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1

Determination of the propylene oxide-hemoglobin adduct by gas chromatography-electron impact ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of the propylene oxide (PO)-hemoglobin adduct. The adduct was identified as hydroxy propyl valine (HPV), and released from globin by the modified Edman degradation and extracted with ethyl ether. HPV and deuterated HPV (d6-HPV) were synthesized for identification and quality control. d6-HPV was used as an internal reference standard. The dried extract was completely derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA). The method detection limit (MDL) of the assay was 10 pmole/g for HPV, based on assayed hemoglobin of 0.1 g. The method was applied to the determination of the PO-hemoglobin adduct formed in young female Sprague-Dawley rats after treatment for 4 and 5 weeks with 5 and 10 mM PO via drinking water. HPV was detected by the proposed procedure. After 4 weeks, the concentration of HPV was 6.75 nmole/g hemoglobin during treatment with 5 mM, and 80.26 nmole/g hemoglobin during treatment with 10 mM. The adduct level in 5 weeks increased up to about 51.47 nmole/g during treatment with 5 mM PO in the drinking water and up to about 120.27 nmole/g during treatment with 10 mM PO. This method was also applied to determine the concentrations of HPV in the blood of 20 persons living near the Ulsan petroleum industrial complex in Korea. As a result, HPV-hemoglobin adduct was detected in the concentration range 0-1100 pmol/g in the human blood samples. PMID:16718639

Shin, Ho-Sang; Ahn, Hye-Sil

2006-06-01

2

A rapid novel derivatization of amphetamine and methamphetamine using 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate for gas chromatography electron ionization and chemical ionization mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

Amphetamine and methamphetamine are commonly abused central nervous system stimulants. We describe a rapid new derivatization of amphetamine and methamphetamine using 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate for gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Amphetamine and methamphetamine, along with N-propyl amphetamine (internal standard), were extracted from urine using 1-chlorobutane. The derivatization with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate can be achieved at room temperature in 10 minutes. The electron ionization mass spectrum of amphetamine 2,2,2-trichloroethyl carbamate showed two weak molecular ions at m/z 309 and 311, but showed diagnostic strong peaks at m/z 218, 220, and 222. In contrast, chemical ionization of the mass spectrum of amphetamine 2,2,2-trichloroethyl carbamate showed strong (M + 1) ions at m/z 310 and 312 and other strong diagnostic peaks at m/z 274 and 276. The major advantages of this derivative are the presence of a diagnostic cluster of peaks due to the isotopic effect of three chlorine atoms (isotopes 35 and 37) in the derivatized molecule and the relative ease of its preparation. We also observed strong molecular ions for derivatized methamphetamine in the chemical ionization mass spectrum, but the molecular ions were very weak in the electron ionization mass spectrum. We used the scan mode of mass spectrometry in all analyses. When using a urine standard containing 1,000 ng/mL of amphetamine (a 7.4-micromol/L concentration) and methamphetamine (a 6.7-micromol/L concentration), the within-run precisions were 4.8% for amphetamine and 3.6% for methamphetamine. The corresponding between-run precisions were 5.3% for amphetamine and 6.7% for methamphetamine. The assay was linear for amphetamine and methamphetamine concentrations of 250 to 5,000 ng/mL (amphetamine, 1.9-37.0 micromol/L; methamphetamine, 1.7-33.6 micromol/L). The detection limit was 100 ng/mL (amphetamine, 0.74 micromol/L; methamphetamine, 0.67 micromol/L) using the scan mode of electron ionization mass spectrometry. We observed good a correlation between the concentrations of amphetamine and methamphetamine in five urine specimens positive for amphetamines using the more conventional pentafluoropropionyl derivative and our new derivative using 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate. PMID:9576569

Dasgupta, A; Spies, J

1998-05-01

3

Determination of the enantiomer fraction of PBB 149 by gas chromatography/electron capture negative ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode.  

PubMed

Enantioselective determination of the atropisomers of 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexabromobiphenyl (PBB 149) in a purified sample from a bird egg was attempted in this work. By application of the classic method for PBB determination, i.e. gas chromatography coupled to electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) using the bromide ions, the enantiomers interfered with another brominated compound. Subsequent measurements clarified that this interference did not occur in the mass chromatogram of the molecular ion of PBB 149. Therefore, a GC/ECNI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed, based on the fragmentation of [M]-. A suitable precursor-product ion transition was found for m/z 627.5 --> 80 +/- 1.5, representing the most abundant ion trace of the molecular ion and the bromide ions. Optimization of the ion source temperature, the methane gas pressure, and the collision voltages resulted in a robust method that could solve the problem. Subsequent injections of a technical PBB product (Firemaster BP-6) resulted in the anticipated racemic proportion (enantiomer fraction (EF) = 0.50 +/- 0.02 (n = 8)). By contrast, the EF in the purified extract of a bird egg was found to be 0.42 +/- 0.02 (n = 10), indicative of a significant enantioenrichment of the second eluting atropisomer. Additional measurements were performed on a non-chiral column. These measurements allowed for the detection of 16 hexabromobiphenyls (hexa-BBs) in Firemaster BP-6. These comparisons verified that PBB 149 enantiomers did not interfere with an isomer that could falsify the enantiomer fraction in the sample. The novel method using GC/ECNI-MS/MS in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was eight times more sensitive than application of conventional GC/ECNI-MS selected ion monitoring (SIM) analysis of the molecular ion. PMID:16302204

von der Recke, Roland; Mariussen, Espen; Berger, Urs; Götsch, Arntraut; Herzke, Dorte; Vetter, Walter

2005-01-01

4

DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN RAT SERUM AND SCIATIC NERVE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTRON-CAPTURE DETECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A modified method for the derivatization and analysis of acrylamide as 2-bromopropenamide by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was validated in serum and sciatic nerve from rats. he method was accurate and precise over the concentration range of 2240 to 74700 ppm (w/v...

5

Comparison and analysis of organochlorine pesticides and hexabromobiphenyls in environmental samples by gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two analytical methods, gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS), were evaluated and compared for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants, specifically for 26 organochlorine pesticides and two hexabromobiphenyls, in atmospheric particulate matter and soil samples. The hypothesis tested was that the coelution of non-target compounds may lead to false positives when analyzed by GC-ECD, and that the overestimation associated with these false positives can be eliminated using GC-NCI-MS. The study showed that both methods had satisfactory linearity and reproducibility for the target compounds. Although the sensitivities of GC-ECD for most of the compounds investigated were higher than those observed with the GC-NCI-MS method, the matrices interference was obvious with GC-ECD. There was indeed an apparently high false-positive rate or overestimate when GC-ECD was used for environmental samples, implying that the GC-ECD method has been used with care and that GC-NCI-MS is generally superior for the analysis of trace amounts of these compounds in environmental samples. Based on these results, the sample extraction and cleanup procedures of the GC-NCI-MS method were optimized for achieving acceptable recoveries and less matrices interference. PMID:24872522

Liu, Yu; Fu, Xiaofang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Liang; Li, Wei; Meng, Bingjun

2015-02-01

6

Part-per-trillion determination of chlorobenzenes in water using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined gas chromatography–electron capture detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a simple, rapid and efficient method, dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined gas chromatography–electron capture detection (GC–ECD), for the determination of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in water samples, has been described. This method involves the use of an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent (9.5?l chlorobenzene) and disperser solvent (0.50ml acetone) for the formation of cloudy solution in 5.00ml aqueous sample

Reyhaneh Rahnama Kozani; Yaghoub Assadi; Farzaneh Shemirani; Mohammad-Reza Milani Hosseini; Mohammad Reza Jamali

2007-01-01

7

Quantitative detection of trace explosive vapors by programmed temperature desorption gas chromatography-electron capture detector.  

PubMed

The direct liquid deposition of solution standards onto sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes is used for the quantitative analysis of trace explosive vapor samples. The direct liquid deposition method yields a higher fidelity between the analysis of vapor samples and the analysis of solution standards than using separate injection methods for vapors and solutions, i.e., samples collected on vapor collection tubes and standards prepared in solution vials. Additionally, the method can account for instrumentation losses, which makes it ideal for minimizing variability and quantitative trace chemical detection. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector is an instrumentation configuration sensitive to nitro-energetics, such as TNT and RDX, due to their relatively high electron affinity. However, vapor quantitation of these compounds is difficult without viable vapor standards. Thus, we eliminate the requirement for vapor standards by combining the sensitivity of the instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition protocol to analyze trace explosive vapor samples. PMID:25145416

Field, Christopher R; Lubrano, Adam; Woytowitz, Morgan; Giordano, Braden C; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L

2014-01-01

8

Determination of pentachlorophenol residue in meat and fish by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.  

PubMed

A novel analytical method, using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and GC-mass spectrometry detection (MS), was developed for the qualitative and quantitative measurement of pentachlorophenol in meat and fish. The analyte was extracted by methanol-2% trichloroacetic acid (3/1, v/v) with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The eluted fraction was evaporated and derivatized with acetic anhydride-pyridine (1/1, v/v) for GC-ECD analysis and GC-MS confirmation. The parameters for extraction pressure, temperature and cycle of ASE, cleanup, derivatization and analysis procedure were optimized. The averaged decision limits and detection capability of the method were in the ranges of 0.25-0.41 and 0.49-1.01 µg/kg in the muscle and liver of swine and bovine and in the muscle of carp and finless eel, respectively. Spiked recoveries from levels of 0.5-2.0 µg/kg were found to be more than 71.1%, with relative standard deviation less than 14.7% in GC-ECD and GC-MS. This rapid and reliable method can be used for the characterization and quantification of residues of pentachlorophenol in animal and fish tissues. PMID:23690067

Zhao, Dongmei

2014-01-01

9

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time is described. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by uv photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the uv photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector. 4 figs.

Huston, G.C.

1989-11-27

10

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

1992-01-01

11

Analysis of N-nitrosamines in water by isotope dilution gas chromatography-electron ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method has been developed for the determination of eight N-nitrosamines in drinking water and treated municipal effluent. The method uses solid phase extraction (SPE), gas chromatography (GC) and analysis by tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) with electron ionization (EI). The target compounds are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethyethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine NDEA), N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBuA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMorph). The use of direct isotope analogues for isotope dilution analysis of all analytes ensures accurate quantification, accounting for analytical variabilities that may occur during sample processing, extraction and instrumental analysis. Method detection levels (MDLs) were determined to describe analyte concentrations sufficient to provide a signal with 99% certainty of detection. The established MDLs for all analytes were 0.4-4 ng L(-1) in a variety of aqueous matrices. Sample matrices were observed to have only a minor impact on MDLs and the method validation confirmed satisfactory method stability over intra-day and inter-day analyses of tap water and tertiary treated effluent samples. PMID:22967534

McDonald, James A; Harden, Nick B; Nghiem, Long D; Khan, Stuart J

2012-09-15

12

Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples by membrane-assisted solvent extraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A highly efficient and environment-friendly membrane-assisted solvent extraction system combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector was applied in the simultaneous determination of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples. Variables affecting extraction efficiency, including extraction solvent used, stirring rate, extraction time, and temperature, were optimized extensively. Under optimal extraction conditions, recoveries between 76.9% and 104.6% in seawater samples were achieved, and relative standard deviation values below 10% were obtained. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) and limit of quantification (signal-to-noise ratio=10) of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater ranged from 0.14ngL(-1) to 0.36ngL(-1) and 0.46ngL(-1) to 1.19ngL(-1), respectively. Matrix effects on extraction efficiency were evaluated by comparing with the results obtained using tap water. The extraction effect of developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction method was further demonstrated by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry which can provide structural information of the analytes for more accurate identification, and results identical to those produced by gas chromatography-electron capture detector were obtained. These findings demonstrate the applicability of the developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction determination method for coupling to gas chromatography-electron capture detector or tandem mass spectrometry for determining polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples. PMID:25310709

Shi, Xizhi; Tang, Zigang; Sun, Aili; Zhou, Lei; Zhao, Jian; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong; Pan, Daodong

2014-12-01

13

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for detecting solutes eluting from a chromatographic column by gas-amplified ionization. It comprises a cathode electrode; an anode electrode formed of a thin wire and located in a spaced relationship with the cathode electrodes; an insulative housing enclosing the detection region; means for transporting solutes; photoionization means for providing specific ionization of at least a portion of each of the solutes as it passes through the detection region; and detection means coupled to the anode electrode.

Huston, G.C.

1992-06-30

14

[Analysis of organochlorine pesticides and pyrethroid pesticides in vegetables by gas chromatography-electron capture detection coupled with solid-phase extraction using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent].  

PubMed

A multi-residue analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed. The determination of 6 organochlorine pesticides and 7 pyrethroid pesticides in vegetables (including cucumber, cherry tomato, cabbage, lettuce, purple cabbage, leek, shallot and onion) was carried out by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The GC-ECD method used two columns (HP-50 and HP-1) and two ECD detectors. The HP-50 column was used for the analysis and the HP-1 column for validation. The clean-up conditions were optimized. The analytes were extracted by acetonitrile, and the extract was cleaned up by the MWCNTs SPE cartridge. The extract was re-dissolved by hexane, eluted with acetone-hexane (7:3, v/v) from the columns. The recoveries were over 70% for the 11 pesticides in the 13 pesticides. The results indicated that the MWCNTs SPE cartridge was efficient for 8 vegetable samples, because it reduced the contamination of the coloring materials to GC-ECD. The experimental results showed the MWCNTs SPE cartridge can adsorb the coloring materials and the eluant was nearly colorless. PMID:21847981

Zhao, Haixiang; Jia, Yanxia; Ding, Mingyu; Sun, Dajiang; Zhao, Mengbin

2011-05-01

15

Group-selective enrichment and determination of pyrethroid insecticides in aquaculture seawater via molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection.  

PubMed

Two types of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the simultaneous determination of six pyrethroid insecticides have been developed using deltamethrin (D-MIPs) and cypermethrin (C-MIPs) as template molecules. A comparison of the performance of D-MIPs, C-MIPs, and the corresponding non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were conducted. Stronger group-selective interactions between the C-MIPs and the six pyrethroid insecticides were achieved. The MISPE method based on the C-MIPs displayed higher extraction recoveries (86.4-96.0%) with RSD values ranging from 2.4 to 7.8% for the six pyrethroid insecticides in aquaculture seawater. After the C-MIP cartridge procedure, the limits of detection and quantification for fenvalerate, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, and bifenthrin were in the 16.6-37.0 and 55.3-109.1 ng L?¹ ranges, respectively, and 0.68 and 2.26 ?g L?¹ for phenothrin, respectively. The proposed MISPE method coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection was successfully used for the determination of the six pyrethroid insecticides in aquaculture seawater. PMID:22265776

Shi, Xizhi; Liu, Jinghua; Sun, Aili; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong

2012-03-01

16

Simultaneous determination of cyanide and carbonyls in cyanogenic plants by gas chromatography-electron capture/photoionization detection.  

PubMed

A new method to simultaneously detect cyanide and carbonyl compounds arising from cyanogenic glycosides in plants is described. A portable gas chromatograph.housing two detectors using a single carrier gas is employed to measure the carbonyl compounds (photoionization detector) and cyanide as its cyanogen chloride derivative (electron capture detector) from the headspace of a plant sample. This method affords in-field, rapid screening of plants to determine cyanogenicity. Good agreement was seen between this method for cyanide determination and two traditional field cyanide test kits. Detection of both the cyanide and the carbonyl compound(s) allows for confirmation of the presence of cyanogenic glycosides and eliminates the problem of false positives often seen in traditional cyanide test kits. Gas phase limits of detection for cyanide, acetone, butanone, and benzaldehyde were 69, 41, 105, and 0.39 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), respectively, allowing sensitive detection of cyanogenic glycoside breakdown products. The method's utility for screening cyanogenic plants is demonstrated, and it should be useful for screening cyanogenic foodstuffs to determine suitability for consumption. PMID:12475032

Curtis, Abigale J; Grayless, C Charles; Fall, Ray

2002-11-01

17

Analysis of corky off-flavour compounds at ultra trace level with multidimensional gas chromatography-electron capture detection.  

PubMed

A robust method for routine quality control of corky off-flavour compounds in wine and cork soak matrices has been established. Based on an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), the method needs only marginal sample preparation and achieves low (sub-ng L(-1)) trace level detection limits (LODs) for the most relevant off-flavour compounds, such as 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole (TeCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA). Particularly for wine matrix, reliable trace level quantification had only been achieved after applying heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC). Using a halogen-sensitive electron capture detector (ECD) and quantification with a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), LODs of 0.1ng L(-1) for TCA, TeCA and TBA could be obtained. Since a SIDA based quantification method is used with a non-mass spectrometric detector, the necessary chromatographic resolution of internal standard and target analyte peaks resulted from the use of highly deuterated [(2)H(5)]-isotopologues. PMID:23219330

Slabizki, Petra; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

2013-01-01

18

Determination of pyrethroid metabolites in human urine using liquid phase microextraction coupled in-syringe derivatization followed by gas chromatography/electron capture detection.  

PubMed

Metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids such as cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-di-methylcyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid, cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and 4-fluoro-3-PBA are biomarkers for exposure to phenothrin, tetramethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin. In this study, the pyrethroid metabolites in workers' urine samples were monitored for the first time with a novel sample pretreatment process combining hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and in-syringe derivatization (ISD) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) analysis. A micro-syringe pre-filled with derivatizing agents and syringe needle connected to an extracting solvent impregnated hollow fiber segment was used as the LPME probe. Pyrethroid metabolites were extracted and enriched simultaneously from urine samples by HF-LPME sampling and acid hydrolysis at 70 °C for 10 min. After sampling, the ISD was performed by mixing the extracting solution and derivatizing agents through plunger movements, followed by GC-ECD analysis. Parameters influencing the HF-LPME efficiency and ISD were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the method provided enrichment factors of 69.8-154.6, repeatability from 5.0 to 12% (n = 5), and good linearity (R(2) = 0.9980-0.9998) for interested analytes spiked in urine samples. The method detection limits ranged from 1.6 to 17 ng/mL. A comparison was performed between the proposed method and conventional methods. The proposed method was applied to analyze pyrethroid metabolites in the urine samples collected from workers of pesticide formulation plants. The results suggested that the proposed HF-LPME coupled ISD method was a rapid, simple, efficient, and eco-friendly technique in the biomonitoring of metabolites of pyrethroids in workers' urine. PMID:21667061

Lin, Chiu-Hwa; Yan, Cheing-Tong; Kumar, Ponnusamy Vinoth; Li, Hong-Ping; Jen, Jen-Fon

2011-08-01

19

Performance of an Axial Gas Ionization Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axial gas ionization chamber has been fabricated for use as a DeltaE detector in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. Different operating parameters such as gas type, pressure, anode voltage, and anode structures have been optimized. The transparency of the anode structure is observed to play an important role in improving the energy resolution of the detector

S. Adhikari; C. Basu; C. Samanta; S. S. Brahmachari; B. P. Das; P. Basu

2006-01-01

20

Dust and Ionized gas in Elliptical Galaxies  

E-print Network

Results from IRAS and recent X-ray and optical surveys are reviewed to discuss the properties and nature of the interstellar medium in elliptical galaxies. As to the dust component, there is a strong contrast with the situation among spiral galaxies in that masses of dust in ellipticals as derived from optical extinction are an order of magnitude LOWER than those derived from IRAS data. This dilemma can be resolved by assuming an extra, extended, diffusely distributed component of dust which is not detectable in optical data. Bona-fide global correlations among ISM components ---and between ionized gas, dust, and global (stellar) properties of ellipticals--- are hard to find, which most probably reflects an external origin of dust and ionized gas in ellipticals. A strong correlation is found, however, between the H-alpha+[NII] luminosity and the optical luminosity within the region occupied by the ionized gas, which suggests hot (post-AGB and/or blue HB) stars within the old stellar population being a dominant source of ionization of the gas.

Paul Goudfrooij

1996-11-08

21

Use of green coating (cork) in solid-phase microextraction for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in water by gas chromatography-electron capture detection.  

PubMed

A novel method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples with extraction using cork fiber and analysis by gas chromatography with electron capture detector was developed. Also, the procedure to extract these pesticides with DVB/Car/PDMS fiber was optimized. The optimization of the variables involved in the extraction of organochlorine pesticides using the aforementioned fibers was carried out by multivariate design. The optimum extraction conditions were sample temperature 75°C, extraction time 60min and sodium chloride concentration 10% for the cork fiber and sample temperature 50°C and extraction time 60min (without salt) for the DVB/Car/PDMS fiber. The quantification limits for the two fibers varied between 1.0 and 10.0ngL(-1). The linear correlation coefficients were >0.98 for both fibers. The method applied with the use of the cork fiber provided recovery values between 60.3 and 112.7 and RSD?25.5 (n=3). The extraction efficiency values for the cork and DVB/Car/PDMS fibers were similar. The results show that cork is a promising alternative as a coating for SPME. PMID:25618687

Neves Dias, Adriana; Simão, Vanessa; Merib, Josias; Carasek, Eduardo

2015-03-01

22

Microwave-assisted headspace controlled temperature liquid-phase microextraction of chlorophenols from aqueous samples for gas chromatography-electron capture detection.  

PubMed

A modified headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) method was studied for the extraction of chlorophenols (CPs) from aqueous samples with complicated matrices, before gas chromatographic (GC) analysis with electron capture detection (ECD). Microwave heating was applied to accelerate the evaporation of CPs into the headspace, and an external-cooling system was used to control the sampling temperature. Conditions influencing extraction efficiency, such as the LPME-solvent, the sampling position of LPME, the sampling temperature, microwave power, and irradiation time (the same as sampling time), sample pH, and salt addition were thoroughly optimized. Experimental results indicated that the extraction of CPs from a 10mL aquatic sample (pH 1.0) was achieved with the best efficiency through the use of 1-octanol as solvent, microwave irradiation of 167W, and sampling at 45 degrees C for 10min. The detections were linear in the concentration of 5.0-100microg/L for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), and 0.5-10microg/L for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Detection limits were found to be 0.7, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.08microg/L for 2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, and PCP, respectively. A landfill leachate sample was analyzed with recovery between 83 and 102%. The present method was proven to serve as a simple, sensitive, and rapid procedure for CP analysis in an aqueous sample. PMID:18760797

Shi, Yi-An; Chen, Ming-Zen; Muniraj, Sarangapani; Jen, Jen-Fon

2008-10-17

23

Analysis of C(14)-C(17) Polychloro-n-alkanes in Environmental Matrixes by Accelerated Solvent Extraction-High-Resolution Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Negative Ion High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for quantifying medium-chain (C(14)-C(17)) polychloroalkanes (mPCAs) in environmental matrixes by accelerated solvent extraction high-resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion high-resolution mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode is presented. The formula group abundance profiles of industrial mPCA mixtures, which are used as standards, and of samples are first determined by monitoring [M - Cl](-) ions of specific m/z values corresponding to the molecular formulas present and by correcting the integrated ion signals for the fractional abundance of the specific m/z value monitored and the number of chlorine atoms in the formula group. mPCA concentrations in environmental samples are then determined by comparing the response of a specific m/z peak in the sample to that in the standard. Extraction recoveries of mPCAs from spiked fish and sodium sulfate (in place of sediment) were >79%. Method detection limits were 13 ng/g for fish and 1.4 ng/?L for sediment, while the analytical detection limit was ?200 pg, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 4:1. By this method, mPCAs were detected in biota and sediment from the mouth of the Detroit River (MI) and ranged from 70 to 900 ng/g. The simultaneous quantitation of C(10)-C(13) (sPCAs) and C(14)-C(17) PCAs, based on monitoring two specific m/z peaks, one characteristic of sPCAs and the other of mPCAs, is also demonstrated. PMID:21662834

Tomy, G T; Stern, G A

1999-11-01

24

Gas ionization solar spectral monitor (GISSMO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are currently developing an instrument free from optical components to measure the full-disk solar spectrum in the extreme ultraviolet regime covering wavelengths from 75-500 A. The instrument, which will be launched aboard a NASA Black Brant sounding rocket in September 1992, consists of a windowless noble gas ionization cell followed by a toroidal electrostatic analyzer to spatially disperse photoelectrons as a function of their energies. A microchannel plate based position sensitive detector will be used to detect individual electrons, indirectly returning the solar EUV spectrum.

Vickers, James S.; Cotton, Daniel M.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

1992-01-01

25

The Nature of Ionized Gas in Giant Elliptical Galaxies  

E-print Network

I review the current understanding of the origin and nature of ``warm'' ionized gas in giant elliptical galaxies in the light of results of recent imaging and spectroscopic surveys. CCD imaging surveys have revealed that emission-line disks or filaments are (as a rule) associated with dust absorption, even in the X-ray brightest systems. This strongly suggests that the origin of this ionized gas is generally not through ``cooling flows''; galaxy interactions are favored instead. Using data from a new spectrophotometric survey of ``normal'' elliptical galaxies covering the whole optical range, the extended ionized gas in giant ellipticals is found to be --without exception-- of the LINER class, and most probably NOT powered by star formation activity. I discuss two independent pieces of evidence which suggest that the extended gas in giant ellipticals is ionized by means of a distributed source of ionization: (i) A significant correlation exists between the H-alpha+[NII]luminosity and the optical luminosity within the region occupied by the ionized gas, and (ii) the ionization parameter of the gas does not change significantly with galactocentric radius. Two potential sources of ionization are evaluated: Photoionization by old hot stars (of post-AGB and/or AGB-Manque' type) and mechanical energy flux from electron conduction in hot, X-ray-emitting gas.

Paul Goudfrooij

1998-09-04

26

Ionization-based gas sensor using aligned MWCNTs array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current gas sensors are mainly categorized into two modes of operation; chemical type operating by gas adsorption and physical type using ionization method. Chemical type conductivity-based gas detectors are large in size, they operate at high temperatures, and their response time is slow. Moreover most of them are only capable of detecting single type gases due to their low selectivity.

A. R. Kermany; N. M. Mohamed; B. S. Mahinder Singh

2010-01-01

27

Ionization of multiwire proportional chamber gas by double photon absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been able to produce substantial ionization in the gas of multiwire proportional chambers by means of pulsed lasers in the near ultraviolet (337 nm and 265 nm). The energy was modest (?100 uJ mm -2). The mechanism involved appears to be double photon absorption by low ionization potential impurities in the gas. Applications, in particular to the calibration of large drift-chamber systems, are discussed.

Bourotte, J.; Sadoulet, B.

1980-07-01

28

Gas chromatography with surface ionization detection of nitro pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface ionization gas chromatographic detector, based upon positive surface ionization, was used in capillary gas chromatography\\u000a to sensitively and selectively detect nitro pesticides: pendimethalin, trifluralin, flumetralin. Higher sensitivity (better\\u000a detection limit), substance specificity, and advantageous applicability are reported. Sensitivity to pendimethalin, trifluralin,\\u000a and flumetralin was 1.4 C g?1, 1.1 C g?1, and 1.0 C g?1, respectively, with the linear

Seiji Takahashi; Futoshi Nagamura; Miki Sasaki; Toshihiro Fujii

2009-01-01

29

Laser induced avalanche ionization in gases or gas mixtures with resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization or femtosecond laser pulse pre-ionization  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the requirements for avalanche ionization in gas or gas mixtures initiated by REMPI or femtosecond-laser pre-ionization. Numerical examples of dependencies on partial composition for Ar:Xe gas mixture with REMPI of argon and subsequent classic avalanche ionization of Xe are presented.

Shneider, Mikhail N.; Miles, Richard B. [Applied Physics Group, MAE Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2012-08-15

30

The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals.

Rand, Richard J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hester, J. Jeff

1990-01-01

31

Gas electron multiplier (GEM) enhanced ionization chamber for fluorescence detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting dilute elements in thin materials using extended X-ray absorption fluorescence spectroscopy (EXAFS) method requires a detector capable of high count rate and low noise. For detection of dilute elements, the fluorescence signal amplitude is often overcome by the presence of noise or background interference. In this paper we have used a gas ionization chamber enhanced by a gas electron

E. H. Shaban; D. P. Siddons; A. Kuczewski

2007-01-01

32

Herschel Galactic plane survey of ionized gas traced by [NII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Far infrared and sub-/millimeter atomic & ionic fine structure and molecular rotational lines are powerful tracers of star formation on both Galactic and extragalactic scales. Although CO lines trace cool to moderately warm molecular gas, ionized carbon [CII] produces the strongest lines, which arise from almost all reasonably warm (T>50 K) parts of the ISM. However, [CII] alone cannot distinguish highly ionized gas from weakly ionized gas. [NII] plays a significant role in star formation as it is produced only in ionized regions; in [HII] regions as well as diffuse ionized gas. The ionization potential of nitrogen (14.5 eV) is greater than that of hydrogen (13.6 eV), therefore the ionized nitrogen [NII] lines reflect the effects of massive stars, with possible enhancement from X-ray and shock heating from the surroundings. Two far-infrared 122 um and 205 um [NII] fine structure spectral lines are targeted via Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) onboard Herschel Space Observatory. The sample consists of 149 line-of-sight (LOS) positions in the Galactic plane. These positions overlap with the [CII] 158 um observations obtained with the GOT C+ survey. With a reasonable assumption that the emission from both 122 um and 205 um lines originate in the same gas; [NII] 122/205 um line ratio indicates the a good measure of the electron density of each of the LOS positions. [NII] detections are mainly toward the Galactic center direction and the [NII] electron densities are found between 7-50 cm^-3, which is enhanced WIM (Warm Ionized Medium). WIM densities are expected to be much lower (~1 cm-3), therefore non-detections toward the opposite side of the Galactic Center shows abundant of this gas. The pixel to pixel variation of the emission within a single Herschel pointing is relatively small, which is interpreted as the [NII] emission comes from an extended gas. It is important to quantify what fraction of [CII] emission arises in the ionized gas. Thus, with the present work of [NII] observations, it will be possible to resolve the different parts of the ISM leading to determine the total mass of the ISM.

