An aldH-deleted mutant (ΔaldH) and a pat-deleted mutant (Δpat) lost their virulence on eggplant but not on lettuce. P. cichorii expressed both genes in eggplant leaves, independent of HrpL, the transcriptional activator for the hrp. Inoculation into Asteraceae species susceptible to P. cichorii showed that the involvement of hrp, pat and aldH in P. cichorii virulence is independent of each other and has no relationship with the phylogeny of Asteraceae species based on the nucleotide sequences of ndhF and rbcL. It is thus thought that not only the hrp genes but also pat and aldH are implicated in the diversity of P. cichorii virulence on susceptible host plant species. PMID:24704843

  18. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  19. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period. PMID:26628236

  20. Evaluation of effects of Zingiber officinale on salivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Chamani, Goli; Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Mehrabani, Mitra; Taghiabadi, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae), Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae), Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups) were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01). The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion. PMID:21874635

  1. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity. PMID:9741882

  2. A Clinical Trial with Brazilian Arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen) Glycolic Extract in the Treatment of Tendonitis of Flexor and Extensor Tendons of Wrist and Hand.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ary Gomes; Machado, Elbe Rodrigues; de Almeida, Leonardo Mendes; Nunes, Ricardo Marcelo Menezes; Giesbrecht, Patrícia Caldeira Pena; Costa, Regina Mamed; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo Machado

    2015-06-01

    One of the Brazilian arnicas, Solidago chilensis Meyen, is a species of the Asteraceae family. This plant is known by this common name because it shares remarkably similar organoleptic properties with the genus Arnica L., also within the family Asteraceae. We examined the effectiveness of the S. chilensis fluid extract used externally for treating tendinitis of flexor and extensor tendons of wrist and hand in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical pharmacological studies. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Scientific Research in Human Beings at University Vila Velha-UVV. Two daily skin applications on the arm skin of a gel cream containing a 5% glycolic plant extract were administered to eight volunteers for 21 days. Among the volunteers, one of their arms was used as the placebo group, and the other one was used as a test group. Statistical data analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the perception of pain in the arms in the test group, when it was compared to those receiving only the placebo. PMID:25760389

  3. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Albugo species (white blister rusts) based on LSU rDNA sequence and oospore data.

    PubMed

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Riethmüller, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of 60 collections belonging to 12 species of Albugo (Peronosporales) and two species of Pythium (Pythiales) were performed using nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences containing the D1 and D2 regions. These data were supplemented with detailed light and scanning electron microscopical analyses of oospore morphology, and the morphological data of insufficiently studied taxa (e.g. A. caryophyllacearum, A. gomphrenae) are revised. Molecular data revealed two main clades: one containing the collections from hosts belonging to the Caryophyllales and Asteraceae, and the other containing the collections from hosts belonging to the Brassicaceae and Convolvulaceae. Separation into these two clades was also corroborated by oospore morphology. Whereas the Albugo collections from Caryophyllales did not form a monophyletic lineage, the collections originating from Brassicaceae, Convolvulaceae and Asteraceae each formed highly supported monophyletic clades. According to DNA sequence data and oospore morphology, the host genus Amaranthus harbors two distinct species, Albugo amaranthi and Albugo bliti. The DNA sequence data further indicate that Albugo candida and Albugo tragopogonis each may consist of several distinct lineages, but additional data need to be collected before further taxonomic conclusions can be made. PMID:16376066

