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Sample records for gardn asteraceae chaetoglobosinas

  1. Ethnopharmacology of Mexican asteraceae (Compositae).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, M; Robles, M; West, J E; Ortiz de Montellano, B R; Rodriguez, E

    1998-01-01

    Traditional herbal remedies have increased in popularity in Europe and the United States in recent years but have always been important to people living in rural Mexico and to their Mexican American/Chicano descendants in the United States. Mexican American patients will often be ingesting herbal teas at the same time that they are being treated for their ailments with antibiotics or antiinflammatory agents. The plant family Asteraceae (Compositae) has contributed the largest number of plants to this pharmacopoeia; the reasons for the importance of this family include its large number of species in Mexico and its wide array of natural products that are useful in the treatment of the maladies that have afflicted the inhabitants of rural Mexico. These natural products include sesquiterpene lactones, polyacetylenes, alkaloids, monoterpenes, and various phenolics such as flavonoids. In this review, we emphasize the sesquiterpene lactones, a large group of compounds with antiinflammatory properties and the ability to relax smooth muscles and thereby relieve gastrointestinal distress. These compounds also readily form adducts with glutathione or free thiols and can thereby affect the metabolism, activity, and toxicology of a wide array of pharmacological agents. PMID:9597165

  2. Flavanone glycosides from Bidens gardneri Bak. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise Brentan; Okano, Laura Tiemi; Lopes, Norberto P; de Oliveira, Dionéia C R

    2013-12-01

    LC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of the Brazilian medicinal plant Bidens gardneri Bak. (Asteraceae) results in identification of eleven phenolic compounds. HRESIMS, MS/MS and UV data analyses, with phytochemicals isolation guided by MS data, results in flavanones-(-)-4'-methoxy-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3'-dihydroxyflavanone; (-)-7-O-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3',4'-trihydroxyflavanone; and (-)-4'-methoxy-7-O-(6″-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8,3'-dihydroxyflavanone being identified-together with four known compounds. The absolute configurations of two of the flavanones were determined as 2S via circular dichroism. PMID:24210092

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. PMID:26164759

  4. Phenolics from Rhagadiolus stellatus (Asteraceae, Cichorieae)

    PubMed Central

    Krimplstätter, Romana; Ma, Benjamin; Spitaler, Renate; Ellmerer, Ernst; Zidorn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Rhagadiolus stellatus Gaertn., a Mediterranean member of the Cichorieae tribe of the Asteraceae family used as a food plant, was analyzed for its spectrum of phenolic compounds. Kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside 1, kaempferol 3-O-β-rutinoside (nicotiflorin) 2, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside 3, and luteolin 4 were isolated from the n-butanol layer of a methanolic extract of whole plants of Rh. stellatus of Spanish origin by repeated Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Structures were determined based on NMR and MS data as well as by comparison with literature data. Additionally, chlorogenic acid 5 and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 6 were detected by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/MS. Chemosystematic implications of the presented findings are discussed in comparison with other members of the Cichorieae tribe. PMID:21617781

  5. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  6. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  7. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  8. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  9. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand...

  10. Macroevolutionary dynamics in the early diversification of Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Panero, Jose L; Crozier, Bonnie S

    2016-06-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in ecological opportunity can result in disparity of net species diversification rates and consequently uneven distribution of taxon richness across the tree of life. The largest eudicotyledonous plant family Asteraceae has a global distribution and at least 460 times more species than its South American endemic sister family Calyceraceae. In this study, diversification rate dynamics across Asteraceae are examined in light of the several hypothesized causes for the family's evolutionary success that could be responsible for rate change. The innovations of racemose capitulum and pappus, and a whole genome duplication event occurred near the origin of the family, yet we found the basal lineages of Asteraceae that evolved in South America share background diversification rates with Calyceraceae and their Australasian sister Goodeniaceae. Instead we found diversification rates increased gradually from the origin of Asteraceae approximately 69.5Ma in the late Cretaceous through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at least. In contrast to earlier studies, significant rate shifts were not strongly correlated with intercontinental dispersals or polyploidization. The difference is due primarily to sampling more backbone nodes, as well as calibrations placed internally in Asteraceae that resulted in earlier divergence times than those found in most previous relaxed clock studies. Two clades identified as having transformed rate processes are the Vernonioid Clade and a clade within the Heliantheae alliance characterized by phytomelanic fruit (PF Clade) that represents an American radiation. In Africa, subfamilies Carduoideae, Pertyoideae, Gymnarrhenoideae, Cichorioideae, Corymbioideae, and Asteroideae diverged in a relatively short span of only 6.5millionyears during the Middle Eocene. PMID:26979262

  11. Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a New Species from Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chen; Tong, Tian-Jing; Hong, Yu; Yang, Qin-Er

    2016-01-01

    Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a new species from Muli, Sichuan, southwestern China, is described. It is distinguished in Chinese Senecio s.s. by having lyrate-pinnatisect to pinnatisect leaves and a single terminal large discoid capitulum which is somewhat nodding. Evidence from floral micromorphology, karyology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS/ETS sequence data all support its membership within Senecio s.s. PMID:27050905

  12. Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a New Species from Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chen; Tong, Tian-Jing; Hong, Yu; Yang, Qin-Er

    2016-01-01

    Senecio changii (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a new species from Muli, Sichuan, southwestern China, is described. It is distinguished in Chinese Senecio s.s. by having lyrate-pinnatisect to pinnatisect leaves and a single terminal large discoid capitulum which is somewhat nodding. Evidence from floral micromorphology, karyology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS/ETS sequence data all support its membership within Senecio s.s. PMID:27050905

  13. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies. PMID:27172598

  14. Chemodiversity of exudate flavonoids in Cassinia and Ozothamnus (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae).

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, Eckhard; Fischer, Ralf; Dörr, Marion; Irvine, Kathryn; Pereira, Cliff; Stevens, Jan F

    2008-01-01

    The lipophilic exudates deposited on aerial parts of four species of Cassinia and twelve species of Ozothamnus (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) have been analyzed for the presence of flavonoid aglycones and some other phenolics. A total of 55 flavonoids were identified, including several rare flavonols. Flavonols are prevailing over flavones, and 8-O-substitution is dominant in both groups. Ozothamnus rosmarinifolius is exceptional in producing several coumarins. Four dihydrobenzofurans have also been identified from this species. Cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis of the flavonoid data provide support for combining species of Cassinia and Ozothamnus into a single genus. PMID:19040114

  15. Trypanocidal activity of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Takeara, R; Albuquerque, S; Lopes, N P; Lopes, J L C

    2003-01-01

    In the continuing search for new compounds with trypanocidal activity for use in blood banks to prevent the transmission of Chagas' disease, a trypanocidal extract of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) was fractionated using several chromatographic techniques and afforded the following flavonoids: tectochrysin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin 3-acetate, pinocembrin, chrysin, galangin 3-methyl ether, quercetin 3-methyl ether, chrysoeriol and vicenin-2. The most active compound was quercetin 3-methyl ether, which showed no blood lysis activity and which represents a promising compound for use against T. cruzi in blood banks. PMID:13678232

  16. A chloroplast DNA inversion marks an ancient evolutionary split in the sunflower family (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Robert K.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    1987-01-01

    We determined the distribution of a chloroplast DNA inversion among 80 species representing 16 tribes of the Asteraceae and 10 putatively related families. Filter hybridizations using cloned chloroplast DNA restriction fragments of lettuce and petunia revealed that this 22-kilobase-pair inversion is shared by 57 genera, representing all tribes of the Asteraceae, but is absent from the subtribe Barnadesiinae of the tribe Mutisieae, as well as from all families allied to the Asteraceae. The inversion thus defines an ancient evolutionary split within the family and suggests that the Barnadesiinae represents the most primitive lineage in the Asteraceae. These results also indicate that the tribe Mutisieae is not monophyletic, since any common ancestor to its four subtribes is also shared by other tribes in the family. This is the most extensive survey of the systematic distribution of an organelle DNA rearrangement and demonstrates the potential of such mutations for resolving phylogenetic relationships at higher taxonomic levels. Images PMID:16593871

  17. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  18. Characterization of microsatellite markers for Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Belini, Camila M. B.; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Figueira, Glyn M.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Campos, Jaqueline B.; Viana, João P. G.; Pinheiro, José B.; Zucchi, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) is a native plant of the Atlantic Forest that is used for the production of essential oil. Microsatellite markers were developed for this species to investigate the genetic diversity of three natural populations. Methods and Results: Seventeen out of 27 microsatellite loci identified in a genomic library used for the characterization of 315 individuals derived from three natural populations of B. dracunculifolia resulted in successful amplifications. Eleven polymorphic loci, ranging from two to seven alleles per locus, were obtained with expected and observed heterozygosity values ranging between 0.068 and 0.775 and 0.046 and 0.667, respectively. Conclusions: The microsatellite loci described in this study are tools that can be used for further studies of population genetics of B. dracunculifolia with a focus on deforested areas and conservation of natural populations. PMID:27011894

  19. First report of fasciation in Pitcher's Thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Korte, Megan K; McEachern, Kathryn; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We document the first reported occurrence of fasciation in the federally threatened Pitcher’s thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). In 2013, we discovered two adult plants of Pitcher’s thistle out of a total of 176 plants at West Beach, near Miller, Indiana, USA, that exhibited both normal and fasciated growth. Unlike plants with normal growth, a portion of the upper stems of these plants was flattened, and some flower heads were elongated into a fan-like shape. Each plant had one large fasciated terminal seed head and several less severely fasciated ancillary heads. The fasciated terminal head on one of the plants found produced an estimated 1153 seeds, whereas normal terminal heads typically produced 80 ± 9 viable seeds. The cause of this fasciation is unclear, but may be due to infection with phytoplasma

  20. Development of microsatellite markers for Crepis mollis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Muller, Ludo A. H.; Borsch, Thomas; Ismail, Sascha A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the threatened species Crepis mollis (Asteraceae) to investigate population and conservation genetics. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing was conducted on pooled genomic DNA from 10 individuals of two populations. Ten polymorphic and 10 monomorphic microsatellite loci with di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed and characterized in C. mollis. In the polymorphic markers, up to 17 alleles per locus were detected with an observed and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.120 to 0.780 and 0.102 to 0.834, respectively. Furthermore, the polymorphic markers were tested for cross-amplification in three congeneric species (C. biennis, C. foetida, and C. sancta) and amplified in up to three loci. Conclusions: The markers developed in this study are the first microsatellites tested on C. mollis and will be useful for performing population and conservation genetic studies in this threatened species. PMID:27437177

  1. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Viviana D.; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V.; Tellería, María C.; Bremer, Kåre; Passala, Mauro G.; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Methods The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Key Results The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate–imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. Conclusions This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae–Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously

  2. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. Results The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. Conclusions ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels. PMID:20977734

  3. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  4. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC-MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 μg/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of β-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  5. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  6. Revision of endemic Marquesas Islands Bidens (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Clark, John R.; Lorence, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands four new species of Bidens (Coreopsideae, Asteraceae) have come to light and are described herein: Bidens woodii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from Ua Pou, and Bidens microcephala W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence sp. nov., Bidens evapelliana W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov., and Bidens wichmanii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from the undercollected island of Fatu Hiva. In addition to these new species, we recognize the following six species of Bidens previously described from the Marquesas Islands: Bidens beckiana (F. Br.) Sherff (Eiao and Hatutaa), Bidens bipontina Sherff and Bidens cordifolia Sch. Bip. (both in Nuku Hiva), Bidens henryi Sherff (Hiva Oa, Tahuata), Bidens uapensis (F. Br.) Sherff (Ua Pou), and Bidens polycephala Sch. Bip. (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huku, Hiva Oa, Tahuata, and Mohotani). Two names are reduced to synonymy under Bidens polycephala: Bidens collina Degener & Sherff, syn. nov. and Bidens jardinii Sch. Bip., syn. nov. Bidens polycephala has the widest distribution of the Marquesan species on five of the islands and exhibits considerable variation. PMID:25009437

  7. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC–MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 μg/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of β-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  8. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Musiał, K; Płachno, B J; Świątek, P; Marciniuk, J

    2013-06-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

  9. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Revision of endemic Marquesas Islands Bidens (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Warren L; Clark, John R; Lorence, David H

    2014-01-01

    During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands four new species of Bidens (Coreopsideae, Asteraceae) have come to light and are described herein: Bidens woodii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from Ua Pou, and Bidens microcephala W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence sp. nov., Bidens evapelliana W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov., and Bidens wichmanii W.L. Wagner, J.R. Clark & Lorence, sp. nov. from the undercollected island of Fatu Hiva. In addition to these new species, we recognize the following six species of Bidens previously described from the Marquesas Islands: Bidens beckiana (F. Br.) Sherff (Eiao and Hatutaa), Bidens bipontina Sherff and Bidens cordifolia Sch. Bip. (both in Nuku Hiva), Bidens henryi Sherff (Hiva Oa, Tahuata), Bidens uapensis (F. Br.) Sherff (Ua Pou), and Bidens polycephala Sch. Bip. (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huku, Hiva Oa, Tahuata, and Mohotani). Two names are reduced to synonymy under Bidens polycephala: Bidens collina Degener & Sherff, syn. nov. and Bidens jardinii Sch. Bip., syn. nov. Bidens polycephala has the widest distribution of the Marquesan species on five of the islands and exhibits considerable variation. PMID:25009437

  11. Genome size shifts: karyotype evolution in Crepis section Neglectoides (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Enke, N; Kunze, R; Pustahija, F; Glöckner, G; Zimmermann, J; Oberländer, J; Kamari, G; Siljak-Yakovlev, S

    2015-07-01

    Plant genome size evolution is a very dynamic process: the ancestral genome of angiosperms was initially most likely small, which led to a tendency towards genome increase during evolution. However, findings in several angiosperm lineages demonstrate mechanisms that also led to genome size contraction. Recent molecular investigations on the Asteraceae genus Crepis suggest that several genomic reduction events have occurred during the evolution of the genus. This study focuses on the Mediterranean Crepis sect. Neglectoides, which includes three species with some of the smallest genomes within the whole genus. Crepis neglecta has the largest genome in sect. Neglectoides, approximately twice the size of the two species Crepis cretica and Crepis hellenica. Whereas C. cretica and C. hellencia are more closely related to each other than to C. neglecta the karyotypes of the latter species and C. cretica are similar, while that of C. hellenica differs considerably. Here, the karyotypic organisation of the three species is investigated with fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and studied in a molecular phylogenetic framework based on the nuclear markers Actin, CHR12, CPN60B, GPCR1 and XTH23. Our findings further corroborate the occurrence of genome size contraction in Crepis, and suggest that the difference in genome size between C. neglecta and C. cretica is mostly due to elimination of dispersed repetitive elements, whereas chromosomal reorganisation was involved in the karyotype formation of C. hellenica. PMID:25683604

  12. The explosive radiation of Cheirolophus (Asteraceae, Cardueae) in Macaronesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considered a biodiversity hotspot, the Canary Islands have been the key subjects of numerous evolutionary studies concerning a large variety of organisms. The genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) represents one of the largest plant radiations in the Canarian archipelago. In contrast, only a few species occur in the Mediterranean region, the putative ancestral area of the genus. Here, our main aim was to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Cheirolophus with special focus on explaining the origin of the large Canarian radiation. Results We found significant incongruence in phylogenetic relationships between nuclear and plastid markers. Each dataset provided resolution at different levels in Cheirolophus: the nuclear markers resolved the backbone of the phylogeny while the plastid data provided better resolution within the Canarian clade. The origin of Cheirolophus was dated in the Mid-Late Miocene, followed by rapid diversification into the three main Mediterranean lineages and the Macaronesian clade. A decrease in diversification rates was inferred at the end of the Miocene, with a new increase in the Late Pliocene concurrent with the onset of the Mediterranean climate. Diversification within the Macaronesian clade started in the Early-Mid Pleistocene, with unusually high speciation rates giving rise to the extant insular diversity. Conclusions Climate-driven diversification likely explains the early evolutionary history of Cheirolophus in the Mediterranean region. It appears that the exceptionally high diversification rate in the Canarian clade was mainly driven by allopatric speciation (including intra- and interisland diversification). Several intrinsic (e.g. breeding system, polyploid origin, seed dispersal syndrome) and extrinsic (e.g. fragmented landscape, isolated habitats, climatic and geological changes) factors probably contributed to the progressive differentiation of populations resulting in numerous microendemisms. Finally

  13. Evidence for multiple introductions of Centaurea stoebe micranthos (spotted knapweed, Asteraceae) to North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species’ success may depend strongly on the genetic resources they maintain through the invasion process. We ask how many introductions have occurred in the North American weed Centaurea stoebe micranthos (Asteraceae), and explore whether genetic diversity and population structure have chan...

  14. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum. PMID:27097086

  15. Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae: Cynareae) new to North Carolina and an illustrated key to southeastern congeners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krings, A.; Westbrooks, R.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae) is documented for North Carolina. The species had previously been known from Florida to South Carolina and from disjunct populations in Virginia. An illustrated key is provided to aid others in the diagnosis of Cirsium in North Carolina and the southeast.

  16. Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Multifunctional Crop Globe Artichoke and Comparison with Other Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Curci, Pasquale L.; De Paola, Domenico; Danzi, Donatella; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    With over 20,000 species, Asteraceae is the second largest plant family. High-throughput sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast genomes has allowed for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within large plant families. Here, the globe artichoke chloroplast (cp) genome was obtained by a combination of whole-genome and BAC clone high-throughput sequencing. The artichoke cp genome is 152,529 bp in length, consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,155 bp, representing the longest IRs found in the Asteraceae family so far. The large (LSC) and the small (SSC) single-copy regions span 83,578 bp and 18,641 bp, respectively. The artichoke cp sequence was compared to the other eight Asteraceae complete cp genomes available, revealing an IR expansion at the SSC/IR boundary. This expansion consists of 17 bp of the ndhF gene generating an overlap between the ndhF and ycf1 genes. A total of 127 cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the artichoke cp genome, potentially suitable for future population studies in the Cynara genus. Parsimony-informative regions were evaluated and allowed to place a Cynara species within the Asteraceae family tree. The eight most informative coding regions were also considered and tested for “specific barcode” purpose in the Asteraceae family. Our results highlight the usefulness of cp genome sequencing in exploring plant genome diversity and retrieving reliable molecular resources for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, as well as for specific barcodes in plants. PMID:25774672

  17. Complete chloroplast genome of the multifunctional crop globe artichoke and comparison with other Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Curci, Pasquale L; De Paola, Domenico; Danzi, Donatella; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    With over 20,000 species, Asteraceae is the second largest plant family. High-throughput sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast genomes has allowed for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within large plant families. Here, the globe artichoke chloroplast (cp) genome was obtained by a combination of whole-genome and BAC clone high-throughput sequencing. The artichoke cp genome is 152,529 bp in length, consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,155 bp, representing the longest IRs found in the Asteraceae family so far. The large (LSC) and the small (SSC) single-copy regions span 83,578 bp and 18,641 bp, respectively. The artichoke cp sequence was compared to the other eight Asteraceae complete cp genomes available, revealing an IR expansion at the SSC/IR boundary. This expansion consists of 17 bp of the ndhF gene generating an overlap between the ndhF and ycf1 genes. A total of 127 cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the artichoke cp genome, potentially suitable for future population studies in the Cynara genus. Parsimony-informative regions were evaluated and allowed to place a Cynara species within the Asteraceae family tree. The eight most informative coding regions were also considered and tested for "specific barcode" purpose in the Asteraceae family. Our results highlight the usefulness of cp genome sequencing in exploring plant genome diversity and retrieving reliable molecular resources for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, as well as for specific barcodes in plants. PMID:25774672

  18. Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Panero, Jose L; Freire, Susana E; Ariza Espinar, Luis; Crozier, Bonnie S; Barboza, Gloria E; Cantero, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    A backbone phylogeny that fully resolves all subfamily and deeper nodes of Asteraceae was constructed using 14 chloroplast DNA loci. The recently named genus Famatinanthus was found to be sister to the Mutisioideae-Asteroideae clade that represents more than 99% of Asteraceae and was found to have the two chloroplast inversions present in all Asteraceae except the nine genera of Barnadesioideae. A monotypic subfamily Famatinanthoideae and tribe Famatinantheae are named herein as new. Relationships among the basal lineages of the family were resolved with strong support in the Bayesian analysis as (Barnadesioideae (Famatinanthoideae (Mutisioideae (Stifftioideae (Wunderlichioideae-Asteroideae))))). Ancestral state reconstruction of ten morphological characters at the root node of the Asteraceae showed that the ancestral sunflower would have had a woody habit, alternate leaves, solitary capitulescences, epaleate receptacles, smooth styles, smooth to microechinate pollen surface sculpturing, white to yellow corollas, and insect-mediated pollination. Herbaceous habit, echinate pollen surface, pubescent styles, and cymose capitulescences were reconstructed for backbone nodes of the phylogeny corresponding to clades that evolved shortly after Asteraceae dispersed out of South America. No support was found for discoid capitula, multiseriate involucres or bird pollination as the ancestral character condition for any node. Using this more resolved phylogenetic tree, the recently described Raiguenrayun cura+Mutisiapollis telleriae fossil should be associated to a more derived node than previously suggested when time calibrating phylogenies of Asteraceae. PMID:25083940

  19. Two new Marquesan species of the southeastern Polynesian genus Oparanthus (Asteraceae, Coreopsidinae)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Lorence, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the recently revised genus Oparanthus (Asteraceae, Subtribe Coreopsidinae) were discovered during the National Tropical Botanical Garden/Smithsonian Institution 1997 expedition to the Marquesas Islands. Oparanthus woodii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, sp. nov. is known from a single population on the island of Nuku Hiva, and Oparanthus tiva W. L. Wagner & Lorence, sp. nov. is known only from Tahuata. Small domatia with a tuft of hairs occur in Oparanthus tiva (and the previously known Oparanthus hivoanus), and similar but naked domatia are found occasionally in Oparanthus woodii. Domatia are of exceedingly rare occurrence in Asteraceae. Both new species are extremely rare and are considered critically endangered (CR) as are the other four species of the genus. PMID:22171186

  20. Development and characterization of SSR markers for Aster savatieri (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Sakaguchi, Shota; Ito, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Aster savatieri (Asteraceae) and the serpentine variety A. savatieri var. pygmaeus to re-evaluate their taxonomic status. Methods and Results: Using RNA-Seq data, 22 expressed sequence tag (EST)–SSR markers were developed. Polymorphisms were assessed in A. savatieri and in A. savatieri var. pygmaeus. The average number of alleles ranged from four to 15, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.417 to 0.870. Transferability was examined in six representative species of Japanese Aster and in Solidago virgaurea subsp. asiatica var. asiatica, a member of the tribe Astereae (Asteraceae); most of the loci were transferable to these examined species. Conclusions: These markers will be useful for genetic studies of variation in A. savatieri and other Aster species that occur in Japan. PMID:27347451

  1. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  2. Selecting single-copy nuclear genes for plant phylogenetics: a preliminary analysis for the Senecioneae (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Inés; Costa, Andrea; Feliner, Gonzalo Nieto