Yildiz, Umut; Goldsmith, Paul; Pineda, Jorge; Langer, William

2015-01-01

33

Similarity of ionized gas nebulae around unobscured and obscured quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasar feedback is suspected to play a key role in the evolution of massive galaxies, by removing or reheating gas in quasar host galaxies and thus limiting the amount of star formation. In this paper, we continue our investigation of quasar-driven winds on galaxy-wide scales. We conduct Gemini Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of a sample of luminous unobscured (type 1) quasars, to determine the morphology and kinematics of ionized gas around these objects, predominantly via observations of the [O III] ?5007 Å emission line. We find that ionized gas nebulae extend out to ˜13 kpc from the quasar, that they are smooth and round, and that their kinematics are inconsistent with gas in dynamical equilibrium with the host galaxy. The observed morphological and kinematic properties are strikingly similar to those of ionized gas around obscured (type 2) quasars with matched [O III] luminosity, with marginal evidence that nebulae around unobscured quasars are slightly more compact. Therefore, in samples of obscured and unobscured quasars carefully matched in [O III] luminosity, we find support for the standard geometry-based unification model of active galactic nuclei, in that the intrinsic properties of the quasars, of their hosts and of their ionized gas appear to be very similar. Given the apparent ubiquity of extended ionized regions, we are forced to conclude that either the quasar is at least partially illuminating pre-existing gas or that both samples of quasars are seen during advanced stages of quasar feedback. In the latter case, we may be biased by our [O III]-based selection against quasars in the early `blow-out' phase, for example due to dust obscuration.

Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.

2014-08-01

34

Highly ionized gas in the Galactic halo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We reexamine the values of electron density n(sub e) and gas pressure P/k in the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Galactic halo, as inferred from C IV emission and absorption lines and using current C IV atomic data. In a homogeneous model with 4.7 less than or equal to log T less than or equal to 5.3, the data are consistent with 0.01 less than or equal to n(sub e) less than or equal to 0.02/cu cm and 2200 less than or equal to P/k less than or equal to 3700/cu cm K, a factor of 2-3 higher than advocated by Martin & Bowyer (1990) and comparable to the thermal pressure in the disk. If some of the C IV absorption arises from nonemitting, photoionized gas, then the inferred density and pressure will increase accordingly. The volume filling factor for homogeneous models ranges from 0.5% to 5%. Because of the constraints arising from filling factor and radiated power, most of the C IV must arise from gas near the peak of the cooling curve, at log t less than or equal to 5.6. We relate both emission-line and absorption-line observations to recent models in which turbulent mixing layers and isobarically cooling supernova remnants (SNRs) provide significant amounts of halo gas at approximately 10(exp 5.3) K and process 20-40 solar mass/yr with a power of approximately 10(exp 41) ergs/sec. Since the observed C IV and N V absorption scale heights have been reported to differ, at 4.9 kpc and 1.6 kpc, respectively, we examine inhomogeneous models with different exponential scale heights of T, P, and SN energy input. The ISM may change its character with distance above the Galactic plane, as superbubbles and mixing layers dominate over isolated SNRs as the source of the C IV. For appropiate scale heights, the midplane pressure is twice the homogeneous values quoted above. The O IV lambda 1034 diffuse emission line, which can be used as a temperature diagnostic of the hot gas, is predicted to be comparable in strength to that of C IV lambda 1549 (approximately 6000 photons/cu cm/s/sr. The ions C IV, N V, and O VI are predicted to show a decreasing trend in vertical extent, with the O IV scale height perhaps as low as approximately 1 kpc.

Shull, J. Michael; Slavin, Jonathan D.

1994-01-01

35

The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891  

SciTech Connect

Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals. 19 refs.

Rand, R.J.; Kulkarni, S.R.; Hester, J.J. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA) Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Pasadena, CA (USA))

1990-03-01

36

Viscosity Coefficient Curve Fits for Ionized Gas Species Grant Palmer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viscosity coefficient curve fits for neutral gas species are available from many sources. Many do a good job of reproducing experimental and computational chemistry data. The curve fits are usually expressed as a function of temperature only. This is consistent with the governing equations used to derive an expression for the neutral species viscosity coefficient. Ionized species pose a more complicated problem. They are subject to electrostatic as well as intermolecular forces. The electrostatic forces are affected by a shielding phenomenon where electrons shield the electrostatic forces of positively charged ions beyond a certain distance. The viscosity coefficient for an ionized gas species is a function of both temperature and local electron number density. Currently available curve fits for ionized gas species, such as those presented by Gupta/Yos, are a function of temperature only. What they did was to assume an electron number density. The problem is that the electron number density they assumed was unrealistically high. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, the proper expression for determining the viscosity coefficient of an ionized species as a function of both temperature and electron number density will be presented. Then curve fit coefficients will be developed using the more realistic assumption of an equilibrium electron number density. The results will be compared against previous curve fits and against highly accurate computational chemistry data.

Palmer, Grant; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

37

The kinematics of the ionized gas in the Circinus galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TAURUS-2 Fabry-Perot interferometer, mounted on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope, has been used to observe the Circinus galaxy. We have mapped the intensity and velocity distribution of the ionized hydrogen in the galaxy using the Balmer series H? spectral line. The semiresolved core (observed with a seeing disc of 30 pc) appears amorphous in shape, which is commonly observed in Seyfert 2 galaxies. Its peak coincides with the core position measured in the radio continuum, suggesting that ionized gas surrounds a non-thermal source. A circumnuclear ring or spiral of radius 220 pc and a rotational velocity of 350 km s^-1 (assuming circular motions) surrounds the core. The inclination angle of this feature, i=40 deg+/-10 deg, is less than that of the previously observed radio continuum disc. The velocity channel maps obtained for the H? ring show that the kinematics resemble those of a rotating ring and the intensity displays a complex structure indicative of several, unresolved, HII regions. We believe the ring to represent a circumnuclear starburst. Our H? data also show the presence of the previously detected [OIII] ionization cone to the north-west of the core, measuring more than 400 pc in length. We suggest that the ionization cone lies in a different plane from that of the starburst ring and is directed away from us. Several kinematic components of the core are derived and we calculate an outflow velocity in excess of 150-200 km s^-1 for gas above the core of Circinus. We also present evidence for inflowing ionized gas at the centre of Circinus. The correlation of the H? and radio continuum features is discussed, as well as the possible presence of a starburst-driven superwind in the Circinus galaxy.

Elmouttie, Marc; Koribalski, Barbel; Gordon, Scott; Taylor, Keith; Houghton, Sally; Lavezzi, Tracy; Haynes, Raymond; Jones, Keith

1998-06-01

38

Monte Carlo Photoionization Simulations of Diffuse Ionized Gas  

E-print Network

We demonstrate that the observed increase of some nebular line ratios with height above the midplane in the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Milky Way and other galaxies is a natural consequence of the progressive hardening of the radiation field far from the midplane ionizing sources. To obtain increasing temperatures and line ratios away from the midplane, our photoionization simulations of a multi-component interstellar medium do not require as much additional heating (over and above that from photoionization) as previous studies that employed one dimensional, spherically averaged models. Radiation leaking into the DIG from density bounded H II regions is generally harder in the H-ionizing continuum and has its He-ionizing photons suppressed compared to the ionizing source of the H II region. In line with other recent investigations, we find that such leaky H II region models can provide elevated temperatures and line ratios, and a lower He+ fraction in the DIG. For a composite model representing the relative spectral types of O stars in the solar neighbourhood, we find that additional heating less than 1.0E-26 n_e ergs/s/cm^3 can reproduce the observed elevated line ratios in the DIG. This additional heating is considerably less than previous estimates due to the natural hardening of the radiation field reaching large heights in our simulations.

Kenneth Wood; John S. Mathis

2004-02-17

39

Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms  

SciTech Connect

New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

1981-06-01

40

Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

1972-01-01

41

Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas. IV. Origin and powering mechanism of the ionized gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: A significant fraction of early-type galaxies (ETGs) exhibit emission lines in their optical spectra. We attempt to identify the producing the emission mechanism and the ionized gas in ETGs, and its connection with the host galaxy evolution. Methods: We analyzed intermediate-resolution optical spectra of 65 ETGs, mostly located in low density environments and exhibiting spectros-copic diagnostic lines of ISM

F. Annibali; A. Bressan; R. Rampazzo; W. W. Zeilinger; O. Vega; P. Panuzzo

2010-01-01

42

Residual-gas-ionization beam profile monitors in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Four ionization profile monitors (IPMs) are in RHIC to measure vertical and horizontal beam profiles in the two rings. These work by measuring the distribution of electrons produced by beam ionization of residual gas. During the last two years both the collection accuracy and signal/noise ratio have been improved. An electron source is mounted across the beam pipe from the collector to monitor microchannel plate (MCP) aging and the signal electrons are gated to reduce MCP aging and to allow charge replenishment between single-turn measurements. Software changes permit simultaneous measurements of any number of individual bunches in the ring. This has been used to measure emittance growth rates on six bunches of varying intensities in a single store. Also the software supports FFT analysis of turn-by-turn profiles of a single bunch at injection to detect dipole and quadrupole oscillations.

Connolly, R.; Fite, J.; Jao, S.; Trabocchi, C.

2010-05-02

43

CNT-based MEMS/NEMS gas ionizers for portable mass spectrometry applications  

E-print Network

We report the fabrication and experimental characterization of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based MEMS/NEMS electron impact gas ionizer with an integrated extractor gate for portable mass spectrometry. The ionizer achieves ...

Velasquez-Heller, Luis Fernand

44

Suitability of magnetic particle immunoassay for the analysis of PBDEs in Hawaiian freshwater fish and crabs in comparison with gas chromatography/electron capture detection-ion trap mass spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A gas chromatograph/electron capture detector-ion trap mass spectrometer (GC/ECD-ITMS) was used for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in freshwater fish and crabs. The samples were also analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GC/ECD-ITMS results showed...

45

Dense Ionized and Neutral Gas Surrounding Sgr A*  

E-print Network

We present high resolution H41a hydrogen recombination line observations of the 1.2' (3 pc) region surrounding Sgr A* at 92 GHz using the OVRO Millimeter Array with an angular resolution of 7" x 3" and velocity resolution of 13 km/s. New observations of H31a, H35a, H41a, and H44a lines were obtained using the NRAO 12-m telescope, and their relative line strengths are interpreted in terms of various emission mechanisms. These are the most extensive and most sensitive observations of recombination line to date. Observations of HCO+ (1 - 0) transition at 89 GHz are also obtained simultaneously with a 40% improved angular resolution and 4-15 times improved sensitivity over previous observations, and the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas in the circumnuclear disk (CND) are mapped and compared with those of the ionized gas. The line brightness ratios of the hydrogen recombination lines are consistent with purely spontaneous emission from 7000 K gas with n_e = 20,000 cm$^{-3}$ near LTE condition. A virial analysis suggests that the most prominent molecular gas clumps in the CND have mean densities of 10^7 cm^{-3}, sufficient to withstand the tidal shear in the Galactic Center region. Therefore, these clumps may survive over several dynamical times, and the CND may be a dynamically stable structure. We estimate a total gas mass of 3 x 10^5 solar mass for the CND. \\

Hemant Shukla; Min S. Yun; N. Z. Scoville

2004-08-07

46

Dielectrophoresis of ionized gas microbubbles: Dipole reversal due to diffusive double-layer polarization  

E-print Network

Dielectrophoresis of ionized gas microbubbles: Dipole reversal due to diffusive double-layer ionized gas in the gas-phase double layer are shown to render the bubble insulating at low ac field for bubbles larger than a critical size of 40 m. A double-layer theory accurately captures the two crossover

Chang, Hsueh-Chia

47

Hydration of Gas-Phase Ions Formed by Electrospray Ionization  

PubMed Central

The hydration of gas-phase ions produced by electrospray ionization was investigated. Evidence that the hydrated ions are formed by two mechanisms is presented. First, solvent condensation during the expansion inside the electrospray source clearly occurs. Second, some solvent evaporation from more extensively solvated ions or droplets is apparent. To the extent that these highly solvated ions have solution-phase structures, then the final isolated gas-phase structure of the ion will be determined by the solvent evaporation process. This process was investigated for hydrated gramicidin S in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. Unimolecular dissociation rate constants of isolated gramicidin S ions with between 2 and 14 associated water molecules were measured. These rate constants increased from 16 to 230 s?1 with increasing hydration, with smaller values corresponding to magic numbers. PMID:10497808

Rodriguez-Cruz, Sandra E.; Klassen, John S.; Williams, Evan R.

2005-01-01

48

The ionizing fluxes of early type stars and their impact on HII regions and the `Diffuse Ionized Gas'  

E-print Network

We discuss recent results on the ionizing fluxes of O stars obtained from our "combined stellar structure and atmosphere models" (CoStar) accounting for stellar winds, non-LTE effects and line blanketing. The implications on the ionization structure of HII regions are summarized, and observational constraints on the ionizing spectra and the total ionizing photon fluxes are presented. Using our CoStar models we derive new consistent predictions for the H and HeI ionizing fluxes of steady-state massive star populations. Implications for the interpretation of observations of `Diffuse Ionized Gas' in galaxies are discussed. Finally we present preliminary model calculations aiming to improve our current predictions further and compare our results to recent results from the Munich group.

Daniel Schaerer

1997-10-08

49

Gas electron multiplier (GEM) enhanced ionization chamber for fluorescence detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting dilute elements in thin materials using extended X-ray absorption fluorescence spectroscopy (EXAFS) method requires a detector capable of high count rate and low noise. For detection of dilute elements, the fluorescence signal amplitude is often overcome by the presence of noise or background interference. In this paper we have used a gas ionization chamber enhanced by a gas electron multiplier (GEM) to amplify the primary ionized electrons due to the X-ray fluorescence of a dilute element. The GEM provides an essentially noise free electron amplification of the signal primary photoelectrons. It provides a larger output current prior to the electronic amplification, allowing a lower gain amplifier with lower electronic circuit noise contribution and hence improved S/ N ratio. In addition, since the signal is produced only by electrons, and not from ion motion, the detector is capable of recording rapidly changing signals. Iron in an arbitrary tree leaf was used as a test sample. This sample was measured using our detector SUBRSAB, and also with Lytle and passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. An improvement in the signal amplitude by a factor of 20 and a factor of 2 are recorded for the proposed detector with respect to the Lytle and PIPS detectors, respectively. Although the gain in signal over the PIPS detector is small for this detector, its lack of sensitivity to light and its low and temperature-independent dark current are further advantages.

Shaban, E. H.; Siddons, D. P.; Kuczewski, A.

2007-11-01

50

Highly selective and sensitive gas chromatography-electron-capture negative-ion mass spectrometry method for the indirect enantioselective identification of 2- and 3-hydroxy fatty acids in food and biological samples.  

PubMed

A gas chromatographic (GC) method is described for the indirect enantioresolution of 2- and 3-hydroxy fatty acids (OH-FAs). It combines the derivatization of each alkylated enantiomer and the subsequent transfer with (R)-(-)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride [(R)-(-)-MTPA-Cl, Mosher's reagent] into a diastereomeric (S)-MTPA derivative. The enantiomers of each derivatized OH-FA were well separated on three non-chiral GC-columns (CP-Sil 2, CP-Sil 8/20% C18 and VF-5ms). The derivatives were detected with high sensitivity by GC with electron-capture detection (GC/ECD) and electron-capture negative-ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) because of their enhanced electron-capturing properties. When applied to sunflower oil spiked with a small amount of a racemic 2-OH-FA, the present method allowed for a highly selective identification without influence from the sample matrix. For more complex samples such as wool wax, GC/ECNI-MS was superior to GC/ECD, since the high sensitivity of this method was linked with high selectivity. Using GC/ECNI-MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, 16 enantiopure 2-OH-FAs were detected in a wool wax sample. PMID:17292906

Jenske, Ramona; Vetter, Walter

2007-04-01

51

Intermediate- and High-Velocity Ionized Gas toward zeta Orionis  

E-print Network

We combine UV spectra obtained with the HST/GHRS echelle, IMAPS, and Copernicus to study the abundances and physical conditions in the predominantly ionized gas seen at high (-105 to -65 km/s) and intermediate velocities (-60 to -10 km/s) toward zeta Ori. We have high resolution (FWHM ~ 3.3-4.5 km/s) and/or high S/N spectra for at least two significant ions of C, N, Al, Si, S, and Fe -- enabling accurate estimates for both the total N(H II) and the elemental depletions. C, N, and S have essentially solar relative abundances; Al, Si, and Fe appear to be depleted by about 0.8, 0.3-0.4, and 0.95 dex, respectively. While various ion ratios would be consistent with collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) for T ~ 25,000-80,000 K, the widths of individual high-velocity absorption components indicate that T ~ 9000 K -- so the gas is not in CIE. Analysis of the C II fine-structure excitation equilibrium yields estimated densities (n_e ~ n_H ~ 0.1-0.2 cm^{-3}), thermal pressures (2 n_H T ~ 2000-4000 cm^{-3}K), and thicknesses (0.5-2.7 pc) for the individual clouds. We compare the abundances and physical properties derived for these clouds with those found for gas at similar velocities toward 23 Ori and tau CMa, and also with several models for shocked gas. While the shock models can reproduce some features of the observed line profiles and some of the observed ion ratios, there are also significant differences. The measured depletions suggest that \\~10% of the Al, Si, and Fe originally locked in dust in the pre-shock medium may have been returned to the gas phase, consistent with predictions for the destruction of silicate dust in a 100 km/s shock. The near-solar gas phase abundance of carbon, however, seems inconsistent with the predicted longer time scales for the destruction of graphite grains.

D. E. Welty; E. B. Jenkins; J. C. Raymond; C. Mallouris; D. G. York

2002-08-20

52

A monte-carlo code for computing transport coefficients in weakly ionized gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A Monte-Carlo code (MCSwarm) has been developed to compute transport coefficients in a weakly ionized gas. The MCSwarm code includes rotational and vibrational effects as well as excitation, ionization, and attachment reactions to determine the electron mobility, mean electron energy, and ionization and attachment rates. The MCSwarm code is time accurate and correctly handles both electric

S. B. Swanekamp; S. D. Strasburg; D. D. Hinshelwood; J. W. Schumer; P. F. Ottinger; B. V. Weber; T. D. Pointon; D. B. Seidel; M. L. Kiefer

2006-01-01

53

Polymer-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as a novel sol-gel solid-phase micro-extraction coated fiber for determination of poly-brominated diphenyl ethers in water samples with gas chromatography-electron capture detection.  

PubMed

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were functionalized with a hydroxyl-terminated silicone oil (TSO-OH). It is synthesized by the reactions of carbonyl chloride groups on the surface of SWNTs and hydroxyl groups of silicone oil (TSO-OH). The functionalized product SWNTs-TSO-OH was first used as precursor and selective stationary phase to prepare the sol-gel derived poly(SWNTs-TSO-OH) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water samples. The possible major reaction of the sol-gel coating process was discussed and confirmed by IR spectra, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Some parameters of SPME fiber for the determination of PBDEs were investigated by headspace SPME/gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (HS-SPME/GC-ECD). Compared with the commercial SPME fiber, the new coated fiber showed higher extraction efficiency to PBDEs, better thermal stability (over 340 degrees C), and longer life span (over 200 times). All of these advantages are mainly due to the incorporation of SWNTs, which enhanced the pi-pi interaction with PBDEs and increased the surface area of extraction in contact with the sample. Moreover, the sol-gel coating technology additionally provided the porous structure of the 3-D silica network and the strong chemical binding provided which also will improve the extraction efficiency. Under optimized conditions, the method detection limits for seven PBDEs were 0.08-0.8 ng/L (S/N = 3) and the precision (RSD, n = 5) was 2.2-7.5% at the 50 ng/L level. The linearity of the developed method is in the range of 5-500 ng/L with coefficients of correlation greater than 0.995. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of trace PBDEs in reservoir water and wastewater samples. The recoveries obtained at spiking 50 ng/L were between 74% and 109% (n = 5) for PBDEs in water samples. PMID:19364140

Zhang, Weiya; Sun, Yin; Wu, Caiying; Xing, Jun; Li, Jianying

2009-04-15

54

Shock-wave structure in a fully ionized gas.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of a steady plane shock in a fully ionized gas has been investigated using the Boltzmann equation with the Gross-Krook type model as the governing equation and the discrete-ordinate method as a tool. The present results agree well with the results obtained by the continuum approach for weak shocks. For strong shocks the present approach gives results that are considerably different from those yielded by the continuum approach, particularly in the high pressure region. Also, the present method gives smooth and continuous shock profiles for high Mach numbers. On the other hand, the results from the continuum approach contain discontinuities in slope. The ion and electron distribution functions across the shock are found to be singly peaked for all cases considered and the effects of the induced electric field is small.

Lu, C. S.; Huang, A. B.

1973-01-01

55

A novel miniaturized flame ionization detector for portable gas chromatography.  

PubMed

A novel miniaturized flame ionization detector (FID) operated by battery, which can be used as a detector in portable gas chromatography (GC) is devised and manufactured. It is characterized by the structure of building blocks, small volume, low energy consumption, and needing only two gases, which can be used for detection of hydrocarbons in portable GC. The miniaturized detector mainly includes a porous metallic diffuser plate, bugle-figuration collector, quartz capillary flame tip, and self-heated system. The miniaturized FID is easy to fabricate and assemble because of its structure of building blocks. The FID response is linear over six orders of magnitude and the detection limit of 0.518 ng for benzene, 0.430 ng for n-dodecane, 0.473 ng for naphthalene, and 0.509 ng for n-tetradecane. PMID:16176647

Deng, Chunhui; Yang, Xiuhan; Li, Ning; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Xiangmin

2005-08-01

56

Background studies in gas ionizing x ray detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background response of a gas ionizing proportional x ray detector is estimated by solving the one dimensional photon transport equation for two regions using Monte Carlo techniques. The solution was effected using the SSL VAX 780 and the CRAY XMP computers at Marshall Space Flight Center. The isotropic photon energy spectrum encompassing the range from 1 to 1000 KeV incident onto the first region, the shield, is taken so as to represent the measured spectrum at an altitude of 3 mb over Palastine, Texas. The differential energy spectrum deposited in the gas region, xenon, over the range of 0 to 100 KeV is written to an output file. In addition, the photon flux emerging from the shield region, tin, over the range of 1 to 1000 KeV is also tabulated and written to a separate file. Published tabular cross sections for photoelectric, elastic and inelastic Compton scattering as well as the total absorption coefficient are used. Histories of each incident photon as well as secondary photons from Compton and photoelectric interactions are followed until the photon either is absorbed or exits from the regions under consideration. The effect of shielding thickness upon the energy spectrum deposited in the xenon region for this background spectrum incident upon the tin shield was studied.

Eldridge, Hudson B.

1989-01-01

57

Supernova remnants and diffuse ionized gas in M31  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers have compiled an initial list of radio/optical supernova remnants (SNRs) in M31, by searching for radio identifications of emission-line sources with a high (SII)/H alpha ratio (greater than 0.60). The (SII) filter included both sulfur lines and the H alpha filter did not include (NII). This search revealed 11 SNRs, of which only two were known. In addition, researchers detected radio emission from 3 SNRs that were identified in previous optical surveys (D'Odorico et al., 1980), but that were outside the charge coupled device (CCD) fields. The 14 objects only include the most obvious candidates, but a full search is in progress and the researchers expect to find several more SNRs. Also not all optical SNRs show detectable radio emission and a pure optical list of SNR candidates based only on the ratio of (SII)/H alpha emission contains many more objects. Two conclusions are apparent. First, the radio properties of the SNRs in M31 are quite similar to those of Galactic SNRs as is illustrated. The brightnesses are not systematically lower as has been suggested in the past (Dickel and D'Odorico, 1984). Second, the slope of the relation is close to -2; this slope is expected from the intrinsic dependence between surface brightness and diameter. The radio luminosity of the SNRs does not seem to depend strongly on diameter, or age, contrary to model predictions. Selection effects, however, play an important role in these plots. The CCD images show widespread diffuse ionized gas with a ratio of (SII)/H alpha that is higher than that of discrete HII regions. Discrete HII regions typically show ratios between 0.2 to 0.3, while the diffuse gas in the arms consistently shows ratios of 0.5. Researchers can trace this gas across the spiral arms to emission measures below 5 pc cm (-6). Its properties seem to be similar to that of the diffuse gas in the solar neighborhood.

Walterbos, Rene; Braun, Robert

1990-01-01

58

Galaxy-Scale Clouds of Ionized Gas around AGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The serendipitous 2007 discovery of the object now known (even by NED) as "Hanny's Voorwerp" (Lintott et al. 2009) set into motion a search for more examples of galaxy-scale clouds of highly-ionized gas in the vicinity of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Using a sample assembled primarily by 'citizen scientists' via a dedicated thread in the Galaxy Zoo Forum, we carried out the first part of a larger long- slit spectroscopic survey of such objects with the 2.1m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). Of the 30 objects targeted during seven nights (multiple exposures for several), extended emission clouds were observed in 15 objects, with [OIII]?5007 emission occasionally extending >30 kpc from galaxy cores. A strong majority (11/15) of the extended emission clouds coincide with merging or otherwise violently disrupted systems, but more relevant to our search were the handful of clouds coinciding with isolated, symmetric galaxies lacking an obvious excitation mechanism. We present the results of part one in the hunt for Voorwerp analogues, much of which served to weed-out the more interesting objects to be targeted for future, multi-wavelength studies.

Chojnowski, S. Drew; Keel, William C.

2012-02-01

59

A Three Dimensional Beam Profile Monitor Based on Residual Gas Ionization  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional beam profile monitor based on tracking the ionization of the residual gas molecules in the evacuated beam pipe is described. Tracking in position and time of the ions and electrons produced in the ionization enables simultaneous position sampling in three dimensions. Special features which make it possible to sample very low beam currents were employed.

Lewis, T.A.; Shapira, D.

1998-11-04

60

Evaluation of Gas-filled Ionization Chamber Method for Radon Measurement at Two Reference Facilities  

SciTech Connect

For quality assurance, gas-filled ionization chamber method was tested at two reference facilities for radon calibration: EML (USA) and PTB (Germany). Consequently, the radon concentrations estimated by the ionization chamber method were in good agreement with the reference radon concentrations provided by EML as well as PTB.

Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Miyahara, Nobuyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

2008-08-07

61

Diffusion in a Slightly Ionized Gas with Application to Effusion from a Shock Tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sampling technique for measuring the diffusive flux of charged particles from an ionized gas to a cold wall by measuring the effusive electrical current through a small orifice in the wall has been used to study slightly ionized argon behind reflected shock waves. The technique is described and the transient diffusion process upon which it depends is considered in

Bradford Sturtevant

1961-01-01

62

Infrared spectroscopy of ionized corannulene in the gas phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-phase infrared spectra of radical cationic and protonated corannulene were recorded by infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy using the IR free electron laser for infrared experiments. Electrospray ionization was used to generate protonated corannulene and an IRMPD spectrum was recorded in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer monitoring H-loss as a function of IR frequency. The radical cation was produced by 193-nm UV photoionization of the vapor of corannulene in a 3D quadrupole trap and IR irradiation produces H, H2, and C2Hx losses. Summing the spectral response of the three fragmentation channels yields the IRMPD spectrum of the radical cation. The spectra were analyzed with the aid of quantum-chemical calculations carried out at various levels of theory. The good agreement of theoretical and experimental spectra for protonated corannulene indicates that protonation occurs on one of the peripheral C-atoms, forming an sp3 hybridized carbon. The spectrum of the radical cation was examined taking into account distortions of the C5v geometry induced by the Jahn-Teller effect as a consequence of the degenerate 2E1 ground electronic state. As indicated by the calculations, the five equivalent Cs minima are separated by marginal barriers, giving rise to a dynamically distorted system. Although in general the character of the various computed vibrational bands appears to be in order, only a qualitative match to the experimental spectrum is found. Along with a general redshift of the calculated frequencies, the IR intensities of modes in the 1000-1250 cm-1 region show the largest discrepancy with the harmonic predictions. In addition to CH "in-plane" bending vibrations, these modes also exhibit substantial deformation of the pentagonal inner ring, which may relate directly to the vibronic interaction in the radical cation.

Galué, Héctor Alvaro; Rice, Corey A.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Oomens, Jos

2011-02-01

63

Electron ionization and atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of amino acids.  

PubMed

The mass spectra of tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives of 17 amino acids were obtained using electron ionization (EI) and atmospheric pressure photochemical ionization (APPhCI) mass spectrometry. The APPhCI mass spectra for all of the derivatives except arginine were shown to consist of only molecular [M](+.) and quasimolecular [MH](+) ions whereas, in the case of EI, the compounds in question underwent a drastic fragmentation. The application of APPhCI to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables a reliable identification of the TBDMS derivatives of amino acids in a mixture, even if its components are only partially resolved, due to the unique molecular masses for each compound. Comparison of the respective positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) mass spectra available in the literature with APPhCI spectra has shown that, in the case of PICI, unlike APPhCI, noticeable fragmentation occurs. PMID:14624019

Revelsky, Igor A; Yashin, Yuri S; Sobolevsky, Tim G; Revelsky, Alexander I; Miller, Barbara; Oriedo, Vincent

2003-01-01

64

PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS-THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Jachowicz, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

2013-07-01

65

The ionization conditions in the Milky Way halo - Infalling gas toward the North Galactic Pole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of gas in the Milky Way halo are studied with an eye toward the theoretical predictions of the Galactic Fountain model for the production of halo gas. Data are shown that indicate significant variations in the ionization conditions in infalling halo gas in the northern galactic hemisphere. Understanding the nature of Milky Way halo gas plays a critical role in interpreting QSO absorption lines in the investigation of galaxies at high redshift.

Danly, Laura

1992-01-01

66

In situ transmission electron microscopy observation of silver oxidation in ionized/atomic gas.  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between silver and ionized and atomic gas was observed directly by in situ transmission electron microscopy with an environmental cell for the first time. The electron beam provides dual functions as the source of both gas ionization and imaging. The concentration of ionized gas was tuned via adjusting the current density of the electron beam. Oxidation of the silver is observed in situ, indicating the presence of ionized and/or atomic oxygen. The evolution of microstructure and phase constituents was characterized. Then the oxidation rate was measured, and the relationships among grain size, mass transport rate, and electron flux were characterized. The role of the electron beam is discussed, and the results are rationalized with respect to ex situ results from the literature.