  5. Reproductive biology of an Alpic paleo-endemic in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Guerrina, Maria; Casazza, Gabriele; Conti, Elena; Macrì, Carmelo; Minuto, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Climate change is known to have a profound influence on plant reproduction, mainly because it affects plant/pollinator interactions, sometimes driving plants to extinction. Starting from the Neogene, the European climate was subjected to severe alterations. Nevertheless, several genera, including Berardia, survived these climatic changes. Despite the numerous studies performed about the relationship between climate change and plant reproductive biology, equivalent studies on ancient species are lacking, even though they may furnish crucial information on the strategies that allowed them to survive drastic climatic fluctuations. We investigated floral and reproductive features in Berardia subacaulis (Asteraceae), describing pollen vectors, capitulum and florets phenology, evaluating reproductive efficiency and defining the reproductive mode of the plant with bagging experiments and test of apomixis. B. subacaulis grows in habitats with low pollination services; it is self-compatible, but many typical features favouring cross-pollination are still present: florets are characterized by incomplete protandry, capitulum protogyny and high pollen-ovule ratio. The plant is not apomictic and self-fertilization is allowed within each capitulum. Similarly to other European Alpine endemics supposed to belong to the Mediterranean ancient tropical flora, the reproductive mode observed in the monospecific genus Berardia assured reproduction also under a pollinator decline. Differently from the other endemics, it took advantage of its spontaneous self-pollination and compatibility and its generalist pollination service, common both among high altitude plants and in the Asteraceae. PMID:26886434

  6. The Invasive American Weed Parthenium hysterophorus Can Negatively Impact Malaria Control in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Cheseto, Xavier; Kaplan, Fatma; Foster, Woodbridge A.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Tumlinson, James H.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

    2015-01-01

    The direct negative effects of invasive plant species on agriculture and biodiversity are well known, but their indirect effects on human health, and particularly their interactions with disease-transmitting vectors, remains poorly explored. This study sought to investigate the impact of the invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus and its toxins on the survival and energy reserves of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. In this study, we compared the fitness of An. gambiae fed on three differentially attractive mosquito host plants and their major toxins; the highly aggressive invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in East Africa and two other adapted weeds, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Our results showed that female An. gambiae fitness varied with host plants as females survived better and accumulated substantial energy reserves when fed on P. hysterophorus and R. communis compared to B. pilosa. Females tolerated parthenin and 1-phenylhepta-1, 3, 5-triyne, the toxins produced by P. hysterophorus and B. pilosa, respectively, but not ricinine produced by R. communis. Given that invasive plants like P. hysterophorus can suppress or even replace less competitive species that might be less suitable host-plants for arthropod disease vectors, the spread of invasive plants could lead to higher disease transmission. Parthenium hysterophorus represents a possible indirect effect of invasive plants on human health, which underpins the need to include an additional health dimension in risk-analysis modelling for invasive plants. PMID:26367123

  7. Alkyl and phenolic glycosides from Saussurea stella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Min; Wang, Ru-Feng; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-07-01

    One alkyl glycoside, saussurostelloside A (1), two phenolic glycosides, saussurostellosides B1 (2) and B2 (3), and 27 known compounds, including eleven flavonoids, seven phenolics, six lignans, one neolignan, one phenethyl glucoside and one fatty acid, were isolated from an ethanol extract of Saussurea stella (Asteraceae). Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopic analysis. Of the known compounds, (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7), picraquassioside C (10), and diosmetin-3'-O-β-D-glucoside (27) were isolated from the Asteraceae family for the first time, while (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), di-O-methylcrenatin (11), protocatechuic acid (14), 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (17), formononetin (28), and phenethyl glucoside (29) were isolated from the Saussurea genus for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of three new compounds (1-3), five lignans ((-)-arctiin (4), (+)-pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (5), (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7) and (+)-syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (8)), one neolignan (picraquassioside C (10)), and one phenolic glycoside (di-O-methylcrenatin (11)) were evaluated by testing their inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase from PAF-stimulated neutrophils. Only compound 5 showed moderate inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase, with an inhibition ratio of 39.1%. PMID:23567860

  8. Evaluation of genotoxic variations in plant model systems in a case of metal stressors.

    PubMed

    Ackova, Darinka Gjorgieva; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Andonovska, Katerina Bačeva; Stafilov, Trajče

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of long term, high metal exposition (cadmium, lead, copper, nickel and zinc) on DNA damage in four plant model systems [Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae), and Urtica dioica (Urticaceae)]. DNA stability was investigated by a Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Agarose-gel electrophoresis revealed total of 37 bands with different molecular weights ranging from 1250 to 5000 bp. It generated distinctive polymorphism value of 72.97% (27 bands) total in four plant species investigated. The dendrogram constructed using NTSYSpc programme showed that there is grouping in separate clusters of the same plant model collected from two different areas (metal-exposed and control samples). The study concluded that the long term metal-exposing periods had genotoxic stress on macromolecules of plant model systems investigated and biomarkers used should be augmented for reliable estimates of genotoxicity after exposure of plants to metal stressors. PMID:26853058

  9. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

    2008-09-01

    Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

  10. Development and validation of an HPTLC method for apigenin 7-O-glucoside in chamomile flowers and its application for fingerprint discrimination of chamomile-like materials.