    2008-03-01

    Compared to organelle genomes, the nuclear genome comprises a vast reservoir of genes that potentially harbor phylogenetic signal. Despite the valuable data that sequencing projects of model systems offer, relatively few single-copy nuclear genes are being used in systematics. In part this is due to the challenges inherent in generating orthologous sequences, a problem that is ameliorated when the gene family in question has been characterized in related organisms. Here we illustrate the utility of diverse sequence databases within the Asteraceae as a framework for developing single-copy nuclear genes useful for inferring phylogenies in the tribe Senecioneae. We highlight the process of searching for informative genes by using data from Helianthus annuus, Lactuca sativa, Stevia rebaudiana, Zinnia elegans, and Gerbera cultivar. Emerging from this process were several candidate genes; two of these were used for a phylogenetic assessment of the Senecioneae and were compared to other genes previously used in Asteraceae phylogenies. Based on the preliminary sampling used, one of the genes selected during the searching process was more useful than the two previously used in Asteraceae. The search strategy described is valid for any group of plants but its efficiency is dependent on the phylogenetic proximity of the study group to the species represented in sequence databases. PMID:18305978

  3. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  4. A Metabolomic Approach to Target Compounds from the Asteraceae Family for Dual COX and LOX Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A.; Zhang, Tong; Da Costa, Fernando B.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2015-01-01

    The application of metabolomics in phytochemical analysis is an innovative strategy for targeting active compounds from a complex plant extract. Species of the Asteraceae family are well-known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory (AI) activity. Dual inhibition of the enzymes COX-1 and 5-LOX is essential for the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, but there is not much investigation reported in the literature for natural products. In this study, 57 leaf extracts (EtOH-H2O 7:3, v/v) from different genera and species of the Asteraceae family were tested against COX-1 and 5-LOX while HPLC-ESI-HRMS analysis of the extracts indicated high diversity in their chemical compositions. Using O2PLS-DA (R2 > 0.92; VIP > 1 and positive Y-correlation values), dual inhibition potential of low-abundance metabolites was determined. The O2PLS-DA results exhibited good validation values (cross-validation = Q2 > 0.7 and external validation = P2 > 0.6) with 0% of false positive predictions. The metabolomic approach determined biomarkers for the required biological activity and detected active compounds in the extracts displaying unique mechanisms of action. In addition, the PCA data also gave insights on the chemotaxonomy of the family Asteraceae across its diverse range of genera and tribes. PMID:26184333

  5. Pollen–pistil interactions and self-incompatibility in the Asteraceae: new insights from studies of Senecio squalidus (Oxford ragwort)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alexandra M.; Thorogood, Christopher J.; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Lexer, Christian; Hiscock, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen–pistil interactions are an essential prelude to fertilization in angiosperms and determine compatibility/incompatibility. Pollen–pistil interactions have been studied at a molecular and cellular level in relatively few families. Self-incompatibility (SI) is the best understood pollen–pistil interaction at a molecular level where three different molecular mechanisms have been identified in just five families. Here we review studies of pollen–pistil interactions and SI in the Asteraceae, an important family that has been relatively understudied in these areas of reproductive biology. Scope We begin by describing the historical literature which first identified sporophytic SI (SSI) in species of Asteraceae, the SI system later identified and characterized at a molecular level in the Brassicaceae. Early structural and cytological studies in these two families suggested that pollen–pistil interactions and SSI were similar, if not the same. Recent cellular and molecular studies in Senecio squalidus (Oxford ragwort) have challenged this belief by revealing that despite sharing the same genetic system of SSI, the Brassicaceae and Asteraceae molecular mechanisms are different. Key cellular differences have also been highlighted in pollen–stigma interactions, which may arise as a consequence of the Asteraceae possessing a ‘semi-dry’ stigma, rather than the ‘dry’ stigma typical of the Brassicaceae. The review concludes with a summary of recent transcriptomic analyses aimed at identifying proteins regulating pollen–pistil interactions and SI in S. squalidus, and by implication the Asteraceae. The Senecio pistil transcriptome contains many novel pistil-specific genes, but also pistil-specific genes previously shown to play a role in pollen–pistil interactions in other species. Conclusions Studies in S. squalidus have shown that stigma structure and the molecular mechanism of SSI in the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae are different. The

  6. [Cytogenetic peculiarities of cell genesis in apical meristems under gametophytic apomixis (using autonomous apomicts of the Asteraceae as an example)].

    PubMed

    Kashin, A S; Tsvetova, M I; Demochko, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    Cytogenetic peculiarities of cell genesis in apical meristems of apomicts has been analyzed using a series of the Asteraceae species as an example. The extent to which aneu- and mixoploids are spread among plants in the investigated populations of the Asteraceae species is so high (up to 30-60% of the studied plants and their offspring), that it seems reasonable to suppose that their rise is a natural phenomenon. It has been shown that in the aposporous facultative apomict Pilosella officinarum microgametophyte is a relatively stable element of the seed reproduction system from the point of view of caryotypical variation. PMID:21574427

  7. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Viviana D.; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C.; Olivero, Eduardo B.; Raine, J. Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-01-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76–66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60–50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general. PMID:26261324

  8. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general. PMID:26261324

  9. Investigation of plant latices of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae regarding proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sytwala, Sonja; Domsalla, André; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of plant latices is widespread, there are more than 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. The appearance of hydrolytic active proteins, incorporated in latices is already characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable, and for several plant families, the occurrence of hydrolytic active proteins is already specified e.g. Apocynaceae Juss., Caricaceae Dumort, Euphorbiaceae Juss., Moraceae Gaudich and Papaveraceae Juss. In our investigation, focused on latex bearing plants of order Asterales, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of proteolytic active enzymes of order Asterales for the first time. 131 different species of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae were tested, and the appearance of plant latex proteases were determined in different quantities. Proteolytic activity was investigated by inhibitory studies and determination of residual activity in the following, enable us to characterize the proteases. Most of the considered species exhibit a serine protease activity and a multiplicity of species exhibited two or more subclasses of proteases. PMID:26458257

  10. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae) plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Macêdo, M E; Consoli, R A; Grandi, T S; dos Anjos, A M; de Oliveira, A B; Mendes, N M; Queiróz, R O; Zani, C L

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis--Diptera: Culicidae). The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l). PMID:9361755

  11. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG NATIVE AND NATURALIZED HIERACIUM (ASTERACEAE) IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES BASED ON PLASTID DNA SEQUENCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of chloroplast DNA to examine the relationships of native North American Hieracium (hawkweeds; Asteraceae) with non-native Hieracium species being studied for classical biological control. Thirty-six taxa were included; these representing the three m...

  12. The initiation of a biological control programme against pompom weed Campuloclinium macrocephalum (LESS.)DC (Asteraceae)in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pompom weed, Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less.) DC. (Asteraceae), is a South American invasive that was first recorded in South Africa in the early 1960s. In the 1980s, C. macrocephalum started slowly extending its range and in the 1990s and 2000s it entered a dramatic expansion phase. It invade...

  13. A Comparison of the First Two Sequenced Chloroplast Genomes in Asteraceae: Lettuce and Sunflower

    SciTech Connect

    Timme, Ruth E.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    Asteraceae is the second largest family of plants, with over 20,000 species. For the past few decades, numerous phylogenetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this family, including comparisons of the fast evolving chloroplast gene, ndhF, rbcL, as well as non-coding DNA from the trnL intron plus the trnLtrnF intergenic spacer, matK, and, with lesser resolution, psbA-trnH. This culminated in a study by Panero and Funk in 2002 that used over 13,000 bp per taxon for the largest taxonomic revision of Asteraceae in over a hundred years. Still, some uncertainties remain, and it would be very useful to have more information on the relative rates of sequence evolution among various genes and on genome structure as a potential set of phylogenetic characters to help guide future phylogenetic structures. By way of contributing to this, we report the first two complete chloroplast genome sequences from members of the Asteraceae, those of Helianthus annuus and Lactuca sativa. These plants belong to two distantly related subfamilies, Asteroideae and Cichorioideae, respectively. In addition to these, there is only one other published chloroplast genome sequence for any plant within the larger group called Eusterids II, that of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae, 156,318 bps, AY582139). Early chloroplast genome mapping studies demonstrated that H. annuus and L. sativa share a 22 kb inversion relative to members of the subfamily Barnadesioideae. By comparison to outgroups, this inversion was shown to be derived, indicating that the Asteroideae and Cichorioideae are more closely related than either is to the Barnadesioideae. Later sequencing study found that taxa that share this 22 kb inversion also contain within this region a second, smaller, 3.3 kb inversion. These sequences also enable an analysis of patterns of shared repeats in the genomes at fine level and of RNA editing by comparison to available EST sequences. In addition, since

  14. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided. PMID:24596488

  15. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael O.; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided. PMID:24596488

  16. Bidensmeyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae): a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands.

    PubMed

    Funk, Vicki A; Wood, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Bidensmeyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae) is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia). This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidenssaint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidensmeyeri may be distinguished from Bidenssaint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm), apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent), smaller leaves (2.0-2.3 cm vs. 5-6 cm), and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidensmeyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française. PMID:25383010

  17. Altitudinal gradients of generalist and specialist herbivory on three montane Asteraceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidel, U.; Röhl, S.; Bruelheide, H.

    Different functional types of herbivory on three montane Asteraceae were investigated in natural populations in central Germany to test the hypothesis that herbivory is decreasing with altitude. Generalist herbivory was assessed as leaf area loss, mainly caused by slugs, and, in Petasites albus, as rhizome mining by oligophagous insect larvae. Capitules were found to be parasitized by oligophagous insects in Centaurea pseudophrygia and by the specialist fly Tephritis arnicae in Arnica montana. Only the damage to leaves of P. albus showed the hypothesized decrease with increasing altitude. No altitudinal gradient could be found in the leaf and capitule damage to C. pseudophrygia. In A. montana, capitule damage increased with increasing elevation. The data suggest that abundance and activity of generalist herbivores are more affected by climatic conditions along altitudinal gradients than specialist herbivores. In all probability, specialist herbivores depend less on abiotic conditions than on their host's population characteristics, such as host population size.

  18. A new acylated flavonol from the aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Marwa I; Ezzat, Shahira M; El Deeb, Kadriya S; El Fishawy, Ahlam M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowering aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of a new compound: patuletin 7-O-β-D-[(2″'S) 6″(3″'-hydroxy-2″'-methyl-propanoyl)] glucopyranoside, together with five known metabolites; β-sitosterol 2, chlorogenic acid 3, P-hydroxy -methylbenzoate 4, luteolin 5 and protocatechuic acid 6. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of its 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and compared with previously known analogues. The ethanolic extract of the flowering aerial parts of A. maritimus was found to be safe (LD50 = 4.6 mg/kg) and possess significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and this was in accordance with its high phenolic content (107.36 ± 0.051 mg GAE/g extract). PMID:26828806

  19. Development of EST-SSR markers for the invasive plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Landi; Zhang, Pin; Ou, Xiaokun; Geng, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) is an invasive plant species that can outcompete natives and thus poses a great threat to biodiversity in introduced areas. Here, expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed and characterized. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from T. diversifolia using transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatic screening. The number of alleles per locus varied from two to four alleles in 48 individuals from three populations. Most of these primers also amplified in T. rotundifolia and some even in Parthenium hysterophorus. Conclusions: These markers are useful for investigating the genetic structure and evolutionary process of T. diversifolia, which may provide important information for better management. PMID:27437174

  20. Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae): a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Vicki A.; Wood, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae) is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia). This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidens saint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidens meyeri may be distinguished from Bidens saint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm), apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent), smaller leaves (2.0–2.3 cm vs. 5–6 cm), and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidens meyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française, PMID:25383010

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from two Asteraceae species.

    PubMed

    Souza, M C; Siani, A C; Ramos, M F S; Menezes-de-Lima, O Júnior; Henriques, M G M O

    2003-08-01

    The essential oils from two Asteraceae species, Porophyllum ruderale (PR) and Conyza bonariensis (CB) were screened for anti-inflammatory activity in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by zymosan (500 microg/cavity) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (250 ng/cavity). The main monoterpene constituents of each oil, beta-myrcene (in PR) and limonene (in CB), were tested in the LPS-induced pleurisy model and assayed also for immunoregulatory activity by measurement of the inhibition of NO and production of the cytokines, gamma-interferon and IL-4. The oils, when administered orally, were able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation including cell migration; with a similar effect being observed for pure limonene. Pure beta-myrcene and limonene were also effective in inhibiting production of nitric oxide at doses below the cytotoxicity of these monoterpenes. A significant inhibition of gamma-interferon and IL-4 production by limonene and beta-myrcene was also observed. PMID:12967039

  2. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

  3. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tubée, Daniel B. Montesinos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to Senecio ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morphological similarities with other species of Senecio, a distribution map, conservation status assessments, and a key to the caespitose Peruvian species of Senecio subser. Caespitosi are provided. The new species are Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio pucapampaensis Beltrán, Senecio sykorae Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio gamolepis Cabrera, and Senecio tassaensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos. PMID:25197221

  4. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru.

    PubMed

    Tubée, Daniel B Montesinos

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to Senecio ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morphological similarities with other species of Senecio, a distribution map, conservation status assessments, and a key to the caespitose Peruvian species of Senecio subser. Caespitosi are provided. The new species are Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio pucapampaensis Beltrán, Senecio sykorae Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio gamolepis Cabrera, and Senecio tassaensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos. PMID:25197221

  5. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Glennon, Kelsey L.; Cron, Glynis V.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Methods and Results: Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. Conclusions: These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species. PMID:27213125

  6. Inbreeding effects on fitness traits in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis L. (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picó, F. X.; Koubek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Heterocarpic plants are characterized by the production of distinct types of fruits that usually differ in their ecological behavior. In the Asteraceae, differences are mainly found between peripheral non-dispersal and central dispersal achenes (single-seeded fruits). Inbreeding depression is considered as an evolutionary force as it may reduce several fitness traits, and in the case of heterocarpic plants, it could influence fitness traits (e.g., seed set, germination rate, growth rate) of each fruit morph, which may have important ecological and evolutionary consequences. In particular, differential effects on fitness traits and dispersal of selfed and outcrossed progeny can strongly determine the viability of extant populations and the potential to colonize new habitats. We conducted a hand-pollination experiment in greenhouse conditions to test whether inbreeding affects the fitness of achene morphs in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis (Asteraceae). Results show that achene morphs significantly differ in their ecological behavior, peripheral achenes germinating more and faster than central achenes. The significant interaction between pollination treatment and achene morph for germination probability might indicate a link between dormancy and mating system in L. autumnalis: germination was higher for outcrossed achenes in central achenes whereas the opposite pattern was exhibited by peripheral achenes. Selfing dramatically reduced seed set, probably as a consequence of strong self-incompatibility mechanisms rather than inbreeding effects. Inbreeding depression significantly affected late life-cycle traits, such as growth rate and biomass at flowering. Overall, results suggest that inbreeding depression seems to be an important selective force maintaining outcrossing in L. autumnalis.

  7. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. PMID:26642998

  8. Vernonieae (Asteraceae) of southern Africa: A generic disposition of the species and a study of their pollen

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Skvarla, John J.; Funk, Vicki A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Current and previously included members of the Tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae) of southern Africa are listed in their presently recognized genera with complete synonymies and keys to genera and species. The genus Vernonia, as presently delimited, does not occur in Africa. Genera of the Vernonieae presently recognized from southern Africa are Baccharoides, Bothriocline, Cyanthillium, Distephanus, Erlangea, Ethulia, Gymnanthemum, Hilliardiella, Oocephala, Orbivestus, Parapolydora, Polydora, Vernonella, Vernoniastrum, plus two genera that are named as new: Namibithamnus and Pseudopegolettia. Twelve new combinations are provided and two species, Vernonia potamiphila and Vernonia collinii Klatt., hom. illeg., remain unplaced because of a lack of material. Pollen types are illustrated including previously recognized types: non-lophate, sublophate, tricolporate lophate, and non-colpate triporate lophate. A type previously unknown in the Asteraceae is described here and in a separate paper for Oocephala and Polydora; a non-colpate pantoporate lophate type with pores not strictly equatorial. PMID:27081344

  9. Vernonieae (Asteraceae) of southern Africa: A generic disposition of the species and a study of their pollen.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Harold; Skvarla, John J; Funk, Vicki A

    2016-01-01

    Current and previously included members of the Tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae) of southern Africa are listed in their presently recognized genera with complete synonymies and keys to genera and species. The genus Vernonia, as presently delimited, does not occur in Africa. Genera of the Vernonieae presently recognized from southern Africa are Baccharoides, Bothriocline, Cyanthillium, Distephanus, Erlangea, Ethulia, Gymnanthemum, Hilliardiella, Oocephala, Orbivestus, Parapolydora, Polydora, Vernonella, Vernoniastrum, plus two genera that are named as new: Namibithamnus and Pseudopegolettia. Twelve new combinations are provided and two species, Vernonia potamiphila and Vernonia collinii Klatt., hom. illeg., remain unplaced because of a lack of material. Pollen types are illustrated including previously recognized types: non-lophate, sublophate, tricolporate lophate, and non-colpate triporate lophate. A type previously unknown in the Asteraceae is described here and in a separate paper for Oocephala and Polydora; a non-colpate pantoporate lophate type with pores not strictly equatorial. PMID:27081344

  10. Cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants from Asteraceae family on J-45.01 leukemic cell line--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wegiera, Magdalena; Smolarz, Helena D; Jedruch, Marcin; Korczak, Magdalena; Koproń, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    In this study the in vitro cytotoxic properties of ethanol extracts from the herbs, inflorescents and roots of selected Asteraceae species: Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium, Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyanus, Tanacetum vulgare and Tragopogon pratensis on J-45.01 human acute T leukemia cell line was examined. All tested samples possess antileukemic properties and induce cells death via apoptosis. The correlation between antileukemic activity and total polyphenol content was determined. PMID:22568040

  11. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Hui-Qin; Li, Shuo; Huang, Ying-Hua; Liu, Yong; Bauer, Rudolf; Peng, Lian; Tao, Ou; Yan, Su-Rong; Yan, Yong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers' safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose) has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN) classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA) and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC), were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100%) remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model. PMID:25214873

  12. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Teng; Broholm, Suvi K; Tähtiharju, Sari; Mouhu, Katriina; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. PMID:27382139

  13. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) Endemic to Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Muscolo, Camilla; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Damiano, Silvia; Iannarelli, Romilde; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) is a halophytic shrub endemic to the Canary Islands and traditionally employed as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, and vulnerary. A comprehensive phytochemical investigation was conducted on the flowering aerial parts by analyzing both essential oil constituents and polar compounds. The essential oil was dominated by p-cymene, with the noteworthy occurrence of β-pinene and thymol esters. From the EtOH extract, eight compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated. Essential oil, polar fractions, and isolates (2), (4), and (5) were separately in vitro assayed for antiproliferative activity on human tumor cell lines (A375, MDA-MB 231, and HCT116) by MTT assay, for antioxidant potential by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays, and for antimicrobial activity by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that essential oil and compounds 1 and 2 exert a strong inhibition on tumor cells, and in some cases, higher than that of cisplatin. Fractions containing thymol derivatives (1 and 2) and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives 4 and 5 displayed antioxidant activity comparable to that of Trolox, making S. sericea extract an interesting natural product with potential applications as preservative or in the treatment of diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. PMID:27272544

  14. Growth rates, reproductive phenology, and pollination ecology of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae), a giant Andean caulescent rosette.

    PubMed

    Fagua, J C; Gonzalez, V H

    2007-01-01

    From March 2001 to December 2002, we studied the reproductive phenology, pollination ecology, and growth rates of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. and Bonpl. (Asteraceae), a giant caulescent rosette from the Páramos of the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Espeletia grandiflora was found to be predominantly allogamous and strongly self-incompatible. Bumblebees (Bombus rubicundus and B. funebris) were the major pollinators of E. grandiflora, although moths, hummingbirds, flies, and beetles also visited flowers. Inflorescence development began in March and continued through August to September. Plants flowered for 30 - 96 days with a peak from the beginning of October through November. The percentage of flowering plants strongly differed among size classes and between both years. Seed dispersal occurred as early as September through May of the following year. The average absolute growth rate for juveniles and adults rate was 7.6 cm/year. Given the scarcity of floral visitors at high altitudes due to climatic conditions, we suggest that even small contributions from a wide range of pollinators might be advantageous for pollination of E. grandiflora. Long-term studies on different populations of E. grandiflora are required to determine if the high growth rates are representative, to quantify the variation in the flowering behavior within and among populations, and to establish if nocturnal pollination is a trait that is exclusive to our population of E. grandiflora. PMID:17066366

  15. Determinants of extinction in fragmented plant populations: Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Dornier, Antoine; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Local populations are subject to recurrent extinctions, and small populations are particularly prone to extinction. Both demographic (stochasticity and the Allee effect) and genetic factors (drift load and inbreeding depression) potentially affect extinction. In fragmented populations, regular dispersal may boost population sizes (demographic rescue effect) or/and reduce the local inbreeding level and genetic drift (genetic rescue effect), which can affect extinction risks. We studied extinction processes in highly fragmented populations of the common species Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) in urban habitats exhibiting a rapid turnover of patches. A four-year demographic monitoring survey and microsatellite genotyping of individuals allowed us to study the determinants of extinction. We documented a low genetic structure and an absence of inbreeding (estimated by multilocus heterozygosity), which suggest that genetic factors were not a major cause of patch extinction. On the contrary, local population size was the main factor in extinction, whereas connectivity was shown to decrease patch extinction, which we interpreted as a demographic rescue effect that was likely due to better pollination services for reproduction. This coupling of demographic and genetic tools highlighted the importance of dispersal in local patch extinctions of small fragmented populations connected by gene flow. PMID:22200853

  16. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

    PubMed

    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150 μg/ml) prior exposure to 100 Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6 μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity. PMID:26848834

  17. Recent assembly of the global herbaceous flora: evidence from the paper daisies (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae).