Sun, L.; Noh, K. W.; Wen, J-G.; Dillon, S. J. (Materials Science Division); (Massachusetts Inst. Tech.); (Univ. Illinois - Urbana)

2011-10-17

67

Non-equilibrium ionization states and cooling rates of photoionized enriched gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-equilibrium (time-dependent) cooling rates and ionization state calculations are presented for low-density gas enriched with heavy elements (metals) and photoionized by external ultraviolet/X-ray radiation. We consider a wide range of gas densities and metallicities and also two types of external radiation field: a power-law and an extragalactic background spectra. We have found that both cooling efficiencies and ionic composition of enriched photoionized gas depend significantly on the gas metallicity and density, the flux amplitude and the shape of ionizing radiation spectrum. The cooling rates and ionic composition of the gas in non-equilibrium photoionization models differ strongly (by a factor of several) from those in photoequilibrium due to overionization of the ionic states in the non-equilibrium case. The difference is maximal at low values of the ionization parameter and similar in magnitude to that between the equilibrium and non-equilibrium cooling rates in the collisionally controlled gas. In general, the non-equilibrium effects are notable at T? 106 K. In this temperature range, the extent of mismatch between the two ionic states and their ratios between the photoequilibrium and the photo-non-equilibrium models reach a factor of several. The net result is that the time-dependent energy losses due to each chemical element (i.e. the contributions to the total cooling rate) differ significantly from the photoequilibrium ones. We advocate the use of non-equilibrium cooling rates and ionic states for gas with near-solar (and above) metallicity exposed to an arbitrary ionizing radiation flux. We provide a parameter space (in terms of temperature, density, metallicity and ionizing radiation flux), where the non-equilibrium cooling rates are to be used. More quantitatively, the non-equilibrium collisional cooling rates and ionization states are a better choice for the ionization parameter log U?-5. The difference between the photoequilibrium and the photo-non-equilibrium decreases with the ionization parameter growth, and the photoequilibrium can be used for ionization parameter as high as log U?-2 for Z? 10-2 Z? and log U? 0 for Z˜ Z?. Thus, the non-equilibrium calculations should be used for the ionization parameter range between the above-mentioned values. In general, where the physical conditions favour collisional ionization, the non-equilibrium (photo)ionization calculations should be conducted.

Vasiliev, Evgenii O.

2011-07-01

68

Mass spectrometric behavior of anabolic androgenic steroids using gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Part I: ionization.  

PubMed

The detection of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is one of the most important topics in doping control analysis. Gas chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry (GC-MS(/MS)) with electron ionization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry have been traditionally applied for this purpose. However, both approaches still have important limitations, and, therefore, detection of all AAS is currently afforded by the combination of these strategies. Alternative ionization techniques can minimize these drawbacks and help in the implementation of a single method for the detection of AAS. In the present work, a new atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source commercialized for gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer has been tested to evaluate the ionization of 60 model AAS. Underivatized and trimethylsylil (TMS)-derivatized compounds have been investigated. The use of GC-APCI-MS allowed for the ionization of all AAS assayed irrespective of their structure. The presence of water in the source as modifier promoted the formation of protonated molecules ([M+H](+)), becoming the base peak of the spectrum for the majority of studied compounds. Under these conditions, [M+H](+), [M+H-H2O](+) and [M+H-2·H2O](+) for underivatized AAS and [M+H](+), [M+H-TMSOH](+) and [M+H-2·TMSOH](+) for TMS-derivatized AAS were observed as main ions in the spectra. The formed ions preserve the intact steroid skeleton, and, therefore, they might be used as specific precursors in MS/MS-based methods. Additionally, a relationship between the relative abundance of these ions and the AAS structure has been established. This relationship might be useful in the structural elucidation of unknown metabolites. PMID:24913403

Raro, M; Portolés, T; Sancho, J V; Pitarch, E; Hernández, F; Marcos, J; Ventura, R; Gómez, C; Segura, J; Pozo, O J

2014-06-01

69

A Low Voltage Gas Ionization Sensor based on Sparse Gold Nanorods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report fabrication and characterization of a gas ionization sensor using a sparse array of vertically aligned gold nanorods (AuNR). Our device displayed improved sensitivity compared to the carbon nanotube (CNT) film counterpart, since the room temperature breakdown voltages (Vb) of the tested gases were further reduced. With AuNRs configured as the cathode, Vb was unaffected by gas pressure within

Ramin Banan Sadeghian; Mojtaba Kahrizi

2007-01-01

70

The kinematics of Milky Way halo gas. I - Observations of low-ionization species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultraviolet interstellar line day observed with the IUE toward 70 halo stars and four extragalactic sight lines are analyzed in a study of the large-scale kinematic properties of the Milky Way halo gas. The motions of the low-ionization gas is focused on. Large systematic velocities are found, and a pronounced asymmetry in the absorption characteristics of halo gas toward the Galactic poles is indicated. In the north, substantial amounts of material are falling toward the disk at velocities up to about 120 km/s in the most extreme case. Toward the south, low-ionization material shows no extreme or systematic motions.

Danly, Laura

1989-01-01

71

The solitary ionization waves in the gas discharge positive column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strata problem in positive-column plasma considered as a result of non-linear ionization and recombination processes is treated on the basis of the derived non-linear diffusion equation. Soliton solutions are obtained in analytical form. The theory has remarkable coincidence with the experimental results.

N. N. Christov; Kh. I. Pushkarov

1993-01-01

72

Ionization-induced propagation effects of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in a neutral gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. In many applications of high-intensity femtosecond pulses such as plasma particle acceleration, the laser pulse must first propagate through neutral gases, which result in pulse distortions at relatively low intensity. We report experimental results on self-induced effects caused by rapid gas ionization during propagation of 100-fs pulses in a gas jet at relatively low gas densities

S. P. Nikitin; Yuelin Li; T. M. Antonosen; H. M. Milchberg

1998-01-01

73

The Massive Stellar Population in the Diffuse Ionized Gas of M33  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare Far-UV, H alpha, and optical broadband images of the nearby spiral galaxy M33, to investigate the massive stars associated with the diffuse ionized gas. The H-alpha/FUV ratio is higher in HII regions than in the DIG, possibly indicating that an older population ionizes the DIG. The broad-band colors support this conclusion. The HII region population is consistent with a young burst, while the DIG colors resemble an older population with constant star formation. Our results indicate that there may be enough massive field stars to ionize the DIG, without the need for photon leakage from HII regions.

Hoopes, Charles G.; Walterbos, Rene A. M.

1995-01-01

74

Effect of laser self-defocusing on third harmonic generation in a tunnel ionizing gas  

SciTech Connect

A paraxial theory of third harmonic generation by a finite spot size laser in a tunnel ionizing gas is developed. The laser, with intensity close to tunnel ionization threshold, creates plasma whose density rises in a stepwise manner in every half wave period, giving a strong second harmonic component in electron density. The density beats with the oscillatory velocity at the fundamental to produce a nonlinear current, driving the third harmonic. The region of harmonic generation is localized near the laser axis. Further, the strong radial nonuniformity, created in electron density by the ionization process, causes defocusing of the laser, limiting the efficiency of harmonic generation.

Verma, Updesh; Sharma, A. K. [Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

2009-01-15

75

IONIZATION-DRIVEN FRAGMENTATION OF GAS OUTFLOWS RESPONSIBLE FOR FeLoBALs IN QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We show that time variations in the UV ionizing continuum of quasars, on scales of {approx}1 yr, affect the dynamic structure of the plasmas responsible for low-ionization broad absorption lines. Variations of the ionizing continuum produce non-equilibrium photoionization conditions over a significant fraction of the absorbing clouds and supersonically moving ionization fronts. When the flux drops, the contraction of the ionized region drives a supersonic cooling front toward the radiation source and a rarefaction wave in the opposite direction. The pressure imbalance is compensated by an increased speed of the cool gas relative to the front. When the flux recovers, the cool gas is re-ionized and re-heated by a supersonic ionization front traveling away from the radiation source and a forward shock is created. The re-heated clouds equilibrate to a temperature of {approx}10{sup 4} K and are observed to have different radial velocities than the main cloud. Such fragmentation seems consistent with the multicomponent structure of troughs seen in some objects. The velocity differences measured among various components in the quasars QSO 2359-1241 and SDSS J0318-0600 can be reproduced by our model if strong magnetic fields ({approx}10 mG) are present within the clouds.

Bautista, Manuel A. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5252 (United States); Dunn, Jay P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

2010-07-10

76

Kinematics and ionization of extended gas in active galaxies. IV - The Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of direct CCD imaging and long-slit medium-dispersion spectroscopy of the extended narrow-line-emitting gas in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388 are presented. The spectra are used to investigate the distribution, kinematics, and ionization structure of the excited gas in the regions surrounding the nucleus out to a distance of about 4.8 kpc. The data support earlier suggestions that the galaxy, which appears to lie near the core of the Virgo cluster, has been tidally distorted, possibly by the nearby cluster core galaxies M84 or IC 3303. Much of the highly ionized gas in the galaxy appears to be distributed in two wide cones originating from the nucleus and extending above and below the disk. Explanations are offered for the distribution of this gas and for the remainder of the gas above and below the disk.

Corbin, Michael R.; Baldwin, J. A.; Wilson, A. S.

1988-01-01

77

Kinematics and ionization of extended gas in active galaxies. I. The Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388  

SciTech Connect

The results of direct CCD imaging and long-slit medium-dispersion spectroscopy of the extended narrow-line-emitting gas in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388 are presented. The spectra are used to investigate the distribution, kinematics, and ionization structure of the excited gas in the regions surrounding the nucleus out to a distance of about 4.8 kpc. The data support earlier suggestions that the galaxy, which appears to lie near the core of the Virgo cluster, has been tidally distorted, possibly by the nearby cluster core galaxies M84 or IC 3303. Much of the highly ionized gas in the galaxy appears to be distributed in two wide cones originating from the nucleus and extending above and below the disk. Explanations are offered for the distribution of this gas and for the remainder of the gas above and below the disk. 47 references.

Corbin, M.R.; Baldwin, J.A.; Wilson, A.S.

1988-11-01

78

Rapid determination of the isomeric truxillines in illicit cocaine via capillary gas chromatography/flame ionization detection and their use and implication in the determination of cocaine origin and trafficking routes.  

PubMed

The isomeric truxillines are a group of minor alkaloids present in all illicit cocaine samples. The relative amount of truxillines in cocaine is indicative of the variety of coca used for cocaine processing, and thus, is useful in source determination. Previously, the determination of isomeric truxillines in cocaine was performed with a gas chromatography/electron capture detection method. However, due to the tedious sample preparation as well as the expense and maintenance required of electron capture detectors, the protocol was converted to a gas chromatography/flame-ionization detection method. Ten truxilline isomers (alpha-, beta-, delta-, epsilon-, gamma-, omega, zeta-, peri-, neo-, and epi-) were quantified relative to a structurally related internal standard, 4',4?-dimethyl-?-truxillic acid dimethyl ester. The method was shown to have a linear response from 0.001 to 1.00 mg/mL and a lower detection limit of 0.001 mg/mL. In this method, the truxillines are directly reduced with lithium aluminum hydride and then acylated with heptafluorobutyric anhydride prior to analysis. The analysis of more than 100 cocaine hydrochloride samples is presented and compared to data obtained by the previous methodology. Authentic cocaine samples obtained from the source countries of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru were also analyzed, and comparative data on more than 23,000 samples analyzed over the past 10 years with the previous methodology is presented. PMID:25219521

Mallette, Jennifer R; Casale, John F

2014-10-17

79

Observational model of the ionized gas in Seyfert and radio-galaxy nuclei*  

PubMed Central

Equivalent widths of the total emission-line H? in Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies, expressed in terms of the featureless continuum, all have approximately the same frequency distribution. This suggests that the energy-input mechanism to both the narrow-line, low-density gas and the broad-line, high-density gas is photoionization by the featureless continuum. The reason for the weakness of the narrow emission lines in extreme Seyfert 1 galaxies is then the absorption of most of the ionizing photons in the dense gas near the central source. The statistics of line widths can be fitted by a model in which the dense gas has typical rotational velocity 5000 km/sec and typical turbulent velocity 2000 km/sec. A model is proposed in which the dense gas forms a rotating, turbulent disk with dimension ?0.1 pc and height/diameter ?2/5. Seyfert 2 galaxies are objects with little dense gas, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies are objects in which the dense gas is optically thin to ionizing radiation at least along the poles. Most radio galaxies have strong narrow emission lines, suggesting that escape of radio plasma can only occur where some ionizing photons can also escape from the dense gas. Other predictions, implications, and tests of this model are discussed. Images PMID:16592488

Osterbrock, Donald E.

1978-01-01

80

The in-gas-jet laser ion source: Resonance ionization spectroscopy of radioactive atoms in supersonic gas jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New approaches to perform efficient and selective step-wise resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) of radioactive atoms in different types of supersonic gas jets are proposed. This novel application results in a major expansion of the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) method developed at KU Leuven. Implementation of resonance ionization in the supersonic gas jet allows to increase the spectral resolution by one order of magnitude in comparison with the currently performed in-gas-cell ionization spectroscopy. Properties of supersonic beams, obtained from the de Laval-, the spike-, and the free jet nozzles that are important for the reduction of the spectral line broadening mechanisms in cold and low density environments are discussed. Requirements for the laser radiation and for the vacuum pumping system are also examined. Finally, first results of high-resolution spectroscopy in the supersonic free jet are presented for the 327.4 nm 3d104s 2S1/2? 3d104p 2P1/2 transition in the stable 63Cu isotope using an amplified single mode laser radiation.

Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Ferrer, R.; Huyse, M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.

2013-02-01

81

Title of Dissertation: MODELING LASER PULSE EVOLUTION IN IONIZING GAS AND PLASMA WITH  

E-print Network

of laser pulse evolution and plasma response in simulations ranging from modeling laser wakefieldABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: MODELING LASER PULSE EVOLUTION IN IONIZING GAS AND PLASMA: Professor Thomas M. Antonsen, Jr., Department of Physics The interaction of high intensity laser pulses

Anlage, Steven

82

The influence of neutral gas temperature on the parameters of ionization waves in neon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, the influence of cooling down the neutral gas to a temperature of 77°K on the parameters of ionization waves excited in the positive column of a d. c. glow discharge in neon is studied. After the cooling, the group velocity, phase velocity, frequency and relaxation time of the waves of varietyp decreased and they increased in

K. Masek; V. Pe?ina

1968-01-01

83

Properties of the highly ionized disk and halo gas toward two distant high-latitude stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) intermediate -resolution observations of S III, Si III, Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption along the sight lines to HD 18100 (l = 217.9 deg, b = -62.7, d = 3.1 kpc, z = -2.8 kpc) and HD 100340 (l = 258.9 deg, b = +61.2 deg, d = 5.3 kpc, z = 4.6 kpc) are presented. These small science aperture spectra have resolutions ranging from 11 to 20 km/s full width at half maximum (FWHM) and S/N from 30 to 65 per diode substep. Strong absorption by moderately and highly ionized gas is seen in each direction. The absorption in the direction of the south Galactic polar region (HD 18100) is kinematically simple, while the absorption in the direction of north Galactic polar region (HD 100304) is kinematically complex. In each case the absorption by the highly ionized gas lies within the velocity range of absorption by neutral and weakly ionized gas. Along each sight line, the velocity dispersion determined from the unsaturated absorption lines increases with the energy required to create each ion. The logarithmic column densities for Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V are log N(atoms/sq cm = 12.71, 13.10, 13.58, and 12.75 toward HD 18100 and log N = 12.88, 13.31, 13.83, and 13.04 toward HD 100340. Average ionic ratios among these species are very similar along the two sight lines. Differences in profile shape between the absorption for AL II, Si IV, C IV, and N V provide additional support for the claim of Savage, Sembach, & Cardelli (1994) that there exists two types of highly ionized gas in the interstellar medium. One type of highly ionized gas is responsible for the structured Si IV absorption and part of the C IV absorption. In this gas N(C IV)/N(Si IV) approximately 3.0 and N(C IV)/N(N V) greater than 6. The absorption by this gas seems to be associated with some type of self-regulating interface or mixing layer between the warm and hot interstellar medium. The other type of highly ionized gas is responsible for most of the N V absorption, part of the C IV absorption, and has very little associated Si IV absorption. In this gas N(C IV)/N(N V) is approximately 1 to 3. This gas is hot (T greater than 2 x 10(exp 5) K) and may be tracing the cooling gas of supernova (SN) bubbles or a Galactic fountain. The relative mixture of these two types of highly ionized gas varies from one sight line to the next. The two sight lines in this study sample halo gas in the solar neighborhood and have a smaller percentage of the more highly ionized gas than inner Galaxy sight lines.

Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, K. R.

1994-01-01

84

Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

1990-01-01

85

An Experimental Study of the Ionization of Low-Density Gas Flows by Induced Discharges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Induced discharges are advantageous for ionizing low-density flows in that they introduce no electrode contamination into the flow and they provide a relatively high degree of ionization with good coupling of power into the gas. In this investigation a 40-megacycle oscillator was used to produce and maintain induced discharges in argon and mercury-vapor flows. Methods for preventing blowout of the discharge were determined, and power measurements were made with an in-line wattmeter. Some results with damped oscillations pulsed at 1,000 pulses per second are also presented.

Barger, R. L.; Brooks, J. D.; Beasley, W. D.

1960-01-01

86

A 3D Monte Carlo Photoionization Code for Modeling Diffuse Ionized Gas  

E-print Network

We have developed a three dimensional Monte Carlo photoionization code tailored for the study of Galactic H II regions and the percolation of ionizing photons in diffuse ionized gas. We describe the code, our calculation of photoionization, heating & cooling, and the approximations we have employed for the low density H II regions we wish to study. Our code gives results in agreement with the Lexington H II region benchmarks. We show an example of a 2D shadowed region and point out the very significant effect that diffuse radiation produced by recombinations of helium has on the temperature within the shadow.

K. Wood; J. Mathis; B. Ercolano

2003-11-26

87

IONIZED GAS IN THE FIRST 10 kpc OF THE INTERSTELLAR GALACTIC HALO: METAL ION FRACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present direct measures of the ionization fractions of several sulfur ions in the Galactic warm ionized medium (WIM). We obtained high-resolution ultraviolet absorption-line spectroscopy of post-asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters Messier 3 [(l, b) = (42.{sup 0}2, +78.{sup 0}7), d = 10.2 kpc, and z = 10.0 kpc] and Messier 5 [(l, b) = (3.{sup 0}9, +46.{sup 0}8), d = 7.5 kpc, and z = +5.3 kpc] with the Hubble Space Telescope and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to measure, or place limits on, the column densities of S I, S II, S III, S IV, S VI, and H I. These clusters also house millisecond pulsars, whose dispersion measures give an electron column density from which we infer the H II column in these directions. We find fractions of S{sup +2} in the WIM for the M 3 and M 5 sight lines x(S{sup +2}) {identical_to} N(S{sup +2})/N(S) = 0.33 {+-} 0.07 and 0.47 {+-} 0.09, respectively, with variations perhaps related to location. With negligible quantities of the higher ionization states, we conclude that S{sup +} and S{sup +2} account for all of the S in the WIM. We extend the methodology to study the ion fractions in the warm and hot ionized gas of the Milky Way, including the high ions Si{sup +3}, C{sup +3}, N{sup +4}, and O{sup +5}. The vast majority of the Galactic ionized gas is warm (T {approx} 10{sup 4} K) and photoionized (the WIM) or very hot (T > 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K) and collisionally ionized. The common tracer of ionized gas beyond the Milky Way, O{sup +5}, traces <1% of the total ionized gas mass of the Milky Way.

Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Consiglio, S. Michelle, E-mail: jhowk@nd.edu, E-mail: smconsiglio@ucla.edu [Current address: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-11-10

88

On the Nature of Highly Ionized Gas in the Halos of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major discoveries made with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph is that the halos of typical star-forming galaxies at low-redshift contain a major baryonic component in the form of highly ionized gas traced by the OVI ion. This discovery raises many important questions. Where did the gas come from, where is it going, and how is it energized? Is it photoionized by the meta-galactic background or is it hot collisionally-ionized gas? Is it gas in hydrostatic equilibrium at the virial temperature? Is it accreted material that is heated mechanically as it flows into the halo from the cosmic web? Is it outflowing material that is heated by feedback supplied by the massive stars in the galaxy? An important first step in answering these questions would be to precisely measure the ionization state of the gas traced by OVI. In this proposal we request 25 orbits using COS to do this by measuring the relative column densities of the NeVIII, OVI, and OIV ions in the halos of five typical star-forming galaxies at z = 0.5 to 0.6. These data will allow us to discriminate between photo- and collisional ionization, to determine whether the gas has a temperature close to the halo virial temperature, and to assess the amount of energy input required to sustain the hot halo. Unlike the three galaxies studied to date using these ions, ours will be the first 'fair sample' of typical L* star-forming galaxies. As such, these data will provide a unique new benchmark against which the increasingly sophisticated numerical simulations of galactic halos can be compared.

Heckman, Timothy

2013-10-01

89

Start-phase ionization dynamics in the laser plasma at low gas target densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Xe laser-produced-plasma sources of short-wave radiation, the laser-energy-to-EUV conversion efficiency (CE) proves substantially less than theoretical expectations. In the present work, a calculated estimate has been made which indicates that a long period of the primary ionization, lasting up to a moment when high-Z ions appear to emit short-wave photons, can be one of main causes for this. During that period the plasma remains low-ionized and absorbs weakly the laser energy. The estimate above has been experimentally confirmed with spectroscopic data and those on the effective ion charge derived from measured absorption of the laser radiation in the plasma. A preionization of the gas target with an ultraviolet (UV) excimer laser pulse is proposed as a method to accelerate the ionization process and consequently, to enhance CE.

Belik, V. P.; Demidov, R. A.; Kalmykov, S. G.; Mozharov, A. M.; Petrenko, M. V.; Sasin, M. E.

2013-12-01

90

The Nuclear Ionized Gas in the Radio Galaxy M84 (NGC 4374)  

E-print Network

We present optical images of the nucleus of the nearby radio galaxy M84 (NGC 4374 = 3C272.1) obtained with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Our three images cover the H$\\alpha$ + [N II] emission lines as well as the V and I continuum bands. Analysis of these images confirms that the H$\\alpha$ + [N II] emission in the central 5'' (410 pc) is elongated along position angle (P.A.) $\\approx 72\\arcdeg$, which is roughly parallel to two nuclear dust lanes.Our high-resolution images reveal that the H$\\alpha$ + [N II] emission has three components, namely a nuclear gas disk,an `ionization cone', and outer filaments. The nuclear disk of ionized gas has diameter $\\approx 1'' = 82$ pc and major axis P.A. $\\approx 58\\arcdeg \\pm 6\\arcdeg$. On an angular scale of $0\\farcs5$, the major axis of this nuclear gas disk is consistent with that of the dust. However, the minor axis of the gas disk (P.A. $\\approx 148\\arcdeg$) is tilted with respect to that of the filamentary H$\\alpha$ + [N II] emission at distances > 2'' from the nucleus; the minor axis of this larger scale gas is roughly aligned with the axis of the kpc-scale radio jets (P.A. $\\approx 170\\arcdeg$). The ionization cone (whose apex is offset by $\\approx 0\\farcs3$ south of the nucleus) extends 2'' from the nucleus along the axis of the southern radio jet. This feature is similar to the ionization cones seen in some Seyfert nuclei, which are also aligned with the radio axes.

Gary A. Bower; Timothy M. Heckman; Andrew S. Wilson; Douglas O. Richstone

1997-04-11

91

A Search for Very Extended Ionized Gas in Nearby Starburst and Active Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results from a pilot study of 10 nearby starburst and active galaxies conducted with the Taurus Tunable Filter (TTF) on the Anglo-Australian and William Herschel telescopes. The main purpose of this imaging survey is to search for warm emission-line gas on the outskirts (galactocentric distances R>~10 kpc) of galaxies to provide direct constraints on the size and geometry of the ``zone of influence'' of these galaxies on their environment. Gaseous complexes or filaments larger than ~20 kpc are discovered or confirmed in six of the galaxies in the sample (NGC 1068, 1482, 4388, 6240 and 7213, and MR 2251-178). Slightly smaller structures are seen for the first time in the ionization cones and galactic winds of NGC 1365, NGC 1705, the Circinus galaxy, and ESO 484-G036. The TTF data are combined with new optical long-slit spectra, as well as published and archived radio and X-ray maps, to constrain the origin and source of ionization of these filaments. A broad range of phenomena is observed, including large-scale ionization cones and galactic winds, tidal interaction, and ram-pressure stripping by an intracluster medium. The source of ionization in this gas ranges from shock ionization to photoionization by the central AGN or in situ hot young stars. The sample is too small to draw statistically meaningful conclusions about the extent and properties of the warm ionized medium on a large scale and its relevance to galaxy formation and evolution. The next generation of tunable filters on large telescopes promises to improve the sensitivity to faint emission-line fluxes at least tenfold and allow systematic surveys of a large sample of emission-line galaxies.

Veilleux, S.; Shopbell, P. L.; Rupke, D. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cecil, G.

2003-11-01

92

Qualitative Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analyses Using Amines as Chemical Ionization Reagent Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia is a very useful chemical ionization (CI) reagent gas for the qualitative analyses of compounds by positive ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The gas is readily available, inexpensive, and leaves no carbon contamination in the MS source. Compounds of interest to our laboratory typically yield abundant protonated or ammoniated species, which are indicative of a compound's molecular weight. Nevertheless, some labile compounds fragment extensively by substitution and elimination reactions and yield no molecular weight information. In these cases, a CI reagent gas mixture of methylamine in methane prepared dynamically was found to be very useful in obtaining molecular weight data. Likewise, deuterated ammonia and deuterated methylamine are useful CI reagent gases for determining the exchangeable protons in organic compounds. Deuterated methylamine CI reagent gas is conveniently prepared by dynamically mixing small amounts of methylamine with excess deuterated ammonia.

Little, James L.; Howard, Adam S.

2013-12-01

93

Inner polar ionized-gas disks and properties of their host galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have analyzed line-of-sight velocity fields of the stellar and ionized-gas components for the volume-limited sample of nearby lenticular galaxies by using the raw data of the ATLAS-3D survey undertaken with the integral-field spectrograph SAURON. Among 200 nearby lenticular galaxies, I distinguish 20 cases of nearly orthogonal rotation of the inner ionized gas with respect to the central stellar components; so I estimate a frequency of the inner polar disks in nearby S0 galaxies as 10%. Properties of the central stellar populations - mean ages, metallicities, magnesium-to-iron ratios - are derived through the Lick indices. The typical stellar population properties of the polar-disk host galaxies are exactly the same as the stellar population properties of the complete sample.

Sil'chenko, Olga K.

2015-02-01

94

Ionized gas outflows and global kinematics of low-z luminous star-forming galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the kinematic properties of the ionized gas outflows and ambient interstellar medium (ISM) in a large and representative sample of local U/LIRGs (58 systems, 75 galaxies) at galactic and sub-galactic (i.e.,star-forming clumps) scales, thanks to integral field spectroscopy (IFS)-based high signal-to-noise integrated spectra. The main results have been recently presented in Arribas et al. (2014), and are briefly summarized here.

Arribas, S.; Colina, L.; Bellocchi, E.; Maiolino, R.; Villar-Martín, M.

2015-02-01

95

Investigating the Diffuse Ionized Gas throughout the Magellanic Cloud System with WHAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present early stages of an H-? survey of the Magellanic System using the Wisconsin H-? Mapper (WHAM). Our maps of the Small Magellanic Cloud, Large Magellanic Cloud, and Magellanic Bridge are the most sensitive kinematic maps of ionized gas throughout the System. With a velocity resolution of 12 km/s, WHAM observations can cleanly separate diffuse emission at Magellanic velocities from that of the Milky Way and terrestrial sources. These new maps of the SMC and LMC compliment observations of the Magellanic Bridge by Barger et al. (2013), who found H-alpha emission extending throughout and beyond the observed H I emission. Using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to the limit of atmospheric line confusion (~ 10s of mR), we find that ionized gas emission extends at least 5 degrees beyond the traditional boundary of the SMC when compared to recent deep-imaging surveys (e.g., MCELS; Smith et al. 2005). The diffuse ionized emission extent is similar to the neutral gas extent as traced by 21 cm. We present spectra comparing H I and H-alpha kinematic signatures throughout the emission region, which are dominated by galactic rotation. Multi-wavelength observations are also underway in [S II] and [N II] for the SMC and LMC. WHAM research and operations are supported through NSF Award AST-1108911.

Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen; Madsen, Gregory J.; Hill, Alex S.

2015-01-01

96

Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor  

SciTech Connect

Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14??m. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7??m gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

2014-03-24

97

A VUV Photoionization and Ab Initio Determination of the Ionization Energy of a Gas-Phase Sugar (Deoxyribose)  

E-print Network

A VUV Photoionization and Ab Initio Determination of the Ionization Energy of a Gas-Phase Sugar, Clusters, Excited States Sugars, together with phosphates, constitute the scaffold on which nucleic acids ionization energy for sugars such as deoxyribose stems from the difficulty to prepare intact molecules

Krylov, Anna I.

98

Electron attachment, effective ionization coefficient, and electron drift velocity for CF 4 gas mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For tracking in a SSC experiment with wire chambers, CF 4 gas mixtures are very advantageous from the point of view of aging, drift velocity, and spatial resolution. However, they are also known to suffer from considerable electron attachment. This attachment can cause serious inefficiencies in the collection of electrons liberated near the anode wire, and causes broadening of the pulse-height spectrum for all ionization electrons. Two bench-top setups have been used to study electron attachment of CF 4 gas mixtures, and related properties such as the gas gain difference between single-electron avalanches and 55Fe X-ray initiated avalanches, the degradation of the energy resolution due to electron attachment, and the effective ionization coefficient overline?(? ? - ?) . A set of three prototype straw-tube modules each containing an 8 × 8 bundle of straws has been constructed and tested at a Fermilab test beam with various CF 4 gas mixtures. Some preliminary results on the drift velocity and drift time for these gas mixtures are reported.

Anderson, W. S.; Armitage, J. C.; Dunn, E.; Heinrich, J. G.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K. T.; Weckel, J.; Zhu, Y.

1992-12-01

99

DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES IN WATER AND SOIL BY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY UNDER CHEMICAL IONIZATION CONDITIONS WITH ISOBUTANE AS REAGENT GAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Phthalate determination is important because phthalates often are major impurities in samples and can have significant health effects. Tandem mass spectrometry under chemical ionization mass spectrometry conditions with isobutane as the reagent gas was used to determine 11 phthal...