    PubMed

    Guzelmeric, Etil; Vovk, Irena; Yesilada, Erdem

    2015-03-25

    Brewed tea of chamomile flowers (Matricaria recutita L.) (Asteraceae) has been extensively consumed for centuries due to either its pleasant taste or medicinal purposes. On the other hand, the major problem is difficulty in distinguishing the genuine specimen when supplying chamomile through nature-picking. Consequently flowers of other Asteraceae members resembling to chamomile in appearance may frequently be practiced by lay people or marketed in spice shops or bazaars. Evidently detection of such adulterations plays a vital role in terms of public health to avoid risk of toxicity (i.e. pyrazolidin alkaloids) and ineffective treatments (lack or insufficient concentration of the active constituents). This work presents either development and validation of a high performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for apigenin 7-O-glucoside which is one of the active markers in chamomile flowers or its application for the fingerprint discrimination of chamomile-like materials i.e. Anthemis spp., Bellis spp., Chrysanthemum sp. and Tanacetum sp. gathered by local people assuming as chamomile. Separation was performed on the silica gel 60 NH2 F254s HPTLC plates using the developing solvent system of ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water (30:1.5:1.5:3, v/v/v/v). The proposed HPTLC method may also be a leading guide for the quality assessment of chamomile tea products on the market. PMID:25575175

  11. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    PubMed

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area. PMID:25503327

  12. The complete chloroplast genome of 17 individuals of pest species Jacobaea vulgaris: SNPs, microsatellites and barcoding markers for population and phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Doorduin, Leonie; Gravendeel, Barbara; Lammers, Youri; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Chin-A-Woeng, Thomas; Vrieling, Klaas

    2011-04-01

    Invasive individuals from the pest species Jacobaea vulgaris show different allocation patterns in defence and growth compared with native individuals. To examine if these changes are caused by fast evolution, it is necessary to identify native source populations and compare these with invasive populations. For this purpose, we are in need of intraspecific polymorphic markers. We therefore sequenced the complete chloroplast genomes of 12 native and 5 invasive individuals of J. vulgaris with next generation sequencing and discovered single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites. This is the first study in which the chloroplast genome of that many individuals within a single species was sequenced. Thirty-two SNPs and 34 microsatellite regions were found. For none of the individuals, differences were found between the inverted repeats. Furthermore, being the first chloroplast genome sequenced in the Senecioneae clade, we compared it with four other members of the Asteraceae family to identify new regions for phylogentic inference within this clade and also within the Asteraceae family. Five markers (ndhC-trnV, ndhC-atpE, rps18-rpl20, clpP and psbM-trnD) contained parsimony-informative characters higher than 2%. Finally, we compared two procedures of preparing chloroplast DNA for next generation sequencing. PMID:21444340

  13. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of 17 Individuals of Pest Species Jacobaea vulgaris: SNPs, Microsatellites and Barcoding Markers for Population and Phylogenetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doorduin, Leonie; Gravendeel, Barbara; Lammers, Youri; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Chin-A-Woeng, Thomas; Vrieling, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    Invasive individuals from the pest species Jacobaea vulgaris show different allocation patterns in defence and growth compared with native individuals. To examine if these changes are caused by fast evolution, it is necessary to identify native source populations and compare these with invasive populations. For this purpose, we are in need of intraspecific polymorphic markers. We therefore sequenced the complete chloroplast genomes of 12 native and 5 invasive individuals of J. vulgaris with next generation sequencing and discovered single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites. This is the first study in which the chloroplast genome of that many individuals within a single species was sequenced. Thirty-two SNPs and 34 microsatellite regions were found. For none of the individuals, differences were found between the inverted repeats. Furthermore, being the first chloroplast genome sequenced in the Senecioneae clade, we compared it with four other members of the Asteraceae family to identify new regions for phylogentic inference within this clade and also within the Asteraceae family. Five markers (ndhC-trnV, ndhC-atpE, rps18-rpl20, clpP and psbM-trnD) contained parsimony-informative characters higher than 2%. Finally, we compared two procedures of preparing chloroplast DNA for next generation sequencing. PMID:21444340