    PubMed

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki A; Meng, Ying; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The global flora is thought to contain a large proportion of herbs, and understanding the general spatiotemporal processes that shaped the global distribution of these communities is one of the most difficult issues in biogeography. We explored patterns of world-wide biogeography in a species-rich herbaceous group, the paper daisy tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae), based on the hitherto largest taxon sampling, a total of 835 terminal accessions representing 80% of the genera, and encompassing the global geographic range of the tribe, with nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequences. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Gnaphalieae originated in southern Africa during the Oligocene, followed by repeated migrations into the rest of Africa and the Mediterranean region, with subsequent entries into other continents during various periods starting in the Miocene. Expansions in the late Miocene to Pliocene appear to have been the driving force that shaped the global distribution of the tribe as forests were progressively broken up by the mid-continent aridification and savannas and grasslands expanded into the interior of the major continents. This pattern of recent colonizations may explain the world-wide distribution of many other organisms in open ecosystems and it is highlighted here as an emerging pattern in the evolution of the global flora. PMID:26528674

  18. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Mariana; Nieto, Antonio; Marin, Juan C; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2005-07-27

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat many ailments, particularly inflammation and migraine. Neither the bioactive components responsible nor the mechanisms involved have been evaluated. Here are reported antioxidant activities of their methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. Samples were evaluated for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activities were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The most active extracts from P. gentianoides in scavenging DPPH radicals and inhibiting TBARS formation were the methanol extract (A) and a further ethyl acetate extract of this (E). Partition E was further divided into eight fractions, and both E and the fractions were compared for activity against butylated hydroxytoluene, quercetin, and tocopherol. Partition E and the most active fractions, 5 and 6, were found to have I(50) values of 14.1, 38.6, and 41.8 ppm, respectively, against DPPH and 18.5, 26.0, and 12.7 ppm, respectively, against TBARS formation. Consistent with this finding, partition E and fractions 4-6 had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values. These results show that these plants could be useful antioxidant sources. PMID:16028970

  19. Cytonuclear Coordination Is Not Immediate upon Allopolyploid Formation in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) Allopolyploids

    PubMed Central

    Sehrish, Tina; Symonds, V. Vaughan; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Tate, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Allopolyploids, formed by hybridization and chromosome doubling, face the immediate challenge of having duplicated nuclear genomes that interact with the haploid and maternally inherited cytoplasmic (plastid and mitochondrial) genomes. Most of our knowledge of the genomic consequences of allopolyploidy has focused on the fate of the duplicated nuclear genes without regard to their potential interactions with cytoplasmic genomes. As a step toward understanding the fates of nuclear-encoded subunits that are plastid-targeted, here we examine the retention and expression of the gene encoding the small subunit of Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; rbcS) in multiple populations of allotetraploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae). These polyploids formed recently (~80 years ago) and repeatedly from T. dubius and T. pratensis in the northwestern United States. Examination of 79 T. miscellus individuals from 10 natural populations, as well as 25 synthetic allotetraploids, including reciprocally formed plants, revealed a low percentage of naturally occurring individuals that show a bias in either gene (homeolog) loss (12%) or expression (16%), usually toward maintaining the maternal nuclear copy of rbcS. For individuals showing loss, seven retained the maternally derived rbcS homeolog only, while three had the paternally derived copy. All of the synthetic polyploid individuals examined (S0 and S1 generations) retained and expressed both parental homeologs. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear coordination does not happen immediately upon polyploid formation in Tragopogon miscellus. PMID:26646761

  20. Sex ratio and spatial distribution of male and female Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Sex ratio, sex spatial distribution and sexual dimorphism in reproduction and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation were investigated in the dioecious clonal plant Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae). Plants were monitored for five consecutive years in six study plots in Oulanka, northern Finland. Sex ratio, spatial distribution of sexes, flowering frequency, number of floral shoots and the number and weight of inflorescences were recorded. In addition, intensity of mycorrhizal fungi in the roots was assessed. Both sexes flowered each year with a similar frequency, but the overall genet sex ratio was strongly female-biased. The bivariate Ripley's analysis of the sex distribution showed that within most plots sexes were randomly distributed except for one plot. Sexual dimorphism was expressed as larger floral and inflorescence production and heavier inflorescences in males. In addition, the roots of both sexes were colonised to a similar extent by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The female sex-biased flowering ratios reported are not consistent among years and cannot be explained in terms of spatial segregation of the sexes or sex lability. The possible reasons for the female-biased sex ratio are discussed.

  1. Difference in defense strategy in flower heads and leaves of Asteraceae: multiple-species approach.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2014-01-01

    Although a vast number of studies have investigated defenses against herbivores in leaves, relatively little is known about defenses in flowers. Using wild individuals of 34 species of Asteraceae, we investigated differences in five traits that are thought to affect the intensity of herbivory (C, N, P, water, and total phenolic contents). Combinations of these traits between flower heads and leaves were studied as well. We also evaluated phylogenetic patterns of flower head and leaf traits. Flower heads had higher P and lower total phenolics than leaves. Water and C contents were negatively correlated both in the flower heads and leaves. N, P, and water contents were positively correlated in the flower heads, whereas this pattern was not found in the leaves. Thus, the traits we measured were more tightly inter-correlated in flower heads than in leaves. Because the flower heads had a lower total phenolic content, the relative allocation of defensive compounds could not be explained solely by fitness values of the organs. Perhaps plants employ an escape strategy rather than a defense strategy to cope with floral herbivores and higher allocation in P may enhance their escape from herbivores by improving the growth rate of flower heads, though our result might be affected in part by the plasticity of plants growing at different sites. Moreover, we found weak phylogenetic signals in the defensive traits. Because we found significant differences in the flower head traits, these weak signals may imply that the traits we measured evolved frequently. PMID:24036932

  2. Molecular phylogeny of Anaphalis (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) with biogeographic implications in the Northern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki; Sun, Hang; Deng, Tao; Meng, Ying; Wen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Anaphalis is the largest Asian genus in the tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae) and has its greatest species diversity in the eastern Himalayas. The nuclear internal and external transcribed spacers were sequenced for Anaphalis species, with an emphasis on the eastern Himalayan taxa to examine the monophyly and construct the phylogenetic relationships of and within the genus. The results suggest that all species of Anaphalis are nested with Helichrysum, showing a close relationship with a Mediterranean-Asian group of Helichrysum. Although the monophyly of Anaphalis is only weakly supported, two clades within the genus are well recognized, each consisting of two subgroups. The inferred phylogenetic relationships within Anaphalis correspond to the shape of leaf base, rather than the morphology of the capitula and phyllaries that are usually used for species delimitation and classification in the genus. All four subgroups of Anaphalis are common and diversified in the eastern Himalayas with multiple dispersals out of this region. The sole North American species of Anaphalis is best hypothesized to be the result of long-distance dispersal or overland migration via Bering land bridge from Asia. Our analyses suggest that the extant distribution of Anaphalis has most likely resulted one radiation into the eastern Himalayas followed by repeated independent dispersals and/or radiations mostly into eastern Asia but also into the western Himalayas, North America, and southeast Asia. PMID:22776917

  3. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fotso, Aurélien Fotso; Longo, Frida; Djomeni, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet; Kouam, Siméon Fogue; Spiteller, Michael; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Savineau, J P

    2014-04-01

    Bidens pilosa is an Asteraceae widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including pain and inflammation. The present work was undertaken to assess the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of leaves of Bidens pilosa at the gradual doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic properties of Bidens pilosa were investigated using the acetic acid writhing, hot plate, capsaicin and formalin-induced pain models. This was followed by a study of the antiinflammatory properties using carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin to induce acute inflammation in rat hind paw. The extract provided a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in pain induced by all four models of nociception. It also presented significant (p < 0.05) antiinflammatory activity in all four models of acute inflammation. These results show that the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) of Bidens pilosa has both analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. The qualitative analysis of the fraction by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint revealed the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin and iso-okanin, known to have antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties, which could be responsible for the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects observed. PMID:24242914

  4. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Galinsoga parviflora cav. (Asteraceae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Islam; Abd El-Aziz, Ehsan; Hafez, Samia; El-Shazly, Assem

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an aqueous ethanolic extract of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of eleven compounds namely: triacontanol, phytol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 7-hydroxy-beta-sitosterol, 7-hydroxystigmasterol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, protocatechuic acid, fumaric acid, and uracil. Furthermore, 48 volatile constituents were identified in the hydrodistilled oil of the aerial parts. The ethanolic extract at a content of 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) exerted 87% reduction in the alanine aminotransferase enzyme level in cirrhotic rats compared with the standard silymarin (150 mg/kg BW) and also exerted a reduction in the blood glucose level equivalent to that of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg BW) in diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract, light petroleum and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited substantial antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The ethyl acetate fraction showed strong antioxidant activity at a concentration of 150 mg/mL as compared with 0.1 M ascorbic acid. The cytotoxic effect against the MCF-7 cell line was found to be weak. PMID:24066513

  5. Evolutionary history and phylogeography of Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) from the Sonoran, Mojave, and Peninsular Deserts.

    PubMed

    Fehlberg, Shannon D; Ranker, Tom A

    2009-02-01

    Pleistocene glaciations have had a profound influence on the genetic structure of plant species throughout the Northern Hemisphere because of range contractions, fragmentations, and expansions. Phylogeographic studies have contributed to our knowledge of this influence in several geographic regions of North America, however, very few phylogeographic studies have examined plant species in the Sonoran, Mojave, and Peninsular deserts. In this study, we used sequence data from the chloroplast DNA psbA-trnH intergenic spacer to obtain information on phylogeographic patterns among 310 individuals from 21 populations of Encelia farinosa ("brittlebush"; Asteraceae) across its range. We applied several population and spatial genetic analyses that allowed us to interpret our data with respect to Pleistocene climate change. These analyses indicate that E. farinosa displays patterns of genetic differentiation and geographic structuring consistent with postglacial range expansion. Populations of E. farinosa are characterized by distinct haplotype lineages significantly associated with geography. Centers of genetic diversity for the species occur in southwestern Arizona, the plains of Sonora, and Baja California Sur, all of which are putative sites of glacial refugia as predicted by analyses of macrofossil and pollen data. Nested clade analysis suggests that genetic structure in E. farinosa has been affected by past fragmentation followed by range expansion. Range expansion in several locations is further supported by significant departures from neutrality for values of Fu's F(S) and Tajima's D, and mismatch analyses. PMID:19059351

  6. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

  7. Evaluation of inflorescence visitors as pollinators of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae): comparison of techniques.

    PubMed

    Wist, Tyler J; Davis, Arthur R

    2013-10-01

    Inflorescences (heads or capitula) of the putative self-incompatible species, purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia (DC) Cronq. (Asteraceae)), were visited by insects representing the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, in accordance with a generalist pollination syndrome. Measurement of the effectiveness of insect species as pollinators was accomplished by permitting solitary visits to receptive, central disc florets of virgin (previously bagged) heads. Four parameters were quantified: total stigmatic pollen load and proportion of pollen grains germinated, numbers of pollen tubes at style bases, and percentages of total receptive florets that had retracted (shrivelled) styles. Quantifying total and germinated pollen grains proved ineffective, partly owing to the tendency of self-pollen to initiate pollen tubes. The most effective pollinators were Apidae, especially bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (mean: 39 - 61% of styles retracted). Other noteworthy pollinators were cloudless sulfur butterflies (Phoebis sennae L.--Pieridae; mean 47% of style bases with pollen tubes), golden blister beetles (Epicauta ferruginea Say--Meloidae; 44%), and grasshopper bee flies (Systoechus vulgaris Loew--Bombyliidae; 22%). Sunflower leafcutter bees (Megachile pugnata Say) were less effective (4% of styles retracted). Promisingly, analysis of the proportion of retracted styles provided similar results to the established technique of pollen-tube quantification, but had the significant advantages of being completed more rapidly, without a microscope, and in the field. The quantitative technique of retracted-style analysis appears well suited for prompt measurement of inflorescence-visiting insects as pollinators of many asteraceans. PMID:24224247

  8. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits. PMID:26871494

  9. Key Processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) Diversification on Oceanic Islands Inferred from AFLP Data

    PubMed Central

    Vitales, Daniel; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Cowan, Robyn S.; Fay, Michael F.; Hidalgo, Oriane; Garnatje, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species – nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species – have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i) evaluate species' boundaries, ii) infer their evolutionary relationships and iii) investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here. PMID:25412495

  10. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. PMID:26667031

  11. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae), a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Jin; Hu, Hai-Hua; Zhang, Cai-Fei; Tian, Xiao-Juan; Peng, Hui; Gao, Tian-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw.) Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a. PMID:26308863

  12. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Arduin, M; Fernandes, G W; Kraus, J E

    2005-11-01

    The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae). The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1) A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2) A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3) A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4) A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors. PMID:16532179

  13. Genetic and Ecotypic Differentiation in a Californian Plant Polyploid Complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Abigail J.; Moore, William L.; Baldwin, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. PMID:24755840

  14. Genetics of colonization in Hypochaeris tenuifolia (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) on Volcán Lonquimay, Chile.

    PubMed

    Tremetsberger, K; Stuessy, T F; Samuel, R M; Baeza, C M; Fay, M F

    2003-10-01

    Understanding the genetics of colonizing populations has been, and continues to remain, an important focus in evolutionary biology. Different theoretical models predict varying levels of genetic variation in colonizing populations depending upon strength of founder effect, gene flow and rate of population growth and immigration following colonization. We analyse overall genetic variation using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in colonizing populations of Hypochaeris tenuifolia (Asteraceae) in the southern Andes. Volcán Lonquimay newly erupted on 25 December 1988, producing a side cone, La Navidad, and sent lava and ash into surrounding areas. Many domesticated animals (estimated at 10 000) and many natural plant populations were destroyed. Into this new open habitat have come immigrant populations of several angiosperm species, most conspicuously H. tenuifolia that forms leaf rosettes with flowering scapes to 15 cm and orange-yellow heads 1-2 cm in diameter. Genetic diversity in five founder populations in the eruption zone is compared with that from five nearby survivor populations, as well as with eight isolated northern and four southern populations from throughout the entire range of the species in Chile. Results from 477 individuals representing 447 different multilocus phenotypes, yielded 170 DNA fragments of which 144 (85%) were polymorphic. Genetic diversity within founder populations is neither lower than in survivor populations nor in isolated populations throughout the range of the species, but it is lower among founder populations than among other populations immediately and distantly outside the zone of disturbance. Closest genetic similarity occurs between founders and nearby survivor populations as well as those in adjacent southern regions. PMID:12969468

  15. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations. PMID:27602303

  16. Chemical constituents of Papulaspora immersa, an endophyte from Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae), and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Margareth Borges Coutinho; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Barros, Francisco Washington Araújo; Odorico de Moraes, Manoel; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Pessoa, Cláudia; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2010-12-01

    Papulaspora immersa H. H. Hotson was isolated from roots and leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Rob. (Asteraceae), traditionally known as Yacon. The fungus was cultured in rice, and, from the AcOEt fraction, 14 compounds were isolated. Among them, (22E,24R)-8,14-epoxyergosta-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (4), 2,3-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-c-1,c-4,8-triol (10), and the chromone papulasporin (13) were new secondary metabolites. The spectral data of the known natural products were compared with the literature data, and their structures were established as the (24R)-stigmast-4-en-3-one (1), 24-methylenecycloartan-3β-ol (2), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), (-)-(3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein (5), (-)-(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (6), 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (7), (-)-(4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-α-tetralone (8), naphthalene-1,8-diol (9), 6,7,8-trihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (11), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (12), and tyrosol (14). Compound 4 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines MDA-MB435 (melanoma), HCT-8 (colon), SF295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), with IC₅₀ values of 3.3, 14.7, 5.0 and 1.6 μM, respectively. Strong synergistic effects were also observed with compound 5 and some of the isolated steroidal compounds. PMID:21162007

  17. Conservation genetics of the rare Pyreneo-Cantabrian endemic Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Escaravage, Nathalie; Cambecèdes, Jocelyne; Largier, Gérard; Pornon, André

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae) is an endangered species, endemic to the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountain ranges (Spain). For its long-term persistence, this taxon needs an appropriate conservation strategy to be implemented. In this context, we studied the genetic structure over the entire geographical range of the species and then inferred the genetic relationships between populations. Methodology Molecular diversity was analysed for 290 individuals from 12 populations in the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Bayesian-based analysis was applied to examine population structure. Principal results Analysis of genetic similarity and diversity, based on 87 polymorphic ISSR markers, suggests that despite being small and isolated, populations have an intermediate genetic diversity level (P % = 52.8 %, HE = 0.21 ± 0.01, genetic similarity between individuals = 49.6 %). Genetic variation was mainly found within populations (80–84 %), independently of mountain ranges, whereas 16–18 % was found between populations and <5 % between mountain ranges. Analyses of molecular variance indicated that population differentiation was highly significant. However, no significant correlation was found between the genetic and geographical distances among populations (Rs = 0.359, P = 0.140). Geographical structure based on assignment tests identified five different gene pools that were independent of any particular structure in the landscape. Conclusions The results suggest that population isolation is probably relatively recent, and that the outbreeding behaviour of the species maintains a high within-population genetic diversity. We assume that some long-distance dispersal, even among topographically remote populations, may be determinant for the pattern of genetic variation found in populations. Based on these findings, strategies are proposed for genetic conservation and management of the species. PMID:22476499

  18. Antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones and a sucrose ester from Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Krause, Michael A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Tane, Pierre; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Aqueous preparations of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) are used in Cameroonian folk medicine as a general stimulant and to treat various illnesses and conditions including malaria, bacterial infections and helminthic infestations. Materials and methods 10-g samples of the leaf and tuber powders of V. guineensis were extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used in bioassays. These extracts and three compounds previously isolated from V. guineensis [vernopicrin (1), vernomelitensin (2) and pentaisovalerylsucrose (3)] were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (Hb3) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum lines. Results Crude extracts and pure compounds from V. guineensis showed antiplasmodial activity against both Hb3 and Dd2. The IC50 values of extracts ranged from 1.64 – 27.2 μg/ml for Hb3 and 1.82 – 30.0 μg/ml for Dd2; those for compounds 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 0.47 – 1.62 μg/ml (1364 – 1774 nM) for Hb3 and 0.57 – 1.50 μg/ml (1644 – 2332 nM) for Dd2. None of the crude extracts or pure compounds was observed to exert toxic effects on the erythrocytes used to cultivate the P. falciparum lines. Conclusion In Cameroonian folk medicine, V. guineensis may be used to treat malaria in part due to the antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones (1, 2), a sucrose ester (3) and perhaps other compounds present in crude plant extracts. Exploring the safety and antiplasmodial efficacy of these compounds in vivo requires further study. PMID:23542146

  19. Phylogeography and disjunct distribution in Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae), an endangered cerrado shrub species

    PubMed Central

    Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Rabelo, Suelen Gonçalves; Vieira, Roberto F.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae) presents disjunct geographical distribution in cerrado rupestre in the south-east and central Brazil. The phylogeography of the species was investigated to understand the origin of the disjunct geographical distribution. Methods Populations in the south and centre of Serra do Espinhaço, south-east Brazil and on ten other localities in Federal District and Goiás in central Brazil were sampled. Analyses were based on the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnL intron and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. From 12 populations, 192 individuals were sequenced. Network analysis, AMOVA and the Mantel test were performed to understand the relationships among haplotypes and population genetic structure. To understand better the origin of disjunct distribution, demographic parameters and time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) were estimated using coalescent analyses. Key Results A remarkable differentiation between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was found and no haplotype was shared between these two regions. No significant effect of isolation by distance was detected. Coalescent analyses showed that some populations are shrinking and others are expanding and that gene flow between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was probably negligible. Conclusions The results strongly support that the disjunct distribution of L. ericoides may represent a climatic relict and that long-distance gene flow is unlikely. With an estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) dated from approx. 790 655 ± 36 551 years bp (chloroplast) and approx. 623 555 ± 55 769 years bp (ITS), it was hypothesized that the disjunct distribution may be a consequence of an expansion of the geographical distribution favoured by the drier and colder conditions that prevailed in much of Brazil during the Kansan glaciation, followed by the retraction of the distribution due to the

  20. Floral development and evolution of capitulum structure in Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bello, M. Angélica; Álvarez, Inés; Torices, Rubén; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Most of the diversity in the pseudanthia of Asteraceae is based on the differential symmetry and sexuality of its flowers. In Anacyclus, where there are (1) homogamous capitula, with bisexual, mainly actinomorphic and pentamerous flowers; and (2) heterogamous capitula, with peripheral zygomorphic, trimerous and long-/short-rayed female flowers, the floral ontogeny was investigated to infer their origin. Methods Floral morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscope and light microscope techniques Key Results Disc flowers, subtended by paleae, initiate acropetally. Perianth and androecium initiation is unidirectional/simultaneous. Late zygomorphy occurs by enlargement of the adaxial perianth lobes. In contrast, ray flowers, subtended by involucral bracts, initiate after the proximal disc buds, breaking the inflorescence acropetal pattern. Early zygomorphy is manifested through the fusion of the lateral and abaxial perianth lobes and the arrest of the adaxials. We report atypical phenotypes with peripheral ‘trumpet’ flowers from natural populations. The peripheral ‘trumpet’ buds initiate after disc flowers, but maintain an actinomorphic perianth. All phenotypes are compared and interpreted in the context of alternative scenarios for the origin of the capitulum and the perianth identity. Conclusions Homogamous inflorescences display a uniform floral morphology and development, whereas the peripheral buds in heterogamous capitula display remarkable plasticity. Disc and ray flowers follow different floral developmental pathways. Peripheral zygomorphic flowers initiate after the proximal actinomorphic disc flowers, behaving as lateral independent units of the pseudanthial disc from inception. The perianth and the androecium are the most variable whorls across the different types of flowers, but their changes are not correlated. Lack of homology between hypanthial appendages and a calyx, and the perianth double

  1. A volatolomic approach for studying plant variability: the case of selected Helichrysum species (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Claudia; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Calamassi, Roberto; Calamai, Luca; Romoli, Riccardo; Fico, Gelsomina; Foggi, Bruno; Mariotti Lippi, Marta

    2016-10-01

    The species of Helichrysum sect. Stoechadina (Asteraceae) are well-known for their secondary metabolite content and the characteristic aromatic bouquets. In the wild, populations exhibit a wide phenotypic plasticity which makes critical the circumscription of species and infraspecific ranks. Previous investigations on Helichrysum italicum complex focused on a possible phytochemical typification based on hydrodistilled essential oils. Aims of this paper are three-fold: (i) characterizing the volatile profiles of different populations, testing (ii) how these profiles vary across populations and (iii) how the phytochemical diversity may contribute in solving taxonomic problems. Nine selected Helichrysum populations, included within the H. italicum complex, Helichrysum litoreum and Helichrysum stoechas, were investigated. H. stoechas was chosen as outgroup for validating the method. After collection in the wild, plants were cultivated in standard growing conditions for over one year. Annual leafy shoots were screened in the post-blooming period for the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by means of headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The VOC composition analysis revealed the production of overall 386 different compounds, with terpenes being the most represented compound class. Statistical data processing allowed the identification of the indicator compounds that differentiate the single populations, revealing the influence of the geographical provenance area in determining the volatile profiles. These results suggested the potential use of VOCs as valuable diacritical characters in discriminating the Helichrysum populations. In addition, the cross-validation analysis hinted the potentiality of this volatolomic study in the discrimination of the Helichrysum species and subspecies, highlighting a general congruence with the current taxonomic treatment of the genus. The consistency

  2. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations. PMID:27602303

  3. The intriguing complexity of parthenogenesis inheritance in Pilosella rubra (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaumová, Radka; Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2012-09-01

    Neither the genetic basis nor the inheritance of apomixis is fully understood in plants. The present study is focused on the inheritance of parthenogenesis, one of the basic elements of apomixis, in Pilosella (Asteraceae). A complex pattern of inheritance was recorded in the segregating F(1) progeny recovered from reciprocal crosses between the facultatively apomictic hexaploid P. rubra and the sexual tetraploid P. officinarum. Although both female and male reduced gametes of P. rubra transmitted parthenogenesis at the same rate in the reciprocal crosses, the resulting segregating F(1) progeny inherited parthenogenesis at different rates. The actual transmission rates of parthenogenesis were significantly correlated with the mode of origin of the respective F(1) progeny class. The inheritance of parthenogenesis was significantly reduced in F(1) n + n hybrid progeny from the cross where parthenogenesis was transmitted by female gametes. In F(1) n + 0 polyhaploid progeny from the same cross, however, the transmission rate of parthenogenesis was high; all fertile polyhaploids were parthenogenetic. It appeared that reduced female gametes transmitting parthenogenesis preferentially developed parthenogenetically and only rarely were fertilized in P. rubra. The fact that the determinant for parthenogenesis acts gametophytically in Pilosella and the precocious embryogenesis in parthenogenesis-transmitting megagametophytes was suggested as the most probable explanations for this observation. Furthermore, we observed the different expression of complete apomixis in the non-segregating F(1) 2n + n hybrids as compared to their apomictic maternal parent P. rubra. We suggest that this difference is a result of unspecified interactions between the parental genomes. PMID:22710794

  4. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae), a New Critically Endangered Species from China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiao-Juan; Peng, Hui; Gao, Tian-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw.) Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a. PMID:26308863

  5. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range. PMID:25269662

  6. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  7. Open field experiment to assess the host specificity of Lixus cardui (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential candidate for biological control of Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae) is native to Europe and Asia and has been accidentally introduced to temperate climates elsewhere, including North America and Australia. In the USA, the weed is most problematic in the semi-arid parts of the Northwest, California and Nevada. Lixus car...