100

The ionized gas in the CALIFA early-type galaxies. I. Mapping two representative cases: NGC 6762 and NGC 5966  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the ongoing CALIFA survey, we have conducted a thorough bidimensional analysis of the ionized gas in two E/S0 galaxies, NGC 6762 and NGC 5966, aiming to shed light on the nature of their warm ionized ISM. Specifically, we present optical (3745-7300 Å) integral field spectroscopy obtained with the PMAS/PPAK integral field spectrophotometer. Its wide field-of-view (1' × 1') covers the entire optical extent of each galaxy down to faint continuum surface brightnesses. To recover the nebular lines, we modeled and subtracted the underlying stellar continuum from the observed spectra using the STARLIGHT spectral synthesis code. The pure emission-line spectra were used to investigate the gas properties and determine the possible sources of ionization. We show the advantages of IFU data in interpreting the complex nature of the ionized gas in NGC 6762 and NGC 5966. In NGC 6762, the ionized gas and stellar emission display similar morphologies, while the emission line morphology is elongated in NGC 5966, spanning ~6 kpc, and is oriented roughly orthogonal to the major axis of the stellar continuum ellipsoid. Whereas gas and stars are kinematically aligned in NGC 6762, the gas is kinematically decoupled from the stars in NGC 5966. A decoupled rotating disk or an "ionization cone" are two possible interpretations of the elongated ionized gas structure in NGC 5966. The latter would be the first "ionization cone" of such a dimension detected within a weak emission-line galaxy. Both galaxies have weak emission-lines relative to the continuum[EW(H?) ? 3 Å] and have very low excitation, log([Oiii]?5007/H?) ? 0.5. Based on optical diagnostic ratios ([Oiii]?5007/H?, [Nii]?6584/H?, [Sii]?6717, 6731/H?, [Oi]?6300/H?), both objects contain a LINER nucleus and an extended LINER-like gas emission. The emission line ratios do not vary significantly with radius or aperture, which indicates that the nebular properties are spatially homogeneous. The gas emission in NGC 6762 can be best explained by photoionization by pAGB stars without the need of invoking any other excitation mechanism. In the case of NGC 5966, the presence of a nuclear ionizing source seems to be required to shape the elongated gas emission feature in the "ionization cone" scenario, although ionization by pAGB stars cannot be ruled out. Further study of this object is needed to clarify the nature of its elongated gas structure. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

Kehrig, C.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Papaderos, P.; Vílchez, J. M.; Gomes, J. M.; Masegosa, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lehnert, M. D.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Marquez, I.; Mast, D.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Marino, R. A.; Pasquali, A.; Perez, I.; Roth, M. M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Ziegler, B.

2012-04-01

101

Integral-field Stellar and Ionized Gas Kinematics of Peculiar Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion ?, and the ionized gas velocity (H? and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter ? R . An evaluation of the galaxies in the ? R ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact H? morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

Cortés, Juan R.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Hardy, Eduardo

2015-01-01

102

Dense clumps of ionized gas near Pi Scorpii, as revealed by the fine-structure excitation of N II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The column density and the emission of the ionized gas along the line of sight toward the B1 V + B2 V binary star Pi Sco are measured on the basis of the fine-structure absorption lines of the ground state N II. It is found that the bulk of this ionized gas must be clumped on a length scale of 0.025 pc, which is far smaller than the observed size of the diffuse H II region surrounding Pi Sco of about 6 pc. The observed column density of S III toward Pi Sco yields an upper limit on the distance of the absorbing, clumped gas from the star of less than about 0.02 pc, assuming that both the N II and S III absorption arise from the same gas. The possibility that the ionized gas originates from a photoevaporating circumstellar disk directly surrounding Pi Sco is excluded, since such a disk would have an unusual size of order 0.025 pc and would have had to survive for the estimated age of Pi Sco of 5-8 Myr. The derived mean density of the clumped gas is of order 40/cu cm, so that the gas is at a pressure that far exceeds the mean pressure in the H II region. It is concluded that the ionized gas could originate from evaporation flows off a cluster of compact neutral objects that evaporate due to the ionizing radiation of Pi Sco.

Bertoldi, Frank; Jenkins, Edward B.

1992-01-01

103

Investigation of combwax of honeybees with high-temperature gas chromatography and high-temperature gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. II: High-temperature gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Crude combwax of six various honey bee species have been analyzed by high-temperature gas chromatography (HTGC)-chemical ionization mass spectrometry after a two-step silylation procedure. An optimized chromatographic procedure, described previously, enables the separation of high-molecular mass lipid compounds resulting in a characteristic fingerprint of the combwaxes of different honeybee species. The coupling of HTGC to mass spectrometry requires appropriate instrumentation in order to achieve sufficient sensitivity at high elution temperatures and avoid loss of chromatographic resolution. Chemical ionization was carried out using methane as reagent gas in order to determine the molecular mass of the individual compounds by means of abundant quasi molecular ions. To confirm the presence of unsaturated wax esters, ammonia was used as reagent gas. More than 80 lipid constituents were separated and characterized by their mass spectra. Representative chemical ionization mass spectra of individual compounds are presented. Both, HTGC-flame ionization detection data and the results of the HTGC-mass spectrometric investigations enabled a rapid profiling of the individual classes of compounds in crude combwaxes. PMID:10910202

Aichholz, R; Lorbeer, E

2000-06-23

104

A study of the ionized gas in Stephan's Quintet from integral field spectroscopy observations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stephan's Quintet (SQ) is a famous interacting compact group of galaxies in an important stage of dynamical evolution, but surprisingly very few spectroscopic studies are found in the literature. We present optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) observations of the SQ from the PPAK IFS Nearby Galaxies Survey, that provide a powerful way of studying with spatial resolution the physical characteristics of the ionized gas within the group. The nature of the gas emission is analysed using 2D maps of continuum-subtracted, pure emission-line intensities, stacked spectra, diagnostic diagrams, and photoionization model predictions. In the case of NGC 7319, we study the galaxy-wide high-velocity outflow emission by comparing the emission properties with theoretical shock and AGN models. We conclude that the excitation mechanism of the gas in this galaxy is a mixture of AGN photoionization and shocks with a photoionizing precursor. The emission spectra from the large-scale shock front in the interacting pair NGC 7318A/B is analysed, confirming the presence of several kinematic components. Comparison with predictions from theoretical shock models suggests that the gas emission is consistent with shocks without a photoionizing precursor, low pre-shock density, and velocities in the range of ˜200-400 km s-1. The gas oxygen abundance for NGC 7318B is determined using an updated O3N2 calibration. Although NGC 7317 shows no significant gas emission, an ionizing cluster is found southwest of this galaxy, probably the result of tidal interaction. As a by-product, we analyse the gas emission of the foreground galaxy NGC 7320.

Rodríguez-Baras, M.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Pasquali, A.

2014-07-01

105

Ionization effects in the generation of wake-fields by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in argon gas  

SciTech Connect

Difference in mechanisms of wake-field generation and electron self-injection by high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in an initially neutral Argon gas and in pre-ionized plasma without ionization is studied via 2D particle-in-cell simulations including optical ionization of the media. For shorter laser pulses, 40 fs, ionization results only in an increase of the charge of accelerated electrons by factor of {approx}3 with qualitatively the same energy distribution. For longer pulses, 80 fs, a more stable wake field structure is observed in the neutral gas with the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons exceeding that in the fixed density plasma. In higher density Argon, an ionizing laser pulse converts itself to a complex system of solitons at a self-induced, critical density ramp.

Makito, K.; Shin, J.-H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Zhidkov, A.; Hosokai, T.; Masuda, S. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kodama, R. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

2012-10-15

106

Ionized Gas Velocities from Multi-slit Spectroscopy for Nearby, Edge-on Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extra-planar (EP) gas in several spiral galaxies shows a decrease in rotational velocity with increasing height above the disk. The majority of this EP gas likely originates from disk-halo cycling driven by star formation in the disk via galactic fountains, which predict a lagging EP component. However, observations for a handful of galaxies show a steeper gradient than predicted by galactic fountains alone. A possible remedy for this is EP gas originating from infalling material, such as accreted satellites or the IGM. Accreted material with lower initial angular momentum than the disk could contribute to a steeper rotational velocity gradient. Studying the kinematics of EP gas can therefore provide constraints for how widespread accretion may be. We present optical observations and modeling of the ionized EP gas in our sample of 10 nearby, edge-on galaxies. For a subset of our targets, we compare our results to those from the HALOGAS (Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS) project. HALOGAS is WSRT deep HI survey studying cold gas accretion in the local universe. Our optical observations are from a multi-slit spectroscopic setup on the ARC 3.5m telescope, which allows us to measure velocities of Ha-emitting gas as a function of height above the disk in 11 radial distance bins in a single exposure. RW acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-0908126 and from a grant from Research Corporation for the Advancement of Science.

Wu, Catharine J.; Walterbos, R. A.; Rand, R. J.; Heald, G.; HALOGAS Team

2014-01-01

107

Imaging spectrophotometry of ionized gas in NGC 1068. I - Kinematics of the narrow-line region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The kinematics of collisionally excited forbidden N II 6548, 6583 across the inner 1 arcmin diameter of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 is mapped using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer and low-noise CCD. The stack of monochromatic images, which spatially resolved the high-velocity gas, was analyzed for kinematic and photometric content. Profiles agree well with previous long-slit work, and their complete spatial coverage makes it possible to constrain the gas volume distribution. It is found that the narrow-line region is distributed in a thick center-darkened, line-emitting cylinder that envelopes the collimated radio jet. Three distinct kinematic subsystems, of which the cylinder is composed, are discussed in detail. Detailed behavior of the emission-line profiles, at the few points in the NE quadrant with simple kinematics, argues that the ionized gas develops a significant component of motion perpendicular to the jet axis.

Cecil, Gerald; Bland, Jonathan; Tully, R. Brent

1990-01-01

108

Selective detection of volatile aromatic compounds using a compact laser ionization detector with fast gas chromatography.  

PubMed

We report results for a new gas chromatography detector that is comparatively sensitive and far more selective for aromatic compounds than the traditional photoionization detector. The detection means is multiphoton ionization at atmospheric pressure. The ionization source in these experiments is a diode-pumped passively Q-switched microchip laser operating at 266 nm. Experiments were conducted with the detector interfaced to a fast gas chromatograph. For <20 s elution time, limits of detection were <1 pg for toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and isopropylbenzene; the limit of detection for benzene is approximately 10 pg. Detector response was linear over 5 orders of magnitude, including these low levels. Negligible signals were observed for nonaromatic ketones, aldehydes, ethers, and cycloalkanes at levels as high as 0.1 microg (10 mg/L concentration). Detector efficiency after fast GC separation was 0.002% when using a detector cell with a radius of 1.1 cm and a purge gas flow of 500 mL/min. The advantages of this detector are further illustrated by the fast GC analysis of fuel samples. PMID:15018571

Meyer, Melissa J; Schieffer, Gregg M; Moeker, Eric K; Brodersen, Jeremy J; Swenson, Orven F; Borgerding, Anthony J

2004-03-15

109

Ionized gas outflow in the isolated S0 galaxy NGC 4460  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used integral-field and long-slit spectroscopy to study a bright extended nebulosity recently discovered in the isolated lenticular galaxy NGC 4460 during an H? survey of nearby galaxies. An analysis of archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, GALEX and Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that current star formation is entirely concentrated in the central kiloparsec of the galaxy disc. The observed ionized gas parameters (morphology, kinematics and ionization state) can be explained by a gas outflow above the plane of the galaxy, caused by star formation in the circumnuclear region. Galactic wind parameters in NGC 4460 (outflow velocity, total kinetic energy) are several times smaller, compared with the known galactic wind in NGC 253, which is explained by the substantially lower total star formation rate. We discuss the cause of the star formation processes in NGC 4460 and in two other known isolated lenticular (S0) and elliptical (E) galaxies of the Local Volume: NGC 404 and 855. We provide evidence suggesting that the feeding of isolated galaxies by intergalactic gas on a cosmological time-scale is a steady process without significant variations. Based on observations collected with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which is operated under the financial support of the Science Department of Russia (registration number 01-43). E-mail: moisav@gmail.com

Moiseev, Alexei; Karachentsev, Igor; Kaisin, Serafim

2010-04-01

110

WARM IONIZED GAS REVEALED IN THE MAGELLANIC BRIDGE TIDAL REMNANT: CONSTRAINING THE BARYON CONTENT AND THE ESCAPING IONIZING PHOTONS AROUND DWARF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

The Magellanic System includes some of the nearest examples of galaxies disturbed by galaxy interactions. These interactions have redistributed much of their gas into the halos of the Milky Way (MW) and the Magellanic Clouds. We present Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper kinematically resolved observations of the warm ionized gas in the Magellanic Bridge over the velocity range of +100 to +300 km s{sup -1} in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H{alpha} intensity map and the corresponding intensity-weighted mean velocity map of the Magellanic Bridge across (l, b) = (281 Degree-Sign .5, -30 Degree-Sign .0) to (302. Degree-Sign 5, -46. Degree-Sign 7). Using the H{alpha} emission from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-Tail and the Bridge, we estimate that the mass of the ionized material is between (0.7-1.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, compared to 3.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} for the neutral mass over the same region. The diffuse Bridge is significantly more ionized than the SMC-Tail, with an ionization fraction of 36%-52% compared to 5%-24% for the Tail. The H{alpha} emission has a complex multiple-component structure with a velocity distribution that could trace the sources of ionization or distinct ionized structures. We find that incident radiation from the extragalactic background and the MW alone are insufficient to produced the observed ionization in the Magellanic Bridge and present a model for the escape fraction of the ionizing photons from both the SMC and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). With this model, we place an upper limit of 4.0% for the average escape fraction of ionizing photons from the LMC and an upper limit of 5.5% for the SMC. These results, combined with the findings of a half a dozen other studies for dwarf galaxies in different environments, provide compelling evidence that only a small percentage of the ionizing photons escape from dwarf galaxies in the present epoch to influence their surroundings.

Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bland-Hawthorn, J., E-mail: kbargers@nd.edu, E-mail: haffner@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: jbh@physics.usyd.edu.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2013-07-10

111

Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei  

E-print Network

A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa - 10^-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.

T. Sonoda; M. Wada; H. Tomita; C. Sakamoto; T. Takatsuka; T. Furukawa; H. Iimura; Y. Ito; T. Kubo; Y. Matsuo; H. Mita; S. Naimi; S. Nakamura; T. Noto; P. Schury; T. Shinozuka; T. Wakui; H. Miyatake; S. Jeong; H. Ishiyama; Y. X. Watanabe; Y. Hirayama; K. Okada; A. Takamine

2012-10-24

112

Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa-10-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.

Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Tomita, H.; Sakamoto, C.; Takatsuka, T.; Furukawa, T.; Iimura, H.; Ito, Y.; Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Mita, H.; Naimi, S.; Nakamura, S.; Noto, T.; Schury, P.; Shinozuka, T.; Wakui, T.; Miyatake, H.; Jeong, S.; Ishiyama, H.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Okada, K.; Takamine, A.

2013-01-01

113

Preparation of the spacer for narrow electrode gap configuration in ionization-based gas sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have started to be developed as the sensing element for ionization-based gas sensors due to the demand for improved sensitivity, selectivity, stability and other sensing properties beyond what can be offered by the conventional ones. Although these limitations have been overcome, the problems still remain with the conventional ionization-based gas sensors in that they are bulky and operating with large breakdown voltage and high temperature. Recent studies have shown that the breakdown voltage can be reduced by using nanostructured electrodes and narrow electrode gap. Nanostructured electrode in the form of aligned CNTs array with evenly distributed nanotips can enhance the linear electric field significantly. The later is attributed to the shorter conductivity path through narrow electrode gap. The paper presents the study on the design consideration in order to realize ionization based gas sensor using aligned carbon nanotubes array in an optimum sensor configuration with narrow electrode gap. Several deposition techniques were studied to deposit the spacer, the key component that can control the electrode gap. Plasma spray deposition, electron beam deposition and dry oxidation method were employed to obtain minimum film thickness around 32 ?m. For plasma spray method, sand blasting process is required in order to produce rough surface for strong bonding of the deposited film onto the surface. Film thickness, typically about 39 ?m can be obtained. For the electron beam deposition and dry oxidation, the film thickness is in the range of nanometers and thus unsuitable to produce the spacer. The deposited multilayer film consisting of copper, alumina and ferum on which CNTs array will be grown was found to be removed during the etching process. This is attributed to the high etching rate on the thin film which can be prevented by reducing the rate and having a thicker conductive copper film.

Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif

2012-09-01

114

Non-equilibirum ionization and cooling of metal-enriched gas in the presence of a photoionization background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of the formation of galaxies, as well as ionization models used to interpret observations of quasar absorption lines, generally either assume ionization equilibrium or ignore the presence of the extragalactic background (EGB) radiation. We introduce a method to compute the non-equilibrium ionization and cooling of diffuse gas exposed to the EGB. Our method iterates the ionization states of the 11 elements that dominate the cooling (H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Si, Mg, S, Ca and Fe) and uses tabulated ion-by-ion cooling and photo-heating efficiencies to update the temperature of the gas. Our reaction network includes radiative and di-electric recombination, collisional ionization, photoionization, Auger ionization and charge transfer. We verify that our method reproduces published results for collisional equilibrium, collisional non-equilibrium and photoionized equilibrium. Non-equilibrium effects can become very important in cooling gas, particularly below 106 K. Photoionization and non-equilibrium effects both tend to boost the degree of ionization and to reduce cooling efficiencies. The effect of the EGB is larger for lower densities (i.e. higher ionization parameters). Hence, photoionization affects (equilibrium and non-equilibrium) cooling more under isochoric than under isobaric conditions. Non-equilibrium effects are smaller in the presence of the EGB and are thus overestimated when using collisional-only processes. The inclusion of the EGB alters the observational diagnostics of diffuse, metal-enriched gas (e.g. metal absorption lines probed in quasar sight lines) even more significantly than the cooling efficiencies. We argue that the cooling efficiency should be considered if ionization models are used to infer physical conditions from observed line ratios, as the a priori probability of observing gas is lower if its cooling time is shorter. We provide online tables of ionization fractions and cooling efficiencies, as well as other data, for equilibrium and non-equilibrium scenarios, and both with and without an EGB. Cooling efficiencies and diagnostics of the physical state of diffuse gas can become highly inaccurate if ionization equilibrium is assumed or if the existence of the ionizing background is ignored.

Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Schaye, Joop

2013-09-01

115

Ionized gas outflows and global kinematics of low-z luminous star-forming galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the kinematic properties of the ionised gas outflows and ambient interstellar medium (ISM) in a large and representative sample of local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) (58 systems, 75 galaxies) at galactic and sub-galactic (i.e., star-forming clumps) scales, thanks to integral field spectroscopy (IFS)-based high signal-to-noise integrated spectra. The velocity dispersion of the ionized ISM in U/LIRGs (? ? ? ~ 70 km s-1) is larger than in lower luminosity local star-forming galaxies (? ? ? ~ 25 km s-1). While for isolated disc LIRGs star formation appears to sustain turbulence, gravitational energy release associated with interactions and mergers plays an important role in driving ? in the U/LIRG range. We find that ? has a dependency on the star formation rate density (?SFR), which is weaker than expected if it were driven by the energy released by the starburst. The relatively small role of star formation (SF) driving the ? in U/LIRGs is reinforced by the lack of an increase in ? associated with high luminosity SF clumps. We also find that the impact of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in ULIRGs is strong, increasing on average ? by a factor 1.5. Low-z U/LIRGs cover a range of velocity dispersion (? ~ 30 to 100 km s-1) and star formation rate density (?SFR ~ 0.1 to 20 M? yr-1 kpc-2) similar to those of high-z SFGs. Moreover, the observed weak dependency of ? on ?SFR for local U/LIRGs (? ? ?SFR+0.06) is in very good agreement with that measured in some high-z samples. The presence of ionized gas outflows in U/LIRGs seems universal based on the detection of a broad, usually blueshifted, H? line. The observed dependency of the maximum velocity of the outflow (Vmax) on the star formation rate (SFR) is of the type Vmax(non - AGN) ? SFR(LIR)+ 0.24. We find that AGNs in U/LIRGs are able to generate faster (~×2) and more massive (~× 1.4) ionized gas outflows than pure starbursts. The derived ionized mass loading factors (?) are in general below 1, with only a few AGNs above this limit. The escaping gas fraction is low with only less massive (log(Mdyn/M?) < 10.4) U/LIRGs having outflowing terminal velocities higher than their escape velocities, and more massive galaxies retaining the gas, even if they host an AGN. The observed average outflow properties in U/LIRGs are similar to high-z galaxies of comparable SFR. However, while high-z galaxies seem to require ?SFR > 1 M? yr-1 kpc-2 for launching strong outflows, this threshold is not observed in low-z U/LIRGs even after correcting for the differential fraction of the gas content. In the bright SF clumps found in LIRGs, ionized gas outflows appear to be very common (detection rate over 80%). Their observed properties are less extreme than those associated with the entire galaxy. The clumps in LIRGs follow the general size-L-? scaling relations found for low- and high-z clumps, though they are in general smaller, less luminous, and are characterized by lower ? than at high-z. For a given observed (no internal extinction correction applied) star formation surface density, outflows in LIRG clumps would be about one to two orders of magnitude less energetic than the outflows launched by clumps in high-z SF galaxies. Tables 1, 2, and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Arribas, S.; Colina, L.; Bellocchi, E.; Maiolino, R.; Villar-Martín, M.

2014-08-01

116

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, EXPLOSIVES DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, SRI INSTRUMENTS, MODEL 8610C, GAS CHROMATOGRAPH/THERMIONIC IONIZATION DETECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The SRI Model 86 1 OC gas chromatograph (GC) is a transportable instrument that can provide on-site analysis of soils for explosives. Coupling this transportable gas chromatograph with a thermionic ionization detector (TID) allows for the determination of explosives in soil matri...

117

The Effect of Pre-Ionization Inhomogeneities on the Dynamics of a Subnanosecond Pulsed Electrical Breakdown in Gas Gaps1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and the development of a breakdown of highly overvoltaged gas gaps by voltage pulses having the rise time of 1 ns or shorter are studied experimentally and in theoreti- cal terms. The study revealed that ionization proc- esses leading to the breakdown start in the gas vol- ume and not from the surface of the electrodes. The gap

S. N. Ivanov; V. V. Lisenkov; V. G. Shpak

118

The Volume Fraction of Ionized Intergalactic Gas at Redshift z=6.5  

E-print Network

The observed number density of Lyman-alpha sources implies a minimum volume of the inter-galactic medium that must be ionized, in order to allow the Lyman-alpha photons to escape attenuation. We estimate this volume by assigning to each Lyman-alpha emitter the minimum Stromgren sphere that would allow half its Lyman-alpha photons to escape. This implies a lower limit to ionized gas volume fraction of 20-50% at redshift z=6.5. This is a lower limit in two ways: First, we conservatively assume that the Lyman-alpha sources seen (at a relatively bright flux limit) are the only ones present; and second, we assume the smallest Stromgren sphere volume that will allow the photons to escape. This limit is completely independent of what ionizing photon sources produced the bubbles. Deeper Lyman-alpha surveys are possible with present technology, and can strengthen these limits by detecting a higher density of Lyman-alpha galaxies.

Sangeeta Malhotra; James Rhoads

2005-11-07

119

Determination of nitrogen monoxide in high purity nitrogen gas with an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometric (API-MS) method was studied for the determination of residual NO in high purity N2 gas. The API-MS is very sensitive to NO, but the presence of O2 interferes with the NO measurement. Nitrogen gas in cylinders as sample gas was mixed with NO standard gas and/or O2 standard gas, and then introduced into the API-MS. The calibration curves of NO and O2 has linearity in the region of 0 - 2 ppm, but the slopes changed with every cylinder. The effect of O2 on NO+ peak was additive and proportional to O2 concentration in the range of 0 - 0.5 ppm. The increase in NO+ intensity due to O2 was (0.07 - 0.13)%/O2, 1 ppm. Determination of NO and O2 was carried out by the standard addition method to eliminate the influence of variation of slopes. The interference due to O2 was estimated from the product of the O2 concentration and the ratio of slope A to Slope B. Slope A is the change in the NO+ intensity with the O2 concentration. Slope B is the intensity with O2 concentration.

Kato, K.

1985-01-01

120

Highly ionized gas on galaxy scales: mapping the interacting Seyfert galaxy LEDA 135736  

E-print Network

We have used the VIMOS IFU to map the properties of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy LEDA 135736. These maps reveal a number of interesting features including: an Extended Narrow Line Region detectable out to 9 kpc, an area of intense star formation located at a projected distance of 12 kpc from the centre, an elliptical companion galaxy, and kinematic features, aligned along the long-axis of the ENLR, that are consistent with radio jet-driven mass outflow. We propose that the ENLR results from extra-planar gas ionized by the AGN, and that the AGN in turn might be triggered by interaction with the companion galaxy, which can also explain the burst of star formation and morphological features. Only about two percent of the ENLR's kinetic energy is in the mass outflow. We infer from this that the bulk of mechanical energy imparted by the jet is used to heat this gas.

J. Gerssen; D. J. Wilman; L. Christensen; R. G. Bower; V. Wild

2008-11-10

121

Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen gas plasma channel produced by strong field ionization  

E-print Network

Recently, Yao et al. demonstrated the creation of coherent emissions in nitrogen gas with two-color (800 nm + 400 nm) ultrafast laser pulses [New J. Phys. 15, 023046 (2013)]. Based on this two-color scheme, here we report on systematic investigation of temporal characteristics of the coherent emission at 391 nm by experimentally examining its evolution with the increase of the plasma channel induced by the intense 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses at a nitrogen gas pressure of ~25 mbar. We reveal unexpected temporal profiles of the coherent emissions, which show significant superradiance signatures owing to the quantum coherence via cooperation of an ensemble of excited N2+ molecules. Our findings shed more light on the mechanisms behind the laser-like emissions induced by strong-field ionization of molecules.

Li, Guihua; Zeng, Bin; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xu, Huailiang; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

2013-01-01

122

Dust and ionized gas in elliptical galaxies: Signatures of merging collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditionally elliptical galaxies were thought to be essentially devoid of interstellar matter. However, recent advances in instrumental sensitivity have caused a renaissance of interest in dust and gas in - or associated with - elliptical galaxies. In particular, the technique of co-adding IRAS survey scans has led to the detection of more than half of all ellipticals with BT less than 11 mag. in the Revised Shapley-Ames catalog, indicating the presence of 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) solar mass of cold interstellar matter (Jura et al. 1987). In addition, CCD multi-color surface photometry shows dust patches in about 30 percent of the cases studied to date (e.g., Veron-Cetty & Veron 1988). Thorough study of the gas and dust in ellipticals is important to (1) determine its origin (mass-loss from late-type stars, merging collisions with other galaxies or accretion inflows from cooling X-ray gas), and (2) investigate the 3-D shape of ellipticals, as can be derived from the orientation of the dust lanes and the 2-D velocity field of the gas. An important result of our comprehensive CCD imaging program is that a relevant fraction (approximately 40 percent) of the sample objects exhibits dust patches within extended H-alpha+(NII) line-emitting filaments. This common occurrence can be easily accounted for if the dust and gas have an external origin, i.e., mergers or interactions with gas-rich galaxies. Evidence supporting this suggestion: (1) the ionized gas is usually dynamically decoupled from the stellar velocity field (see, e.g., Sharples et al. 1983, Bertola & Bettoni 1988); (2) it is shown in a companion paper (Goudfrooij et al. 1992) that internal stellar mass loss alone can not account for the dust content of elliptical galaxies.

Goudfrooij, Paul; Dejong, Teije

1993-01-01

123

Violent Interaction among Molecular Gas, Supernova Remnants, and Ionized Gas in the Galactic Center Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a high-resolution wide-field mapping observation of Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) in SiO v=0, J=2-1 and H13CO+ J=1-0 emission lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope and the 25-beam receiver of 100 GHz band in order to explore molecular gas affected by shock in the regions and depict the molecular gas mass distribution. The mapping area covers an 1.5°×0.5° area involving several named molecular clouds, for example the Sgr A molecular cloud complex, the Sgr B2 molecular cloud, and so on. The SiO emission line is known as a privileged tracer of shocked molecular gas. We find many molecular clouds remarkable only in SiO emission line. The molecular clouds have large velocity width up to 60 km s-1. The brightness temperature ratio is high up to TB(SiO)/TB(H13CO+) ? 8. The features are dominated by shock SiO-emphasized gas. In such clouds, the ratio of fractional abundance of SiO and H13CO+ molecules is increased to X (SiO)/X(H13CO+) ? 30. Meanwhile, the H13CO+ emission line is a famous tracer of molecular gas mass. H13CO+ emission line presents clumpy distribution of molecular cloud. The averaged fractional abundance in the region is X(SiO)/X(h13CO+) ? 30. The total molecular mass of the CMZ is MLTE = 17 ± 8 × 106M?.

Tsuboi, M.; Tadaki, K.; Sato, M. T.; Miyazaki, A.; Handa, T.

2011-05-01

124

Ionized and neutral gas in the XUV discs of nearby spiral galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting a multiwavelength study of XUV discs in nearby, gas-rich spiral galaxies combining the available UV (GALEX) observations with H i data obtained at the ATCA as part of the Local Volume HI Survey (LVHIS) project and multi-object fibre spectroscopy obtained using the 2dF/AAOmega instrument at the 3.9m AAT. Here we present the results of the multiwavelength analysis of the galaxy pair NGC 1512/1510. The H i distribution of NGC 1512 is very extended with two pronounced spiral/tidal arms. Hundreds of independent UV-bright regions are associated with dense H i clouds in the galaxy outskirts. We confirm the detection of ionized gas in the majority of them and characterize their physical properties, chemical abundances and kinematics. Both the gas distribution andthe distribution of the star-forming regions are affected by gravitational interactionwith the neighbouring blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 1510. Our multiwavelength analysis provides new clues about local star-formation processes, the metal redistribution in the outer gaseous discs of spiral galaxies, the importance of galaxy interactions, the fate of the neutral gas and the chemical evolution in nearby galaxies.

López-Sánchez, A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Westmeier, T.; Esteban, C.

2015-02-01

125

Galaxy stellar mass assembly: supernova feedback, photo-ionization and no-star-forming gas reservoir.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-analytical models are currently the best way to understand the formation of galaxies within the cosmic dark-matter structures. While they fairly well reproduce the local stellar mass functions, they fail to match observations at high redshift. The inconsistency indicates that the gas accretion in galaxies and the transformation of gas into stars, are not well followed. With a new SAM: eGalICS, we explore the impacts of classical mechanisms (supernova feedback, photo-ionization) onto the stellar mass assembly. Even with a strong efficiency, these two processes cannot explain the observed stellar mass function and star formation rate distribution. We introduce an ad-hoc modification of the standard paradigm, based on the presence of a no-star-forming gas component in galaxy discs. We introduce this reservoir to generate a delay between the accretion of the gas and the star formation process. The new stellar mass function and SFR distributions are in good agreement with observations.