  14. Effects of different sources of fructans on body weight, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in normal and obese non-diabetic and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Huerta, Juan A; Juárez-Flores, Bertha; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Aguirre-Rivera, J Rogelio; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E

    2012-03-01

    Fructans contribute significantly to dietary fiber with beneficial effects on gastrointestinal physiology in healthy individuals and offer a promising approach to treating some diseases. Two experiments (Experiment 1 = rats with normal weight; Experiment 2 = obese rats) were developed to compare the effects of three fructan sources (Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae, Helianthus tuberosus L. Asteraceae and Agave angustifolia ssp. tequilana Haw, Agavaceae) on body weight change, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) rats. In Experiment 1 total body weight gain and daily feed intake in D and ND rats decreased (P < 0.05) with supplements of fructan. Only in D rats, blood glucose concentrations, fecal Clostrodium spp. counts, and liver steatosis decreased, while blood HDL concentrations and fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts increased due to fructans. In Experiment 2, total body weight gain and feed intake in ND and D rats were also decreased by fructans. In ND rats, fructan decreased blood glucose concentrations. In D rats, fructans from A. angustifolia ssp. tequilana decreased blood cholesterol and LDL and liver steatosis. For both ND and D rats, fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher (P < 0.05) with fructan supplements. PMID:22210166

  15. Palynostratigraphy and vegetation characteristics of Neogene continental deposits interbedded with the Cappadocia ignimbrites (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz-Işık, Nurdan; Toprak, Vedat

    2010-12-01

    A palynological analysis of the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene successions of the Cappadocian Volcanic Province (Central Anatolia, Turkey) has been carried out with the aim of reconstructing the palaeovegetation and palaeoclimatic conditions. The samples are collected from outcrop sections from three different localities (A: Akdağ, B: Bayramhacılı and G: Güzelöz). The pollen spectra reveals the existence of a steppe vegetation dominated by Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia, typical of present day arid and semi-arid continental areas (i.e. Middle East), and Asteraceae Asteroideae in the A section (Late Miocene) developed in arid climatic conditions. The flora of the G (Early Pliocene) and lower part of the B (Late Miocene) sections reflects steppes on which Asteraceae Asteroideae was dominant. This flora also indicates arid conditions. The development of trees in the upper part of the B section was possibly related to local paleoenvironmental conditions rather than a climatic change. This study provides the first palynological data to reveal the presence of an Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia steppe already during the Late Miocene in Turkey.

  16. The Invasive American Weed Parthenium hysterophorus Can Negatively Impact Malaria Control in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyasembe, Vincent O; Cheseto, Xavier; Kaplan, Fatma; Foster, Woodbridge A; Teal, Peter E A; Tumlinson, James H; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

    2015-01-01

    The direct negative effects of invasive plant species on agriculture and biodiversity are well known, but their indirect effects on human health, and particularly their interactions with disease-transmitting vectors, remains poorly explored. This study sought to investigate the impact of the invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus and its toxins on the survival and energy reserves of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. In this study, we compared the fitness of An. gambiae fed on three differentially attractive mosquito host plants and their major toxins; the highly aggressive invasive Neotropical weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in East Africa and two other adapted weeds, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Our results showed that female An. gambiae fitness varied with host plants as females survived better and accumulated substantial energy reserves when fed on P. hysterophorus and R. communis compared to B. pilosa. Females tolerated parthenin and 1-phenylhepta-1, 3, 5-triyne, the toxins produced by P. hysterophorus and B. pilosa, respectively, but not ricinine produced by R. communis. Given that invasive plants like P. hysterophorus can suppress or even replace less competitive species that might be less suitable host-plants for arthropod disease vectors, the spread of invasive plants could lead to higher disease transmission. Parthenium hysterophorus represents a possible indirect effect of invasive plants on human health, which underpins the need to include an additional health dimension in risk-analysis modelling for invasive plants. PMID:26367123