  8. Identity and generic placement of Phestinia costella Hampson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae) reared on the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We provide descriptions and illustrations for identification of Phestinia costella Hampson, a stem gall producer on the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Robinson (Asteraceae) that has been investigated for biological control measures. Specimens collected from C. odorata on Tr...

  9. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  10. (Un)targeted metabolomics in Asteraceae: probing the applicability of essential-oil profiles of senecio L. (Senecioneae) taxa in chemotaxonomy.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Mladenović, Marko Z; Blagojević, Polina D

    2014-09-01

    The possible applicability of (un)targeted metabolomics (volatile metabolites) for revealing taxonomic/evolutionary relationships among Senecio L. species (Asteraceae; tribe Senecioneae) was explored. Essential-oil compositional data of selected Senecio/Senecioneae/Asteraceae taxa (93 samples in total) were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analysis (MVA), i.e., agglomerative hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis. The MVA input data set included the very first compositional data on the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of S. viscosus L. as well as on four different Serbian populations of S. vernalis Waldst. & Kit. (oils from aerial parts and roots; eight samples in total). This metabolomic screening of Senecio/Senecioneae/Asteraceae species (herein presented results and data from the literature) pointed to short-chain alk-1-enes (e.g., oct-1-ene, non-1-ene, and undec-1-ene), with up to now restricted general occurrence in Plantae, as characteristic chemotaxonomic markers/targets for future metabolomic studies of Senecio/Senecioneae taxa. The MVA additionally showed that the evolution of the terpene metabolism (volatile mono- and sesquiterpenoids) within the Asteraceae tribe Senecioneae was not genera specific. However, the MVA did confirm plant-organ specific production/accumulation of volatiles within S. vernalis and suggested the existence of at least two volatile chemotypes for this species. PMID:25238075

  11. Identification of volatile compounds emitted by Artemisia ordosica (Artemisia, Asteraceae) and changes due to mechanical damage and weevil infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Dayong; Luo, Youqing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles emitted by healthy, mechanically damaged, and weevil-infested Artemisia ordosica (Asteraceae) were obtained through a dynamic headspace method and analysed by automatic thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD/GC/MS). Twenty-eight compounds in all were identified, and the qualitative as well as quantitative differences were compared. The green leaf volatiles 2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were present in all of the damaged plants, but in relatively lower portions when plants were infested by the weevil Adosopius sp., while the terpenoids alpha-copaene, beta-cedrene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and the ester methyl salicylate were only present in weevil-damaged plants. The volatiles from healthy and weevil-infested leaves were dominated by D-limonene, whereas mechanically damaged leaves emitted beta-pinene as the dominant compound. PMID:24066517

  12. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Atalay; Sökmen, Münevver; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Candan, Ferda; Unlü, Mehmet; Akpulat, H Aşkin

    2004-06-01

    The essential oil and methanol extracts from A. biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. The oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Their antioxidant features were also evaluated using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibition of the lipid peroxidation assays. Particularly, polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis of the oil has resulted in the identification of 23 components; piperitone, eucalyptol, camphor, chrysanthenone and borneol were the main components. Antimicrobial activity tests carried out with the fractions of the oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those containing eucalyptol and camphor, in particular, followed by borneol and piperitone. PMID:15287068

  13. Analysis of the free amino acid content in pollen of nine Asteraceae species of known allergenic activity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A K; Parui, S; Mandal, S

    1998-01-01

    The study reports the free amino acid composition of the pollen of nine members of the family Asteraceae, i.e. Ageratum conyzoides L., Blumea oxyodonta DC., Eupatorium odoratum L., Gnaphalium indicum L., Mikania scandens Willd., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Spilanthes acmella Murr., Vernonia cinerea (L.) Lees. and Xanthium strumarium L. by thin layer chromatography. The amino acid content was found to vary from 0.5-4.0% of the total dry weight. Fourteen amino acids were identified, among which amino-n-butyric acid, aspartic acid and proline were present in almost all pollen samples. The other major amino acids present in free form included arginine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, tryptophan and tyrosine. PMID:9852488

  14. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA) and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae), a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing), gene copy number (quantitative PCR) and chromosomal position (FISH) of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in ~200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Results Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases), tribe Gnaphalieae (100%) and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%). The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic structure of rDNA units

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae) Transcriptome Permits Large-Scale Unigene Assembly and SSR Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Peng, Hui; Li, Pirui; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59%) unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all) of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. Conclusions/Significance SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera. PMID:23626799

  16. Physiological response and differential leaf proteome pattern in the European invasive Asteraceae Solidago canadensis colonizing a former cokery soil.

    PubMed

    Immel, Françoise; Renaut, Jenny; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-02-01

    Derelict contaminated sites are often colonized spontaneously by plant species leading to a vegetal cover thought to limit particle dispersal and polluted water infiltration. Those plants must cope with soil pollutants through tolerance mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Here, we focused our attention on a particular Asteraceae plant, Solidago canadensis, considered as invasive in Europe. S. canadensis spontaneously growing on either polluted (NM soil) or control soils dumped on experimental plots were studied for their physiological status, oxidative stress and 2D-DIGE of leaf extracts. S. canadensis tolerance to soil pollutants was demonstrated since growth rates, allocation to reproduction ratios and Fv/Fm ratios were similar in plants from control and NM soil. At the cell level, the catalase activity level was increased in plants collected on NM soil while lipoperoxidation was unaffected. Also, the leaf proteomic study revealed thirty down-regulated and sixty-six up-regulated proteins. Abundances of proteins related to oxidative stress, carbohydrate metabolism, ion transport were mainly up-regulated while those of proteins involved in cell cycle and transcription/translation were mostly down-regulated. Proteins associated to protein metabolism were either down- or up-regulated. Considered altogether, we highlighted that S. canadensis exhibited a complex proteome response when experiencing a multicontaminated soil. PMID:22079247

  17. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. PMID:24735437

  18. Toxic essential oils: anxiolytic, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the yarrow Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. (Asteraceae) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Dekić, Milan S; Ranđelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z

    2012-06-01

    Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A. umbellata oil revealed the presence of a series of fragranyl esters (six new natural products). The major constituents of this oil, the rare monoterpene alcohol fragranol and fragranyl acetate, and one more ester (benzoate), as well as the oil itself, showed antianxiety, analgesic and, in some instances, paralyzing properties at 50-150 mg/kg but these are very likely sign of intoxication and not of possible beneficial effects of the plant volatiles. Testing of antimicrobial activity demonstrated that the oil possesses moderate activity against pathogenic microorganisms, but the effect of the oil differs in pro- and eukaryotic cells. According to the results obtained, fragranol may be considered as the main active principle responsible for the observed activity/toxicity. PMID:22449535

  19. The Evolutionary History Of The White-Rayed Species Of Melampodium (Asteraceae) Involved Multiple Cycles Of Hybridization And Polyploidization1

    PubMed Central

    Rebernig, Carolin A.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Stuessy, Tod F.; Obermayer, Renate; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study Polyploidy plays an important role in race differentiation and eventually speciation. Underlying mechanisms include chromosomal and genomic changes facilitating reproductive isolation and/or stabilization of hybrids. A prerequisite for studying these processes is a sound knowledge on the origin of polyploids. A well-suited group for studying polyploid evolution consists of the three species of Melampodium ser. Leucantha (Asteraceae): M. argophyllum, M. cinereum, and M. leucanthum. Methods The origin of polyploids was inferred using network and tree-based phylogenetic analyses of several plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and of fingerprint data (AFLP). Genome evolution was assessed via genome size measurements, karyotype analysis, and in situ hybridization of ribosomal DNA. Key results Tetraploid cytotypes of the phylogenetically distinct M. cinereum and M. leucanthum had, compared to the diploid cytotypes, doubled genome sizes and no evidence of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Hexaploid M. argophyllum constituted a separate lineage with limited intermixing with the other species, except in analyses from nuclear ITS. Its genome size was lower than expected if M. cinereum and/or M. leucanthum were involved in its origin, and no chromosomal rearrangements were evident. Conclusions Polyploids in M. cinereum and M. leucanthum are of recent autopolyploid origin in line with the lack of significant genomic changes. Hexaploid M. argophyllum also appears to be of autopolyploid origin against the previous hypothesis of an allopolyploid origin involving the other two species, but some gene flow with the other species in early phases of differentiation cannot be excluded. PMID:22645096

  20. Development of a complex floral trait: The pollinator-attracting petal spots of the beetle daisy, Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Meredith M; Rudall, Paula J; Ellis, Allan G; Savolainen, Vincent; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-12-01

    Angiosperms possess a variety of complex floral traits that attract animal pollinators. Dark petal spots have evolved independently many times across the angiosperm phylogeny and have been shown to attract insect pollinators from several lineages. Here we present new data on the ontogeny and morphological complexity of the elaborate insect-mimicking petal spots of the South African daisy species, Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), commonly known as the beetle daisy, although it is fly-pollinated. Using light and scanning electron microscopy and histology, we identified three distinct specialized cell types of the petal epidermis that compose the petal spot. Sophisticated patterning of pigments, cuticular elaborations, and multicellular papillate trichomes make the G. diffusa petal spot a uniquely complex three-dimensional floral ornament. Examination of young inflorescence meristems revealed that G. diffusa ray florets develop (and probably also initiate) basipetally, in the opposite direction to the disc florets-a developmental phenomenon that has been found in some other daisies, but which contradicts conventional theories of daisy inflorescence architecture. Using these ontogenetic and morphological data, we have identified the mechanism by which G. diffusa patterns its insect-mimicking petal spots, and we propose a testable model for the genetic regulation of petal spot identity. PMID:21622334

  1. Phylogenetic position of Mediterranean Astereae and character evolution of daisies (Bellis, Asteraceae) inferred from nrDNA ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Fiz, Omar; Valcárcel, Virginia; Vargas, Pablo

    2002-10-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of nrITS sequences of Asteraceae revealed that the Bellis group is a natural assemblage comprising all the species of Bellis and Bellium, but not Rhynchospermum. In contrast, we propose to include the genera Bellis, Bellium, and Bellidastrum in the subtribe Bellidinae in the interest of circumscribing natural groups. Our results also suggest an early diversification in the western Mediterranean Basin of two monophyletic lineages, Bellis and Bellium. Three major groups can be distinguished within BELLIS: (1) the B. perennis group, containing five annual and perennial species with three ploidy levels (diploid, octoploid, and decaploid), which are distributed throughout the Mediterranean Basin despite lack of pappus; (2) the Bellis sylvestris group, with five annual and perennial species primarily from the western Mediterranean, in which there are five ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid, octoploid, and decaploid); and (3) a basal grade consisting of three diploid, perennial species which displays remarkable diversification of morphologies. Striking characteristics, such as an annual life form, polyploidy, and loss of pappus, seem to have occurred in parallel several times and in different geographical areas during the early diversification of Bellis species in the western Mediterranean. Character evolution reconstructions allow us to describe a putative ancestor of the genus Bellis (proto-Bellis). PMID:12383758

  2. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bocco, B.M.; Fernandes, G.W.; Lorena, F.B.; Cysneiros, R.M.; Christoffolete, M.A.; Grecco, S.S.; Lancellotti, C.L.; Romoff, P.; Lago, J.H.G.; Bianco, A.C.; Ribeiro, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  3. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S; Midgley, J

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae), which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Male flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania, Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies. PMID:21708596

  4. Crystal structure of a mixture of lupeol-acetate tautomers isolated from Hieracium plumulosum A. Kerner, Asteraceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argay, Gy.; Kálmán, A.; Kapor, A.; Ribár, B.; Petrović, S.; Gorunović, M.

    1997-11-01

    Transparent single crystals obtained from the purified extract of the plant Hieracium plumulosum A. Kerner, Asteraceae were submitted to spectroscopic and X-ray studies. The spectroscopic (infra-red, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance) investigations suggested the presence of two isomers of lupeol acetate (C 32H 52O 2) with tautomeric relationship. Their mixture crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P2 1: a = 19.170(2) Å, b = 8.128(1) Å, c = 21.832(2) Å, β = 90.24(1)°, V = 3401.7(6) Å3, Z = 4 (two molecules in the asymmetric unit), Dx = 1.095 gcm-3, μ(Cu Kα) = 0.488 mm -1. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined to a final R = 0.071 for 6636 reflections with I > 2 σ( I). The bond lengths around {C20 }/{( C60) } are between single and double bonds indicating the superposition of the tautomers, i.e., lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol and lup-19(20)-en-3β-ol acetates. They are distributed with different ratio in the symmetry-independent positions. In addition, the difference maps revealed that toluene solvent molecules are also captured in the lattice. They substantially hindered the refinement of atomic positions in particular for the {C19 }/{( C59) } functions.

  5. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model. PMID:26840707

  6. In vitro anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) on Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined the anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae: Asterales) against Hyalomma rufipes ticks. We obtained the essential oil of T. minuta by hydro-distillation of a combination of fresh flowers, leaves and soft stems, and analysed these by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil had a high percentage of monoterpenes and the major compounds identified were cis-ocimene (28.5%), beta-ocimene (16.83%) and 3-methyl-2-(2-methyl-2-butenyl)-furan (11.94%). Hyalomma rufipes adults displayed a significant (P < 0.05) dose repellent response to the essential oil of T. minuta. Probit analysis indicated a repellent EC50 of T. minuta essential oil for male ticks to be 0.072 mL/mL (CI 0.053 mL/mL to 0.086 mL/mL) and 0.070 mL/mL (CI 0.052 mL/mL to 0.084 mL/mL) for female ticks. There were no significant differences in repellent responses between male and female ticks. The oil also significantly (P < 0.05) delayed moulting of 60% of H. rufipes engorged nymphs. These results suggest that T. minuta may be a potential source of anti-tick agents. PMID:23327307

  7. Multiple Pleistocene refugia and Holocene range expansion of an abundant southwestern American desert plant species (Melampodium leucanthum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rebernig, Carolin A; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Bardy, Katharina E; Schönswetter, Peter; Villaseñor, Jose L; Obermayer, Renate; Stuessy, Tod F; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2010-08-01

    Pleistocene climatic fluctuations had major impacts on desert biota in southwestern North America. During cooler and wetter periods, drought-adapted species were isolated into refugia, in contrast to expansion of their ranges during the massive aridification in the Holocene. Here, we use Melampodium leucanthum (Asteraceae), a species of the North American desert and semi-desert regions, to investigate the impact of major aridification in southwestern North America on phylogeography and evolution in a widespread and abundant drought-adapted plant species. The evidence for three separate Pleistocene refugia at different time levels suggests that this species responded to the Quaternary climatic oscillations in a cyclic manner. In the Holocene, once differentiated lineages came into secondary contact and intermixed, but these range expansions did not follow the eastwardly progressing aridification, but instead occurred independently out of separate Pleistocene refugia. As found in other desert biota, the Continental Divide has acted as a major migration barrier for M. leucanthum since the Pleistocene. Despite being geographically restricted to the eastern part of the species' distribution, autotetraploids in M. leucanthum originated multiple times and do not form a genetically cohesive group. PMID:20670366

  8. Microsatellite markers for the Pilosella alpicola group (Hieraciinae, Asteraceae) and their cross-amplification in other Hieraciinae genera1

    PubMed Central

    Vít, Petr; Šingliarová, Barbora; Zozomová-Lihová, Judita; Marhold, Karol; Krak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the Pilosella alpicola group (Asteraceae), comprising four closely related species distributed in subalpine areas of Europe. These species are believed to have diverged recently, but display contrasting cytogeographic patterns and variation in breeding systems, representing a promising model system for studying plant speciation, adaptation, and recent polyploidization. Methods and Results: We developed 17 microsatellite markers for the P. alpicola group using 454 sequencing. Sixteen markers were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from seven to 16 and observed and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.45 to 0.84 and 0.72 to 0.92, respectively. Ten and five loci amplified in the related species, P. echioides and P. officinarum, respectively, but only two in Andryala and one in Hieracium s. str. Conclusions: The developed microsatellite markers have high potential to become useful tools to study microevolutionary processes in the P. alpicola group and related Pilosella species. PMID:26312199

  9. Multiple introductions and gene flow in subtropical South American populations of the fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis(Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Mäder, Geraldo; Castro, Luana; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; Freitas, Loreta Brandão de

    2016-03-01

    Non-indigenous plants exhibit different attributes that make them aggressive competitors with indigenous plants and serious threats to biodiversity.Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed, Asteraceae), a native from southern Africa, is a strong competitor in agricultural activities and has toxic alkaloids that may result in high cattle mortality. In Brazil, this weed was collected for the first time in 1995 and has since spread quickly throughout the Pampas region. To better understand the invasion of the fireweed in South America, we used a genetic characterization with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and microsatellite markers. Based on the ITS data, the southern Brazil populations of S. madagascariensis shared genetic homology with samples taken from the Hawaiian Islands and South Africa. Microsatellite analysis showed the genetic diversity split in two clusters, perhaps intimating the independent introduction of each species into South America. Although fireweed was introduced recently in southern Brazil, the considerable levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and inbreeding may indicate success in the species establishment in this environment. PMID:27007907

  10. Studies on the potential antioxidant properties of Senecio stabianus Lacaita (Asteraceae) and its inhibitory activity against carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This study showed for the first time the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from Senecio stabianus Lacaita, a plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. The antioxidant activities were carried out using two different in vitro assays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) test. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 35.5 and 32.7 µg mL(-1) on DPPH test and ABTS test, respectively. This activity may be related to a good total phenol and flavonoid content. All extracts were also tested for their potential inhibitory activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase digestive enzymes. The n-hexane extract exhibited the highest α-amylase inhibition with an IC(50) value of 0.21 mg mL(-1). Through bioassay-guided fractionation processes seven fractions (A-G) were obtained and tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of n-hexane extract may be related to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. PMID:21644170

  11. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Narjara; Saar, Julia; Santos, Alan Diego C; Barison, Andersson; Sandjo, Louis P; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K.) Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae), three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1)), N-(2-phenethyl)-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2) and (2E,7Z)-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3). While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively) while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM) with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM). PMID:27294907

  12. Next-generation sampling: Pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Beck, James B.; Semple, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 1970 and 2010. Methods: Reduced representation libraries were prepared and Illumina-sequenced from 95 Solidago herbarium specimen DNAs, and resulting reads were processed with the nonreference Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline. Multidimensional clustering was used to assess the correspondence between genetic groups and morphologically defined species. Results: Library construction and sequencing were successful in 93 of 95 samples. The UNEAK pipeline identified 8470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and a filtered data set was analyzed for each of three Solidago subsections. Although results varied, clustering identified genomic groups that often corresponded to currently recognized species or groups of closely related species. Discussion: These results suggest that genotyping by sequencing is broadly applicable to DNAs obtained from herbarium specimens. The data obtained and their biological signal suggest that pairing genomics with large-scale herbarium sampling is a promising strategy in species-rich plant groups. PMID:26082877

  13. Multiple introductions and gene flow in subtropical South American populations of the fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis(Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mäder, Geraldo; Castro, Luana; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; de Freitas, Loreta Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-indigenous plants exhibit different attributes that make them aggressive competitors with indigenous plants and serious threats to biodiversity.Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed, Asteraceae), a native from southern Africa, is a strong competitor in agricultural activities and has toxic alkaloids that may result in high cattle mortality. In Brazil, this weed was collected for the first time in 1995 and has since spread quickly throughout the Pampas region. To better understand the invasion of the fireweed in South America, we used a genetic characterization with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and microsatellite markers. Based on the ITS data, the southern Brazil populations of S. madagascariensis shared genetic homology with samples taken from the Hawaiian Islands and South Africa. Microsatellite analysis showed the genetic diversity split in two clusters, perhaps intimating the independent introduction of each species into South America. Although fireweed was introduced recently in southern Brazil, the considerable levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and inbreeding may indicate success in the species establishment in this environment. PMID:27007907

  14. Dispersal, dormancy and life-history tradeoffs at the individual, population and species levels in southern African Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Caroli; Anderson, Bruce; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-04-01

    Dispersal and dormancy are important risk-reducing strategies in unpredictable environments. Negative covariation between these strategies is theoretically expected, but empirical evidence is limited and inconsistent. Moreover, covariation may be affected by other life-history traits and may vary across levels of biological organization. We assessed dispersal (vertical fall time of fruits, a proxy for wind dispersal ability) and dormancy (germination fractions measured during germination trials) in populations of 15 annual and 12 perennial wind-dispersed species in six Asteraceae genera from South Africa. Dormancy was higher in annuals than in perennials, whereas fall time was largely determined by evolutionary history. Controlling for phylogeny, dispersal and dormancy was negatively associated across species and life-history categories. Negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy was not evident at either the individual level (except for seed heteromorphic species) or the population level. Our study provides rare empirical support for the theoretical expectation of tradeoffs between dormancy and the alternative risk-reducing strategies, perenniality and dispersal, but refutes the expectation of increased dispersability in perennials. Although negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy at the species level appears not to be a simple consequence of upscaling individual-level mechanistic tradeoffs, our findings suggest that selection for one strategy may constrain evolution of the other. PMID:26555320

  15. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia. PMID:27395486

  16. Underestimated diversity in one of the world’s best studied mountain ranges: The polyploid complex of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) contains four species in the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    GARCÍA, PEDRO ESCOBAR; HÜLBER, KARL; SONNLEITNER, MICHAELA; WINKLER, MANUELA; SAUKEL, JOHANNES; SCHNEEWEISS, GERALD M.; SCHÖNSWETTER, PETER

    2015-01-01

    Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) is an intricate polyploid complex distributed in the European Alps (di-, tetra- and hexaploids) and Carpathians (hexaploids only). Molecular genetic, ecological, and crossing data allowed four evolutionary groups within S. carniolicus to be identified. Here, we establish that these four groups (two vicariant diploid lineages, tetraploids and hexaploids) are also morphologically differentiated. As a consequence, we draw taxonomic conclusions by characterizing four species, including the more narrowly circumscribed S. carniolicus (lectotypified here), the taxonomically elevated S. insubricus comb. nov. (lectotypified here), and the two newly described species S. disjunctus and S. noricus. PMID:26190915

  17. In and out of Madagascar: Dispersal to Peripheral Islands, Insular Speciation and Diversification of Indian Ocean Daisy Trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Strijk, Joeri S.; Noyes, Richard D.; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Fredéric; Chase, Mark W.; Abbott, Richard J.; Thébaud, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful

  18. Relationship between Seed Bank Expression, Adult Longevity and Aridity in Species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) in Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    ARROYO, M. T. K.; CHACON, P.; CAVIERES, L. A.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Broad surveys have detected inverse relationships between seed and adult longevity and between seed size and adult longevity. However, low and unpredictable precipitation is also associated with seed bank (SB) expression in semi-arid and arid areas. The relationship between adult longevity, SB formation, seed mass and aridity is examined in annual and perennial herbs of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) from the Chilean Mediterranean-type climate and winter-rainfall desert areas over a precipitation range of one order of magnitude. • Methods Seeds of 18 species and subtaxa (32 populations) were buried in field locations, and exhumed after two successive germination periods. Seeds not germinating in the field were tested in a growth chamber, and remnant intact seed tested for viability. Seed banks were classed as transient or persistent. The effect of life form, species, population and burial time on persistent SB size was assessed with factorial ANOVA. Persistent seed bank size was compared with the Martonne aridity index (shown to be a surrogate for inter-annual variation in precipitation) and seed size using linear regression. ANCOVA assessed the effect of life-form on SB size with aridity as covariate. • Key Results Three species had a transient SB and 15 a persistent SB. ANOVA revealed a significant effect of life-form on SB size with annuals having larger SB size and greater capacity to form a persistent SB than perennials. Significant inter-population variation in SB size was found in 64 % of cases. Seed mass was negatively correlated with persistent SB size. Persistent seed bank size was significantly correlated with the Martonne aridity index in the perennial and annual species, with species from more arid areas having larger persistent SBs. However, when aridity was considered as a covariate, ANCOVA revealed no significant differences between the annual and perennial herbs. • Conclusions Persistent seed bank size in Chaetanthera

  19. Polyploidisation and Geographic Differentiation Drive Diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids—whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates—and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  20. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  1. Chloroplast DNA variation and the recent radiation of the giant senecios (Asteraceae) on the tall mountains of eastern Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E B; Palmer, J D

    1995-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA restriction-site variation was surveyed among 40 accessions representing all 11 species of giant senecios (Dendrosenecio, Asteraceae) at all but one known location, plus three outgroup species. Remarkably little variation (only 9 variable sites out of roughly 1000 sites examined) was found among the 40 giant senecio accessions, yet as a group they differ significantly (at 18 sites) from Cineraria deltoidea, the closest known relative. This pattern indicates that the giant senecios underwent a recent dramatic radiation in eastern Africa and evolved from a relatively isolated lineage within the Senecioneae. Biogeographic interpretation of the molecular phylogeny suggests that the giant senecios originated high on Mt. Kilimanjaro, with subsequent dispersion to the Aberdares, Mt. Kenya, and the Cherangani Hills, followed by dispersion westward to the Ruwenzori Mountains, and then south to the Virunga Mountains, Mt. Kahuzi, and Mt. Muhi, but with dispersion back to Mt. Elgon. Geographic radiation was an important antecedent to the diversification in eastern Africa, which primarily involved repeated altitudinal radiation, both up and down the mountains, leading to morphological parallelism in both directions. In general, the plants on a given mountain are more closely related to each other than they are to plants on other mountains, and plants on nearby mountains are more closely related to each other than they are to plants on more distant mountains. The individual steps of the geographic radiation have occurred at various altitudes, some clearly the result of intermountain dispersal. The molecular evidence suggests that two species are extant ancestors to other species on the same or nearby mountains. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7479782

  2. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Q Z; Huang, M; Downie, S R; Chen, Z X

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants tend to spread aggressively in new habitats and an understanding of their genetic diversity and population structure is useful for their management. In this study, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed for the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae) from 5548 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 133 microsatellite-containing ESTs (2.4%) were identified, of which 56 (42.1%) were hexanucleotide repeat motifs and 50 (37.6%) were trinucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 24 primer pairs designed from these 133 ESTs, 7 (29.2%) resulted in significant polymorphisms. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 9. The relatively high genetic diversity (H = 0.2667, I = 0.4212, and P = 100%) of P. clematidea was related to high gene flow (Nm = 1.4996) among populations. The coefficient of population differentiation (GST = 0.2500) indicated that most genetic variation occurred within populations. A Mantel test suggested that there was significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distribution (r = 0.3192, P = 0.012). These results further support the transferability of EST-SSR markers between closely related genera of the same family. PMID:27323082

  3. Are obligatory apomicts invested in the pollen tube transmitting tissue? Comparison of the micropyle ultrastructure between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Świątek, Piotr; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Majeský, Ľuboš; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Stolarczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    With the exception of the sunflower, little information concerning the micropyle ultrastructure of the family Asteraceae is available. The aim of our study was to compare the micropyle structure in amphimictic and apomictic dandelions. Ultrastructural studies using buds and flowers during anthesis have been done on the micropyle of the sexual and apomictic Taraxacum. In all of the species that were examined, the micropylar canal was completely filled with ovule transmitting tissue and the matrix that was produced by these cells. The ovule transmitting tissue was connected to the ovarian transmitting tissue. The micropyle was asymmetrical because the integument epidermis that forms the transmitting tissue was only on the funicular side. There was a cuticle between the obturator cells and epidermal cells on the other side of integument. The micropylar transmitting tissue cells and theirs matrix reached the synergid apex. The cytoplasm of the transmitting tissue cells was especially rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dictyosomes, and mitochondria. No major differences were detected between the micropyle structure of the amphimictic and apomictic species; thus, a structural reduction of obturator does not exist. The ovule transmitting tissue is still active in apomictic dandelions despite the presence of the embryo and endosperm. Differences and similarities between the micropyle structure in the Asteraceae that have been studied to date are discussed. PMID:25652809

  4. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  5. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  6. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Tarun K.; Dewanjee, Saikat; Khanra, Ritu; Joardar, Swarnalata; Barma, Sujata; Das, Shilpa; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF) against Pb toxicity. Methods The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml) + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM). The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured. Results AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p < 0.01) altered the extents of ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation ↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ in vitro. Besides, Pb-acetate significantly (p < 0.01) induced apoptosis in the hepatocytes apparent from the altered expressions of apoptotic proteins viz. Apaf-1 ↑, Bad ↑, Bcl-2 ↓, Cyt C ↑, cleaved caspases↑, Bid ↑ and Fas ↑. However, AEEF (400 μg/ml) could significantly (p < 0.05–0.01) attenuate the Pb-acetate mediated toxic manifestation in vitro. In in vivo assay, Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) treated mice exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) high intracellular Pb content. A high Pb-burden within the tissues caused significant (p < 0.05–0.01) patho-physiological alterations viz. ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, DNA fragmentation ↑, ATP formation ↑, mitochondrial co-enzymes Q ↓, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ within the selected tissues. The haematological and

  7. [Loss of pubescence and their physiological effects on endangered rosette Espeletia paipana (Asteraceae), Boyacá-Colombia].

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Sindy; Vanegast, Leidy; Ramos, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    Espeletia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to (Asteraceae), Boyacdi-Colombia. Espelelia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to Boyacá department. In order to establish whether a plant disease, characterized by the loss of leaf pubescence (PPF) and attributed to the pathogenic action of endophytic microorganisms, is the cause of the increasing mortality of population, the physiological performance of the species was evaluated with and without PPF. The incidence (% leaves affected in each of the 27 individuals in the current population) and severity (% leaf area affected on 135 leaves) of the PPF were monitored over a period of nine months, in three topographic zones of different heights. During four consecutive days in both dry and wet season, physiological parameters as chlorophyll content index (ICC), stomatal conductance (Gs) and leaf temperature (Tfol) were measured in healthy and affected leaves. The study was complemented with isolations and pathogenicity tests to identify the causal agent of the PPF. Overall, although the disease incidence in E. paipana was constant over time, the severity progressed surpassing 60 % of the leaf area. The increasing of severity in the upper side of leaves was attributed to the photo-oxidative effect of high radiation between 11:00 h and 14:00 h of the day. The reduction of functional leaf area because of the PPF, led to low Gs with serious implications for carbon fixation and thus limiting growth and biomass renewal. The effect of season in Tfol varied according to the topographic zone, while the ICC did not present a defined pattern with respect to the PPF; its low values could be associated with the production of other pigments. Finally, although it is not possible to ensure that Botrytis sp. is the causative of the loss of leaf pubescence, it is postulated as the most probably causal agent due to its high representativeness in the isolates and its infectious potential during

  8. The selective cytotoxicity elicited by phytochemical extract from Senecio graveolens (Asteraceae) on breast cancer cells is enhanced by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Echiburú-Chau, Carlos; Alfaro-Lira, Susana; Brown, Nelson; Salas, Cristian O; Cuellar, Mauricio; Santander, Javier; Ogalde, Juan Pablo; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of cancer‑related deaths in woman and the incidence of the disease has increased worldwide, in part due to improvements in early detection. Several drugs with anticancer effects have been extracted from plants in the last 20 years, many of which are particularly effective against breast cancer cells. In particular, we have become interested in the ethanolic extract from Senecio graveolens (synonym of S. nutans), a plant commonly called Chachacoma, in an effort to isolate compounds that could demonstrate cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells. Senecio (Asteraceae) is the largest gender in Chile comprising approximatly 200 species. These herbs inhabit areas over 3,500 meters above the sea level in the Andes Mountains. S. graveolens is commonly used by local communities for its medicinal properties, particularly its capacity to ameliorate high-altitude-associated sickness. The cytotoxic effect of the alcoholic extract from S. graveolens, as well as its most abundant compound 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, were tested in the breast cancer cell lines ZR-75-1, MCF-7 and MDA-MB‑231, and non-tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. We show that the phytochemical extract was able to induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells but not in MCF-10F. Importantly, this effect was enhanced under hypoxic conditions. However, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone, the main compound, did not by itself show an effective anticarcinogenic activity in comparison to the whole extract. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the phytochemical extract was dependent on the basal MnSOD protein expression. Thus, cytotoxicity was increased when MnSOD levels were low, but resistance was evident when protein levels were high. Additionally, the crude extract seems to trigger cell death by a variety of processes, including autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis, in MCF-7 cells. In summary, S. graveolens extract possess anticancer activity displaying a specific

  9. The antiprotozoal activity of sixteen asteraceae species native to Sudan and bioactivity-guided isolation of xanthanolides from Xanthium brasilicum.

    PubMed

    Nour, Amal M M; Khalid, Sami A; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Abdallah, Wai'l E; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    In vitro screening of the dichloromethane extracts of 16 Asteraceae species native to Sudan for activity against major protozoan pathogens revealed that a Xanthium brasilicum Vell. [syn. X. strumarium var. brasilicum (Vell.) Baker in Mart.] extract was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the etiological agent of East African human trypanosomiasis (IC(50) = 0.1 microg/mL). This plant extract also exhibited noticeable activities against T. cruzi (Chagas disease), Leishmania donovani (Kala-Azar) as well as Plasmodium falciparum (Malaria tropica). Bioactivity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of four bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STL) of the xanthanolide series (4,5-seco-guaianolide-type). They were identified by spectroscopic means as 8-epixanthatin (1), 8-epixanthatin 1beta,5beta-epoxide (2), and as the dimers pungiolide A (4) as well as pungiolide B (5). Two further modified xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactones, xanthipungolide (3) and 4,15-dinor-1,11(13)-xanthadiene-3,5beta:12,8beta-diolide (6) were isolated. While xanthipungolide turned out to be inactive against the tested parasites, the dinor-xanthanlide showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense and L. donovani. All isolated compounds were previously known from other Xanthium species but this is the first report on their occurrence in X. brasilicum, and, most notably, on their antiprotozoal activity. As the most active single compound from this extract, 8-epixanthatin 1beta,5beta-epoxide showed IC(50) values of 0.09, 2.95, 0.16 and 1.71 microg/mL (0.33, 11.3, 0.6 and 6.5 microM) against T. brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, L. donovani and P. falciparum, respectively, while its cytotoxicity against rat myoblast cells used as control was determined at 5.8 microg/mL (22.1 microM). Besides assessment of their antiprotozoal activity, the structural assignments for the dimeric xanthanolides pungiolide A and B were reinvestigated and fully established. PMID:19431098

  10. Three new genera and three new species of Nearctic Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyiinae) from Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae, and the tribe Rhopalomyiini subsumed under Oligotrophini.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Three new Nearctic genera of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), each with a new species, are described: Helianthecis Gagné for Helianthecis capitum Gagné, new species, that lives in flower heads of Helianthus spp. (Asteraceae) from North Dakota to Texas; Lonicerae Gagné for Lonicerae russoi Gagné, new species, and Lonicerae lonicera (Felt), new combination, that form bud galls on Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) in California; and Chiosperma Gagné for Chiosperma turgidum Gagné, new species, that forms a bud gall on Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake (Caprifoliaceae) in Washington. The three new genera belong to the supertribe Lasiopteridi and are placed in the tribe Oligotrophini. The tribes Oligotrophini and Rhopalomyiini are combined. PMID:27615893

  11. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented. PMID:27395706

  12. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  13. Molecular evidence for multiple origins of woodiness and a New World biogeographic connection of the Macaronesian Island endemic Pericallis (Asteraceae: Senecioneae)

    PubMed Central

    Panero, Jose L.; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Jansen, Robert K.; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of woody species in oceanic islands has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than a century. We used a phylogeny based on sequences of the internal-transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA to trace the evolution of woodiness in Pericallis (Asteraceae: Senecioneae), a genus endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, and Canaries. Our results show that woodiness in Pericallis originated independently at least twice in these islands, further weakening some previous hypotheses concerning the value of this character for tracing the continental ancestry of island endemics. The same data suggest that the origin of woodiness is correlated with ecological shifts from open to species-rich habitats and that the ancestor of Pericallis was an herbaceous species adapted to marginal habitats of the laurel forest. Our results also support Pericallis as closely related to New World genera of the tribe Senecioneae. PMID:10570168

  14. Investigating the potential of under-utilised plants from the Asteraceae family as a source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Walsh, D; Kelleher, C T; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P

    2014-10-15

    Antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts from eight Asteraceae species were investigated against three Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains. Ethanol extracts from Centaurea scabiosa, Arctium minus, Taraxacum officinale, Centaurea nigra and Cirsium palustre demonstrated antimicrobial activity against strains of S. aureus, MRSA and B. cereus (MIC=187.5-365μg/ml). Ethanol extracts also had higher antioxidant activities and phenolic content demonstrating a link between these compounds and the bioactivity of these extracts. Further investigation into the phenolic content of ethanol extracts using UPLC-MS/MS lead to the identification and quantification of numerous phenolic compounds in all species including; 18 from Cirsium arvense, 16 from Cirsium vulgare, 19 from C. palustre, 15 from C. nigra, 17 from C. scabiosa, 14 from Sonchus asper, 17 from A. minus and 11 from T. officinale. PMID:24837924

  15. Leaf trichome density may explain herbivory patterns of Actinote sp. (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in a montane humid forest (Nor Yungas, Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Ávila, Pamela; Hurtado, Rosember; Valdivia, Alejandra I.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2006-09-01

    Increasing evidence shows that most insect herbivores of tropical forests show specific associations with their hosts. Environmental factors as well as foliar characters can modify insect preference. In the present work, we evaluated in a montane humid forest the preference and herbivory rate of Actinote sp. caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on mature and young leaves of their specific host plant Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in two contrasting sites. Additionally, the density of non-glandular trichomes in young and mature leaves of plant at each site was evaluated. Analysis of variance of herbivory showed significant effects of site, leaf age, and the interaction of these factors. Higher herbivory levels were found on leaves from the site with lower levels of radiation and on mature leaves. On the other hand, trichome density was significantly higher in leaves from the site with higher levels of radiation and in young leaves. This suggests trichomes may explain the observed pattern of herbivory.

  16. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of the Espeletia complex (Asteraceae): evidence from nrDNA ITS sequences on the closest relatives of an Andean adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Jason T

    2002-07-01

    The subtribe Espeletiinae (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) comprises morphologically and ecologically diverse plants endemic to the tropical montane paramos of the Andes of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. Though the ecophysiology and ecology of this adaptive radiation have been well studied, relationships among taxa in the subtribe and between the subtribe and other taxa in the Heliantheae are poorly known. In this study, sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA are used to test previous hypotheses about the phylogenetic position of the Espeletiinae within the Heliantheae and to determine which taxa are the subtribe's closest relatives. Gene phylogenies based on maximum parsimony analyses reveal that the Espeletiinae clade is nested well within the subtribe Melampodiinae and thus should be considered a monophyletic complex of species, not a separate subtribe. The most parsimonious gene trees suggest that the genus Ichthyothere may be the sister taxon to the Espeletia complex and that the genus Smallanthus and a species of Rumfordia are likely among the complex's other closest living relatives. These data offer preliminary insights into the origins of this adaptive radiation and the broader phylogenetic context in which it occurred. PMID:21665707

  18. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations.

    PubMed

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  19. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil and precocene II obtained from Calea serrata (Asteraceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Vera Lucia Sardá; dos Santos, Jaqueline Campiol; Martins, João Ricardo; Schripsema, Jan; Siqueira, Ionara R; von Poser, Gilsane L; Apel, Miriam A

    2011-06-30

    Calea serrata Less. (Asteraceae), an endemic species of south Brazil known as "quebra-tudo", is used in Afro-Brazilian religious rituals and in folk medicine for treating liver disorders. Phytochemical studies of the n-hexane extract of this plant demonstrated the presence of precocene II, a benzopyran derivative known for its insecticidal activity. The aim of this work was to isolate this benzopyran and determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. serrata and further to evaluate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil and precocene II against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The LC(99.9) and LC(50) values obtained with the oil, which presents precocene II and sesquiterpenes, were 3.94 μL/mL and 0.28 μL/mL, respectively. For precocene II this values were 4.25mg/mL and 1.78 mg/mL, respectively. The results indicate a synergistic interaction between the components of the oil and precocene II. PMID:21402447

  20. Host Jumps and Radiation, Not Co‐Divergence Drives Diversification of Obligate Pathogens. A Case Study in Downy Mildews and Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Even though the microevolution of plant hosts and pathogens has been intensely studied, knowledge regarding macro-evolutionary patterns is limited. Having the highest species diversity and host-specificity among Oomycetes, downy mildews are a useful a model for investigating long-term host-pathogen coevolution. We show that phylogenies of Bremia and Asteraceae are significantly congruent. The accepted hypothesis is that pathogens have diverged contemporarily with their hosts. But maximum clade age estimation and sequence divergence comparison reveal that congruence is not due to long-term coevolution but rather due to host-shift driven speciation (pseudo-cospeciation). This pattern results from parasite radiation in related hosts, long after radiation and speciation of the hosts. As large host shifts free pathogens from hosts with effector triggered immunity subsequent radiation and diversification in related hosts with similar innate immunity may follow, resulting in a pattern mimicking true co-divergence, which is probably limited to the terminal nodes in many pathogen groups. PMID:26230508

  1. Terpenoid Composition and Base Sequences of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) Grown in the Hengduan Mountain Area in China and a Comment on Drawing Structures.

    PubMed

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A chemical analysis of 30 samples of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) collected in Sichuan province and its adjacent territories in China was reviewed. These samples afforded 146 compounds, 73 of which were novel, and the chemical constituents were classified into 8 categories: (1) simple eremophilanes (without ring C) and eudesmanes including nor-derivatives, (2) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-saturated bond, (3) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-unsaturated bond, 1,10-epoxide, or 10-ol, (4) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-2-one, 1(10)-en-2-ol, or 1-en-3-one, (5) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-9-one, 1(10)-en-9-ol, or 1,10-epoxy-9-one, (6) cacalol and their derivatives, (7) bakkanes and their derivatives, and (8) others, as shown in Tables 1-7. In these studies, five chemotypes were identified in addition to three clades from the DNA sequences of L. virgaurea. The structural determination of some compounds was also discussed and a comment on how to express the real structure was proposed, particularly for spiro compounds. PMID:26936046

  2. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-01

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:25664467

  3. Activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) suggests conserved protein-protein and protein-promoter interactions between the anciently diverged monocots and eudicots.

    PubMed

    Elomaa, Paula; Uimari, Anne; Mehto, Merja; Albert, Victor A; Laitinen, Roosa A E; Teeri, Teemu H

    2003-12-01

    We have identified an R2R3-type MYB factor, GMYB10, from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) that shares high sequence homology to and is phylogenetically grouped together with the previously characterized regulators of anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and Arabidopsis. GMYB10 is able to induce anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), especially in vegetative parts and anthers. In G. hybrida, GMYB10 is involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in leaves, floral stems, and flowers. In flowers, its expression is restricted to petal epidermal cell layers in correlation with the anthocyanin accumulation pattern. We have shown, using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assay, that GMYB10 interacts with the previously isolated bHLH factor GMYC1. Particle bombardment analysis was used to show that GMYB10 is required for activation of a late anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoter, PGDFR2. cis-Analysis of the target PGDFR2 revealed a sequence element with a key role in activation by GMYB10/GMYC1. This element shares high homology with the anthocyanin regulatory elements characterized in maize (Zea mays) anthocyanin promoters, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis have been conserved for over 125 million years not only at the level of transcriptional regulators but also at the level of the biosynthetic gene promoters. PMID:14605235

  4. Activation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) Suggests Conserved Protein-Protein and Protein-Promoter Interactions between the Anciently Diverged Monocots and Eudicots1

    PubMed Central

    Elomaa, Paula; Uimari, Anne; Mehto, Merja; Albert, Victor A.; Laitinen, Roosa A.E.; Teeri, Teemu H.