Cousin, M.

2014-12-01

126

Evolution of Structure in Late-type Spiral Galaxies I: Ionized Gas Kinematics in NGC 628  

E-print Network

We study two dimensional Fabry-Perot interferometric observations of the nearby face-on late-type spiral galaxy, NGC 628, in order to analyse the ionized gas component of the interstellar medium. Covering the galaxy out to a radius larger than 12 kpc, and with a spatial sampling of 1.6 arcsec, we investigate the large-scale dynamics as well as feedback from individual HII regions into their surrounding medium. We study the role of gravitational perturbations along with that of external triggers which can disturb the kinematics and morphology of NGC 628. We verify the presence of an inner rapidly rotating disc-like component in NGC 628, which we interpret as caused by slow secular evolution of the large-scale spiral arms and oval structure. In combination with auxiliary data, we find indication for that gas is falling in from the outer parts towards the central regions, where a nuclear ring has formed at the location of the inner Lindblad resonance radius of an m=2 perturbation which could help build a pseudo-bulge in NGC 628. Moreover, we calculate radial profiles of the emission-line velocity dispersion which we use to study the role of feedback from individual HII regions. The mean velocity dispersion for the ionized gas (even when excluding pixels belonging to individual HII regions) is almost constant out to 12 kpc, although it varies from 14 to 20 km/s, with a steady decline in the outer parts. The current paper demonstrates a number of tools that we have developed for building a solid frame work for studying the evolution of structure in spiral galaxies using two dimensional kinematic observations.

Kambiz Fathi; John E. Beckman; Almudena Zurita; Monica Relano; Johan H. Knapen; Olivier Daigle; Olivier Hernandez; Claude Carignan

2007-03-01

127

IZI: Inferring the Gas Phase Metallicity (Z) and Ionization Parameter (q) of Ionized Nebulae using Bayesian Statistics  

E-print Network

We present a new method for inferring the metallicity (Z) and ionization parameter (q) of HII regions and star-forming galaxies using strong nebular emission lines (SEL). We use Bayesian inference to derive the joint and marginalized posterior probability density functions for Z and q given a set of observed line fluxes and an input photo-ionization model. Our approach allows the use of arbitrary sets of SELs and the inclusion of flux upper limits. The method provides a self-consistent way of determining the physical conditions of ionized nebulae that is not tied to the arbitrary choice of a particular SEL diagnostic and uses all the available information. Unlike theoretically calibrated SEL diagnostics the method is flexible and not tied to a particular photo-ionization model. We describe our algorithm, validate it against other methods, and present a tool that implements it called IZI. Using a sample of nearby extra-galactic HII regions we assess the performance of commonly used SEL abundance diagnostics. W...

Blanc, Guillermo A; Vogt, Frédéric P A; Dopita, Michael A

2014-01-01

128

Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

2013-10-01

129

Impact of Ionized Gas Outflows in the Evolution of Seyfert Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of adaptive optics assisted integral field spectroscopy, we investigate the impact of feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) driven outflows in the evolution of Seyfert galaxies. These data enable us to study at very high angular resolution 0.08”) the 2D kinematics of Br? and the high ionization line [SiVI] in nearby AGN. The spatially resolved kinematics can be modeled as a combination of an outflow bicone and a rotating disk coincident with the molecular gas. In half of the AGN measured so far, the kinetic energy of the outflows appears sufficient to provide the eagerly-sought “AGN feedback” invoked to explain fundamental galaxy properties such as the M-sigma relation. While in these objects the radio jet is extended and clearly interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM), in the other half of AGN -in which the outflow power is at least one order of magnitude less than predicted in feedback models- the radio jet is weak and compact. This suggests a link between jet power and outflow power. In addition, the inferred ionized outflowing mass can be remarkably large, 2 or more orders of magnitude greater than that required to fuel the AGN at its current luminosity, but it’s comparable to the estimated inflow rates to the central 5-25 pc. These two facts point to an interaction between the outflow and the ISM (probably the outflow is mass-loaded by the ISM and disrupting the conditions necessary for star formation).

Mueller Sanchez, Francisco; Malkan, M. A.; Hicks, E. K.; Davies, R.; Evans, D. A.

2013-01-01

130

Auger neutralization and ionization processes for charge exchange between slow noble gas atoms and solid surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron and energy transfer processes between an atom or molecule and a surface are extremely important for many applications in physics and chemistry. Therefore a profound understanding of these processes is essential in order to analyze a large variety of physical systems. The microscopic description of the two-electron Auger processes, leading to neutralization/ionization of an ion/neutral atom in front of a solid surface, has been a long-standing problem. It can be dated back to the 1950s when H.D. Hagstrum proposed to use the information contained in the spectrum of the electrons emitted during the neutralization of slow noble gas ions as a surface analytical tool complementing photoelectron spectroscopy. However, only recently a comprehensive description of the Auger neutralization mechanism has been achieved by the combined efforts of theoretical and experimental methods. In this article we review the theoretical models for this problem, stressing how their outcome compare with experimental results. We also analyze the inverse problem of Auger ionization. We emphasize the understanding of the key quantities governing the processes and outline the challenges remaining. This opens new perspectives for future developments of theoretical and experimental work in this field.

Carmina Monreal, R.

2014-02-01

131

Bar effects on ionized gas properties and dust content in galaxy centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and simulations indicate that bars are important agents to transfer material towards galaxy centers. However, observational studies devoted to investigate the effects of bars in galaxy centers are not yet conclusive. We have used a sample (Coelho & Gadotti 2011) of nearby face-on galaxies with available spectra (SDSS database) to investigate the footprints of bars in galaxy centers by analysing the central ionized gas properties of barred and unbarred galaxies separately. We find statistically significant differences in the H? Balmer extinction, star formation rate per unit area, in the [S ii]?6717/[S ii]?6731 line ratio, and notably in the N2 parameter (N2 = log([N ii]?6583/H?)). A deeper analysis reflects that these differences are only relevant for the less massive bulges (<~1010M?). These results have important consequences for studies on bulge formation and galaxy evolution.

Zurita, A.; Florido, E.; Pérez, I.; Coelho, P.; Gadotti, D. A.

2015-02-01

132

Identification of volatiles by headspace gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

Volatiles are frequently abused as inhalants. The methods used for identification are generally nonspecific if analyzed concurrently with ethanol or require an additional analytical procedure that employs mass spectrometry. A previously published technique utilizing a capillary flow technology splitter to simultaneously quantitate and confirm ethyl alcohol by flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection after headspace sampling and gas chromatographic separation was evaluated for the detection of inhalants. Methanol, isopropanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, isoamyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (Norflurane, HFC-134a), chloroethane, trichlorofluoromethane (Freon®-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon®-12), dichlorofluoromethane (Freon®-21), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon®-22) and 1,2-dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon®-114) were validated for qualitative identification by this method. The validation for qualitative identification included evaluation of matrix effects, sensitivity, carryover, specificity, repeatability and ruggedness/robustness. PMID:24005155

Tiscione, Nicholas B; Yeatman, Dustin Tate; Shan, Xiaoqin; Kahl, Joseph H

2013-10-01

133

The Effect of the Argon Carrier Gas in the Multiphoton Dissociation-Ionization of Tetracene  

PubMed Central

The multiphoton dissociation-ionization of tetracene at 355 nm using 6.5 nanosecond laser pulses, with and without argon as a carrier gas (CG), has been studied and compared. Ion fragments were analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). The results show that the dynamic of photodissociation at ?1010 W cm?2 intensities is strongly influenced by the CG. The suppression of fragmentation channels primarily those relating to the formation of the CHm+ (m = 2, 4), C2H4+ and C5H4+2 ions. CH5+ and CH6+ were observed which have not been reported before in photodissociation tetracene experiments. PMID:19325732

Poveda, Juan Carlos; Román, Alejandro San; Guerrero, Alfonso; Álvarez, Ignacio; Cisneros, Carmen

2008-01-01

134

Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine.

Hong, Sung-Ha; Szili, Endre J.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.; Short, Robert D.

2014-09-01

135

CONSTRAINING STELLAR FEEDBACK: SHOCK-IONIZED GAS IN NEARBY STARBURST GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the properties of feedback-driven shocks in eight nearby starburst galaxies using narrow-band imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We identify the shock-ionized component via the line diagnostic diagram [O III] (?5007)/H? versus [S II] (??6716, 6731) (or [N II] (?6583))/H?, applied to resolved regions 3-15 pc in size. We divide our sample into three sub-samples: sub-solar, solar, and super-solar, for consistent shock measurements. For the sub-solar sub-sample, we derive three scaling relations: (1) L{sub shock}?SFR{sup 0.62}, (2) L{sub shock}??{sub SFR,{sub HL}} {sup 0.92}, and (3) L{sub shock}/L{sub tot}?(L{sub H} /L{sub ?,{sub H}}){sup –0.65}, where L{sub shock} is the H? luminosity from shock-ionized gas, ?{sub SFR,{sub HL}} the star formation rate (SFR) per unit half-light area, L{sub tot} the total H? luminosity, and L{sub H} /L{sub ?,{sub H}} the absolute H-band luminosity from the Two Micron All Sky Survey normalized to solar luminosity. The other two sub-samples do not have enough number statistics, but appear to follow the first scaling relation. The energy recovered indicates that the shocks from stellar feedback in our sample galaxies are fully radiative. If the scaling relations are applicable in general to stellar feedback, our results are similar to those by Hopkins et al. for galactic superwinds. This similarity should, however, be taken with caution at this point, as the underlying physics that enables the transition from radiative shocks to gas outflows in galaxies is still poorly understood.

Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Gallagher, John S. III [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Martin, Crystal L. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Conselice, Christopher J. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Pellerin, Anne [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

2013-11-01

136

The Properties and the Evolution of the Highly Ionized Gas in MR2251-178  

E-print Network

(abridged) We present the first XMM-Newton observations of the radio-quiet quasar MR2251-178 obtained in 2000 and 2002. The EPIC-pn spectra show a power-law continuum with a slope of 1.6 at high energies absorbed by at least two warm absorbers (WAs) intrinsic to the source. The underlying continuum in the earlier observation shows a soft excess at low X-ray energies which can be modeled as an additional power-law with a slope of 2.9. The high-resolution grating spectrum obtained in 2002 shows emission lines from N VI, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, and Ne X, as well as absorption lines from the low-ionization ions of O III, O IV, and O V, and other confirmed and suspected weaker absorption lines. We suggest a model for the high-resolution spectrum which consist of two or three WA components. The two-components model has a high-ionization WA with a column density of 10^21.5 - 10^21.8 cm^-2 and a low-ionization absorber with a column density of 10^20.3 cm^-2. In the three-components model we add a lower ionization component that produce the observed iron M-shell absorption lines. We investigate the spectral variations in MR2251-178 over a period of 8.5 years using data from ASCA, BeppoSAX, and XMM-Newton. All X-ray observations can be fitted with the above EPIC-pn model. The 8.5 year history of the source suggests a changing X-ray absorber due to material that enters and disappears from the line-of-sight on timescales of several months. We also present the entire FUSE spectrum of MR2251-178. We detect emission from N III, C III, and O VI and at least 4 absorption systems in C III, H I, and O VI, one at -580 km/s and at least 3 others which are blended together and form a wide trough covering the velocity range of 0 to -500 km/s. The general characteristics of the UV and X-ray absorbers are consistent with an origin in the same gas.

Shai Kaspi; Hagai Netzer; Doron Chelouche; Ian M. George; Kirpal Nandra; T. J. Turner

2004-04-28

137

A reservoir of ionized gas in the galactic halo to sustain star formation in the Milky Way.  

PubMed

Without a source of new gas, our Galaxy would exhaust its supply of gas through the formation of stars. Ionized gas clouds observed at high velocity may be a reservoir of such gas, but their distances are key for placing them in the galactic halo and unraveling their role. We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to blindly search for ionized high-velocity clouds (iHVCs) in the foreground of galactic stars. We show that iHVCs with 90 ? |v(LSR)| ? 170 kilometers per second (where v(LSR) is the velocity in the local standard of rest frame) are within one galactic radius of the Sun and have enough mass to maintain star formation, whereas iHVCs with |v(LSR)| ? 170 kilometers per second are at larger distances. These may be the next wave of infalling material. PMID:21868626

Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J Christopher

2011-11-18

138

Far-infrared spectroscopy of the galactic center - Neutral and ionized gas in the central 10 parsecs of the Galaxy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present mapping of the 3P1-3P2 fine structure line emission from neutral atomic oxygen near the galactic center shows the emission to be extended over more than 12 pc along the galactic plane, centered on the position of Sgr A West. The rotational velocity of the O I gas at R of about 1 corresponds to a mass within the central parsec of about 3 million solar masses. The forbidden O I line probably arises in a predominantly neutral atomic region immediately outside the ionized central parsec of the Galaxy. Gas temperatures are greater than 100 K, and the total integrated luminosity radiated in the line, which is about 100,000 solar luminosities, substantially contributes to the cooling of the gas. The 3P1-3P0 fine structure line of the O III forbidden line has also been detected at 88 microns toward Sgr A West, coming from high density ionized gas.

Genzel, R.; Watson, D. M.; Townes, C. H.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Hollenbach, D.; Lester, D. F.; Werner, M.; Storey, J. W. V.

1984-01-01

139

Determination of BROMATE AT PARTS-PER-TRILLION LEVELS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The ozonation of bromide-containing source waters produces bromate as a class 2B carcinogenic disinfection by-product. The present work describes the determination of bromate by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCIMS) following a bromate react...

140

Highly Ionized High-Velocity Gas in the Vicinity of the Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a FUSE study of high-velocity O VI absorption along complete sight lines through the Galactic halo in directions toward 100 extragalactic objects and two halo stars. The high-velocity O VI traces a variety of phenomena, including tidal interactions with the Magellanic Clouds, accretion of gas, outflowing material from the Galactic disk, warm/hot gas interactions in a highly extended Galactic corona, and intergalactic gas in the Local Group. We identify 84 high-velocity O VI features at >=3 ? confidence at velocities of -500=13.95+/-0.34 with a median value of 13.97. Values of b greater than the 17.6 km s-1 thermal width expected for O VI at T~3×105 K indicate that additional nonthermal broadening mechanisms are common. The O VI ?1031.926 absorption is detected at >=3 ? confidence along 59 of the 102 sight lines surveyed. The high-velocity O VI detections indicate that ~60% of the sky (and perhaps as much as ~85%, depending on data quality considerations) is covered by high-velocity H+ associated with the O VI. We find that N(H+)>~1018 cm-2 if the high-velocity hot gas has a metallicity similar to that of the Magellanic Stream; this detection rate is considerably higher than that of high-velocity warm H I traced through its 21 cm emission at a comparable column density level. Some of the high-velocity O VI is associated with known H I structures (the Magellanic Stream, Complex A, Complex C, the Outer Spiral Arm, and several discrete H I HVCs). Some of the high-velocity O VI features have no counterpart in H I 21 cm emission, including discrete absorption features and positive velocity absorption wings extending from ~100 to ~300 km s-1 that blend with lower velocity absorption produced by the Galactic thick disk/halo. The discrete features may typify clouds located in the Local Group, while the O VI absorption wings may be tidal debris or material expelled from the Galactic disk. Most of the O VI features have velocities incompatible with those of the Galactic halo, even if the halo has decoupled from the underlying Galactic disk. The reduction in the dispersion about the mean of the high-velocity O VI centroids when the velocities are converted from the LSR to the GSR and LGSR reference frames is necessary (but not conclusive) evidence that some of the clouds are located outside the Galaxy. Most of the O VI cannot be produced by photoionization, even if the gas is irradiated by extragalactic ultraviolet background radiation. Several observational quantities indicate that collisions in hot gas are the primary ionization mechanism responsible for the production of the O VI. These include the ratios of O VI column densities to those of other highly ionized species (C IV, N V) and the strong correlation between N(O VI) and O VI line width. Consideration of the possible sources of collisional ionization favors production of some of the O VI at the boundaries between cool/warm clouds of gas and a highly extended (R>~70 kpc), hot (T>106 K), low-density (n<~10-4-10-5 cm-3) Galactic corona or Local Group medium. The existence of a hot, highly extended Galactic corona or Local Group medium and the prevalence of high-velocity O VI are consistent with predictions of current galaxy formation scenarios. Distinguishing between the various phenomena producing high-velocity O VI in and near the Galaxy will require continuing studies of the distances, kinematics, elemental abundances, and physical states of the different types of high-velocity O VI found in this study. Descriptions of galaxy evolution will need to account for the highly ionized gas, and future X-ray studies of hot gas in the Local Group will need to consider carefully the relationship of the X-ray absorption/emission to the complex high-velocity absor

Sembach, K. R.; Wakker, B. P.; Savage, B. D.; Richter, P.; Meade, M.; Shull, J. M.; Jenkins, E. B.; Sonneborn, G.; Moos, H. W.

2003-05-01

141

The Properties and the Evolution of the Highly Ionized Gas in MR 2251-178  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first XMM-Newton observations of the radio-quiet quasar MR 2251-178 obtained in 2000 and 2002. The EPIC-pn spectra show a power-law continuum with a slope of Gamma = 1.6 at high energies absorbed by at least two warm absorbers (WAs) intrinsic to the source. The underlying continuum in the earlier observation shows a soft excess at low X-ray energies which can be modeled as an additional power-law with Gamma = 2.9. The spectra also show a weak narrow iron K alpha emission line. The high-resolution grating spectrum obtained in 2002 shows emission lines from N VI, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, and Ne X, as well as absorption lines from the low-ionization ions of O III, O IV, and O V, and other confirmed and suspected weaker absorption lines. The O III - O V lines are consistent with the properties of the emission line gas observed as extended optical (O III) emission in this source. The signal-to-noise of the 2000 grating data is too low to detect any lines. We suggest a model for the high-resolution spectrum which consist of two or three warm-absorber (WA) components. The two-components model has a high-ionization WA with a column density of 10(exp 21.5)-10 (exp 21.8) sq cm and a low-ionization absorber with a column density of 10(exp 20.3) sq cm. In the three-components model we add a lower ionization component that produces the observed iron M-shell absorption lines. We investigate the spectral variations in MR 2251-178 over a period of 8.5 years using data from ASCA, BeppoSAX, and XMM-Newton. All X-ray observations can be fitted with the above two power laws and the two absorbers. The observed luminosity variations seems to correlate with variations in the soft X-ray continuum. The 8.5 year history of the source suggests a changing X-ray absorber due to material that enters and disappears from the line-of-sight on timescales of several months. We also present, for the first time, the entire FUSE spectrum of MR 2251-178. We detect emission from N III, C III, and O VI and at least 4 absorption systems in C III, H I, and O VI, one at -580 km/s and at least 3 others which are blended together and form a wide trough covering the velocity range of 0 to -500 km/s. The general characteristics of the UV and X-ray absorbers are consistent with an origin in the same gas.

Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, hagai; Chelouche, Doron; George, Ian M.; Nandra, Kirpal; Turner, T. J.

2004-01-01

142

Very metal-poor galaxies: ionized gas kinematics in nine objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of ionized gas morphology and kinematics in nine extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxies with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer on the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) 6-m telescope is presented. Some of these very rare objects (with currently known range of O/H of 7.12 < 12 + log(O/H) < 7.65, or ) are believed to be the best proxies of `young' low-mass galaxies in the high-redshift Universe. One of the main goals of this study is to look for possible evidence of star formation (SF) activity induced by external perturbations. Recent results from HI mapping of a small subsample of XMD star-forming galaxies provided confident evidence for the important role of interaction-induced SF. Our observations provide complementary or new information that the great majority of the studied XMD dwarfs have strongly disturbed gas morphology and kinematics or the presence of detached components. We approximate the observed velocity fields by simple models of a rotating tilted thin disc, which allows us the robust detection of non-circular gas motions. These data, in turn, indicate the important role of current/recent interactions and mergers in the observed enhanced SF. As a by-product of our observations, we obtained data for two Low Surface Brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies: Anon J012544+075957 that is a companion of the merger system UGC 993, and SAO 0822+3545 which shows off-centre, asymmetric, low star formation rate star-forming regions, likely induced by the interaction with the companion XMD dwarf HS 0822+3542. Based on observations obtained with the Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS 6-m telescope. E-mail: moisav@gmail.com (AVM); sap@sao.ru (SAP); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK)

Moiseev, A. V.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.

2010-07-01

143

IZI: Inferring the Gas Phase Metallicity (Z) and Ionization Parameter (q) of Ionized Nebulae Using Bayesian Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new method for inferring the metallicity (Z) and ionization parameter (q) of H II regions and star-forming galaxies using strong nebular emission lines (SELs). We use Bayesian inference to derive the joint and marginalized posterior probability density functions for Z and q given a set of observed line fluxes and an input photoionization model. Our approach allows the use of arbitrary sets of SELs and the inclusion of flux upper limits. The method provides a self-consistent way of determining the physical conditions of ionized nebulae that is not tied to the arbitrary choice of a particular SEL diagnostic and uses all the available information. Unlike theoretically calibrated SEL diagnostics, the method is flexible and not tied to a particular photoionization model. We describe our algorithm, validate it against other methods, and present a tool that implements it called IZI. Using a sample of nearby extragalactic H II regions, we assess the performance of commonly used SEL abundance diagnostics. We also use a sample of 22 local H II regions having both direct and recombination line (RL) oxygen abundance measurements in the literature to study discrepancies in the abundance scale between different methods. We find that oxygen abundances derived through Bayesian inference using currently available photoionization models in the literature can be in good (~30%) agreement with RL abundances, although some models perform significantly better than others. We also confirm that abundances measured using the direct method are typically ~0.2 dex lower than both RL and photoionization-model-based abundances.

Blanc, Guillermo A.; Kewley, Lisa; Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.

2015-01-01

144

Self-injection and acceleration of electrons during ionization of gas atoms by a short laser pulse  

SciTech Connect

Using a relativistic three-dimensional single-particle code, acceleration of electrons created during the ionization of nitrogen and oxygen gas atoms by a laser pulse has been studied. Barrier suppression ionization model has been used to calculate ionization time of the bound electrons. The energy gained by the electrons peaks for an optimum value of laser spot size. The electrons created near the tail do not gain sufficient energy for a long duration laser pulse. The electrons created at the tail of pulse escape before fully interacting with the trailing part of the pulse for a short duration laser pulse, which causes electrons to retain sufficient energy. If a suitable frequency chirp is introduced then energy of the electrons created at the tail of the pulse further increases.

Singh, K.P. [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States)

2006-04-15

145

WFPC2 Imaging of the Multiphase Halos of Two Spiral Galaxies: Dust and Ionized Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high-resolution optical images of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the thick disks of the spiral galaxies NGC 4013 and NGC 4302. Our broadband (BVI) images acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope’s WFPC2 show extensive extraplanar dust clouds seen in absorption against the background stellar light, while our narrow-band H-alpha images taken with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope show the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in these galaxies. The dusty, thick disk clouds visible in our WFPC2 images, which can be found to heights approaching 2 kpc from the midplanes of these galaxies, trace a phase of the ISM that shows significant structure on quite small scales. In general this material is seen to be highly filamentary. By contrast, the thick disk DIG in these galaxies has significantly smoother distribution. We note several unresolved knots of H-alpha emission which may represent thick disk H II regions. We discuss the relationship of the dust-bearing clouds and the DIG in these galaxies.

Rueff, Katherine; Pitterle, M.; Hirschauer, A.; Lehner, N.; Howk, C.

2006-12-01

146

Improved gas chromatography-flame ionization detector analytical method for the analysis of epoxy fatty acids.  

PubMed

In this study an improved method for analysis of epoxy fatty acids is reported. Data obtained from analysis of polar fatty acids has previously been presented, but due to the high number of compounds that co-elute in the polar fraction, the resultant chromatograms are complex which may lead to compromising the accuracy of the data. A three steps separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a silica gel column to remove hydroxy fatty acid interferences was proposed. This approach is opposed to a two step separation procedure that has been often used to prevent analytical interferences caused by non-altered fatty acids. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) equipped with a polar CP-Sil 88™ column was used. Quantification was based on the use of methyl nonadecanoate (C19:0), as an internal standard. Individual mono epoxy fatty acids were well separated without co-eluting compounds. The optimized method was finally applied to screen epoxy fatty acids in 37 fresh oil samples. Results obtained for the total epoxy fatty acids were in the range 0.03-2mgg(-1) of oil with repeatability coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 2.8 to 9.9% for duplicate analysis showing that the results obtained are repeatable. PMID:24161147

Mubiru, Edward; Shrestha, Kshitij; Papastergiadis, Antonios; De Meulenaer, Bruno

2013-11-29

147

LARGE-SCALE SHOCK-IONIZED AND PHOTOIONIZED GAS IN M83: THE IMPACT OF STAR FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the ionization structure of the nebular gas in M83 using the line diagnostic diagram, [O III](5007 A)/H{beta} versus [S II](6716 A+6731 A)/H{alpha}, with the newly available narrowband images from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We produce the diagnostic diagram on a pixel-by-pixel (0.''2 x 0.''2) basis and compare it with several photo- and shock-ionization models. We select four regions from the center to the outer spiral arm and compare them in the diagnostic diagram. For the photoionized gas, we observe a gradual increase of the log ([O III]/H{beta}) ratios from the center to the spiral arm, consistent with the metallicity gradient, as the H II regions go from super-solar abundance to roughly solar abundance from the center out. Using the diagnostic diagram, we separate the photoionized from the shock-ionized component of the gas. We find that the shock-ionized H{alpha} emission ranges from {approx}2% to about 15%-33% of the total, depending on the separation criteria used. An interesting feature in the diagnostic diagram is a horizontal distribution around log ([O III]/H{beta}) {approx} 0. This feature is well fit by a shock-ionization model with 2.0 Z{sub sun} metallicity and shock velocities in the range of 250-350 km s{sup -1}. A low-velocity shock component, <200 km s{sup -1}, is also detected and is spatially located at the boundary between the outer ring and the spiral arm. The low-velocity shock component can be due to (1) supernova remnants located nearby, (2) dynamical interaction between the outer ring and the spiral arm, and (3) abnormal line ratios from extreme local dust extinction. The current data do not enable us to distinguish among those three possible interpretations. Our main conclusion is that, even at the HST resolution, the shocked gas represents a small fraction of the total ionized gas emission at less than 33% of the total. However, it accounts for virtually all of the mechanical energy produced by the central starburst in M83.

Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Carollo, Marcella [Department of Physics, ETH-Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Disney, Michael J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Frogel, Jay A. [Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Hall, Donald [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kimble, Randy A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); O'Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Paresce, Francesco [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Silk, Joseph I. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Trauger, John T. [NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Walker, Alistair R., E-mail: wpb@pha.jhu.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

2011-04-10

148

Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution. IV. Star Formation and a Rotating Core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features.We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0".18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 micron [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution approx. 4 km/s: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Neff, Susan Gale; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

2014-01-01

149

Comparative evaluation of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry versus gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of hexabromocyclododecanes and their degradation products in indoor dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic and office dust samples (n=37) were analyzed for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) using gas chromatography–electron-capture negative ionization–mass spectrometry (GC–ECNI\\/MS) and liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI\\/MS\\/MS). To determine the best method to quantify HBCDs using GC–ECNI\\/MS, BDE 128 was used as internal standard (I.S.) in all samples, while 13C-labeled ?-HBCD was used as I.S. in some samples. Total HBCD concentrations (sum

Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah; Catalina Ibarra; Hugo Neels; Stuart Harrad; Adrian Covaci

2008-01-01

150

Characterization of a novel diclofenac metabolite in human urine by capillary gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive analytical method was developed to characterize diclofenac metabolites in small amounts of body fluids. Desalted and lyophilized urine samples were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide directly or after acidic hydrolysis. The extracts were derivatized with N-tert.-butyldimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide. The derivatives were separated by capillary gas chromatography and identified by negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Full mass spectra were obtained at

Wolfgang Blum; Johann W. Faigle; Ulrike Pfaar; Alfred Sallmann

1996-01-01

151

A mobile mass spectrometer for comprehensive on-line analysis of trace and bulk components of complex gas mixtures: parallel application of the laser-based ionization methods VUV single-photon ionization, resonant multiphoton ionization, and laser-induced electron impact ionization.  

PubMed

A newly developed compact and mobile time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) for on-line analysis and monitoring of complex gas mixtures is presented. The instrument is designed for a (quasi-)simultaneous application of three ionization techniques that exhibit different ionization selectivities. The highly selective resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) technique, using 266-nm UV laser pulses, is applied for selective and fragmentationless ionization of aromatic compounds at trace levels (parts-per-billion volume range). Mass spectra obtained using this technique show the chemical signature solely of monocyclic (benzene, phenols, etc.) and polycyclic (naphthalene, phenathrene, indol, etc.) aromatic species. Furthermore, the less selective but still fragmentationless single photon ionization (SPI) technique with 118-nm VUV laser pulses allows the ionization of compounds with an ionization potential below 10.5 eV. Mass spectra obtained using this technique show the profile of most organic compounds (aliphatic and aromatic species, like nonane, acetaldehyde, or pyrrol) and some inorganic compounds (e.g., ammonia, nitrogen monoxide). Finally, the nonselective ionization technique laser-induced electron-impact ionization (LEI) is applied. However, the sensitivity of the LEI technique is adjusted to be fairly low. Thus, the LEI signal in the mass spectra gives information on the inorganic bulk constituents of the sample (i.e., compounds such as water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide). Because the three ionization methods (REMPI, SPI, LEI) exhibit largely different ionization selectivities, the isolated application of each method alone solely provides specific mass spectrometric information about the sample composition. Special techniques have been developed and applied which allow the quasi-parallel use of all three ionization techniques for on-line monitoring purposes. Thus, a comprehensive characterization of complex samples is feasible jointly using the characteristic advantages of the three ionization techniques. Laboratory applications show results on rapid overview characterization of mineral oil-based fuels and coffee headspace. The first reported field applications include timely resolved on-line monitoring results on automobile exhausts and of waste incineration flue gas. PMID:11510823

Mühlberger, F; Zimmermann, R; Kettrup, A

2001-08-01

152

SIGGMA: A SURVEY OF IONIZED GAS IN THE GALAXY, MADE WITH THE ARECIBO TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect

A Survey of Ionized Gas in the Galaxy, made with the Arecibo telescope (SIGGMA), uses the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) to fully sample the Galactic plane (30 Degree-Sign {<=} l {<=} 75 Degree-Sign and -2 Degree-Sign {<=} b {<=} 2 Degree-Sign ; 175 Degree-Sign {<=} l {<=} 207 Degree-Sign and -2 Degree-Sign {<=} b {<=} 1 Degree-Sign ) observable with the telescope in radio recombination lines (RRLs). Processed data sets are being produced in the form of data cubes of 2 Degree-Sign (along l) Multiplication-Sign 4 Degree-Sign (along b) Multiplication-Sign 151 (number of channels), archived and made public. The 151 channels cover a velocity range of 600 km s{sup -1} and the velocity resolution of the survey changes from 4.2 km s{sup -1} to 5.1 km s{sup -1} from the lowest frequency channel to the highest frequency channel. RRL maps with 3.'4 resolution and a line flux density sensitivity of {approx}0.5 mJy will enable us to identify new H II regions, measure their electron temperatures, study the physics of photodissociation regions with carbon RRLs, and investigate the origin of the extended low-density medium. Twelve Hn{alpha} lines fall within the 300 MHz bandpass of ALFA; they are resampled to a common velocity resolution to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) by a factor of three or more and preserve the line width. SIGGMA will produce the most sensitive fully sampled RRL survey to date. Here, we discuss the observing and data reduction techniques in detail. A test observation toward the H II region complex S255/S257 has detected Hn{alpha} and Cn{alpha} lines with S/N > 10.