  17. Circum-Mediterranean cultural heritage and medicinal plant uses in traditional animal healthcare: a field survey in eight selected areas within the RUBIA project.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Andrea; Giusti, Maria Elena; de Pasquale, Caterina; Lenzarini, Cinzia; Censorii, Eleonora; Gonzáles-Tejero, María Reyes; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Ramiro-Gutiérrez, Jose M; Skoula, Melpomeni; Johnson, Chris; Sarpaki, Anaya; Della, Athena; Paraskeva-Hadijchambi, Demetra; Hadjichambis, Andreas; Hmamouchi, Mohammed; El-Jorhi, Said; El-Demerdash, Mohamed; El-Zayat, Mustafa; Al-Shahaby, Omar; Houmani, Zahia; Scherazed, Mekious

    2006-01-01

    During the years 2003-2005, a comparative ethnobotanical field survey was conducted on remedies used in traditional animal healthcare in eight Mediterranean areas. The study sites were selected within the EU-funded RUBIA project, and were as follows: the upper Kelmend Province of Albania; the Capannori area in Eastern Tuscany and the Bagnocavallo area of Romagna, Italy; Cercle de Ouezanne, Morocco; Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche Natural Park in the province of Huelva, Spain; the St. Catherine area of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt; Eastern and Western Crete, Greece; the Paphos and Larnaca areas of Cyprus; and the Mitidja area of Algeria.One hundred and thirty-six veterinary preparations and 110 plant taxa were recorded in the survey, with Asteraceae and Lamiaceae being the most quoted botanical families. For certain plant species the survey uncovered veterinary phytotherapeutical indications that were very uncommon, and to our knowledge never recorded before. These include Anabasis articulata (Chenopodiaceae), Cardopatium corymbosum (Asteraceae), Lilium martagon (Liliaceae), Dorycnium rectum (Fabaceae), Oenanthe pimpinelloides (Apiaceae), Origanum floribundum (Lamiaceae), Tuberaria lignosa (Cistaceae), and Dittrichia graveolens (Asteraceae). These phytotherapeutical indications are briefly discussed in this report, taking into account modern phytopharmacology and phytochemistry.The percentage of overall botanical veterinary taxa recorded in all the study areas was extremely low (8%), however when all taxa belonging to the same botanical genus are considered, this portion increases to 17%. Nevertheless, very few plant uses were found to be part of a presumed "Mediterranean" cultural heritage in veterinary practices, which raises critical questions about the concept of Mediterraneanism in ethnobotany and suggests that further discussion is required.Nearly the half of the recorded veterinary plant uses for mammals uncovered in this survey have also been recorded in

  18. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Brandon J.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Ocama, Ponsiano; Semeere, Aggrey S.; Ndyanabo, Anthony; Boaz, Iga; Kiggundu, Valerian; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Thomas, David L.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Stabinski, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai, Uganda, were frequency matched to 500 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants were asked about traditional herbal medicine use and assessed for other potential risk factors for liver disease. All participants underwent transient elastography (FibroScan®) to quantify liver fibrosis. The association between herb use and significant liver fibrosis was measured with adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using modified Poisson multivariable logistic regression. Results 19 unique herbs from 13 plant families were used by 42/1000 of all participants, including 9/500 HIV-infected participants. The three most-used plant families were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. Among all participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.5, p = 0.002), herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 2.9–8.7, p<0.001), and herbs from the Lamiaceae family (adjPRR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.2, p = 0.017) were associated with significant liver fibrosis. Among HIV infected participants, use of any herb (adjPRR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p = 0.044) and use of herbs from the Asteraceae family (adjPRR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.7–14.7, p = 0.004) were associated with increased liver fibrosis. Conclusions Traditional herbal medicine use was independently associated with a substantial increase in significant liver fibrosis in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants. Pharmacokinetic and prospective clinical studies are needed to inform herb safety recommendations in sub-Saharan Africa. Counseling about herb use should be part of routine health counseling and counseling of HIV-infected persons in Uganda