    2003-01-01

    We have identified an R2R3-type MYB factor, GMYB10, from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) that shares high sequence homology to and is phylogenetically grouped together with the previously characterized regulators of anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and Arabidopsis. GMYB10 is able to induce anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), especially in vegetative parts and anthers. In G. hybrida, GMYB10 is involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in leaves, floral stems, and flowers. In flowers, its expression is restricted to petal epidermal cell layers in correlation with the anthocyanin accumulation pattern. We have shown, using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assay, that GMYB10 interacts with the previously isolated bHLH factor GMYC1. Particle bombardment analysis was used to show that GMYB10 is required for activation of a late anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoter, PGDFR2. cis-Analysis of the target PGDFR2 revealed a sequence element with a key role in activation by GMYB10/GMYC1. This element shares high homology with the anthocyanin regulatory elements characterized in maize (Zea mays) anthocyanin promoters, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis have been conserved for over 125 million years not only at the level of transcriptional regulators but also at the level of the biosynthetic gene promoters. PMID:14605235

  5. Morphological and Molecular Revision of the Genus Ozirhincus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)—Long-Snouted Seed-Feeding Gall Midges on Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Dorchin, Netta; Astrin, Jonas J.; Bodner, Levona; Harris, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The Palaearctic gall-midge genus Ozirhincus is unique among the Cecidomyiidae for its morphology and biology. Unlike most other phytophagous gall midges, species in this genus do not induce galls but develop inside achenes of Asteraceae plants. The heads of adults are characterized by an unusually elongate proboscis, the function of which is unclear. Despite a lot of attention from taxonomists in the 19th and early 20th century, a proper revision of the genus has been hindered by complex host associations, the loss of most relevant type material, and the lack of a thorough comparative study of all life stages. The present revision integrated morphological, molecular, and life-history data to clearly define species boundaries within Ozirhincus, and delimit host-plant ranges for each of them. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes confirmed the validity of four distinct species but did not resolve the relationships among them. All species are oligophages, and some may occur together on the same host plant. Species with wider host-plant ranges have wider European and circum-Mediterranean distribution ranges, whereas species with narrower host ranges are limited to Europe and the Russian Far East. As part of the present work, O. hungaricus is reinstated from synonymy, O. tanaceti is synonymized under O. longicollis, neotypes are designated for O. longicollis and O. millefolii, and a lectotype is designated for O. anthemidis. PMID:26134526

  6. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    PubMed Central

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  7. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Hülber, Karl; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Winkler, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, that is, the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering, and ecological niches as well as patterns of gene flow in parental and hybrid cytotypes in zones of immediate contact of di-, tetra-, and hexaploid Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps. Cytotypes were spatially separated also at the investigated microscale; the strongest spatial separation was observed for the fully interfertile tetra- and hexaploids. The three main cytotypes showed highly significant niche differences, which were, however, weaker than across their entire distribution ranges in the Eastern Alps. Individuals with intermediate ploidy levels were found neither in the diploid/tetraploid nor in the diploid/hexaploid contact zones indicating strong reproductive barriers. In contrast, pentaploid individuals were frequent in the tetraploid/hexaploid contact zone, albeit limited to a narrow strip in the immediate contact zone of their parental cytotypes. AFLP fingerprinting data revealed introgressive gene flow mediated by pentaploid hybrids from tetra- to hexaploid individuals, but not vice versa. The ecological niche of pentaploids differed significantly from that of tetraploids but not from hexaploids. PMID:25859328

  8. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Hülber, Karl; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Winkler, Manuela

    2015-03-01

    Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, that is, the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering, and ecological niches as well as patterns of gene flow in parental and hybrid cytotypes in zones of immediate contact of di-, tetra-, and hexaploid Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps. Cytotypes were spatially separated also at the investigated microscale; the strongest spatial separation was observed for the fully interfertile tetra- and hexaploids. The three main cytotypes showed highly significant niche differences, which were, however, weaker than across their entire distribution ranges in the Eastern Alps. Individuals with intermediate ploidy levels were found neither in the diploid/tetraploid nor in the diploid/hexaploid contact zones indicating strong reproductive barriers. In contrast, pentaploid individuals were frequent in the tetraploid/hexaploid contact zone, albeit limited to a narrow strip in the immediate contact zone of their parental cytotypes. AFLP fingerprinting data revealed introgressive gene flow mediated by pentaploid hybrids from tetra- to hexaploid individuals, but not vice versa. The ecological niche of pentaploids differed significantly from that of tetraploids but not from hexaploids. PMID:25859328

  9. Characterisation of sunflower-21 (SF21) genes expressed in pollen and pistil of Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae) and their relationship with other members of the SF21 gene family.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alexandra M; Lexer, Christian; Hiscock, Simon J

    2010-09-01

    Two related flower-expressed gene copies belonging to the SF21 (sunflower-21) gene family have been isolated from Senecio squalidus (Oxford Ragwort, Asteraceae). These gene copies are differentially expressed in pollen and pistil tissues; ORSF21B (Oxford Ragwort SF21B) is expressed exclusively in mature pollen, whereas ORSF21A (Oxford Ragwort SF21A) is expressed in the transmitting tissue of the style, where it is developmentally regulated. Despite differences in expression, the coding regions of ORSF21A and ORSF21B are highly similar. Amino acid sequence alignments of SF21 genes from a number of angiosperm species indicate that this gene family is conserved in flowering plants and may play an important role in reproductive processes in a wide range of taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of SF21 nucleotide sequence alignments supports this theory, and indicates a complicated history of evolution of this gene family in angiosperms. The putative roles of SF21 genes in reproduction and pollen-pistil interactions are discussed. PMID:20182753

  10. The population genetics of sporophytic self-incompatibility in Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae): avoidance of mating constraints imposed by low S-allele number.

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Adrian C; Harris, Stephen A; Hiscock, Simon J

    2003-01-01

    Senecio squalidus L. (Asteraceae) has been the subject of several ecological and population genetic studies due to its well-documented history of introduction, establishment and spread throughout Britain in the past 300 years. Our recent studies have focused on identifying and quantifying factors associated with the sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI) system of S. squalidus that may have contributed to its success as a colonist. These findings are of general biological interest because they provide important insights into the short-term evolutionary dynamics of a plant mating system. The number of S-alleles in populations and their dominance interactions were investigated in eight wild British populations using cross-diallel studies. The numbers of S-alleles in British S. squalidus populations are typically low (average of 5.3 S-alleles) and the entire British population is estimated to possess no more than 7-11 S-alleles. Such low numbers of S-alleles are most probably a consequence of population bottlenecks associated with introduction and colonization. Potential evolutionary impacts on SSI caused by a paucity of S-alleles, such as restricted mate availability, are discussed, and we suggest that increased dominance interactions between S-alleles may be an important short-term means of increasing mate availability when S-allele numbers are low. PMID:12831471

  11. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and plastid DNA sequences support dysploid and polyploid chromosome number changes and reticulate evolution in the diversification of Melampodium (Millerieae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Blöch, Cordula; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Barfuss, Michael H.J.; Rebernig, Carolin A.; Villaseñor, José Luis; Stuessy, Tod F.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome evolution (including polyploidy, dysploidy, and structural changes) as well as hybridization and introgression are recognized as important aspects in plant speciation. A suitable group for investigating the evolutionary role of chromosome number changes and reticulation is the medium-sized genus Melampodium (Millerieae, Asteraceae), which contains several chromosome base numbers (x = 9, 10, 11, 12, 14) and a number of polyploid species, including putative allopolyploids. A molecular phylogenetic analysis employing both nuclear (ITS) and plastid (matK) DNA sequences, and including all species of the genus, suggests that chromosome base numbers are predictive of evolutionary lineages within Melampodium. Dysploidy, therefore, has clearly been important during evolution of the group. Reticulate evolution is evident with allopolyploids, which prevail over autopolyploids and several of which are confirmed here for the first time, and also (but less often) on the diploid level. Within sect. Melampodium, the complex pattern of bifurcating phylogenetic structure among diploid taxa overlain by reticulate relationships from allopolyploids has non-trivial implications for intrasectional classification. PMID:19272456

  12. The Effect of the Acetone Extract of Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae) on the Growth and Ultrastructure of Some Opportunistic Fungi Associated with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Otang, Wilfred M.; Grierson, Donald S.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the acetone extract of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm. (Asteraceae) on the growth and ultrastructure of some opportunistic fungi associated with HIV/AIDS was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Remarkable morphological alterations in the fungal mycelia which were attributed to the loss of cell wall strength ranged from loss of turgidity and uniformity, collapse of entire hyphae to evident destruction of the hyphae. The elements responsible for giving the fungi their characteristic virulence were detected and quantified by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis techniques. X-ray microanalysis showed the specific spectra of sodium, potassium and sulfur as the principal intersection of the four pathogenic fungi studied. Since these ions have the potential of fostering fungal invasion by altering the permeability of hosts’ membranes, their presence was considered inherent to the pathogenicity of the opportunistic fungi. Hence, these findings indicate the potential of the crude extract of A. arctotoides in preventing fungal invasion and subsequent infection of host’s membranes. PMID:22272130

  13. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction. PMID:27611687

  14. Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug.

    PubMed

    López, Sandra B; López, María L; Aragón, Liliana M; Tereschuk, María L; Slanis, Alberto C; Feresin, Gabriela E; Zygadlo, Julio A; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2011-05-25

    Essential oils from four species of the genus Tagetes L. (Asteraceae, Helenieae) collected in Tucumán province, Argentina, were evaluated for their chemical composition, toxicity, and olfactory activity on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann adults and for repellent properties on Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Chagas disease vector). Yields of essential oils range from 0.2 to 0.8% (v/w). The same main constituents among Tagetes minuta L., Tagestes rupestris Cabrera, and Tagetes terniflora Kunth, (cis-trans)-ocimenes, (cis-trans)-tagetones, and (cis-trans)-ocimenones showed important differences in their relative compositions. Tagetes filifolia Lag. was characterized by the recognized phenylpropanoids methylchavicol and trans-anethole as the main components. LD(50) was ≤20 μg/insect in topical bioassays. T. rupestris was the most toxic to C. capitata females, whereas the other oils presented similar toxicities against males and females. Tagetes rupestris oil attracted both sexes of C. capitata at 5 μg, whereas T. minuta showed opposite activities between males (attractant) and females (repellent). Oils from T. minuta and T. filifolia were the most repellent to T. infestans. The results suggest that compositions of essential oils influence their insecticidal and olfactory properties. The essential oils from Tagetes species show an important potential as infochemical agents on insects' behaviors. This study highlights the chemical variability of essential oils as a source of variation of anti-insect properties. PMID:21469658

  15. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-01-01

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided. PMID:25781249

  16. Extensive range persistence in peripheral and interior refugia characterizes Pleistocene range dynamics in a widespread Alpine plant species (Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Flatscher, Ruth; Sonnleitner, Michaela; KrejčíKová, Jana; Suda, Jan; HüLber, Karl; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; SchöNswetter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that survival of arctic-alpine organisms in peripheral or interior glacial refugia are not mutually exclusive and may both be involved in shaping an organism’s Pleistocene history, yet potentially at different time levels. Here, we test this hypothesis in a high-mountain plant (diploid lineage of Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae) from the Eastern European Alps, in which patterns of morphological variation and current habitat requirements suggest survival in both types of refugia. To this end, we used AFLPs, nuclear and plastid DNA sequences and analysed them, among others, within a graph theoretic framework and using novel Bayesian methods of phylogeographic inference. On the basis of patterns of genetic diversity, occurrence of rare markers, distribution of distinct genetic lineages and patterns of range connectivity both interior refugia in the formerly strongly glaciated central Alps and peripheral refugia along the southern margin of the Alps were identified. The presence of refugia congruently inferred by markers resolving at different time levels suggests that these refugia acted as such throughout several glacial cycles. The high degree of range persistence together with gradual range expansion, which contrasts with the extent of range shifts implied for other Alpine species, is likely responsible for incipient lineage differentiation evident from the genetic data. Replacing a simplistic peripheral vs. interior refugia dualism by more complex models involving both types of refugia and considering different time levels will help identifying common phylogeographic patterns with respect to, for instance, location of refugia and colonization routes and elucidating their underlying genetic and/or ecological causes. PMID:22276934

  17. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents. PMID:25970043

  18. In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. using cell sensitivity and flow cytometry assays.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Kourosh; Shahidi-Hakak, Fatemeh; Asgari, Qasem; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ramin; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar

    2016-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected human diseases with an estimated global burden ranking second in mortality and fourth in morbidity among the tropical infections. Chemotherapy involving the use of drugs like glucantime is the mainstay treatment in endemic areas of Iran. Drug resistance is increasingly prevalent, so search for alternative therapy is gathering pace. Medicinal herbs, like wormwood Artemisia, have chemical compounds effective against a number of pathogens. In this study, the efficacy of ethanol extract from Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. was investigated in vitro. The outcome of different effective doses (1-40 mg/ml) of ethanol extracts from this medicinal herb, A. absinthium, on a standard Iranian parasite strain of L. major was examined. The L. major promastigote cell sensitivity and mortality or viability effects due to the addition of herbal extract were measured using the MTT assay and the flow cytometry technique, respectively. There was complete agreement between the two assays. The lethal concentration (LC50) was measured as 101 mg/ml. Some contrasting relationships between the medicinal herb concentrations and the viability of parasites were observed; so that there was an increased multiplication of the parasite at low concentrations of the drug, but an anti-parasitic apoptotic effect was seen at high concentrations of A. absinthium. It was concluded that there might be one or more chemical constituents within the herbal extract of wormwood which at high concentration controlled cell division and affected the relevant activity within the only one giant mitochondrion in this flagellate parasite. At low doses, however, it showed the opposite effect of leading to mitotic cell divisions. PMID:27605775

  19. Effects of temperature on survival, development, longevity, and fecundity of Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent against Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asterales: Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2010-06-01

    Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a leaf beetle that is unintentionally introduced in China. It is a potential biological control agent against common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asterales: Asteraceae). The effects of temperature on the development and fecundity of O. communa were studied at eight constant temperature regimens (15, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 36 degrees C) in the laboratory. The results showed that the developmental periods for egg, larva, pupa, and entire immature stages decreased in response to the increasing temperature, with the exception of 30 degrees C. The survival rates at different developmental stages were higher at 25 and 28 degrees C than at other temperatures. Ovipositional period and longevity of female shortened with the increasing temperature. The highest fecundity of female was observed to be 2,712.3 eggs/female at 28 degrees C. Life table of O. communa was constructed based on the data at 20-32 degrees C. The innate capacity for increase (r(m)), the net reproductive rate (R(0)), and the finite rate of increase (lambda) reached the maximum at 28 degrees C, with values of 0.247, 1,773.0, and 1.280, respectively. The shortest period of a generation (T) was 24.6 d at 32 degrees C, whereas the longest T value was recorded as 79.3 d at 20 degrees C. These results offer valuable insight on the establishment potential of O. communa in new environments with diverse temperature regimens and on its mass-rearing techniques in laboratory. PMID:20550818

  20. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5 minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0 mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5 minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus. PMID:23244493

  1. Ecological relationships between non-cultivated plants and insect predators in agroecosystems: the case of Dittrichia viscosa (Asteraceae) and Macrolophus melanotoma (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikis, Dionyssios; Favas, Charalampos; Lykouressis, Dionyssios; Fantinou, Argyro

    2007-05-01

    Species of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are thought to be effective predators in reducing the numbers of several pests in vegetable crops. These predators are omnivorous as in addition to prey they also utilize plant sap for growth and development. Populations of these predators build in non-crop host plants and provide inoculum that augments natural control of insect pests in adjacent crops. However, to enhance their effectiveness in crops requires knowledge of their trophic relationships with host plants. In this study, the ecological relationships between the predator Macrolophus melanotoma (Costa) ( = M. caliginosus Wagner) and its most important natural host plant Dittrichia viscosa L. (W. Greuter) (Asteraceae) were investigated in the laboratory and in field studies. A 2-year field study of M. melanotoma populations on D. viscosa was made using the percentage of plants infested by C. inulae as a measure of aphid prey abundance. The field studies revealed that M. melanotoma populations were present throughout the year on D. viscosa reaching highest numbers in June and July despite very low levels of aphid infested plants. Laboratory life table studies were used to compare the survival and reproduction of the predator on D. viscosa leaves alone and leaves plus aphid prey ( Capitophorus inulae (Passerini)). Predators reared on D. viscosa leaves plus aphid prey had an average developmental time of 16.73 days, fecundity was 69.55 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0614/day. When fed only leaves, the developmental time was 21.13 days, fecundity was 10.80 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0229/day. The results of the two studies suggest an important role for D. viscosa in conserving and augmenting M. melanotoma in agro ecosystems, and in the development of natural control augmentation strategies in vegetable crops.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  3. Elemental distribution in reproductive and neural organs of the Epilachna nylanderi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a phytophage of nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asterales: Asteraceae) by micro-PIXE.

    PubMed

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Augustyniak, Maria; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Tarnawska, Monika; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Migula, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal hyperaccumulation by plants is often explained by a pathogen or herbivore defense hypothesis. However, some insects feeding on metal hyperaccumulating plants are adapted to the high level of metals in plant tissues. Former studies on species that feed on the leaves of Berkheya coddii Roessler 1958 (Asteraceae), a nickel-hyperaccumulating plant, demonstrated several protective mechanisms involved in internal distribution, immobilization, and elimination of Ni from the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These species are mainly coleopterans, including the lady beetle, Epilachna nylanderi (Mulsant 1850) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), collected from the ultramafic ecosystem near Barberton in South Africa. By performing particle-induced X-ray emission microanalysis elemental microanalysis (PIXE), this study examined whether Ni may be harmful to internal body systems that decide on insect reactivity (central nervous system [CNS]), their reproduction, and the relationships between Ni and other micronutrients. Data on elemental distribution of nine selected elements in target organs of E. nylanderi were compared with the existing data for other insect species adapted to the excess of metals. Micro-PIXE maps of seven regions of the CNS showed Ni mainly in the neural connectives, while cerebral ganglia were better protected. Concentrations of other bivalent metals were lower than those of Ni. Testis, compared with other reproductive organs, showed low amounts of Ni. Zn was effectively regulated at physiological dietary levels. In insects exposed to excess dietary Zn, it was also accumulated in the reproductive organs. Comparison of E. nylanderii with other insects that ingest hyperaccumulating plants, especially chrysomelid Chrysolina clathrata (Clark) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), showed lower protection of the CNS and reproductive organs. PMID:25399425

  4. Extensive range persistence in peripheral and interior refugia characterizes Pleistocene range dynamics in a widespread Alpine plant species (Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Flatscher, Ruth; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Krejčíková, Jana; Suda, Jan; Hülber, Karl; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that survival of arctic-alpine organisms in peripheral or interior glacial refugia are not mutually exclusive and may both be involved in shaping an organism's Pleistocene history, yet potentially at different time levels. Here, we test this hypothesis in a high-mountain plant (diploid lineage of Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae) from the Eastern European Alps, in which patterns of morphological variation and current habitat requirements suggest survival in both types of refugia. To this end, we used AFLPs, nuclear and plastid DNA sequences and analysed them, among others, within a graph theoretic framework and using novel Bayesian methods of phylogeographic inference. On the basis of patterns of genetic diversity, occurrence of rare markers, distribution of distinct genetic lineages and patterns of range connectivity both interior refugia in the formerly strongly glaciated central Alps and peripheral refugia along the southern margin of the Alps were identified. The presence of refugia congruently inferred by markers resolving at different time levels suggests that these refugia acted as such throughout several glacial cycles. The high degree of range persistence together with gradual range expansion, which contrasts with the extent of range shifts implied for other Alpine species, is likely responsible for incipient lineage differentiation evident from the genetic data. Replacing a simplistic peripheral vs. interior refugia dualism by more complex models involving both types of refugia and considering different time levels will help identifying common phylogeographic patterns with respect to, for instance, location of refugia and colonization routes and elucidating their underlying genetic and/or ecological causes. DNA sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession nos. FR796701–FR797793 and nos. HE614296–HE614583. PMID:22276934

  5. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. Results ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. Conclusions We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the

  6. Drought tolerance and plasticity in the invasive knapweed Centaurea stoebe s.l. (Asteraceae): effect of populations stronger than those of cytotype and range

    PubMed Central

    Mráz, Patrik; Tarbush, Elham; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe s.l., Asteraceae) is native to Europe, where it occurs as a diploid (2xEU) and tetraploid cytotype (4xEU), but so far only the tetraploid has been reported in the introduced range in North America (4xNA). In previous studies, significant range shifts have been found towards drier climates in 4xEU compared with 2xEU, and in 4xNA when compared with the native range. In addition, 4x plants showed thicker leaves and reduced specific leaf area compared with 2x plants, suggesting higher drought tolerance in 4x plants. It is thus hypothesized that the 4x cytotype might be better pre-adapted to drought than the 2x, and the 4xNA better adapted than the 4xEU due to post-introduction selection. Methods Plants of the three geocytotypes (2xEU, 4xEU and 4xNA ), each represented by six populations, were subjected to three water treatments over 6 weeks in a greenhouse experiment. Plasticity and reaction norms of above- and below-ground biomasses and their ratio, survival rate, stomatal conductance and carbon isotope discrimination were analysed using linear and generalized linear mixed effect models. Key Results and Conclusions Above-ground and total biomasses of European tetraploids were slightly less affected by drought than those of European diploids, and 4xEU plants maintained higher levels of stomatal conductance under moderate drought than 4xNA plants, thus supporting the pre-adaptation but not the post-introduction evolution hypothesis. Plasticity indexes for most of the traits were generally higher in 2xEU and 4xNA than in 4xEU plants, but these differences were not or were only marginally significant. Interestingly, the effect of population origin and its interaction with treatment was more important than the effects of geocytotype and range. Population means for the control treatment showed several significant associations either with latitude or some aspect of climatic data, suggesting evolution of local adaptations

  7. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. Results The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. Conclusions This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian

  8. Distribution and habitat segregation on different spatial scales among diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps

    PubMed Central

    Sonnleitner, Michaela; Flatscher, Ruth; Escobar García, Pedro; Rauchová, Jana; Suda, Jan; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Hülber, Karl; Schönswetter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The spatial distribution of cytotypes can provide valuable insights into evolutionary patterns of polyploid complexes. In a previous study the macro-scale distribution of the three main cytotypes in Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) within the Eastern Alps was characterized. Employing a roughly 12-fold extended sampling, the present study focuses on unravelling patterns of cytotype distribution on the meso- and microscale and on correlating those with ecological properties of the growing sites. Methods DAPI flow cytometry of dried samples was used to determine DNA ploidy level in 5033 individuals from 100 populations spread over the entire Eastern Alpine distribution area of S. carniolicus. Descriptors of microhabitats as well as spatial data were recorded in the field, and analysed with a mixed-effects ANOVA. Key Results Extensive variation in DNA ploidy levels (2x, 3x, 4x, 5x, 6x, 7x, 8x, 9x) was detected. Of the main cytotypes, diploids and hexaploids were widespread and had strongly overlapping distributions resulting in the frequent occurrence of cytotype mixtures (half of the investigated populations), whereas tetraploids were disjunctly distributed and occurred in the south-west and the east of the species' distribution area. In spite of the frequent co-occurrence of cytotypes, only 1 % of the samples belonged to secondary cytotypes (3x, 5x, 7x, 8x, 9x). Diploids, tetraploids and hexaploids were altitudinally segregated, but with broad overlap. Similarly, highly significant differences in vegetation and rock cover as well as microhabitat exposure were found between the main cytotypes. Conclusions Senecio carniolicus shows a remarkable diversity of cytotypes. The distribution of the three main cytotypes (2x, 4x, 6x) has been shaped by Pleistocene glaciations to different extents. Whereas tetraploids are nearly entirely restricted to refugia, hexaploids colonized areas that were extensively glaciated. Diploid and hexaploid individuals often

  9. In vivo antiprostate tumor potential of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) tuber extract (VGDE) and the cytotoxicity of its major compound pentaisovaleryl sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) root decoction is used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat some ailments including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to validate the claimed antiprostate cancer activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. in vivo and to investigate the cytotoxicity of a pentaisovaleryl sucrose isolated from Vernonia guineensis on some cancer cell lines. Materials and methods A crude dichloromethane extract of Vernonia guineensis (VGDE) was used for this study. For in vivo antiprostate cancer efficacy, nude mice (n = 16) were injected subcutaneously with prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Upon the formation of the xenograft tumors, the mice were divided into two equal groups with approximately the same mean tumor volume per group. One group was treated with VGDE orally (500 mg/kg) and the other with a vehicle control for 30 days. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured 2 × a week and on the 33rd day, the mice were euthanized and tumors harvested and weighed. For the cytotoxicity study, the WST-1 assay was used to determine the activity of pentaisovaleryl sucrose previously isolated from VGDE. The cancer cell lines used in the cytotoxicity study included breast, colon, leukemia, lung, melanoma, ovarian and prostate. Results Prostate cancer (PC-3) xenograft tumors treated with VGDE showed a significant decrease in tumor size (P = 0.0295) compared to control. Pentaisovaleryl sucrose also demonstrated cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines with IC50 values as follows: MDA-MD-231—6.66 µM; MCF-7—7.50 µM; HCT116—14.12 µM; A549—5.76 µM; HL60—6.43 µM; A375—8.64 µM; OVCAR3—9.53 µM; Capan1—7.13 µM; Mia-Paca 6.47 µM. Conclusion VGDE does possess in vivo activity against prostate tumor and has potential for development into a natural product for the treatment of prostate cancer. This study thus provides preliminary validation for the folk use of Vernonia guineensis against prostate

  10. [Establishment of the feeding methodology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae) in Swiss mice and evaluation of the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae), in populations of Aedes aegypti].