Liu, B. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); McIntyre, T. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Terzian, Y. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Minchin, R. [Arecibo Observatory, HC03 Box 53995, Arecibo 00612, PR (United States); Anderson, L. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Churchwell, E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lebron, M. [University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23323, 00931-3323, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Roshi, D. Anish [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank and Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

2013-10-01

153

The Ionized Gas and Nuclear Environment in NGC 3783 V. Variability and Modeling of the Intrinsic Ultraviolet Absorption  

E-print Network

We present results on the location, physical conditions, and geometry of the outflow in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 from a study of the variable intrinsic UV absorption. Based on 18 observations with HST/STIS and 6 observations with FUSE, we find: 1) The absorption from the lowest-ionization species in each of the three strong kinematic components varied inversely with the continuum flux, indicating the ionization structure responded to changes in the photoionizing flux over the weekly timescales sampled by our observations. 2) A multi- component model with an unocculted NLR and separate BLR and continuum line-of-sight covering factors predicts saturation in several lines, consistent with the lack of observed variability. 3) Column densities for the individual metastable levels are measured from the resolved C III *1175 absorption complex observed in one component. Based on our computed metastable level populations, the electron density of this absorber is ~3x10^4 cm^-3. Photoionization modeling results place it at ~25 pc from the central source. 4) Using time-dependent calculations, we are able to reproduce the detailed variability observed in this absorber, and derive upper limits on the distances for the other components of 25-50 pc. 5) The ionization parameters derived for the higher ionization UV absorbers are consistent with the modeling results for the lowest-ionization X-ray component, but with smaller total column density. They have similar pressures as the three X-ray ionization components. These results are consistent with an inhomogeneous wind model for the outflow in NGC 3783. 6) Based on the predicted emission-line luminosities, global covering factor constraints, and distances derived for the UV absorbers, they may be identified with emission- line gas observed in the inner NLR of AGNs. (abridged)

J. R. Gabel; S. B. Kraemer; D. M. Crenshaw; I. M. George; W. N. Brandt; F. W. Hamann; M. E. Kaiser; S. Kaspi; G. A. Kriss; S. Mathur; K. Nandra; H. Netzer; B . M. Peterson; J. C. Shields; T. J. Turner; W. Zheng

2005-06-14

154

Highly ionized gas absorption in the disk and halo toward HD 167756 at 3.5 kilometers per second resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution spectra of interstellar Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption lines along the 4 kpc path to the inner Galaxy star HD 167756 at z = -0.85 kpc are presented. The spectra were obtained with the echelle mode of Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 23 to 38. The high resolution of the measurements full width at half maximum (FWHM = 3.5 km/s) results in fully resolved line profiles for the highly ionized gas absorption. The measurements provide information on the column density per unit velocity, N(v), as a function of velocity for Si IV, C IV, and N V. The C IV and N V profiles extend from -70 to +70 km/s, while the Si IV profiles extend from -40 to +70 km/s. The integrated logarithmic column densities are long N(Si IV) = 13.09 +/- 0.02, log N(C IV) = 13.83 +/- 0.02, and log N(N V) = 13.56 +/- 0.03. The N V profile is broad, asymmetric, and featureless, while the Si IV profile contains narrow absorption components near V(sub LSR) = -19, 0, +20, and +52 km/s with Doppler spread parameters, b about = 10-12 km/s. The C IV profile contains both broad and narrow structure. The high ion feature near +52 km/s is also detected in the low-ionization lines of Ca II, O I, Si II, and Fe II. The other narrow Si IV and C IV components occur within several km/s of components seen in low-ionization species. The sight line contains at least two types of highly ionized gas. One type gives rise to a broad N V profile, and the other results in the more structured Si IV profile. The C IV profile contains contributions from both types of highly ionized gas. The broad but asymmetric N V profile is well represented by a large Galactic scale height gas which is participating in Galactic rotation and has a combination of thermal and turbulent broadening with b(sub tot) about = 42 km/s. The C IV to N V abundance ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.3 for the gas implies T about 1.6 x 10(exp 5) K or about 8 x 10(exp 5) K if the gas is in collisional ionization equilibrium and has a solar carbon to nitrogen abundance ratio. This absorption may be associated with cooling hot gas situated in Galactic shells and supershells along the sight line. The gas producing the narrow Si IV and C IV absorption components has line widths that are compatible with origins in conductive interfaces between the warm and hot interstellar medium. Kinematic flows associated with the photoionized edges of clouds might also produce Si IV and C IV lines with Doppler spread parameters similar to those observed, but the C IV to Si IV ratio in this gas is 3.5, which leads us to favor the conductive interface interpretation.

Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Cardelli, Jason A.

1994-01-01

155

An Ultra-Trace Analysis Technique for SF6 Using Gas Chromatography with Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely used as a tracer gas because of its detectability at low concentrations. This attribute of SF6 allows the quantification of both small-scale flows, such as leakage, and large-scale flows, such as atmospheric currents. SF6's high detection sensitivity also facilitates greater usage efficiency and lower operating cost for tracer deployments by reducing quantity requirements. The detectability of SF6 is produced by its high molecular electronegativity. This property provides a high potential for negative ion formation through electron capture thus naturally translating to selective detection using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NCI-MS). This paper investigates the potential of using gas chromatography (GC) with NCI-MS for the detection of SF6. The experimental parameters for an ultra-trace SF6 detection method utilizing minimal customizations of the analytical instrument are detailed. A method for the detection of parts per trillion (ppt) level concentrations of SF6 for the purpose of underground ventilation tracer gas analysis was successfully developed in this study. The method utilized a Shimadzu gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry system equipped with an Agilent J&W HP-porous layer open tubular column coated with an alumina oxide (Al2O3) S column. The method detection limit (MDL) analysis as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency of the tracer data showed the method MDL to be 5.2 ppt. PMID:25452581

Jong, Edmund C; Macek, Paul V; Perera, Inoka E; Luxbacher, Kray D; McNair, Harold M

2014-12-01

156

Detection and Mapping of Decoupled Stellar and Ionized Gas Structures in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 12112+0305.  

PubMed

Integral field optical spectroscopy with the INTEGRAL fiber-fed system and Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging are used to map the complex stellar and warm ionized gas structure in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 12112+0305. Images reconstructed from wavelength-delimited extractions of the integral field spectra reveal that the observed ionized gas distribution is decoupled from the stellar main body of the galaxy, with the dominant continuum and emission-line regions separated by projected distances of up to 7.5 kpc. The two optical nuclei are detected as apparently faint emission-line regions, and their optical properties are consistent with being dust-enshrouded weak [O i] LINERs. The brightest emission-line region is associated with a faint (mI=20.4), giant H ii region of 600 pc diameter, in which a young ( approximately 5 Myr) massive cluster of about 2x107 M middle dot in circle dominates the ionization. Internal reddening toward the line-emitting regions and the optical nuclei ranges from 1 to 8 mag in the visual. Taking the reddening into account, the overall star formation in IRAS 12112+0305 is dominated by starbursts associated with the two nuclei and corresponds to a star formation rate of 80 M middle dot in circle yr-1. PMID:10727379

Colina; Arribas; Borne; Monreal

2000-04-10

157

The large-scale distribution of warm ionized gas around nearby radio galaxies with jet-cloud interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep, narrow-band H? observations taken with the TAURUS Tunable Filter on the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope are presented for two nearby radio galaxies with strong jet-cloud interactions. Although the brightest emission-line components are closely aligned with the radio jets - providing nearby examples of the `alignment effect' most commonly observed in high-redshift (z>0.5) radio galaxies - lower surface brightness emission-line structures are detected at large distances (tens of kpc) from the radio jet axis. These latter structures cannot be reconciled with anisotropic illumination of the interstellar medium by obscured quasar-like sources, because parts of the structures lie outside any plausible quasar ionization cones. Rather, the distribution of the emission lines around the fringes of the extended radio lobes suggests that the gas is ionized either by direct interaction with the radio components, or by the diffuse photoionizing radiation fields produced in the shocks generated in such interactions. These observations serve to emphasize that the ionizing effects of the radio components can extend far from the radio jet axes, and that deep emission-line imaging observations are required to reveal the true distribution of warm gas in the host galaxies. We expect future deep imaging observations to reveal similar structures perpendicular to the radio axes in high-z radio galaxies.

Tadhunter, C. N.; Villar-Martin, M.; Morganti, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Axon, D.

2000-06-01

158

Numerical simulation of wall heat flux in supersonic weakly ionized gas flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of numerical simulation of laminar and turbulent weakly ionized plasma flows around model bodies under MHD interaction.Numerical investigations have been carried out of supersonic MHD flow of weakly ionized nitrogen plasma around model bodies (spherically blunted cylinder, truncated cylinder, and cone-cylinder lay-outs) at conditions of experiments on the Big Shock Tube (BST) of the Ioffe Institute

Sergey V. Bobashev; Alexander S. Chernyshev; Alexander A. Schmidt

2010-01-01

159

PRESENT-DAY GALACTIC EVOLUTION: LOW-METALLICITY, WARM, IONIZED GAS INFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD COMPLEX A  

SciTech Connect

The high-velocity cloud Complex A is a probe of the physical conditions in the Galactic halo. The kinematics, morphology, distance, and metallicity of Complex A indicate that it represents new material that is accreting onto the Galaxy. We present Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper kinematically resolved observations of Complex A over the velocity range of -250 to -50 km s{sup -1} in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H{alpha} intensity map of Complex A across (l, b) = (124 Degree-Sign , 18 Degree-Sign ) to (171 Degree-Sign , 53 Degree-Sign ) and deep targeted observations in H{alpha}, [S II] {lambda}6716, [N II] {lambda}6584, and [O I] {lambda}6300 toward regions with high H I column densities, background quasars, and stars. The H{alpha} data imply that the masses of neutral and ionized material in the cloud are similar, both being greater than 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We find that the Bland-Hawthorn and Maloney model for the intensity of the ionizing radiation near the Milky Way is consistent with the known distance of the high-latitude part of Complex A and an assumed cloud geometry that puts the lower-latitude parts of the cloud at a distance of 7-8 kpc. This compatibility implies a 5% ionizing photon escape fraction from the Galactic disk. We also provide the nitrogen and sulfur upper abundance solutions for a series of temperatures, metallicities, and cloud configurations for purely photoionized gas; these solutions are consistent with the sub-solar abundances found by previous studies, especially for temperatures above 10{sup 4} K or for gas with a high fraction of singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur.

Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Wakker, B. P.; Hill, Alex S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Madsen, G. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Duncan, A. K., E-mail: kbarger@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: haffner@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: Alex.Hill@csiro.au, E-mail: wakker@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: greg.madsen@sydney.edu.au [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

2012-12-20

160

Present-day Galactic Evolution: Low-metallicity, Warm, Ionized Gas Inflow Associated with High-velocity Cloud Complex A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-velocity cloud Complex A is a probe of the physical conditions in the Galactic halo. The kinematics, morphology, distance, and metallicity of Complex A indicate that it represents new material that is accreting onto the Galaxy. We present Wisconsin H? Mapper kinematically resolved observations of Complex A over the velocity range of -250 to -50 km s-1 in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H? intensity map of Complex A across (\\mathit {l, b}) = (124{^\\circ }, 18{^\\circ }) to (171°, 53°) and deep targeted observations in H?, [S II] ?6716, [N II] ?6584, and [O I] ?6300 toward regions with high H I column densities, background quasars, and stars. The H? data imply that the masses of neutral and ionized material in the cloud are similar, both being greater than 106 M ?. We find that the Bland-Hawthorn & Maloney model for the intensity of the ionizing radiation near the Milky Way is consistent with the known distance of the high-latitude part of Complex A and an assumed cloud geometry that puts the lower-latitude parts of the cloud at a distance of 7-8 kpc. This compatibility implies a 5% ionizing photon escape fraction from the Galactic disk. We also provide the nitrogen and sulfur upper abundance solutions for a series of temperatures, metallicities, and cloud configurations for purely photoionized gas; these solutions are consistent with the sub-solar abundances found by previous studies, especially for temperatures above 104 K or for gas with a high fraction of singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur.

Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Wakker, B. P.; Hill, Alex. S.; Madsen, G. J.; Duncan, A. K.

2012-12-01

161

Ultraviolet interstellar absorption toward stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. IV - Highly ionized gas associated with the Small Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite spectra of seven stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are examined to study the properties of interstellar C IV and Si IV absorption in the SMC. Absorption by C IV or Si IV or both is found near 160 km/s for all the stars. The velocity and the relative C IV and Si IV strengths suggest UV-photoionized nebular gas as the origin of this absorption. In addition, the stars show absorption by C IV and, sometimes, Si IV in the velocity range 100-130 km/s. This velocity is 30-60 km/s more negative than that expected for normal nebular gas, and the relative C IV and Si IV strengths indicate an ionization source other than stellar UV photoionization by normal Population I stars. Possible global origins are considered for this absorption, including a hot phase of the SMC interstellar medium and a circum-SMC distribution of highly ionized gas. The only detection of interstellar N V toward a SMC star is for HD 5980. The line is broad, possibly complex, and spans the velocity range of the nebular absorption and the 100-130 km/s absorption.

Fitzpatrick, E. L.; Savage, B. D.

1985-01-01

162

Characterization of formaldehyde by gas chromatography using multiple pulsed-discharge photoionization detectors and a flame ionization detector.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde, water, methanol, butanal, and butanone are characterized by gas chromatography using three pulsed-discharge photoionization detectors (PDPIDs) and a flame ionization detector (FID). One of the PDPIDs is operated in helium mode, and the other two are operated in argon and krypton modes. The FID is included for comparison. The PDPIDs are used to efficiently differentiate between and quantitatively identify formaldehyde and the other three compounds in a sample mixture. This is accomplished by using butanone as the internal standard and correlating the relative responses of the four organic compounds in the helium-, argon-, and krypton-mode PDPIDs with their relative retention times. PMID:11245226

Dojahn, J G; Wentworth, W E; Stearns, S D

2001-02-01

163

Restoration of RI-beams from a projectile fragment separator by Laser Ionization gas Catcher-PALIS-  

SciTech Connect

A fragment separator at heavy ion accelerator facilities is a versatile instrument to provide wide variety of radioactive isotope (RI) beams. However, more than 99.99% of precious RI-ions are simply dumped in the slits or elsewhere in the fragment separator. A novel concept to restore such RI-ions for parasitic slow RI-beams is proposed. Installation of a laser ionization gas catcher in the vicinity of the first or second focal point of the fragment separator enables to collect dead isotopes in the slits. The design concept and expected performance are discussed.

Sonoda, T.; Takamine, A.; Schury, P.; Yamazaki, Y. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wada, M. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitame 351-0198 (Japan); Okada, K. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Yoshida, A.; Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Furukawa, T. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitame 351-0198 (Japan); Wakui, T.; Shinozuka, T. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-0191 (Japan); Iimura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan); Katayama, I. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohtani, S. [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Wollnik, H. [II. Physikalisches Institute, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M Universirty, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.; Huyse, M. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium)

2009-03-17

164

Mechanisms for the Expulsion of Propene from Ionized Propyl Phenyl Ethers in the Gas Phase  

E-print Network

analysis (which considers competition among four pathways). These two analyses lead to different complexes that randomize hydrogen within the propyl cation. Only 1% of ionized 1c fragments via site-protonated cyclopropanes. Correction for these alternative pathways leads to the conclusion that the primary isotope effect

Morton, Thomas Hellman

165

Fast gas heating in fast ionization wave discharge: Experiment and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The fast ionization wave (FIW) resulting from nanosecond pulsed discharge at very high overvoltage provides an excellent high reduced electric field (E\\/N) example discharge due to its spatial uniformity. A comprehensive model of FIW would provide insight into other high E\\/N discharges used for plasma ignition applications, such as DBD and streamer discharge. To that end

S. J. Pendleton; M. A. Gundersen; N. A. Popov; E. Mintoussov; S. Starikovskaia

2010-01-01

166

Fuel cell with ionization membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel cell is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas passing therethrough, and a cathode for receiving the ions generated by the ionization membrane. The ionization membrane may include one or more openings in the membrane with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of molecules within the gas to be ionized. Methods of manufacture are also provided.

Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

167

The Ionized Gas and Nuclear Environment in NGC 3783. IV; Variability and Modeling of the 900 ks CHANDRA Spectrum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a detailed analysis of the 900 ks spectrum of NGC3783 obtained by Chandra in 2000-2001 (Kaspi et al. 2002). We split the data in various ways to look for time dependent and luminosity dependent spectral variations. This analysis, the measured equivalent widths of a large number of X-ray lines, and our photoionization calculations, lead us to the following conclusions: 1) NGC 3783 fluctuated in luminosity, by a factor N 1.5, during individual 170 ks observations. The fluctuations were not associated with significant spectral variations. 2) On a longer time scale, of 20-120 days, we discovered two very different spectral shapes that are noted the high state and the low state spectra. The observed changes between the two can be described as the appearance and disappearance of a soft continuum component. The spectral variations are not related, in a simple way, to the brightening or the fading of the short wavelength continuum, as observed in other objects. NGC3783 seems to be the first AGN to show this unusual behavior. 3) The appearance of the soft continuum component is consistent with beeing the only spectral variation and there is no need to invoke changes in the absorber s opacity. In particular, all absorption lines with reliable measurements show the same equivalent width, within the observational uncertainties, during high and low states. 4) Photoionization model calculations show that a combination of three ionization components, each split into two kinematic components, explain very well the intensity of almost all absorption lines and the bound-free absorption. The components span a large range of ionization and a total column of about 3 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter Moreover, all components are thermally stable and are situated on the vertical branch of the stability curve.. This means that they are in pressure equilibrium and perhaps occupy the same volume of space. This is the first detection of such a multi-component equilibrium gas in AGN. 5) The only real discrepancy between the model and the observations is the wavelength of the iron M-shell UTA feature. This is most likely due to an underestimation of the dielectronic recombination O VI and discuss its possible origin. 6) The lower limit on the distance of the absorbing gas in NGC3783 is between 0.2 and 3.2 pc, depending of the specific ionization component. The constant pressure assumption imposes an upper limit of about 25 pc on the distance of the least ionized gas from the central sourec.

Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud; Brandt, W. N.; Chelouche, Doron; George, Ian M.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Gabel, Jack R.; Hamann, Frederick W.; George, Steven B.

2003-01-01

168

Stability of plasma gamma-hydroxybutyrate determined by gas chromatography-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An effective method for the determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in human plasma is described that utilizes a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure and gas chromatography-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-MS). The method has been used to study the stability of plasma GHB under several storage conditions. Following the extraction with acetonitrile, GHB and deuterated GHB (GHB-d(6)) were derivatized with N,O-bis[trimethylsilyl] trifluoroacetamide (BSFTA). After the separation on a capillary GC column, the derivatives were ionized with ammonia reagent gas and analyzed by MS. The lower limit of quantitation in 100 microL of plasma was 2.5 microg/mL, over a range from 2.5 to 250 microg/mL. The coefficients of variation did not exceed 3.9% and the mean measured concentrations did not deviate more than 8% from the target for both intra- and interassay precision and accuracy. Plasma GHB was found to be stable at -20 degrees C for up to 9 months, at room temperature for 48 h, and after 3 freeze/thaw cycles. It was also found to be stable in processed samples stored at room temperature for 5 days and for 15 days at -20 degrees C. PMID:14606997

Chen, Meng; Andrenyak, David M; Moody, David E; Foltz, Rodger L

2003-10-01

169

Highly ionized gas in the Gum nebula and elsewhere - A comparison of IUE and Copernicus satellite results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data from six high-dispersion IUE echelle spectra are averaged in order to obtain an interstellar absorption line spectrum with an S/N of about 30 and a resolution of about 25 km/s. The interstellar lines of C IV and Si IV are very strong and broad and N V is detected. The profiles for these species and Al III are compared to the Copernicus satellite profiles for O VI. The high ionization lines toward HD 64760 are much stronger and broader than those recorded toward Zeta Pup and Gamma super 2 Vel, the two exciting stars of the Gum nebula. The profiles for Al III and Si IV are similar and considerably narrower than the O VI profile. An origin in photoionized Gum nebula gas is suggested as the most likely explanation for Al III and Si IV. The C IV profile has a high positive velocity wing extending to approximately +80 km/s, which is similar in appearance to the positive velocity portion of the O VI profile. It is inferred that a substantial part of the observed C IV has an origin in the collisionally ionized gas most likely rsponsible for the O VI.

Edgar, Richard J.; Savage, Blair D.

1992-01-01

170

Ionization chamber  

DOEpatents

An ionization chamber has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionize the gas.

Walenta, Albert H. (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

1981-01-01

171

Ionized gas and stars in the central kiloparsec of the type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGC 2110 - I. The data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present new results from an extensive set of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 2110. The HST data sets include Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations as well as the first high-spatial resolution spectroscopy ([OI], [NII], H? and [SII] lines) of this galaxy obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The ground-based data are three-dimensional (x, y, ?) spectrographic observations obtained using the integral field spectrograph OASIS on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, complemented by near-infrared long-slit spectroscopy obtained using NIRSPEC on the Keck-II telescope. The OASIS observations cover regions containing both stellar absorption lines and major optical emission lines. The NIRSPEC observations cover the H and K bands. Combined with archival HST observations, the WFPC2 data provide us with a high-spatial resolution extinction map. The OASIS data allowed bidimensional mapping of the stellar and gaseous kinematics, as well as of the spectral properties of the ionized gas. These results are compared to those obtained in the near-infrared with NIRSPEC/Keck. Last, we used the STIS data to probe the ionized gas kinematics and properties in the inner 4arcsec along PA = 156° at unprecedented spatial resolution. Our two-dimensional (2D) map of the stellar velocity field and the near-infrared stellar velocity profile are symmetric about the nucleus, confirming the results of previous long-slit observations. The asymmetry of the velocity field of the ionized gas is present at the same level for visible and near-infrared lines, indicating this is not a reddening effect. Multiple Gaussian fitting of the emission-line profile allowed the contributions of the broad and a narrow components to be disentangled. The intensity peak of the [OIII] narrow component is located north of the nucleus, indicating that the bulk of the narrow [OIII] emission comes from the jet-like structure (Mulchaey et al.) and not from the nucleus itself. We suggest that the northern arm is the anomalous one, contrary to what has been claimed earlier. Last, we also show that the elongated region of high gas velocity dispersion located close to the nucleus and discovered by Gonzàlez Delgado et al. is intrinsic to the narrow component.

Ferruit, P.; Mundell, C. G.; Nagar, N. M.; Emsellem, E.; Pécontal, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Schinnerer, E.

2004-08-01

172

Resonantly enhanced vacuum-ultraviolet generation and multiphoton ionization in carbon monoxide gas  

SciTech Connect

Competition between three-photon resonantly enhanced vacuum ultraviolet third-harmonic generation and six-photon multiphoton ionization using the A state in gaseous carbon monoxide is observed. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission exhibit increasing blue shifts and broadening with increasing pressure due to the phase matching requirements. Estimates for the efficiency and tunability show that third-harmonic generation in carbon monoxide molecules is a promising source for coherent vacuum ultraviolet light.

Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.

1982-01-01

173

A Monte-Carlo Code for Computing Transport Coefficients in Weakly Ionized Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A Monte-Carlo code (MCSwarm) has been developed to provide transport coefficients in weakly ionized gases. The code can generate transport coefficients in crossed electric and magnetic fields for a wide varietv of gases including N2, O2, SF6 , H2, H2O, Ar, Ne, CO2, and He. The code follows many different interactions including rotational and vibrational modes,

S. B. Swanekamp; D. D. Hinshelwood; P. F. Ottinger; J. W. Schumer; D. Mosher; M. L. Kiefer; D. B. Seidel; T. D. Pointon

2007-01-01

174

THE KINEMATICS AND IONIZATION OF NUCLEAR GAS CLOUDS IN CENTAURUS A  

SciTech Connect

Neumayer et al. established the existence of a blueshifted cloud in the core of Centaurus A, within a few parsecs of the nucleus and close to the radio jet. We propose that the cloud has been impacted by the jet, and that it is in the foreground of the jet, accounting for its blueshifted emission on the southern side of the nucleus. We consider both shock excitation and photoionization models for the excitation of the cloud. Shock models do not account for the [Si VI] and [Ca VIII] emission line fluxes. However, X-ray observations indicate a source of ionizing photons in the core of Centaurus A; photoionization by the inferred flux incident on the cloud can account for the fluxes in these lines relative to Brackett-{gamma}. The power-law slope of the ionizing continuum matches that inferred from synchrotron models of the X-rays. The logarithm of the ionization parameter is -1.9, typical of that in Seyfert galaxies and consistent with the value proposed for dusty ionized plasmas. The model cloud density depends upon the Lorentz factor of the blazar and the inclination of our line of sight to the jet axis. For acute inclinations, the inferred density is consistent with expected cloud densities. However, for moderate inclinations of the jet to the line of sight, high Lorentz factors imply cloud densities in excess of 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} and very low filling factors, suggesting that models of the gamma-ray emission should incorporate jet Lorentz factors {approx}< 5.

Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt. Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Rd., Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)] [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt. Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Rd., Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Neumayer, Nadine, E-mail: Geoff.Bicknell@anu.edu.au, E-mail: Ralph.Sutherland@anu.edu.au, E-mail: nadine.neumayer@universe-cluster.de [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2013-03-20

175

A solid state amplifier for the flame ionization detector used in gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a solid state current amplifier with which a flame ionization detector can be used at all practicable sensitivity levels. The use of metal-oxide-silicon transistors in a conventional circuit gives a degree of stability significantly better than that achieved with thermionic electrometer valves. The amplifier has a sensitivity of 100 mV pA-1 and a noise output equivalent to 2*10-15A rms

D. F. Meigh; E. H. Oetzmann

1971-01-01

176

Axisymmetric Expansion of an Ionized Propellant Gas Under the Effect of Magnetic Fields in Advanced Rocket Nozzle.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An iterative finite-difference mathematical model is formulated to predict the effect of magnetic fields applied to an ionized propellant gas expanding through a converging-diverging rocket nozzle. The numerical model solves the fluid mechanical equations of motion combined with energy and electromagnetic equations. A multi-step pressure correction procedure with an implicit density treatment is used to establish the pressure and velocity fields. The algorithm is valid for the flow regimes encountered in a rocket nozzle, from subsonic to supersonic flow. The possibility of reducing heat transfer at the nozzle's throat by means of an applied magnetic field is considered. This is the first known model that addresses the effect of magnetic fields on the flow of an ionized propellant gas, as it expands through a rocket nozzle of the type proposed for high power electrothermal thrusters. The computational model developed produces results that demonstrate critical physical processes occurring in connection with the coupling of magnetic and flow fields. It is found that the magnetic field affects the flow field not only in relation to the magnitude of its field strength, but most importantly the magnetic effect is driven by the relative magnitude of its gradients as it relates to the inherent flow gradients in the nozzle. Further, when the gas pressure is less than one percent of the magnetic pressure, a reduction in heat losses to the wall of the nozzle is possible. At the conditions of the test cases investigated, local heat transfer rates are reduced up to 30%. It is concluded that, at the flow conditions envisioned for high-power electrothermal thrusters, modest magnetic insulation is possible with a properly aligned magnetic field.

Gonzalez Villarreal, Dora Elia

1994-01-01

177

Ionization above the F2 -peak, as affected by the interplanetary gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The atmospheres of the earth, the sun and other bodies are surrounded by gas that is nearly uniform in number densityn and kinetic temperatureT, over spaces much greater than those occupied by the atmospheres. This gas may be called theambium of the atmosphere. In total it is much more massive than the atmosphere it encloses. The conditions in the

Sydney Chapman

1962-01-01

178

How to move ionized gas: an introduction to the dynamics of HII regions  

E-print Network

This review covers the dynamic processes that are important in the evolution and structure of galactic HII regions, concentrating on an elementary presentation of the physical concepts and recent numerical simulations of HII region evolution in a non-uniform medium. The contents are as follows: (1) The equations (Euler equations; Radiative transfer; Rate equations; How to avoid the dynamics; How to avoid the atomic physics). (2) Physical concepts (Static photoionization equilibrium; Ionization front propagation; Structure of a D-type front; Photoablation flows; Other ingredients - Stellar winds, Radiation pressure, Magnetic fields, Instabilities). (3) HII region evolution (Early phases: hypercompact and ultracompact regions; Later phases: compact and extended regions; Clumps and turbulence).

William J. Henney

2006-02-28

179

Acceleration of electrons generated during ionization of a gas by a nearly flat profile laser pulse  

SciTech Connect

A scheme of acceleration of electrons generated during ionization of krypton by nearly flat radial and nearly flat temporal laser pulse profiles has been suggested. The energy spectrum of the electrons suggests that energy of the electrons is higher for a nearly flat temporal profile than that for a nearly flat radial profile. The suppression of scattering of the electrons is better for a nearly flat radial profile than that for a nearly flat temporal profile. The energy of the electrons increases, scattering decreases, and beam quality improves with an increase in flatness of radial and temporal profiles.