  19. Circum-Mediterranean cultural heritage and medicinal plant uses in traditional animal healthcare: a field survey in eight selected areas within the RUBIA project

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Andrea; Giusti, Maria Elena; de Pasquale, Caterina; Lenzarini, Cinzia; Censorii, Eleonora; Gonzáles-Tejero, María Reyes; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Ramiro-Gutiérrez, Jose M; Skoula, Melpomeni; Johnson, Chris; Sarpaki, Anaya; Della, Athena; Paraskeva-Hadijchambi, Demetra; Hadjichambis, Andreas; Hmamouchi, Mohammed; El-Jorhi, Said; El-Demerdash, Mohamed; El-Zayat, Mustafa; Al-Shahaby, Omar; Houmani, Zahia; Scherazed, Mekious

    2006-01-01

    During the years 2003–2005, a comparative ethnobotanical field survey was conducted on remedies used in traditional animal healthcare in eight Mediterranean areas. The study sites were selected within the EU-funded RUBIA project, and were as follows: the upper Kelmend Province of Albania; the Capannori area in Eastern Tuscany and the Bagnocavallo area of Romagna, Italy; Cercle de Ouezanne, Morocco; Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche Natural Park in the province of Huelva, Spain; the St. Catherine area of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt; Eastern and Western Crete, Greece; the Paphos and Larnaca areas of Cyprus; and the Mitidja area of Algeria. One hundred and thirty-six veterinary preparations and 110 plant taxa were recorded in the survey, with Asteraceae and Lamiaceae being the most quoted botanical families. For certain plant species the survey uncovered veterinary phytotherapeutical indications that were very uncommon, and to our knowledge never recorded before. These include Anabasis articulata (Chenopodiaceae), Cardopatium corymbosum (Asteraceae), Lilium martagon (Liliaceae), Dorycnium rectum (Fabaceae), Oenanthe pimpinelloides (Apiaceae), Origanum floribundum (Lamiaceae), Tuberaria lignosa (Cistaceae), and Dittrichia graveolens (Asteraceae). These phytotherapeutical indications are briefly discussed in this report, taking into account modern phytopharmacology and phytochemistry. The percentage of overall botanical veterinary taxa recorded in all the study areas was extremely low (8%), however when all taxa belonging to the same botanical genus are considered, this portion increases to 17%. Nevertheless, very few plant uses were found to be part of a presumed "Mediterranean" cultural heritage in veterinary practices, which raises critical questions about the concept of Mediterraneanism in ethnobotany and suggests that further discussion is required. Nearly the half of the recorded veterinary plant uses for mammals uncovered in this survey have also been recorded

  20. Pollen clumping and wind dispersal in an invasive angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael D; Chamecki, Marcelo; Brush, Grace S; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B

    2009-09-01

    Pollen dispersal is a fundamental aspect of plant reproductive biology that maintains connectivity between spatially separated populations. Pollen clumping, a characteristic feature of insect-pollinated plants, is generally assumed to be a detriment to wind pollination because clumps disperse shorter distances than do solitary pollen grains. Yet pollen clumps have been observed in dispersion studies of some widely distributed wind-pollinated species. We used Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed; Asteraceae), a successful invasive angiosperm, to investigate the effect of clumping on wind dispersal of pollen under natural conditions in a large field. Results of simultaneous measurements of clump size both in pollen shedding from male flowers and airborne pollen being dispersed in the atmosphere are combined with a transport model to show that rather than being detrimental, clumps may actually be advantageous for wind pollination. Initial clumps can pollinate the parent population, while smaller clumps that arise from breakup of larger clumps can cross-pollinate distant populations. PMID:21622356