    PubMed

    Lima, Waldemir Pereira; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Zuccari, Débora Aparecida Pires de Campos; Dibo, Margareth Regina

    2009-01-01

    The objectives here were to develop a procedure for feeding females of Aedes aegypti that does not cause stress in Swiss mice and to evaluate the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) in Aedes aegypti populations. Two mice were anesthetized: one was used to observe the duration of sedation and the other was placed in a cage to feed the female mosquitoes. Essential oil was diluted in acetone and used in bioassays to assess the lethal concentrations in larvae from the Cities of Bauru (SP) and São José do Rio Preto (SP) that were sensitive and resistant to temephos, respectively. The data obtained were compared with the American Rockefeller strain. The procedure with mice was approved. There was no difference between the populations regarding susceptibility to Tagetes minuta, and the assays showed LC50 of 0.24, 0.25 and 0.21 ml/l and LC99.9 of 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 ml/l, for Rockefeller, Bauru and São José do Rio Preto, respectively. The solution did not show any residual effect. PMID:20209346

  11. The In Vitro Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of the Leaves of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) on Three Life Cycle Stages of the Parasitic Nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wabo Poné, J.; Fossi Tankoua, Olivia; Yondo, Jeannette; Komtangi, Marie Claire; Mbida, Mpoame; Bilong Bilong, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    A comparative in vitro study was carried out to determine the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) leaves on the eggs (unembryonated and embryonated), first and second larval stages of Heligmosomoides bakeri. Four different concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75 mg·mL−1) of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts were tested. Distilled water and 5% tween were used as negative controls in the bioassay. In fact, they did not affect development of eggs, hatching, and larval survival. The extract activities were dose dependent. The ethanolic extract was more potent against embryonation (39.6 ± 2.9%) than the aqueous extract (53.3 ± 10.9%) at the highest concentration (3.75 mg·ml−1). Both types of extracts killed larvae. Mebendazole proved more lethal (EC50 of 0.745 and 0.323 mg·mL−1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae). The aqueous extracts were the least lethal (EC50 of 4.76 and 2.29 mg·mL−1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae). The ethanolic extracts showed intermediate activity (EC50 of 1.323 and 1.511 mg·mL−1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae). It is concluded that the ovicidal and larvicidal properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides leaves are demonstrated in this work. PMID:21772960

  12. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes. PMID:11561451

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Jeana M.E.; Chang, Marilene R.; Brito, Daniela Z.; Farias, Katyuce S.; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo A.; Turatti, Izabel C.C.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Santos, Edson A.; Carollo, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima - an abundant plant from the Brazilian Pantanal region - against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extracts and fractions showed activity in all tested microorganisms. The chloroform fraction of the leaves and roots showed the most antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, with an MIC of 500 μg/mL. This fraction was submitted to bioautographic assays to characterize the activity of the compounds. Two bands from the leaves (L-A and L-B) and three bands from the roots (R-C, R-D and R-E) were bioactive. Within the root-derived bands, the terpene derivatives stigmasterol, kaurenoic acid and kaura-9(11), 16-dien-18-oic acid were identified. Antibiotic activity of A. latissima is reported for the first time. PMID:26691468

  14. Pollen dispersal by Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterl, Andreas; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Hazeleger, Wilco; Burgers, Gerrit

    2007-10-01

    Using observations covering the last 128 years we show that apparent changes in El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections can be explained by chance and stem from sampling variability. This result is backed by experiments in which an atmosphere model is driven by 123 years of observed sea surface temperature. The possibility of ENSO teleconnection changes in a warming climate is further investigated using coupled GCMs driven by past and projected future greenhouse gas concentrations. These runs do not exclude physical changes in the teleconnection strength but do not agree on their magnitude and location. If existing at all, changes in the strength of ENSO teleconnection, other than obtained by chance, are small and will only be detectable on centennial time scales.

  15. Pollen dispersal by Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, S. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Kelly, R. D.; Gerow, K. G.

    2007-08-01

    While the biophysics of anemophilous pollen dispersal is understood in principle, empirical studies for testing such principles are rare, particularly in native ecosystems. This paper describes mechanisms underlying the dispersal of Artemisia pollen in a Wyoming sagebrush steppe. The relationships between meteorological variables and pollen flux were defined during the 1999 Artemisia flowering season, and detailed processes at the individual plant level were experimentally tested in the field in 2000. Results indicated that Artemisia pollen presentation is continuous but with early morning maxima. Atmospheric pollen concentrations and potential dispersal rates are controlled at diurnal time scales by individual flower development together with characteristic changes in temperature/humidity and wind speeds, at multi-day scales by frontal weather patterns, and at week-long scales by flowering phenology.

  16. Antimicrobial phenolic derivatives from Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Aziz Abdur; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2007-11-01

    A phytochemical study on the root of Dendranthema zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura, using a series of silica gel column chromatography and reversed phase C-18 HPLC chromatography, led to the isolation of (1S, 2S)-1, 2, 3-trihydroxy-1-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane (1), 4-methoxycinnamic acid (2), acacetin (3) and caffeic acid methyl ester (4). The structures of these compounds were determined using spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRTOFMS and NMR), with comparison of their spectral data with previously reported values. Compound 1 was isolated for the first time, with compounds 2 and 4 from this plant reported for the first time. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the isolated compounds were measured using the disc diffusion method. Also, their cytotoxicities against the cancer cell lines, A549, B16F1 and SK-Mel-2, and brine shrimp lethalities were evaluated. PMID:18087803

  17. Dendrazawaynes A and B, antifungal polyacetylenes from Dendranthema zawadskii (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Aziz Abdur; Cho, Soon-Chang; Song, Junsik; Mun, Hyeong-Tae; Moon, Surk-Sik

    2007-08-01

    Two new C(14) polyacetylenes dendrazawayne A(7) and dendrazawayne B (9) together with known C(13) polyacetylenes (2, 3), C(14) polyacetylenes (1, 4, and 8) and polyacetylene amides (5 and 6) were isolated from the roots of Dendranthema zawadskii. The structures of 7 and 9 were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR, HR-TOF-MS, IR, and UV. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 showed moderate activity against tumor cell lines (human small lung cancer cell line A549, melanoma SK-Mel-2, and mouse melanoma B16F1) with IC(50) values in the range of 7.4 - 30 microg/mL. Compounds 7 and 9, including other polyacetylenes, showed strong activity against the fungus Trichophyton (MIC: 5 - 10 microg/mL). PMID:17691057

  18. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  19. Genomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in the genus Parthenium (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray) is a perennial hardwood shrub native to the North American Chihuahuan Desert that holds promise as a sustainable source of natural rubber and hypoallergenic latex. The improvement of guayule for commercial-scale production could be potentially accelerated thro...

  20. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  1. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata,Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given. PMID:23233810

  2. Transfer of glyphosate resistance: evidence of hybridization in Conyza (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Ian A; Owen, Micheal D K; Vangessel, Mark J

    2007-04-01

    Transfer of herbicide resistance genes between crops and weeds is relatively well documented; however, far less information exists for weed-to-weed interactions. The hybridization between the weedy diploids Conyza canadensis (2n = 18) and C. ramosissima (2n = 18) was investigated by monitoring transmission of the allele conferring resistance to N-phosphonomethyl glycine (glyphosate). In a multivariate quantitative trait analysis, we described the phylogenic relationship of the plants, whereas we tested seed viability to assess potential postzygotic reproductive barriers (PZRB) thus affecting the potential establishment of hybrid populations in the wild. When inflorescences were allowed to interact freely, approximately 3% of C. ramosissima or C. canadensis ova were fertilized by pollen of the opposing species and produced viable seeds; >95% of the ova were fertilized under no-pollen competition conditions (emasculation). The interspecific Conyza hybrid ( ) demonstrated an intermediate phenotype between the parents but superior resistance to glyphosate compared to the resistant C. canadensis parent. Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in the selfed ( ) followed the partially dominant nuclear, single-gene model; backcrosses confirmed successful introgression of the resistance allele to either parent. Negligible PZRB were observed in the hybrid progenies, confirming fertility of the C. canadensis × C. ramosissima nothotaxa. The implications of introgressive hybridization for herbicide resistance management and taxonomy of Conyza are discussed. PMID:21636434

  3. Rapid Chromosome Evolution in Recently Formed Polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K. Yoong; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Tate, Jennifer; Matyasek, Roman; Srubarova, Hana; Kovarik, Ales; Pires, J. Chris; Xiong, Zhiyong; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Polyploidy, frequently termed “whole genome duplication”, is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome divergence in the establishment of young polyploid populations. Here we investigate synthetic lines and natural populations of two recently and recurrently formed allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (formed within the past 80 years) to assess the role of aberrant meiosis in generating chromosomal/genomic diversity. That diversity is likely important in the formation, establishment and survival of polyploid populations and species. Methodology/Principal Findings Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and other chromosomal changes are common in both allotetraploids. We detected extensive chromosomal polymorphism between individuals and populations, including (i) plants monosomic and trisomic for particular chromosomes (perhaps indicating compensatory trisomy), (ii) intergenomic translocations and (iii) variable sizes and expression patterns of individual ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci. We even observed karyotypic variation among sibling plants. Significantly, translocations, chromosome loss, and meiotic irregularities, including quadrivalent formation, were observed in synthetic (S0 and S1 generations) polyploid lines. Our results not only provide a mechanism for chromosomal variation in natural populations, but also indicate that chromosomal changes occur rapidly following polyploidisation. Conclusions/Significance These data shed new light on previous analyses of genome and transcriptome structures in de novo and establishing polyploid species. Crucially our results highlight the necessity of studying karyotypes in young (<150 years old) polyploid species and synthetic polyploids that resemble natural species. The data also provide insight into the mechanisms that perturb inheritance patterns of genetic markers in synthetic polyploids and populations of young natural polyploid species. PMID:18843372

  4. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Nomen nudum Cuatrec., Nomen nudum). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., Espeletia aurantia Aristeg., Espeletia brassicoidea var. macroclada, Espeletia brassicoidea var. pedunculata, Espeletia garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given. PMID:23233810

  5. A putative hybrid swarm within Oonopsis foliosa (Asteraceae: Astereae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, J.F.; Brown, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    Oo??nopsis foliosa var. foliosa and var. monocephala are endemic to short-grass steppe of southeastern Colorado and until recently were considered geographically disjunct. The only known qualitative feature separating these 2 varieties is floral head type; var. foliosa has radiate heads, whereas var. monocephala heads are discoid. Sympatry between these varieties is restricted to a small area in which a range of parental types and intermediate head morphologies is observed. We used distribution mapping, morphometric analyses, chromosome cytology, and pollen stainability to characterize the sympatric zone. Morphometrics confirms that the only discrete difference between var. foliosa and var. monocephala is radiate versus discoid heads, respectively. The outer florets of putative hybrid individuals ranged from conspicuously elongated yet radially symmetric disc-floret corollas, to elongated radially asymmetric bilabiate- or deeply cleft corollas, to stunted ray florets with appendages remnant of corolla lobes. Chromosome cytology of pollen mother cells from both putative parental varieties and a series of intermediate morphological types collected at the sympatric zone reveal evidence of translocation heterozygosity. Pollen stainability shows no significant differences in viability between the parental varieties and putative hybrids. The restricted distribution of putative hybrids to a narrow zone of sympatry between the parental types and the presence of meiotic chromosome-pairing anomalies in these intermediate plants are consistent with a hybrid origin. The high stainability of putative-hybrid pollen adds to a growing body of evidence that hybrids are not universally unfit.

  6. Mycobiota of the weed Conyza canadensis (Asteraceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Lidiane Leal; Santos, Fabiana Maria Coutinho; Barreto, Robert Weingart

    2016-09-01

    Conyza canadensis is a noxious and notably problematic weed in Brazil whose control is greatly challenging due to the appearance, in the last years, of herbicide resistant populations. An investigation regarding the associated pathogenic fungi of this plant was conducted in Brazil aimed at starting a biological control program to help mitigate its economic impact. Ten fungal species were yielded and described: two ascomycetes (Leptosphaerulina conyzicola sp. nov. and Wentiomyces melioloides), five hyphomycete asexual morphs (Alternaria tenuissima, Cercospora conyzicola sp. nov., Cercosporella virgaureae, and Fusarium fujikuroi), two coelomycete asexual morphs (Phoma conyzaphthora sp. nov., Septoria erigerontis), one rust fungus (Aecidium conyzicola sp. nov.), and one oomycete (Basidiophora entospora). Four among the fungi that were collected represent new taxa, and the others represented either new host-records of known fungal species or new geographic records or both, except for C. virgaureae that had already been recorded on C. canadensis in Brazil. None of the discovered species have any potential to be used as a mycoherbicide or to be introduced somewhere else, nevertheless, the knowledge about this mycobiota will help guide the selection of potential biocontrol agents to be introduced in Brazil. PMID:27567718

  7. THE RARE PERENNIAL BALDUINA ATROPURPUREA (ASTERACEAE) AT FORT STEWART, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. military installations are refuges to many threatened and endangered ecosystems and species. They are also sites of intensive military training and testing. The U.S. Army is committed to conservation of biological diversity on its lands through the adoption of comprehensive ...

  8. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Dalla Nora, Gracieli; Pastori, Tamara; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Do Canto-Dorow, Thais Scotti; Tedesco, Solange Bosio

    2010-12-01

    Mikania glomerata is a plant used in Brazilian traditional medicine, known as 'guaco'. It possesses anti-inflammatory properties and the aqueous extracts of its leaves are indicated for the treatment of diseases of the respiratory tract. This study aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative and genotoxic effect of Mikania glomerata leaf infusions on the cell cycle of onion. The material used was collected in the native environment from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Aqueous extracts through infusions were prepared in two concentrations: 4g/L (usual concentration) and 16g/L (4x more concentrated) of each of the populations. Two groups of four onion bulbs for each plant population were used plus a control group. The rootlets were fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1), conserved in ethanol 70% and slides were prepared using the squashing technique colored with orcein 2%. The cells were observed and analyzed during cell cycle. Per group of bulbs, 2000 cells were analyzed, and the mean values of the cell number of each of the phases of the cell cycle were calculated, determining the mitotic index (MI). Statistic analyses of the data were carried out by the x2 ( p= 0.05) test. We conclude that M. glomerata presents both antiproliferative and genotoxic activity. PMID:21443139

  9. Ethnopharmacological Significance of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Rownak; Al-Nahain, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba can be found growing wild in fallow lands of Bangladesh where it is considered as a weed by farmers. Traditional medicinal systems of the Indian subcontinent countries as well as tribal practitioners consider the plant to have diverse medicinal values and use it commonly for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract disorders (including asthma), fever, hair loss and graying of hair, liver disorders (including jaundice), skin disorders, spleen enlargement, and cuts and wounds. The plant has several phytoconstituents like wedelolactone, eclalbasaponins, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, luteolin, and apigenin. Pharmacological activities of plant extracts and individual phytoconstituents have revealed anticancer, hepatoprotective, snake venom neutralizing, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. Phytoconstituents like wedelolactone and ursolic and oleanolic acids as well as luteolin and apigenin can form the basis of new drugs against cancer, arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, and liver disorders. PMID:27355071

  10. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  11. Chemical characterization of Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) using gas chromatographic methods

    PubMed Central

    Eshiet, Etetor R; Zhu, Jinqiu; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Ernest E

    2014-01-01

    A methanol extract of lyophilized Brickellia cavanillesii was quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatographic (GC) techniques. The chromatographic methods employed were (i) GC-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), (ii) GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and (iii) purge and trap GC-MS (P&T GC-MS). Thirteen compounds were identified with a quality match of 90% and above using GC-MS. The compounds were (1) Cyclohexene, 6-ethenyl-6-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-(1-methylethylidene)-, (S)-; (2) Bicylo (2.2.1) heptan-2-one, 1, 7, 7-trimethyl-(1S, 4S)-; (3) Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-; (4) Benzene, 1-(1, 5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl-; (5) Naphthalene, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8a-hexahydro4, 7-dimethyl-1-1-(1-methylethyl)-, (1S-cis)-; (6) Phenol, 2-methoxy-; (7) Benzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-; (8) 11, 13-Eicosadienoic acid, methyl ester; (9) 2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-methyl-; (10) Maltol; (11) Phenol; (12) Hydroquinone; (13) 1H-Indene, 1-ethylideneoctahydro-7a-methyl-, (1E, 3a.alpha, 7a.beta.). Other compounds (14) 3-methyl butanal; (15) (D)-Limonene; (16) 1-methyl-4-(1-methyl ethyl) benzene; (17) Butanoic acid methyl ester; (18) 2-methyl propanal; (19) 2-butanone; (20) 2-pentanone; and (21) 2-methyl butane were also identified when P&T GC-MS was performed. Of the 21 compounds identified, 12 were validated using chemical standards. The identified compounds were found to be terpenes, derivatives of terpenes, esters, ketones, aldehydes, and phenol-derived aromatic compounds; these are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many plants and flowers. PMID:24804069

  12. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  13. Fungicidal activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mahmoud A; Belal, Mohamed H; el-Baroty, Gamal

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba alba was found to be associated with two major volatile compounds isolated from the fresh leaves of the plant. Carvone and piperitone were isolated and identified by GC/MS, GC/IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Antifungal activity was measured against Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 10499) and Mucora rouxii (ATCC 24905). The antifungal activity (IC50) of the purified compounds was estimated to be 5 microg/ml, 2 microg/ml against Penicillium citrinum and 7 microg/ml, 1.5 microg/ml against Mucora rouxii carvone and piperitone, respectively. PMID:16484084

  14. Seed germination characteristics of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. viridulus (Astereae, Asteraceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.A.; Sankhla, N.; Weber, D.J.; McArthur, E.D.

    1987-04-30

    Rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas) Britt. ssp. viridulus) may prove to be a source of high-quality cis-isoprene rubber, but its establishment is limited by a lack of information on seed germination. Consequently, seeds were germinated at alternating temperatures (5-15, 5-25, 15-25, and 20-30 C) in light and dark as well as constant temperatures (15-40 C with 5-C increments) to determine temperature response. Seeds were also germinated in solutions of polyethylene glycol 6000, salinity regimes at all the above-mentioned temperatures to determine salinity and temperature interaction. The hormones GA/sub 3/ and kinetin were used to study their effect on overcoming salt- and temperature-induced germination inhibition. Seeds of C. nauseosus ssp. viridulus were very sensitive to low temperature. Best germination was achieved at 25 and 30 C, but these seeds also germinated at a higher temperature (35 C). The seeds of rabbit brush germinated at both constant and alternating temperatures. Light appears to play little or no role in controlling germination of the seeds of rubber rabbitbrush. However, seeds of rabbitbrush were sensitive to salinity, and seed germination was progressively inhibited by increase in salt concentration, although a few seeds still germinated at the highest saline level. Progressively higher concentrations of polyethylene glycol also progressively inhibited germination. Suppression of seed germination induced by high salt concentrations and high temperatures can be partially alleviated by the application of either GA/sub 3/ or kinetin. 34 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Chemistry and Biology of the Genus Flourensia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Rios, María Yolanda

    2015-11-01

    Flourensia species are dominant plants that are adapted to semidesertic and desertic regions. It is believed that they are successful plants because they employ several protection mechanisms, including the formation of a waxy film on their aerial parts to protect them from dehydration. This waxy film contains chemical compounds that are capable of inhibiting the growth of other plants and of acting as allelopathic and herbicidal agents and as germination inhibitors. These plants also limit herbivory, and they exhibit insecticidal, insect antifeedant, antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal, and antitermite activities. Sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, benzofurans, chromenes, coumarins, lupan triterpenes, aliphatic lactones, and aromatic and acetilenic compounds have all been isolated from the organic extracts of Flourensia species. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons are the main constituents found in their essential oils. This review is an overview of the chemical constituents and of the biological activities of Flourensia species. PMID:26567942

  16. Mineral nutrition and in vitro growth of Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gerbera hybrida (G. jamesonii x G. viridifolia) or gerbera daisy is one of the most popular flowering ornamental plants worldwide and is sold as bedding, potted plants, and cut flowers. Gerbera daisies are propagated by in vitro culture because conventional propagation methods, by division of clumps...

  17. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae), a new species from North China.

    PubMed

    Sennikov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group Hieracium sect. Aestiva (Hieracium sect. Prenanthoidea × Hieracium sect. Umbellata) and is most similar to Hieracium veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements. PMID:25197222

  18. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Helicobacter Activities of Eryngium foetidum (Apiaceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), and Galinsoga ciliata (Asteraceae) against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Nguepi, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extracts of Bidens pilosa, Galinsoga ciliata, and Eryngium foetidum against 6 clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. Broth microdilution method was used in vitro. In vivo, Swiss mice were inoculated with H. pylori and divided into 5 groups; the control group received the vehicle and the four others received 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum and ciprofloxacin (500 mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively. Helicobacter pylori colonization and number of colonies in gastric biopsies culture were assessed on days 1 and 7 after treatment. The lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) and the best spectrum of bactericidal effect (MBC/MIC = 1) were obtained with the methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum. The number of H. pylori infected animals was 17% (plant-extract) and 0% (ciprofloxacin) compared to 100% for the infected untreated group. Plant-extract (381.9 ± 239.5 CFU) and ciprofloxacin (248 ± 153.2 CFU) significantly reduced bacterial load in gastric mucosa compared to untreated, inoculated mice (14350 ± 690 CFU). Conclusion. The present data provided evidence that methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum could be a rich source of metabolites with antimicrobial activity to fight Helicobacter pylori infections.