Singh, Kunwar Pal [Department of Physics, MSJ College, Bharatpur, Rajasthan 321201 (India)

2009-09-15

180

On the zirconium oxide neutral cluster distribution in the gas phase: detection through 118 nm single photon, and 193 and 355 nm multiphoton, ionization.  

PubMed

Zirconium oxide clusters are generated in the gas phase by laser ablation of the metal into a flow of ca. 5% O2/95% He at 100 psig and supersonic expansion into a vacuum chamber. Mass spectra of neutral gas phase zirconium oxide clusters are obtained through photoionization at three different laser wavelengths: 118, 193, and 355 nm. Ionization of the clusters with 118 nm laser radiation is through a single photon ionization mechanism, while ionization by 193 and 355 nm laser radiation is through a multiphoton (three or more photon) mechanism. Fragment ion features are observed in the mass spectra of ZrmOn+ for only the 193 nm and 355 nm ionization schemes. The true neutral ZrmOn cluster distribution is obtained only through 118 nm single photon ionization, as verified by mass spectral peak linewidths and calculations of the cluster binding energies, ionization energies, and fragmentation rates. The neutral cluster distribution consists mainly of the series ZrmO2m and ZrmO(2m+1) for m = 1,..., approximately 30. PMID:15268580

Matsuda, Y; Shin, D N; Bernstein, E R

2004-03-01

181

Photoionization/flame-ionization detection of atmospheric hydrocarbons after capillary gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

A ''gastight, low-volume'' photoionization detector (PID) has been constructed for the purpose of detecting trace hydrocarbons in atmospheric samples. This modified PID, in tandem with an FID (flame-ionization detector), was tested by use of a standard gaseous mixture of aromatics, alkenes, and alkanes. The average minimum detectable amounts for the PID were found to be 1.2 pg for aromatics, 2.0 pg for alkenes, and 8.6 pg for alkanes. When the detector was operated in tandem with a standard flame ionization detector, PID/FID response ratios normalized to toluene produced values that could be used to classify hydrocarbons according to their degree of saturation. Normalized PID/FID ratios for alkanes were found to range from 0 to 43, alkenes from 44 to 88, and aromatics from 75 to 158. Using this ratio criteria an ambient air sample was detemined to contain 52% alkanes, 14% alkenes, and 34% aromatics by weight excluding C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons. 4 figures, 2 tables.

Nutmagul, W. (Washington State Univ., Pullman); Cronn, D.R.; Hill, H.H. Jr.

1983-11-01

182

The integrated radio continuum spectrum of M33 - Evidence for free-free absorption by cool ionized gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present measurements of the integrated radio continuum flux density of M33 at frequencies between 22 and 610 MHz and discuss the radio continuum spectrum of M33 between 22 MHz and 10 GHz. This spectrum has a turnover between 500 and 900 MHz, depending on the steepness of the high frequency radio spectrum of M33. Below 500 MHz the spectrum is relatively flat. We discuss possible mechanisms to explain this spectral shape and consider efficient free-free absorption of nonthermal emission by a cool (not greater than 1000 K) ionized gas to be a very likely possibility. The surface filling factor of both the nonthermal and the thermal material appears to be small (of order 0.001), which could be explained by magnetic field/density fluctuations in the M 33 interstellar medium. We briefly speculate on the possible presence of a nuclear radio source with a steep spectrum.

Israel, F. P.; Mahoney, M. J.; Howarth, N.

1992-01-01

183

THE ORIGIN OF THE 6.4 keV LINE EMISSION AND H{sub 2} IONIZATION IN THE DIFFUSE MOLECULAR GAS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER REGION  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the origin of the diffuse 6.4 keV line emission recently detected by Suzaku and the source of H{sub 2} ionization in the diffuse molecular gas of the Galactic center (GC) region. We show that Fe atoms and H{sub 2} molecules in the diffuse interstellar medium of the GC are not ionized by the same particles. The Fe atoms are most likely ionized by X-ray photons emitted by Sgr A* during a previous period of flaring activity of the supermassive black hole. The measured longitudinal intensity distribution of the diffuse 6.4 keV line emission is best explained if the past activity of Sgr A* lasted at least several hundred years and released a mean 2-100 keV luminosity {approx}> 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}. The H{sub 2} molecules of the diffuse gas cannot be ionized by photons from Sgr A*, because soft photons are strongly absorbed in the interstellar gas around the central black hole. The molecular hydrogen in the GC region is most likely ionized by low-energy cosmic rays, probably protons rather than electrons, whose contribution into the diffuse 6.4 keV line emission is negligible.

Dogiel, V. A.; Chernyshov, D. O. [I. E. Tamm Theoretical Physics Division of P. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, Leninskii pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tatischeff, V. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, IN2P3/CNRS and Univ Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Cheng, K.-S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Terrier, R. [Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris7/CNRS/CEA, Batiment Condorcet, F-75013 Paris (France)

2013-07-10

184

Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy in Glow Discharge: A New Dimension for Gas Chromatography Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Admixtures to helium of 100 ppm and 5 ppm of nitrogen, and 100 ppm and 10 ppm of carbon monoxide were identified and measured in the helium discharge afterglow using an electrical probe placed into the plasma. For nitrogen and carbon monoxide gases, the measured electron energy spectra display distinct characteristic peaks (fingerprints). Location of the peaks on the energy scale is determined by the ionization energies of the analyte molecules. Nitrogen and carbon monoxide fingerprints were also observed in a binary mixture of these gases in helium, and the relative concentration analytes has been predicted. The technically simple and durable method is considered a good candidate for a number of analytical applications, and in particular, in GC and for analytical flight instrumentation.

Sheverev, V. A.; Khromov, N. A.; Kojiro, D. R.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

185

Negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of prostanoid pentafluorobenzyl ester/methoxime/trimethylsilyl ether derivatives.  

PubMed

Negative ion chemical ionization mass spectra of prostaglandin F2 alpha, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin D2, 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha, 2,3-dinor-6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha, thromboxane B2, 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2, and 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 pentafluorobenzyl ester (PFB)/methoxime/trimethylsilyl ether derivatives are presented. Collisionally activated decomposition mass spectra of the [M-PFB]- ions at collision energies of 8-24 eV and argon collision gas pressures of 1-2m Torr almost show only fragmentation of trimethylsilanol, (CH3)2Si = CHOH, (CH3)2Si = CH2 and methanol whereas, except for carbon dioxide loss, only few low-intensity fragments from the carbon skeleton of the prostanoids are observed. PMID:3365491

Schweer, H; Seyberth, H W; Meese, C O; Fürst, O

1988-02-01

186

Simultaneous determination of fatty, dicarboxylic and amino acids based on derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate followed by gas chromatography—positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) with positive ion chemical ionization (PICI) using isobutane as reagent gas was applied for analysis of isobutoxycarbonyl\\/isobutyl derivatives of 13 fatty, 6 dicarboxylic and 13 amino acids in a single run. For all investigated compounds (except several amino acids) the quasimolecular ions [MH]+ were registered. Asparagine underwent fragmentation via decarboxylation followed by elimination of OC4H9 ([M?117]+),

Tim G. Sobolevsky; Alexander I. Revelsky; Igor A. Revelsky; Barbara Miller; Vincent Oriedo

2004-01-01

187

Kinematics of the Nuclear Ionized Gas in the Radio Galaxy M84 (NGC 4374)  

E-print Network

We present optical long-slit spectroscopy of the nucleus of the nearby radio galaxy M84 (NGC 4374 = 3C 272.1) obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Our spectra reveal that the nuclear gas disk seen in WFPC2 imaging by Bower et al. (1997, ApJ, 483, L33) is rotating rapidly. The velocity curve has an S-shape with a peak amplitude of 400 km/s at 0.1" = 8 pc from the nucleus. To model the observed gas kinematics, we construct a thin Keplerian disk model that fits the data well if the rotation axis of the gas disk is aligned with the radio jet axis. These models indicate that the gas dynamics are driven by a nuclear compact mass of 1.5 x 10^9 Msun with an uncertainty range of (0.9 - 2.6) x 10^9 Msun and that the inclination of the disk with respect to the plane of the sky is 75 - 85 degrees. Of this nuclear mass, only <= 2 x 10^7 Msun can possibly be attributed to luminous mass. Thus, we conclude that a dark compact mass (most likely a supermassive black hole) resides in the nucleus of M84.

G. A. Bower; R. F. Green

1997-10-23

188

Quantum coherence in the dynamical excitation, ionization, and decaying of neon gas induced by X-ray laser  

E-print Network

We develop a large scale quantum master equation approach to describe dynamical processes of practical open quantum systems driven by both coherent and stochastic interactions by including more than one thousand true states of the systems, motivated by the development of highly bright and fully coherent lasers in the X-ray wavelength regime. The method combines the processes of coherent dynamics induced by the X-ray laser and incoherent relaxations due to spontaneous emissions, Auger decays, and electronic collisions. As examples, theoretical investigation of {\\it real} coherent dynamics of inner-shell electrons of a neon gas, irradiated by a high-intensity X-ray laser with a full temporal coherence, is carried out with the approach. In contrast to the rate equation treatment, we find that coherence can suppress the multiphoton absorptions of a neon gas in the ultra-intense X-ray pulse, due to coherence-induced Rabi oscillations and power broadening effects. We study the influence of coherence on ionization p...

Li, Yongqiang; Dong, Wenpu; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

2015-01-01

189

The Physics of Partially Ionized Gas with Applications to Processes in the Interstellar Medium  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical equations for a partially ionized plasma are a matter of some recent controversy. Understanding this problem is important in understanding the interaction of the interstellar medium with the heliosphere and for understanding the spectrum of interstellar turbulence. If collision scales are much smaller than the internal interaction scales such as the ion gyroradius, the fluid approximation may be used. The analysis then must deal with at least three fluids (protons, electrons, and neutrals) which are coupled to each other by collisions and/or electromagnetic fields. Often, the proton and electron gyro-radii are much smaller than the collision length scales, so the electric and magnetic fields dominate the motions of the electrons and protons. In this case, the only important particle-particle collisions are those of the electrons and protons with the neutral atoms. Since the three species have, in general, different velocities, it is not immediately clear which fluid velocity to use. This ambiguity in the choice of fluid velocity has led to recent confusion regarding the physics of partially ionized plasmas. If the neutrals have a significant fraction of the mass, working in the center-of-mass coordinate frame can result in dynamical equations that differ greatly from those of ideal MHD. This is because the magnetic field is not frozen into the frame moving at the center-of-mass velocity, which leads to additional effects on the magnetic field that can be difficult to understand intuitively. To the extent that the electron mass is negligible, the magnetic field is actually found to be frozen into the frame moving with the electron bulk velocity. If we then take U to be the bulk velocity of the proton fluid the resulting dynamical equations closely resemble those of ideal MHD with the exception of the Hall term in the induction equation. Similarly, the frequently used Cowling conductivity also depends on the choice of coordinate frame. These conclusions address directly the recent controversy regarding the interaction of the interstellar medium with the heliosphere and also impact our understanding of interstellar turbulence.

Greenfield, E. J. [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jokipii, J. R.; Giacalone, Joe [Department of Planetary Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-09-21

190

Properties of the ionized gas in HH 202 - II. Results from echelle spectrophotometry with Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of deep echelle spectrophotometry of the brightest knot of the Herbig-Haro object HH 202 in the Orion Nebula - HH 202-S - using the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph in the spectral range from 3100 to 10400 Å. The high spectral resolution of the observations has permitted to separate the component associated with the ambient gas from that associated with the gas flow. We derive electron densities and temperatures from different diagnostics for both components, as well as the chemical abundances of several ions and elements from collisionally excited lines, including the first determinations of Ca+ and Cr+ abundances in the Orion Nebula. We also calculate the He+, C2+, O+ and O2+ abundances from recombination lines. The difference between the O2+ abundances determined from collisionally excited and recombination lines - the so-called abundance discrepancy factor - is 0.35 and 0.11 dex for the shock and nebular components, respectively. Assuming that the abundance discrepancy is produced by spatial variations in the electron temperature, we derive values of the temperature fluctuation parameter, t2, of 0.050 and 0.016 for the shock and nebular components, respectively. Interestingly, we obtain almost coincident t2 values for both components from the analysis of the intensity ratios of HeI lines. We find significant departures from case B predictions in the Balmer and Paschen flux ratios of lines of high principal quantum number n. We analyse the ionization structure of HH 202-S, finding enough evidence to conclude that the flow of HH 202-S has compressed the ambient gas inside the nebula trapping the ionization front. We measure a strong increase of the total abundances of nickel and iron in the shock component, the abundance pattern and the results of photoionization models for both components are consistent with the partial destruction of dust after the passage of the shock wave in HH 202-S. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, proposal number ESO 70.C-0008(A). E-mail: amd@iac.es

Mesa-Delgado, A.; Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.; Luridiana, V.; Bautista, M.; Rodríguez, M.; López-Martín, L.; Peimbert, M.

2009-05-01

191

[S IV] IN THE NGC 5253 SUPERNEBULA: IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5 {mu}m line of S{sup +3} at 3.8 km s{sup -1} spectral and 1.''4 spatial resolution, using the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s{sup -1} and another of similar strength and FWHM 94 km s{sup -1} centered {approx}20 km s{sup -1} to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows toward us out of the molecular cloud, as in a 'blister' or 'champagne flow' or in the H II regions modelled by Zhu.

Beck, Sara C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv (Israel); Lacy, John H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Turner, Jean L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kruger, Andrew; Richter, Matt [Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Crosthwaite, Lucian P., E-mail: sara@wise.tau.ac.il [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, San Diego, CA 92127 (United States)

2012-08-10

192

KINEMATICS AND EXCITATION OF THE RAM PRESSURE STRIPPED IONIZED GAS FILAMENTS IN THE COMA CLUSTER OF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of deep imaging and spectroscopic observations of very extended ionized gas (EIG) around four member galaxies of the Coma Cluster of galaxies: RB 199, IC 4040, GMP 2923, and GMP 3071. The EIGs were serendipitously found in an H{alpha} narrowband imaging survey of the central region of the Coma Cluster. The relative radial velocities of the EIGs with respect to the systemic velocities of the parent galaxies from which they emanate increase almost monotonically with the distance from the nucleus of the respective galaxies, reaching {approx} - 400 to - 800 km s{sup -1} at around 40-80 kpc from the galaxies. The one-sided morphologies and the velocity fields of the EIGs are consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations of ram pressure stripping. We found a very low velocity filament (v{sub rel} {approx} -1300 km s{sup -1}) at the southeastern edge of the disk of IC 4040. Some bright compact knots in the EIGs of RB 199 and IC 4040 exhibit blue continuum and strong H{alpha} emission. The equivalent widths of the H{alpha} emission exceed 200 A and are greater than 1000 Angstrom-Sign for some knots. The emission-line intensity ratios of the knots are basically consistent with those of sub-solar abundance H II regions. These facts indicate that intensive star formation occurs in the knots. Some filaments, including the low-velocity filament of the IC 4040 EIG, exhibit shock-like emission-line spectra, suggesting that shock heating plays an important role in ionization and excitation of the EIGs.

Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Furusawa, Hisanori [Astronomical Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hattori, Takashi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: yoshidam@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2012-04-10

193

Fast gas chromatography negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry of explosive compounds using dynamic collision-induced dissociation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of nine explosive compounds by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using negative chemical ionization (NCI) was performed under two different conditions: first, a conventional GC separation coupled with a standard ion dissociation method in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) was performed in segmented selected reaction monitoring mode; second, a fast GC separation on a microbore capillary column was combined with a faster method of collisional activation in ion traps wherein fragmentation is deliberately accomplished during the mass acquisition scan. The conventional GC-MS/MS method provided separation times in 10 min with detection limits between 0.8 and 280 pg on column. The fast GC method with dynamic collision-induced dissociation (DCID) offered a confirmatory method for the analysis of high explosives with separation times under 2.5 min and detection limits between 0.5 and 5 pg on column, without any hardware modifications to the instrument. The implementation of DCID in combination with three-times-faster mass scanning allows the acquisition of tandem mass spectra to at least 5 Hz (while averaging three scans per spectrum). Although detection limits for GC-NCI-MS/MS using conventional CID or DCID are not quite on par with LODs achieved by GC-ECD, the combination of NCI with DCID tandem MS leads to detection limits at least comparable, if not superior, to other mass spectrometric methods. Selected reaction monitoring in the negative ionization mode is anticipated to offer the most selective approach to detecting explosives and eliminating potential interferences, which could ultimately lead to the best detection limits for real, contaminated samples.

Collin, Olivier L.; Zimmermann, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Glen P.

2009-01-01

194

Characterization of diacylglycerol isomers in edible oils using gas chromatography-ion trap electron ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Verifying the authenticity of edible oils is of international concern. A new quality control standard for olive oil has been proposed that relates the ratio of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to 1,3-DAG to sensory aspects of olive oil. DAGs and their isomers are difficult to quantitate and characterize by Flame Ionization Gas Chromatography (GC-FID) due to the lack of suitable standards. Mass detectors offer the advantage of providing structural detail to the eluding DAG(s), thus removing ambiguity to the identification of both resolved and unresolved DAGs in GC chromatograms. In this study, a GC Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) method was developed to determine the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatized DAGs present in edible oils. Twenty-two species of DAG isomers were identified in refined coconut oil and unrefined olive oil utilizing signature fragment ions, [M-15](+), [M-89](+), [M-RCO2](+), [RCO2+58](+) and [M-RCO2CH2](+). The [M-RCO2CH2](+) ion is considered the key diagnostic ion to distinguish between DAG positional isomers. MS/MS spectra of [M-RCO2](+) and [M-15](+) ions obtained from commercial standards containing both 1,2- and 1,3-DAG isomers were used as a model system to confirm the identification of DAG isomers in natural products. Furthermore, a number of reaction mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of the most abundant mass fragments of DAGs and their isomers. PMID:23880469

Zhu, Hanjiang; Clegg, Michael S; Shoemaker, Charles F; Wang, Selina C

2013-08-23

195

Age, size, and position of H ii regions in the Galaxy. Expansion of ionized gas in turbulent molecular clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This work aims to improve the current understanding of the interaction between H ii regions and turbulent molecular clouds. We propose a new method to determine the age of a large sample of OB associations by investigating the development of their associated H ii regions in the surrounding turbulent medium. Methods: Using analytical solutions, one-dimensional (1D), and three-dimensional (3D) simulations, we constrained the expansion of the ionized bubble depending on the turbulence level of the parent molecular cloud. A grid of 1D simulations was then computed in order to build isochrone curves for H ii regions in a pressure-size diagram. This grid of models allowed us to date a large sample of OB associations that we obtained from the H ii Region Discovery Survey (HRDS). Results: Analytical solutions and numerical simulations showed that the expansion of H ii regions is slowed down by the turbulence up to the point where the pressure of the ionized gas is in a quasi-equilibrium with the turbulent ram pressure. Based on this result, we built a grid of 1D models of the expansion of H ii regions in a profile based on Larson's laws. We take the 3D turbulence into account with an effective 1D temperature profile. The ages estimated by the isochrones of this grid agree well with literature values of well known regions such as Rosette, RCW 36, RCW 79, and M 16. We thus propose that this method can be used to find ages of young OB associations through the Galaxy and also in nearby extra-galactic sources.

Tremblin, P.; Anderson, L. D.; Didelon, P.; Raga, A. C.; Minier, V.; Ntormousi, E.; Pettitt, A.; Pinto, C.; Samal, M. R.; Schneider, N.; Zavagno, A.

2014-08-01

196

The Effects of Ionized Gas Exposure on the Toughness and Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Alloys and Composites.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of an oxygen ionized gas from simulated space exposure on the toughness and fatigue properties of several aerospace aluminum alloys and aluminum composites have been analyzed. The test matrix consisted of four aluminum systems: the 6000 and 1100 series and two 8090 aluminum-lithium alloys. The test specimens were prepared as Charpy V-notched impact and disk-shaped compact fracture toughness specimens. A small specimen size is used for the compact tension specimens to facilitate exposure in a Radio Frequency (RF) Plasma Prep II unit. Radio frequency plasma, sometimes referred to as the "electrodeless plasma", is used in disassociative ionization of molecular oxygen to simulate high fluence, relatively low energy, low earth orbit (LEO) space atomic oxygen. The plasma reacts with the aluminum alloy systems and forms a thin scale of alumina a few microns thick. Monolayer sensitive Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE) is used to determine the growth characteristics and effect on optical constants, the reflective index, n and absorption coefficient, k. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was also employed to determine the effect of short exposure to the oxygen plasma environment. AFM indicates that sharp spikes of oxygen rich material are produced above the aluminum specimen surface resulting in stress concentrations with gradual roughing of the surface. After 10 years of simulated exposure, the increased roughness results in a 34% increase in the fatigue crack growth, da/dN, for the 6000 series; the crack growth rate of the aluminum-lithium material was increased about 28%. The results of instrumented Charpy V-notched impact specimens indicated that exposure reduced the energy for fracture initiation by 29%. Plane strain fracture toughness effects could not be established because the influence of oxygen was concentrated at the surface of the specimens.

Zaat, Stephen Vincent

197

Kinematics and Excitation of the Ram Pressure Stripped Ionized Gas Filaments in the Coma Cluster of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of deep imaging and spectroscopic observations of very extended ionized gas (EIG) around four member galaxies of the Coma Cluster of galaxies: RB 199, IC 4040, GMP 2923, and GMP 3071. The EIGs were serendipitously found in an H? narrowband imaging survey of the central region of the Coma Cluster. The relative radial velocities of the EIGs with respect to the systemic velocities of the parent galaxies from which they emanate increase almost monotonically with the distance from the nucleus of the respective galaxies, reaching ~ - 400 to - 800 km s-1 at around 40-80 kpc from the galaxies. The one-sided morphologies and the velocity fields of the EIGs are consistent with the predictions of numerical simulations of ram pressure stripping. We found a very low velocity filament (v rel ~ -1300 km s-1) at the southeastern edge of the disk of IC 4040. Some bright compact knots in the EIGs of RB 199 and IC 4040 exhibit blue continuum and strong H? emission. The equivalent widths of the H? emission exceed 200 Å and are greater than 1000 Å for some knots. The emission-line intensity ratios of the knots are basically consistent with those of sub-solar abundance H II regions. These facts indicate that intensive star formation occurs in the knots. Some filaments, including the low-velocity filament of the IC 4040 EIG, exhibit shock-like emission-line spectra, suggesting that shock heating plays an important role in ionization and excitation of the EIGs. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Yoshida, Michitoshi; Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Hattori, Takashi; Okamura, Sadanori

2012-04-01

198

DENSITY OF WARM IONIZED GAS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: LOW RADIO FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have observed the Galactic center (GC) region at 0.154 and 0.255 GHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. A total of 62 compact likely extragalactic (EG) sources are detected. Their scattering sizes decrease linearly with increasing angular distance from the GC up to about 1 Degree-Sign . The apparent scattering sizes of the sources are more than an order of magnitude less than predicted earlier by the NE2001 model of Galactic electron distribution within 359. Degree-Sign 5 < l < 0. Degree-Sign 5 and -0. Degree-Sign 5 < b < 0. Degree-Sign 5 (Hyperstrong Scattering Region) of the Galaxy. High free-free optical depths ({tau}) are observed toward most of the extended non-thermal sources within 0. Degree-Sign 6 from the GC. Significant variation of {tau} indicates that the absorbing medium is patchy at an angular scale of {approx}10' and n{sub e} is {approx}10 cm{sup -3}, which matches the NE2001 model. This model predicts the EG sources to be resolved out from 1.4 GHz interferometric surveys. However, out of 10 EG sources expected in the region, 8 likely EG are present in the 1.4 GHz catalog. Ionized interfaces of dense molecular clouds to the ambient medium are most likely responsible for strong scattering and low radio frequency absorption. However, dense GC clouds traced by CS J = 1-0 emission are found to have a narrow distribution of {approx}0. Degree-Sign 2 across the Galactic plane. Angular distribution of most EG sources seen through the so-called Hyperstrong Scattering Region are random in b, and typically {approx}7 out of 10 sources will not be seen through the dense molecular clouds, which explains why most of them are not scatter broadened at 1.4 GHz.

Roy, Subhashis, E-mail: roy@ncra.tifr.res.in [NCRA-TIFR, Pune 411007 (India)

2013-08-10

199

Infrared imaging spectroscopy of the Galactic center - Distribution and motions of the ionized gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High spatial spectral resolution IR images of the Galactic center in the Br-gamma recombination line of hydrogen were taken. A coherent filament of gas extending from north of IRS 1, curving around IRS 16/Sgr A complex, and continuing to the southwest, is seen. Nine stellar sources have associated Br-gamma emission. The total Br-gamma line flux in the filament is approximately 3 x 10 exp -15 W/sq m. The distribution and kinematics of the northern arm suggest orbital motion; the observations are accordingly fit with elliptical orbits in the field of a central point of mass.

Herbst, T. M.; Beckwith, S. V. W.; Forrest, W. J.; Pipher, J. L.

1993-01-01

200

STIS observations of the nuclear ionized gas in the elliptical galaxy M84  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present optical long-slit spectroscopy of the nucleus of the nearby radio galaxy M84 (NGC 4374 = 3C 272.1) obtained with STIS aboard HST. The velocity curve has an S-shape with a peak amplitude of 400 km/s at 0".1 = 8 pc from the nucleus. To model the observed gas kinematics, Bower et al. fit a thin Keplerian disk model to these data, leading to the conclusion that a is approx. = 1.5 x 109 Solar mass dark compact mass (most likely a supermassive black hole) resides in the nucleus of M84.

Bower, G. A.; Green, R. F.; Lindler, D.

1997-01-01

201

Gas-phase oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ --thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO.  

PubMed

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm (+) and Cm (2+); parallel studies were carried out with La (+/2+), Gd (+/2+) and Lu (+/2+). Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M (+)-O] (M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO (+) with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO (+)] (M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO (2+) ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO] = 6.4 +/- 0.2 eV; IE[CmO (+)] = 15.8 +/- 0.4 eV; D[Cm-O] = 710 +/- 45 kJ mol (-1); D[Cm (+)-O] = 670 +/- 40 kJ mol (-1); and D[Cm (2+)-O] = 342 +/- 55 kJ mol (-1). Estimates for the M (2+)-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd, and Lu are all intermediate between D[N 2-O] and D[OC-O] - that is, 167 kJ mol (-1) < D[M (2+)-O] < 532 kJ mol (-1) - such that the four MO (2+) ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic oxygen-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO (2+), LaO (2+), GdO (2+), and LuO (2+) dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO 2 (+) ion appeared during the reaction of Cm (+) with O 2 when the intermediate, CmO (+), was not collisionally cooled - although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO 2 (+) is a stable species. PMID:18921989

Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G; Santos, Marta; de Matos, António Pires; Marçalo, Joaquim

2008-11-13

202

Sample preparation methods for beeswax characterization by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.  

PubMed

New and simpler methods of sample preparation to determine several families of compounds in beeswax by conventional and high temperature gas chromatography are proposed. To analyze hydrocarbons and palmitates, a dilution of sample is enough whereas for the total acid content, a hydrolysis and simultaneous methylation with BF3-methanol results more effective than the usual methods; for the total content of alcohols, a further acetylation with acetic anhydride is necessary. Free alcohols are directly acetylated in a sample dissolution but for free acids and monoesterified 1,2,3-propanetriols analysis, a previous extraction with acetonitrile is required. The concentrations of all the compounds studied are expressed in weight percentage referred only to one standard: octadecyl octadecanoate. The precision of the analytical methods has been evaluated showing its importance in the analysis of beeswaxes used in apiculture. PMID:16854423

Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; del Nozal, M A J; Martín, M A T; Bernal, J

2006-10-01

203

Determination of free amino compounds in betalainic fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

Amino acids and amines are the precursors of betalains. Therefore, the profiles of free amino compounds in juices obtained from cactus pears [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. cv. Bianca, cv. Gialla, and cv. Rossa], pitaya fruits [Selenicereus megalanthus (K. Schumann ex Vaupel) Moran, Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose, and Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose], and in extracts from differently colored Swiss chard [Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla (L.) Alef. cv. Bright Lights] petioles and red and yellow beets (B. vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. conditiva Alef. cv. Burpee's Golden) were investigated for the first time. Amino compounds were derivatized with propyl chloroformate. While gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry was used for peak assignment, GC flame ionization detection was applied for quantification of individual compounds. Whereas proline was the major free amino compound of cactus pear and pitaya fruit juices, glutamine dominated in Swiss chard stems and beets, respectively. Interestingly, extremely high concentrations of dopamine were detected in Swiss chard stems and beets. Furthermore, the cleavage of betaxanthins caused by derivatization in alkaline reaction solutions is demonstrated for the first time. Amino acids and amines thus released might increase the actual free amino compound contents of the respective sample. To evaluate the contribution of betaxanthin cleavage to total amino acid and amine concentration, isolated betaxanthins were derivatized according to the "EZ:faast" method prior to quantification of the respective amino compounds released. On a molar basis, betaxanthin contribution to overall amino compound contents was always below 6.4%. PMID:16756361

Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Schreiter, Pat P-Y; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

2006-06-14

204

Use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with positive chemical ionization for the determination of opiates in human oral fluid.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of codeine, morphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6AM) in human oral fluid was developed. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction in Toxitubes A, derivatization with 99:1 (v/v) N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)/trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with positive chemical ionization (GC/PCI-MS) determination. The detector response was linear over the concentration range 30-500 ng/mL with coefficients of correlation higher than 0.99. The precision was acceptable with coefficients of variation less than 7.5%. The limits of detection achieved were 0.7 ng/mL for codeine, 2.0 ng/mL for morphine, and 0.6 ng/mL for 6AM. The method proposed was applied to 80 oral fluid samples from opiates users, 98% of which were positive for the three analytes. Human oral fluid is a suitable biological fluid for the determination of opiates by GC/PCI-MS. PMID:16548052

Cámpora, Pamela; Bermejo, Ana María; Tabernero, María Jesús; Fernández, Purificación

2006-01-01

205

Exploring petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater by double solid phase extraction coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.  