  20. Syncyte formation in the microsporangium of Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae): a pathway to infraspecific polyploidy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Sung; Oginuma, Kazuo; Tobe, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Polyploidy, which is thought to have played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, is prevalent in Chrysanthemum (x = 9). In fact, polyploid series are known in C. zawadskii (2x, 4x, 6x, 8x, and 10x) and C. indicum (2x, 4x, and 6x), but the mechanism by which polyploidization occurs is unknown. Here we show that in diploid individuals of both C. zawadskii and C. indicum, the fusion between two adjacent pollen mother cells (PMCs) occurs at a frequency of 1.1-1.3% early in the first meiotic division. While possessing the chromosomes of both PMCs, the fused cell or syncyte undertakes subsequent meiotic division processes as a single large PMC, producing four 2n pollen grains that are able to germinate. Despite their low frequency, syncyte formation may have played a major role in the production of infraspecific polyploids in Chrysanthemum. PMID:19367445

  1. Toxicological study of Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae) extracts as alternative control strategies for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Junhirun, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L)) is an economically important pest in Thailand and the indiscriminant use of chemical pesticides against this pest has been responsible for environmental hazards. Present research, therefore, is trying to develop alternative strategies by using plant based-products for the control of this pest. Wedelia trilobata (L) Hitchc extracts prepared in hexane, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol were used initially against the second instars of P. xylostella by topical application to determine the dose dependent toxicity. The highest yield of the extracts was obtained with EtOH extract followed by hexane, EtOAc and dichloroethane. However, the EtOAc extract exhibited the highest toxicity (24h-LC50 = 442.8 ppm) that became more prominent after 48 h (LC50 = 376.71 ppm). This suggests there was an increase in toxicity with the duration of exposure to the treatment. With the exception of the hexane extract, all other treatments were significantly correlated, which suggests that W. trolobata contains a varied profile of anti-insect allelochemicals that can be exploited in any integrated pest management strategy. The identification of the active ingredients is in progress. PMID:23885442

  2. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1–)4–6(–7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km2, this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  3. Intra- and interspecific chromosome polymorphisms in cultivated Cichorium L. species (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Ebenézer C.S.; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M.; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Carvalho, Reginaldo; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and chicory (C. intybus L.) both have 2n = 18, but until now, there has been no detailed karyomorphological characterization. The present work evaluated five accessions of each species using FISH with rDNA probes and fluorochrome staining with CMA and DAPI. Both species presented distinct banding patterns after fluorochrome staining: while endive had proximal CMA++/DAPI− bands in the short arms of pairs 1, 2 and 3, chicory had proximal CMA-positive bands in chromosomes 1 and 3 and interstitial in the short arm of chromosome 8. Among endive accessions, FISH procedures revealed conserved position and number of 5S and 45S rDNA sites (two and three pairs, respectively), associated with the CMA-positive bands. Notwithstanding, polymorphisms were detected within chicory accessions regarding the number and the distribution of rDNA sites in relation to the most frequent karyotype (two pairs with 45S and one with 5S rDNA). The karyological markers developed allowed karyotypic differentiation between both species, uncovering peculiarities in the number and position of rDNA sites, which suggest chromosome rearrangements, such as translocations in chicory cultivars. The interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms observed emphasize the potential of karyomorphological evaluations, helping our understanding of the relationships and evolution of the group. PMID:24130443

  4. Synergids and filiform apparatus in the sexual and apomictic dandelions from section Palustria (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Musiał, Krystyna; Swiątek, Piotr; Tuleja, Monika; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    An evolutionary trend to reduce "unnecessary costs" associated with the sexual reproduction of their amphimictic ancestors, which may result in greater reproductive success, has been observed among the obligatory apomicts. However, in the case of the female gametophyte, knowledge about this trend in apomicts is not sufficient because most of the ultrastructural studies of the female gametophyte have dealt with amphimictic angiosperms. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that, in contrast to amphimictic plants, synergids in apomictic embryo sacs do not form a filiform apparatus. We compared the synergid structure in two dandelions from sect. Palustria: the amphimictic diploid Taraxacum tenuifolium and the apomictic tetraploid, male-sterile Taraxacum brandenburgicum. Synergids in both species possessed a filiform apparatus. In T. brandenburgicum, both synergids persisted for a long time without any degeneration, in spite of the presence of an embryo and endosperm. We propose that the persistent synergids in apomicts may play a role in the transport of nutrients to the embryo. PMID:23974526

  5. Inferring possible population divergence in Espeletia pycnophylla (Asteraceae) through morphometric and paleogeographic approaches.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Felipe; Burbano, Jorge; Burbano, Diana; Prieto, Rodrigo; Torres, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Abstract: The phenotypic structure within and between plant populations is generally influenced by their distribution patterns in space and time; therefore, the study of their divergence is a central issue for the understanding of their microevolutive processes. We boarded the hypothesis that three populations of Espeletia pycnophylla show phenotypic divergence as one of the possible implications of their geographic isolation in the Southern Colombian Andes. We used the Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (leaf shape) and traditional leaf morphometry (leaf size) of 347 leaves to measure inter and intra-population variation and a comparison between a paleogeographic reconstruction with an actual estimate of the distribution areas of E. pycnophylla in order to identify their main changes during the last 14 000 years. The three populations showed significant differences in leaf morphometry and a positive correlation between the matrices of morphometric and geographic dissimilarities, indicating that the inter-population divergence increases between further populations, so that the morphometric structure reflects their spatial distribution. The geographical and paleogeographical estimates evidenced a conspicuous process of reduction and fragmentation of the distribution area of E. pycnophylla since the Late-Glacial until the Holocene. We suggest that these results support possible scenarios of vicariance events, which allow us to approach the divergence of these populations in terms of their historic biogeographic relations. However, genetic analyses are still needed to support these results. PMID:21246990

  6. A new species of Espeletiopsis (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Espeletiopsis was found in two small páramos of Norte de Santander, Colombia. The species is named Espeletiopsis diazii honoring the contributions of Santiago Díaz-Piedrahita in recognition of his vast knowledge of the Compositae in Colombia. This is a very distinctive species, markedly different from most of the Espeletiopsis present in Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletiopsis caldasii and Espeletiopsis santanderensis, but differs in having (1-)4-6(-7) capitula, with very short peduncles, and capitula arranged in a compact or densely glomerate cyme. With a total distribution area of less than 75 km(2), this species is probably critically endangered or imperiled. PMID:24399905

  7. In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (Asteraceae) Baker

    PubMed Central

    Colares, Aracélio Viana; Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    The search for new immunopharmacological chemical agents to treat various diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, such as leishmaniasis, for example, has led to the exploration of potential products from plant species and their main active ingredients. Antimonial drugs are the current treatment for leishmaniasis. These drugs cause major side effects and frequent discontinuation of treatment. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (VAEO) and its major compound α-bisabolol against Leishmania amazonensis. The essential oil and α-bisabolol showed activity against promastigotes (IC50 7.35 and 4.95 μg/mL resp.) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 12.58 and 10.70 μg/mL, resp.). Neither product showed any cytotoxicity on treated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis of promastigotes incubated with VAEO or α-bisabolol at 30 μg/mL, showed morphological changes with the accumulation of vesicles electrodense lipid inclusions. The results give evidence that both VAEO and α-bisabolol have potential as new therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis. PMID:23935675

  8. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction – The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid...

  9. Genus-wide microsatellite primers for the goldenrods (Solidago; Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Beck, James B.; Semple, John C.; Brull, Justin M.; Lance, Stacey L.; Phillips, Mai M.; Hoot, Sara B.; Meyer, Gretchen A.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for studies of polyploid evolution, ecological genetics, conservation genetics, and species delimitation in the genus Solidago. • Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing of a shotgun library from S. gigantea identified ca. 1900 putative single-copy loci. Fourteen loci were subsequently shown to be amplifiable, single-copy, and variable in a broad range of Solidago species. • Conclusions: The utility of these markers both across the genus and in herbarium specimens of a wide age range will facilitate numerous inter- and intraspecific studies in the ca. 120 Solidago species. PMID:25202617

  10. Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sestras, Adriana F.; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar; Sestras, Radu E.

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerance was evaluated in twelve cultivars of three ornamental Tagetes species (T. patula, T. tenuifolia and T. erecta). A stress treatment was performed by completely stopping watering of plants maintained in controlled greenhouse conditions. After three weeks, several plant growth parameters (stem length (SL), fresh weight (FW) and water content (WC)), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids (Car)), osmolytes (proline (Pro), glycine betaine (GB) and total soluble sugars (TSS)), an oxidative stress maker (malondialdehyde (MDA)) and antioxidants (total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF)) were measured. Considerable differences in the evaluated traits were found among the control and drought-stressed plants. Drought stress generally caused a marked reduction in plant growth and carotenoid pigments, and an increase in soluble solutes and oxidative stress. For most cultivars, proline levels in stressed plants increased between 30 and 70-fold compared to the corresponding controls. According to the different measured parameters, on average T. erecta proved to be more tolerant to drought than T. patula and T. tenuifolia. However, a considerable variation in the tolerance to drought was found within each species. The traits with greater association to drought tolerance as well as the most tolerant cultivars could be clearly identified in a principal components analysis (PCA). Overall, our results indicate that drought tolerant cultivars of Tagetes can be identified at early stages using a combination of plant growth and biochemical markers. PMID:27326384

  11. Mycorrhizal fungi modulate phytochemical production and antioxidant activity of Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) under metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rozpądek, P; Wężowicz, K; Stojakowska, A; Malarz, J; Surówka, E; Sobczyk, Ł; Anielska, T; Ważny, R; Miszalski, Z; Turnau, K

    2014-10-01

    Cichorium intybus (common chicory), a perennial plant, common in anthropogenic sites, has been the object of a multitude of studies in recent years due to its high content of antioxidants utilized in pharmacy and food industry. Here, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants under toxic metal stress was studied. Plants inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and non-inoculated were grown on non-polluted and toxic metal enriched substrata. The results presented here indicate that AMF improves chicory fitness. Fresh and dry weight was found to be severely affected by the fungi and heavy metals. The concentration of hydroxycinnamates was increased in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants cultivated on non-polluted substrata, but no differences were found in plants cultivated on metal enriched substrata. The activity of SOD and H2O2 removing enzymes CAT and POX was elevated in the shoots of mycorrhizal plants regardless of the cultivation environment. Photochemical efficiency of inoculated chicory was significantly improved. Our results indicate that R. irregularis inoculation had a beneficial role in sustaining the plants ability to cope with the deleterious effects of metal toxicity. PMID:25048909

  12. Genome Size Variation in the Genus Carthamus (Asteraceae, Cardueae): Systematic Implications and Additive Changes During Allopolyploidization

    PubMed Central

    GARNATJE, TERESA; GARCIA, SÒNIA; VILATERSANA, ROSER; VALLÈS, JOAN

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant genome size is an important biological characteristic, with relationships to systematics, ecology and distribution. Currently, there is no information regarding nuclear DNA content for any Carthamus species. In addition to improving the knowledge base, this research focuses on interspecific variation and its implications for the infrageneric classification of this genus. Genome size variation in the process of allopolyploid formation is also addressed. • Methods Nuclear DNA samples from 34 populations of 16 species of the genus Carthamus were assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide. • Key Results The 2C values ranged from 2·26 pg for C. leucocaulos to 7·46 pg for C. turkestanicus, and monoploid genome size (1Cx-value) ranged from 1·13 pg in C. leucocaulos to 1·53 pg in C. alexandrinus. Mean genome sizes differed significantly, based on sectional classification. Both allopolyploid species (C. creticus and C. turkestanicus) exhibited nuclear DNA contents in accordance with the sum of the putative parental C-values (in one case with a slight reduction, frequent in polyploids), supporting their hybrid origin. • Conclusions Genome size represents a useful tool in elucidating systematic relationships between closely related species. A considerable reduction in monoploid genome size, possibly due to the hybrid formation, is also reported within these taxa. PMID:16390843

  13. Toxicity of thiophenes from echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six known thiophenes, 5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (3), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (4), 5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (5), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (6), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3-acetoxy-4-hydr...

  14. Breeding biology and bee guild of Douglas' dustymaiden, Chaenactis douglasii (Asteraceae, Helenieae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dusty Maiden, Chaenactis douglasii, is a widespread if inconspicuous short-lived perennial wildflower that blooms late in spring from basin sage-steppe to upper montane areas throughout the Intermountain West. It is proving practical to grow for seed and is expected to be used for western rangeland ...

  15. Integument cell differentiation in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae, Lactuceae) with special attention paid to plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Kurczyńska, Ewa; Świątek, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine what happens with plasmodesmata when mucilage is secreted into the periplasmic space in plant cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the periendothelial zone mucilage cells was performed on examples of the ovule tissues of several sexual and apomictic Taraxacum species. The cytoplasm of the periendothelial zone cells was dense, filled by numerous organelles and profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum and active Golgi dictyosomes with vesicles that contained fibrillar material. At the beginning of the differentiation process of the periendothelial zone, the cells were connected by primary plasmodesmata. However, during the differentiation and the thickening of the cell walls (mucilage deposition), the plasmodesmata become elongated and associated with cytoplasmic bridges. The cytoplasmic bridges may connect the protoplast to the plasmodesmata through the mucilage layers in order to maintain cell-to-cell communication during the differentiation of the periendothelial zone cells. PMID:26454638

  16. Water deficit on the accumulation of biomass and artemisinin in annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L., Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of Artemisia annua as the only source of the anti-parasitic drug artemisinin, little can be found on the role of biotic and abiotic stress on artemisinin. Water stress is the most limiting factor on plant growth, but can trigger secondary metabolite accumulation, depending on...

  17. Genetic diversity of the Chinese traditional herb Blumea balsamifera (Asteraceae) based on AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y X; Wang, W Q; Zhang, Y B; Yuan, Y; Yu, J B; Zhu, M; Chen, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    Blumea balsamifera is a commercially important medicinal herb in China and other parts of Asia. It is used to produce borneol. This plant grows in the wild, but resources have diminished greatly in recent years. We examined the genetic diversity of this species to help develop conservation strategies; 35 plants from five provinces were analyzed using AFLPs. Eight AFLP primer combinations generated 1367 fragments, giving a mean of 172 fragments per primer combination. Polymorphism in the germplasm analysis was found for 1360 (99.48%) of the fragments, of which 264 (19.27%) fragments were unique (accession specific) and 423 (25.33%) of the fragments were rare (present in less than 10% of the accessions). The polymorphic fragments were used to group the accessions in a UPGMA phenogram. Most grouping was geographical. In general, accessions coming from Guizhou and Guangxi showed higher diversities as these accessions were scattered in different groups. The genetic distance estimated by Jaccard similarity coefficient index showed low variability among genotypes (coefficient value ranged from 0.60 to 0.95). More attention should be given to the study and conservation of the biodiversity of this economically important genus. PMID:24782086

  18. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  19. Development of microsatellite loci for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii (Asteraceae)1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii and will permit genetic and conservation studies of the species. Methods and Results:A microsatellite enriched library was used to develop 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for P. ruthii. The loci ...

  20. Megachile (Megachile) montivaga (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nesting in live thistle (Asteraceae: Cirsium)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rare genus Trachusoides, previously known only from a single species inhabiting the Western Ghats of India, is reviewed. Trachusoides elsieae, new species, is described from Laos, an additional record for T. simplex is documented, and a key to separate the species is provided....

  1. Cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres S Moore [Asteraceae] ethanolic leaf extract in some experimental animal paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Musabayane, Cephas T; Kamadyaapa, Dave R; Gondwe, Mavuto; Moodley, Kogi; Ojewole, John AO

    2008-01-01

    Summary Summary The aim of this study was to examine some in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres leaf ethanolic extract (HCE) in experimental animal paradigms. The acute effects of HCE on blood pressure were studied in anaesthetised normotensive male Wistar rats challenged with intravenous hypotonic saline infusion after a 3.5-hour equilibration for four hours of one-hour control, 1.5-hour treatment and 1.5-hour recovery periods. HCE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Sub-chronic hypotensive effects of HCE were examined in weanling Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) genetically hypertensive rats, which progressively develop hypertension with age, treated with HCE (80 mg/kg) every third consecutive day for seven weeks. Isolated atrial muscle strips, portal veins and descending thoracic aortic rings of healthy normotensive Wistar rats were used to investigate the vascular effects of HCE. Acute HCE administration caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in blood pressure in the normotensive anaesthetised Wistar rats. DSS hypertensive rats treated with HCE displayed low arterial blood pressure and heart rate values from weeks five to seven. HCE produced concentration-dependent negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat isolated electrically driven left, and spontaneously beating right atrial muscle preparations, respectively. HCE also evoked concentration-dependent relaxation responses of endothelium-intact aortic rings and portal veins isolated from healthy normotensive Wistar rats. The vasorelaxant effects of HCE in intact aortic rings were significantly reduced, but not completely abolished by adding endothelial-derived factor (EDRF) inhibitor, L-NAME, suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect of the extract is mediated via EDRF-dependent and independent mechanisms. The results of the study suggest that the hypotensive action of HCE is elicited, in part, directly by decreasing myocardial contractile performance and total peripheral vascular resistance due to its negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat isolated atrial muscle strips; and vasorelaxant effects on isolated vascular smooth muscles. The observed cardiovascular effects of HCE partly support the basis for its use in the management of high blood pressure in folkloric medicine. PMID:18997985

  2. New Reports on Surface Flavonoids from Chamaebatiaria (Rosaceae), Dodonaea (Sapindaceae), Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) and Silphium (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipophilic exudates of one species each of Chamaebatiara and Elsholtzia, two species of Silphium and four Dodonaea species were analyzed for flavonoid aglycones. In addition to a number of well-known and widely distributed flavonoids, several very rare and one novel natural flavonol were isolated a...

  3. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de las; del Prado, Gema; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  4. Radiation of southern African daisies: biogeographic inferences for subtribe Arctotidinae (Asteraceae, Arctotideae).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Robert J; Barker, Nigel P

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the approximately 80-90 species in subtribe Arctotidinae occur in southern Africa with the centre of diversity in the winter-rainfall region. Three species are restricted to afromontane eastern Africa and three species are endemic to Australia. To investigate biogeographic and phylogenetic relationships within Arctotidinae, sequence data from four cpDNA regions (psbA-trnH, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF spacers and trnL intron) and the ITS nrDNA region for 59 Arctotidinae species were analyzed with parsimony and Bayesian-inference approaches. Eight well-supported major lineages were resolved. The earliest-diverging extant lineages are afromontane or inhabit mesic habitats, whereas almost all sampled taxa from the winter-rainfall and semi-arid areas have diverged more recently. Molecular dating estimated that the major clades diverged during the Miocene and Pliocene, which is coincident with the trend of increasing rainfall seasonality, aridification and vegetation changes in southwestern Africa. Trans-oceanic dispersal to Australia was estimated to have occurred during the Pliocene. PMID:18675920

  5. Cape diversification and repeated out-of-southern-Africa dispersal in paper daisies (Asteraceae-Gnaphalieae).

    PubMed

    Bergh, Nicola G; Linder, H Peter

    2009-04-01

    The large daisy tribe Gnaphalieae occurs in extra-tropical habitats worldwide, but is most diverse in southern Africa and in Australia. We explore the age and evolutionary history of the tribe by means of a phylogenetic hypothesis based on Bayesian analysis of plastid and nuclear DNA sequences, maximum likelihood reconstruction of ancestral areas, and relaxed Bayesian dating. Early diversification occurred in southern Africa in the Eocene-Oligocene, resulting in a grade of mostly Cape-centred lineages which subsequently began speciating in the Miocene, consistent with diversification times for many Cape groups. Gnaphalieae from other geographic regions are embedded within a southern African paraphylum, indicating multiple dispersals out of southern Africa since the Oligocene to Miocene which established the tribe in the rest of the world. Colonisation of Australia via direct long-distance trans-oceanic dispersal in the Miocene resulted in the radiation which produced the Australasian gnaphalioid flora. The similarly diverse regional gnaphalioid floras of Australasia and southern Africa thus exhibit very different temporal species accumulation histories. An examination of the timing and direction of trans-Indian Ocean dispersal events in other angiosperms suggests a role for the West Wind Drift in long-distance dispersal eastwards from southern Africa. PMID:18822381

  6. Antimalarial activities of Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Rubiaceae) on mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Elufioye, T O; Agbedahunsi, J M

    2004-08-01

    Ethanolic extracts of the aerial part of Tithonia diversifolia and the stem bark of Crossopteryx febrifuga were investigated against early, residual (repository) and established malaria infections in vivo using Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 50-400 mg/kg per day. Chloroquine at 5 mg/kg per day was used as the positive control for the early and established infections while Pyrimethamine at 1.2 3/kg per day was used as the positive control for the residual infection test. Dose dependent chemo suppressive activities were obtained at the different levels of the infection tested. Tithonia diversifolia and Crossopteryx febrifuga gave some level of suppression of parasitaemia in the early and established infection stages. Tithonia diversifolia was active at 200 mg/kg per day in the repository test. The mean survival period of the mice treated with the extract in the established infection test was low, a possible indication of toxicity as a result of sub chronic administration of the extract. Crossopteryx febrifuga was inactive in the repository test. Beside the above limitations, the suppression of parasitaemia by the extracts at the highest dose was similar to chloroquine and pyrimathamine. PMID:15234749

  7. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC) McLeisch (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Silvério, Marcelo S; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Pinto, Míriam A O; Alves, Maria S; Sousa, Orlando V

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of different parts of Eremanthus erythropappus, including leaves, branches and inflorescences, was investigated by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of the oils was assessed by the disc diffusion and microdilution methods, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and reducing power tests. The main compounds found in the essential oils derived from the inflorescences and leaves were β-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, α-copaene and β-pinene. α-Bisabolol was the major component in the branches. The oils were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and fungi, but not Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC values ranged from 0.01 to 0.50 mg/mL. Using the DPPH test, the IC50 values ranged from 38.77 ± 0.76 to 102.24 ± 1.96 μg/mL, while the reducing power test produced IC50 values between 109.85 ± 1.68 and 169.53 ± 0.64 μg/mL. The results revealed that the E. erythropappus oils are new promising potential sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds with good future practical applications for human health. PMID:23959191

  8. Dysaster cajamarcensis, a new shrubby genus and species of Astereae (Asteraceae) from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dysaster cajamarcensis is a spreading broad-leaved shrub named as a new genus and species of the tribe Astereae subtribe Hinterhuberinae collected in northern Peru. It has bisexual disc florets, disc style branches with strong stigmatic lines and hairy appendages, compressed achenes in both ray and disc florets, and papyraceous involucral bracts. PMID:24843292

  9. Chemical composition of the tuber essential oil from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Đorđević, Miljana R

    2014-03-01

    Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) is cultivated in Europe and other parts of the world as a food crop and ornamental plant. The volatile oils of the aerial parts of H. tuberosus were investigated more than 30 years ago, but no study could be found to date on the constituents of the tuber essential oil. Herein, the first characterization by GC-FID, GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses of a hydrodistilled essential oil of Jerusalem artichoke tubers was reported. Fresh plant material collected in Serbia (Sample A) and a commercial sample (Sample B) yielded only small amounts of oil (0.0014 and 0.0021% (w/w), resp.). In total, 195 constituents were identified, representing 88.2 and 93.6% of the oil compositions for Samples A and B, respectively. The main constituents identified were β-bisabolene (1; 22.9-30.5%), undecanal (0-12.7%), α-pinene (7.6-0.8%), kauran-16-ol (2; 6.9-9.8%), 2-pentylfuran (0.0-5.7%), and (E)-tetradec-2-enal (0.0-4.9%). Several rare compounds characteristic for Helianthus ssp. were also detected: helianthol A (6; 2.1-1.9%), dihydroeuparin (10; 0.0-2.3%), euparin (9; 0.0-0.4%), desmethoxyencecalin (7; traces - 0.2%), desmethylencecalin (8; 0.0-0.4%), and an isomer of desmethylencecalin (0.0%-traces). The essential oils isolated from the tuber and the aerial parts share the common major component 1. PMID:24634072

  10. Golovinomyces spadaceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on a Coreopsis cultivar in the Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Garden on the Washington State University campus, Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. White to off-white sporulating mycelial areas were ~5mm in diam to confluent and confined to adaxial...