PubMed

This work proposes an analytical procedure for measuring aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons fractions present in groundwater. In this method, hydrocarbons are solid phase extracted (SPE) twice from the groundwater and the resulting fractions are analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The first SPE disposes the hydrocarbons present in groundwater in organic solvents and the second SPE divides them into aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The validation study is carried out and its uncertainties are discussed. Identifying the main sources of uncertainty is evaluated through applying the bottom-up approach. Limits of detection for hydrocarbons ranges are below 5 µg L(-1), precision is not above of 30%, and acceptable recoveries are reached for aliphatic and aromatic fractions studied. The uncertainty due to volume of the sample, factor of calibration and recovery are the highest contributions. The expanded uncertainty range from 13% to 26% for the aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges and from 14% to 23% for the aromatic hydrocarbons ranges. As application, the proposed method is satisfactorily applied to a set of groundwater samples collected in a polluted area where there is evidence to present a high degree of hydrocarbons. The results have shown the range of aliphatic hydrocarbons >C21-C35 is the most abundant, with values ranging from 215 µg L(-1) to 354 µg L(-1), which it is associated to a contamination due to diesel. PMID:25281108

Pindado Jiménez, Oscar; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Escolano Segovia, Olga; del Reino Querencia, Susana

2015-01-01

206

Direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques to study organic coatings on archaeological amphorae.  

PubMed

Two different analytical approaches, direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), were compared in a study of archaeological resinous materials. DE-MS was found to be an efficient fingerprinting tool for the fast screening of organic archaeological samples and for providing information on the major components. GC/MS appeared to be more efficient in unravelling the sample composition at a molecular level, despite the long analysis time and the need for a wet chemical pretreatment. Both procedures were applied to characterize the organic material present as coatings in Roman and Egyptian amphorae. DE-MS successfully identified abietanic compounds, hence a diterpenic resinous material could be identified and its degree of oxidation assessed. GC/MS enabled us to identify dehydroabietic acid, 7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid, retene, tetrahydroretene, norabietatriene, norabietatetraene and methyl dehydroabietate. These oxidized and aromatized abietanes provided evidence that the amphorae examined were waterproofed with a pitch produced from resinous wood of plants from the Pinaceae family. The chemometric evaluation of the GC/MS data highlighted significant chemical differences between the pitches found in the two archaeological sites, basically related to differences in the production techniques of the materials and in their degradation pathways. PMID:15739159

Colombini, Maria Perla; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika

2005-05-01

207

COMPLETE IONIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL GAS: WHY THERE ARE SO FEW DETECTIONS OF 21 cm HYDROGEN IN HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

From the first published z {approx}> 3 survey of 21 cm absorption within the hosts of radio galaxies and quasars, Curran et al. found an apparent dearth of cool neutral gas at high redshift. From a detailed analysis of the photometry, each object is found to have a {lambda} = 1216 A continuum luminosity in excess of L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}, a critical value above which 21 cm has never been detected at any redshift. At these wavelengths, and below, hydrogen is excited above the ground state so that it cannot absorb in 21 cm. In order to apply the equation of photoionization equilibrium, we demonstrate that this critical value also applies to the ionizing ({lambda} {<=} 912 A) radiation. We use this to show, for a variety of gas density distributions, that upon placing a quasar within a galaxy of gas, there is always an ultraviolet luminosity above which all of the large-scale atomic gas is ionized. While in this state, the hydrogen cannot be detected or engage in star formation. Applying the mean ionizing photon rate of all of the sources searched, we find, using canonical values for the gas density and recombination rate coefficient, that the observed critical luminosity gives a scale length (3 kpc) similar that of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Milky Way, a large spiral galaxy. Thus, this simple yet physically motivated model can explain the critical luminosity (L {sub 912} {approx} L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}), above which neutral gas is not detected. This indicates that the non-detection of 21 cm absorption is not due to the sensitivity limits of current radio telescopes, but rather that the lines of sight to the quasars, and probably the bulk of the host galaxies, are devoid of neutral gas.

Curran, S. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Whiting, M. T., E-mail: sjc@physics.usyd.edu.au [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

2012-11-10

208

Gas-Phase Synthesis of Singly and Multiply Charged Polyoxovanadate Anions Employing Electrospray Ionization and Collision Induced Dissociation  

SciTech Connect

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with in-source fragmentation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were used to generate a wide range of multiply charged vanadium oxide cluster anions including VxOyn- and VxOyCln- ions (x = 1 ? 14, y= 2 ? 36, n = 1 ? 3), protonated clusters, and ligand-bound VxOyn- species. These cluster anions were produced by electrospraying a solution of tetradecavanadate, V14O36Cl(L)5 (L= Et4N+, tetraethylammonium), in acetonitrile. Under mild source conditions, ESI-MS generates a distribution of doubly and triply charged VxOyCln- and VxOyCl(L)(n-1)- clusters predominantly containing 14 vanadium atoms. Accurate mass measurement using high-resolution mass spectrometry (m/?m = 60,000 at m/z 410) enabled unambiguous assignment of the elemental composition of the majority of peaks in the ESI-MS spectrum. In addition, high-sensitivity mass spectrometry allowed the charge state of the cluster ions to be assigned based on the separation of the major from the minor isotope of vanadium. In-source fragmentation resulted in facile formation of smaller VxOyCl(1-2)- and VxOy(1-2)- anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments enabled systematic study of the gas-phase fragmentation pathways of the cluster anions generated from solution. Surprisingly simple fragmentation patterns were obtained for all singly and doubly charged VxOyCl and VxOy species generated through multiple MS/MS experiments. In contrast, cluster ions originating directly from solution produced comparatively complex CID spectra. These results indicate that low-energy CID results in formation of stable cage-like structures of VxOyCl and VxOy anions. Furthermore, solution-phase synthesis of one precursor cluster combined with gas-phase CID is an efficient approach for the top-down synthesis of a wide range of multiply charged gas-phase metal oxide clusters for subsequent investigations of structure and reactivity.

Al Hasan, Naila M.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

2013-09-01

209

Gas-Phase Synthesis of Singly and Multiply Charged Polyoxovanadate Anions Employing Electrospray Ionization and Collision Induced Dissociation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with in-source fragmentation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were used to generate a wide range of singly and multiply charged vanadium oxide cluster anions including VxOy n- and VxOyCln- ions (x = 1-14, y = 2-36, n = 1-3), protonated clusters, and ligand-bound polyoxovanadate anions. The cluster anions were produced by electrospraying a solution of tetradecavanadate, V14O36Cl(L)5 (L = Et4N+, tetraethylammonium), in acetonitrile. Under mild source conditions, ESI-MS generates a distribution of doubly and triply charged VxOyCln- and VxOyCl(L)(n-1)- clusters predominantly containing 14 vanadium atoms as well as their protonated analogs. Accurate mass measurement using a high-resolution LTQ/Orbitrap mass spectrometer (m/?m = 60,000 at m/z 410) enabled unambiguous assignment of the elemental composition of the majority of peaks in the ESI-MS spectrum. In addition, high-sensitivity mass spectrometry allowed the charge state of the cluster ions to be assigned based on the separation of the major from the much less abundant minor isotope of vanadium. In-source fragmentation resulted in facile formation of smaller VxOyCl(1-2)- and VxOy (1-2)- anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments enabled systematic study of the gas-phase fragmentation pathways of the cluster anions originating from solution and from in-source CID. Surprisingly simple fragmentation patterns were obtained for all singly and doubly charged VxOyCl and VxOy species generated through multiple MS/MS experiments. In contrast, cluster anions originating directly from solution produced comparatively complex CID spectra. These results are consistent with the formation of more stable structures of VxOyCl and VxOy anions through low-energy CID. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that solution-phase synthesis of one precursor cluster anion combined with gas-phase CID is an efficient approach for the top-down synthesis of a wide range of singly and multiply charged gas-phase metal oxide cluster anions for subsequent investigations of structure and reactivity using mass spectrometry and ion spectroscopy techniques.

Al Hasan, Naila M.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

2013-09-01

210

Studies of soluble organics in simulated in situ oil-shale retort water by electron impact and chemical ionization from a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retort water samples collected from the Laramie 10-ton simulated in-situ retort were examined by both electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) mass spectrometry with a Finnigan Model 3300 gas chromatograph--mass spectrometer (GC-MS). These water samples, formed in retorting Green River oil shale of either Utah or Colorado origin, were filtered, lyophilized, extracted with benzene, and esterified. Both the benzene

C. S. Wen; T. F. Yen; J. B. Knight; R. E. Poulson

1976-01-01

211

Determination of primary active constituents in Cannabis preparations by high-resolution gas chromatography\\/flame ionization detection and high-performance liquid chromatography\\/UV detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a complete quantitative analysis of primary active constituents in Cannabis preparations ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN), we have compared two different chromatographic techniques, high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC)\\/flame ionization detection (FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)\\/UV. The two different methods have been validated using crude drug (hashish) with methyloleate and tetraphenylethylene as internal standard for HRGC\\/FID and HPLC\\/UV,

Veniero Gambaro; Lucia Dell’Acqua; Fiorenza Farè; Rino Froldi; Elisa Saligari; Giovanna Tassoni

2002-01-01

212

Determination of deltamethrin in rat plasma and brain using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Quantification of the pyrethroid deltamethrin (DLM) in small (100 ?L) biological samples from rodents is essential for toxicokinetic studies of trace levels of the insecticide in foods. Such empirical kinetic data are necessary for construction of valid physiologically-based toxicokinetic models. There are no validated methods in the literature for determining deltamethrin in 100 ?L plasma and brain samples. Plasma and brain samples were stabilized using sodium fluoride as an esterase inhibitor, and the DLM was extracted by protein precipitation using acetonitrile and phosphoric acid. The samples were vortexed, centrifuged, evaporated to dryness, and reconstituted in toluene prior to injection into a gas chromatograph equipped with a quadrupole mass analyzer. Samples were ionized via electron capture in the negative ion mode using methane, and the molecular ion and fragment ions of DLM were monitored using Selected-Ion Monitoring (SIM) for quantitation and verification of the analyte. Cis-permethrin was used as the internal standard for the method, which was validated according to current US FDA guidelines. Linearity was determined between 0.3 and 1,000 ng/mL, with a limit of detection of 150 pg/mL. The intra- and inter-batch variation for precision (as % relative standard deviation, RSD) and accuracy (as % bias) of the method were better than 20% at the limit of quantitation and better than 15% across the remaining linear range (n=18), with recoveries of 113% and 68% for plasma and brain respectively. Benchtop stability, autosampler stability, and freeze/thaw stability studies of the method (over a 3-day freeze/thaw cycle) were found to be within the acceptance criteria of 20% RSD and bias. This optimized method was applied to the quantitation of DLM in plasma and brain homogenate samples obtained up to 12h after oral dosing of Sprague-Dawley rats with 1mg DLM/kg body weight. PMID:24814001

Gullick, Darren; Popovici, Andrew; Young, Holly C; Bruckner, James V; Cummings, Brian S; Li, Pei; Bartlett, Michael G

2014-06-01

213

DECIPHERING THE IONIZED GAS CONTENT IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX G75.78+0.34  

SciTech Connect

We present subarcsecond observations toward the massive star-forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 3}OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40{alpha} and H30{alpha}). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) H II region with an electron density {approx}3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCH II region (EAST), located {approx}6'' to the east of the cometary UCH II region, with an electron density {approx}1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located {approx}2'' to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 M{sub Sun }. The CORE source is resolved into two compact and unresolved sources which can be well fit by two homogeneous hypercompact H II regions each one photoionized by a B0.5 zero-age main sequence star, or by free-free radiation from shock-ionized gas resulting from the interaction of a jet/outflow system with the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution and kinematics of water masers close to the CORE-N and S sources, together with excess emission at 4.5 {mu}m and the detected dust emission, suggest that the CORE source is a massive protostar driving a jet/outflow.

Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)] [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kurtz, Stan; Lizano, Susana [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)] [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Palau, Aina [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain)] [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Dpt d'Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [Dpt d'Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Shepherd, Debra [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States)] [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Franco, Jose [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garay, Guido, E-mail: asanchez@arcetri.astro.it [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

2013-04-01

214

Gas-phase chemistry of ionized and protonated GeF4: a joint experimental and theoretical study.  

PubMed

The gas-phase ion chemistry of GeF(4) and of its mixtures with water, ammonia and hydrocarbons was investigated by ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) and ab initio calculations. Under ITMS conditions, the only fragment detected from ionized GeF(4) is GeF(3)(+). This cation is a strong Lewis acid, able to react with H(2)O, NH(3) and the unsaturated C(2)H(2), C(2)H(4) and C(6)H(6) by addition-HF elimination reactions to form F(2)Ge(XH)(+), FGe(XH)(2)(+), Ge(XH)(3)(+) (X = OH or NH(2)), F(2)GeC(2)H(+), F(2)GeC(2)H(3)(+) and F(2)GeC(6)H(5)(+). The structure, stability and thermochemistry of these products and the mechanistic aspects of the exemplary reactions of GeF(3)(+) with H(2)O, NH(3) and C(6)H(6) were investigated by MP2 and coupled cluster calculations. The experimental proton affinity (PA) and gas basicity (GB) of GeF(4) were estimated as 121.5 ± 6.0 and 117.1 ± 6.0 kcal mol(-1), respectively, and GeF(4)H(+) was theoretically characterized as an ion-dipole complex between GeF(3)(+) and HF. Consistently, it reacts with simple inorganic and organic molecules to form GeF(3)(+)-L complexes (L = H(2)O, NH(3), C(2)H(2), C(2)H(4), C(6)H(6), CO(2), SO(2) and GeF(4)). The theoretical investigation of the stability of these ions with respect to GeF(3)(+) and L disclosed nearly linear correlations between their dissociation enthalpies and free energies and the PA and GB of L. Comparing the behavior of GeF(3)(+) with the previously investigated CF(3)(+) and SiF(3)(+) revealed a periodically reversed order of reactivity CF(3)(+) < GeF(3)(+) < SiF(3)(+). This parallels the order of the Lewis acidities of the three cations. PMID:21500305

Antoniotti, Paola; Bottizzo, Elena; Operti, Lorenza; Rabezzana, Roberto; Borocci, Stefano; Grandinetti, Felice

2011-05-01

215

HST/COS detection of a Ne VIII absorber towards PG 1407+265: an unambiguous tracer of collisionally ionized hot gas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the detection of Ne VIII in a zabs = 0.599 61 absorber towards the QSO PG1407+265 (zem= 0.94). Besides Ne VIII, absorption from H I Lyman series lines (H I ?1025-?915), several other low (C II, N II, O II and S II), intermediate (C III, N III, N IV, O III, S IV and S V) and high (S VI, O VI and Ne VIII) ionization metal lines are detected. Disparity in the absorption line kinematics between different ions implies that the absorbing gas comprises of multiple ionization phases. The low and the intermediate ions (except S V) trace a compact (˜410 pc), metal-rich (Z ˜ Z?) and overdense (log nH ˜ -2.6) photoionized region that sustained star formation for a prolonged period. The high ions, Ne VIII and O VI, can be explained as arising in a low density (-5.3 ? log nH ? -5.0), metal-rich (Z ? Z?) and diffuse (˜180 kpc) photoionized gas. The S V, S VI and C IV [detected in the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) spectrum] require an intermediate photoionization phase with -4.2 < log nH < -3.5. Alternatively, a pure collisional ionization model, as used to explain the previous known Ne VIII absorbers, with 5.65 < log T < 5.72, can reproduce the S VI, O VI and Ne VIII column densities simultaneously in a single phase. However, even such models require an intermediate phase to reproduce any observable S V and/or C IV. Therefore, we conclude that when multiple phases are present, the presence of Ne VIII is not necessarily an unambiguous indication of collisionally ionized hot gas.

Hussain, T.; Muzahid, S.; Narayanan, A.; Srianand, R.; Wakker, B. P.; Charlton, J. C.; Pathak, A.

2015-01-01

216

The aroma development during storage of Castlebrite apricots as evaluated by gas chromatography, electronic nose, and sensory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important factors limiting apricot quality is the loss of flavor during storage, particularly overall aroma. To characterize fruit aroma, several techniques have been used, including both instrumental- and sensory-based methodologies. Despite the importance of aroma in fruit quality, limited information is available regarding the effects of long-term cold storage and ripening on the apricot’s volatile compound

B. G. Defilippi; H. Valdés; M. A. Moya-León; R. Infante; R. Campos-Vargas

2009-01-01

217

The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign} and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W).

Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

1994-12-01

218

Determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection  

SciTech Connect

Type IV Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) radioactive sludge samples must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content before disposal. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign}) and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory studies a nonradioactive simulated Type IV RFP sludge was prepared having a composition similar to that expected from field samples. A simplified method was developed for extraction, purification and analysis of PCBs using samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260 (reports provided to Argonne indicated Aroclors 1254 and 1260 as the most likely PCB contaminants in RFP sludge samples). The developed method was compared to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) accepted SW-846 method for analysis of PCBs (Method 8081). The accuracy and precision data were found to be similar for the two methods. The developed method was also tested with samples of simulated sludge spiked with Pu (in solid and solution forms). Reduction of radioactivity in final extract versus in the spike sample ranged from a factor of 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7}.

Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

1993-12-01

219

Optimization of Direct Ionization of CO2 by Controlling the Gas Flow Inside of a Beam-Target  

SciTech Connect

We designed and optimized a target that directs a CO{sub 2} pulse onto a Ti surface where a Cs{sup +} sputtering beam ionizes the CO{sub 2} to generate C{sup -}. These targets will be used for the direct ionization of CO{sub 2} pulses to enable the measurement of carbon isotope ratios in real time. The design was based on the results of Comsol{trademark} simulations of the target configurations.

Salazar Quintero, G A; Ognibene, T

2011-03-07

220

Rapid comprehensive characterization of crude oils by thermogravimetry coupled to fast modulated gas chromatography-single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Comprehensive multi-dimensional hyphenation of a thermogravimetry device (i.e. a thermobalance) to gas chromatography and single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TG-GC×SPI-MS) has been used to investigate two crude oil samples of different geographical origin. The source of the applied vacuum ultraviolet radiation is an electron beam pumped rare gas excimer lamp (EBEL). The soft photoionization favors the formation of molecular ions. Introduction of a fast, rapidly modulated gas chromatographic separation step in comparison with solely TG-SPI-MS enables strongly enhanced detection especially with such highly complex organic matrices as crude oil. In contrast with former TG-SPI-MS measurements, separation and identification of overlying substances is possible because of different GC retention times. The specific contribution of isobaric compounds to one mass signal is determined for alkanes, naphthalenes, alkylated benzenes, and other compounds. PMID:23715673

Wohlfahrt, S; Fischer, M; Saraji-Bozorgzad, M; Matuschek, G; Streibel, T; Post, E; Denner, T; Zimmermann, R

2013-09-01

221

Fabrication of low-pressure low-voltage field ionization gas sensor using pure and Al-doped ZnO nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanowires were synthesized by a simple chemical method using zinc acetate dihydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and DI water as precursor, capping and solvent, respectively. Aluminum-doped ZnO nanowires were also synthesized by adding AlCl3 during the growth process. Both types of nanowires were used to fabricate a novel field ionization based gas sensor. The high sensitivity in low pressures, low working voltages, very low recovery time and good selectivity are the main advantages of these fabricated sensors. Electrical characteristics of the fabricated sensors were investigated while being exposed to several gases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the nanowires structures.

Haghighi, N.; Abdi, Y.; Arzia, E.

2012-06-01

222

Novel glycosylation sites localized in Campylobacter jejuni flagellin FlaA by liquid chromatography electron capture dissociation tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Glycosylation of flagellin in Campylobacter jejuni is essential for motility and virulence. It is well-known that flagellin from C. jejuni 81-176 is glycosylated by pseudaminic acid and its acetamidino derivative, and that Campylobactor coli VC167 flagellin is glycosylated by legionaminic acid and its derivatives. Recently, it was shown, by use of a metabolomics approach, that C. jejuni 11168 is glycosylated by dimethyl glyceric acid derivatives of pseudaminic acid, but the sites of glycosylation were not confirmed. Here, we apply an online liquid chromatography electron capture dissociation (ECD) tandem mass spectrometry approach to localize sites of glycosylation in flagellin from C. jejuni 11168. Flagellin A is glycosylated by a dimethyl glyceric acid derivative of pseudaminic acid at Ser181, Ser207 and either Thr464 or Thr 465; and by a dimethyl glyceric acid derivative of acetamidino pseudaminic acid at Ser181 and Ser207. For comparison, on-line liquid chromatography collision-induced dissociation of the tryptic digests was performed, but it was not possible to assign sites of glycosylation by that method. PMID:21158479

Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Blackwell, Gemma; Penn, Charles W; Cooper, Helen J

2011-03-01

223

Correlation between the charge of proteins in solution and in the gas phase investigated by protein charge ladders, capillary electrophoresis, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Charge ladders of bovine carbonic anhydrase II, hen egg-white lysozyme, and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, prepared by partial acetylation of primary amino groups on the surface of the protein, have been analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and on-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) using solution conditions that maintain the native structure of the protein. CE was used to separate the proteins that constitute the charge ladder into individual rungs-protein derivatives that have the same number of acetylated amino groups and approximately the same net charge in solution. ESI was used to produce ions i the gas phase of the proteins that constitute each rung of the charge ladder; the mass spectra of these ions were obtained and analyzed. The distributions in charge states observed in the gas phase for the groups of proteins comprising each rung of the charge ladders were narrow, consistent with the retention of a compact structure of the proteins in the gas phase, and substantially independent of the number of acetylated amino groups. The ions observed in the gas phase had surface charge densities in a relatively narrow range of {approximately}0.9--1.5 units of charge per 10{sup 3}{angstrom}{sup 2} of surface area (as estimated from crystallographic structures). These results demonstrate that the distribution of charge states for proteins produced in the gas phase by ESI do not necessarily reflect the net charge of the protein in solution or the number of amino groups on the protein.

Carbeck, J.D.; Gao, J.; Smith, R.D.; Whitesides, G.M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology] [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Severs, J.C.; Wu, Q. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Science Lab.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Science Lab.

1998-12-17

224

Identification and quantification of alkene-based drilling fluids in crude oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.  

PubMed

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC x GC-FID) was used to measure alkene-based drilling fluids in crude oils. Compared to one-dimensional gas chromatography, GC x GC-FID is more robust for detecting alkenes due to the increased resolution afforded by second dimension separations. Using GC x GC-FID to analyze four oil samples from one reservoir contaminated with the same drilling fluid, C(15), C(16), C(17), C(18) and C(20) alkenes were identified. The drilling fluid that contaminated these samples also differed from another commercially obtained fluid, which only contained C(16) and C(18) alkenes. These results should motivate the petroleum industry to consider GC x GC-FID for measuring drilling fluids. PMID:17376464

Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Sylva, Sean P; Xu, Li; Peacock, Emily A; Raghuraman, Bhavani; Mullins, Oliver C

2007-04-27

225

Simultaneous determination of fatty, dicarboxylic and amino acids based on derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate followed by gas chromatography-positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with positive ion chemical ionization (PICI) using isobutane as reagent gas was applied for analysis of isobutoxycarbonyl/isobutyl derivatives of 13 fatty, 6 dicarboxylic and 13 amino acids in a single run. For all investigated compounds (except several amino acids) the quasimolecular ions [MH](+) were registered. Asparagine underwent fragmentation via decarboxylation followed by elimination of OC(4)H(9) ([M-117](+)), whereas serine and tyrosine produced the cluster ions [M+C(4)H(9)OCO](+). Estimated detection limits were 6-250 pg in the total ion current (TIC) mode and 3-10 times lower using the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PMID:14698242

Sobolevsky, Tim G; Revelsky, Alexander I; Revelsky, Igor A; Miller, Barbara; Oriedo, Vincent

2004-02-01

226

A differentially pumped argon plasma in the linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI: gas flow and dynamics of the ionized fraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnum-PSI is a linear plasma generator designed to reach the plasma-surface interaction (PSI) regime of ITER and nuclear fusion reactors beyond ITER. To reach this regime, the influx of cold neutrals from the source must be significantly lower than the plasma flux reaching the target. This is achieved by a differential pumping scheme, where the vacuum vessel is divided by skimmers into separate chambers which are individually pumped. The non-magnetized expansion of 5 Pa m3 s-1 (3 slm) argon in a low background pressure was studied in the differentially pumped vacuum vessel fitted with non-cooled flat skimmers. The behavior of the neutral component was studied with direct simulation Monte Carlo simulations and Rayleigh scattering measurements. Thomson scattering and double Langmuir probe measurements were performed on the ionized fraction. It was found that the electrons and neutral particles are not completely coupled in the shock front. The neutral fraction shows clear signs of invasion from hotter background gas, causing the average temperature and density to increase before the shock. This is also shown in the ionization ratio, which has been determined in front of and behind the first skimmer. This study helps us to understand the behavior of the gas flow in the machine and validates our modeling.

van Eck, H. J. N.; Hansen, T. A. R.; Kleyn, A. W.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Schram, D. C.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P. A.

2011-08-01

227

Pulsed Chemical Oxygen Iodine Lasers Excited by Pulse Gas Discharge with the Assistance of Surface Sliding Discharge Pre-ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous-wave chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs) can be operated in a pulsed operation mode to obtain a higher peak power. The key point is to obtain a uniform and stable glow discharge in the mixture of singlet delta oxygen and iodide. We propose using an electrode system with the assistance of surface sliding pre-ionization to solve the problem of the stable

Li Guo-Fu; Yu Hai-Jun; Duo Li-Ping; Jin Yu-Qi; Wang Jian; Sang Feng-Ting; Wang De-Zhen

2012-01-01

228

Gas-phase copper and silver complexes with phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Efforts to improve agricultural productivity have led to a growing dependency on organophosphorus pesticides. Phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides are organophosphorus pesticide subclasses with widespread application for the control of insects feeding on vegetables and fruits. However, even low doses of these pesticides can cause neurological problems in humans; thus, their determination and monitoring in agricultural foodstuffs is important for human health. Phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides may be poorly ionized during electrospray, adversely affecting limits of detection. These pesticides can form complexes with Cu(2+) and Ag(+) , however, potentially improving ionization. In the present work, we used electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) to study fenitrothion, parathion, diazinon, and malathion coordination complexes with silver and copper ions. Stable?1?:?1 and 1?:?2 metal/pesticide complexes were detected. Mass spectra acquired from pesticide solutions containing Ag(+) or Cu(2+) showed a significant increase in signal-to-background ratio over those acquired from solutions containing only the pesticides, with Ag(+) improving detection more effectively than Cu(2+) . Addition of Ag(+) to a pesticide solution improved the limit of detection by ten times. The relative affinity of each pesticide for Ag(+) was related to complex stability, following the order diazinon?>?malathion?>?fenitrothion?>?parathion. The formation of Ag(+) -pesticide complexes can significantly improve the detection of phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides using ESI/MS. The technique could potentially be used in reactive desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry to detect phosphorothioate and phosphorodithioate pesticides on fruit and vegetable skins. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25601686

Mustapha, Adetayo M; Pasilis, Sofie P

2015-01-01

229

Application of pyrolysis-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-ionization or resonance-enhanced-multi-photon ionization for characterization of crude oils.  

PubMed

A novel analytical system for gas-chromatographic investigation of complex samples has been developed, that combines the advantages of several analytical principles to enhance the analytical information. Decomposition of high molecular weight structures is achieved by pyrolysis and a high separation capacity due to the chromatographic step provides both an universal as well as a selective and sensitive substance detection. The latter is achieved by simultaneously applying electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (EI-QMS) for structural elucidation and [1+1]-resonance-enhanced-multi-photon ionization (REMPI) combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS). The system has been evaluated and tested with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standards. It was applied to crude oil samples for the first time. In such highly complex samples several thousands of compounds are present and the identification especially of low concentrated chemical species such as PAH or their polycyclic aromatic sulfur containing heterocyclic (PASH) derivatives is often difficult. Detection of unalkylated and alkylated PAH together with PASH is considerably enhanced by REMPI-ToFMS, at times revealing aromatic structures which are not observable by EI-QMS due to their low abundance. On the other hand, the databased structure proposals of the EI-QMS analysis are needed to confirm structural information and isomers distinction. The technique allows a complex structure analysis as well as selective assessment of aromatic substances in one measurement. Information about the content of sulfur containing compounds plays a significant role for the increase of efficiency in the processing of petroleum. PMID:25542090

Otto, Stefan; Streibel, Thorsten; Erdmann, Sabrina; Sklorz, Martin; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Zimmermann, Ralf

2015-01-15

230

Ionized gas kinematics of galaxies in the CALIFA survey. I. Velocity fields, kinematic parameters of the dominant component, and presence of kinematically distinct gaseous systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Ionized gas kinematics provide important clues to the dynamical structure of galaxies and hold constraints to the processes driving their evolution. Aims: The motivation of this work is to provide an overall characterization of the kinematic behavior of the ionized gas of the galaxies included in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral field Area (CALIFA), offering kinematic clues to potential users of the CALIFA survey for including kinematical criteria in their selection of targets for specific studies. From the first 200 galaxies observed by CALIFA survey in its two configurations, we present the two-dimensional kinematic view of the 177 galaxies satisfaying a gas content/detection threshold. Methods: After removing the stellar contribution, we used the cross-correlation technique to obtain the radial velocity of the dominant gaseous component for each spectrum in the CALIFA data cubes for different emission lines (namely, [O ii] ??3726,3729, [O iii] ??4959,5007, H?+[N ii] ??6548,6584, and [SII]??6716,6730). The main kinematic parameters measured on the plane of the sky were directly derived from the radial velocities with no assumptions on the internal prevailing motions. Evidence of the presence of several gaseous components with different kinematics were detected by using [O iii] ??4959,5007 emission line profiles. Results: At the velocity resolution of CALIFA, most objects in the sample show regular velocity fields, although the ionized-gas kinematics are rarely consistent with simple coplanar circular motions. Thirty-five percent of the objects present evidence of a displacement between the photometric and kinematic centers larger than the original spaxel radii. Only 17% of the objects in the sample exhibit kinematic lopsidedness when comparing receding and approaching sides of the velocity fields, but most of them are interacting galaxies exhibiting nuclear activity (AGN or LINER). Early-type (E+S0) galaxies in the sample present clear photometric-kinematic misaligments. There is evidence of asymmetries in the emission line profiles in 117 out of the 177 analyzed galaxies, suggesting the presence of kinematically distinct gaseous components located at different distances from the optical nucleus. The kinematic decoupling between the dominant and secondary component/s suggested by the observed asymmetries in the profiles can be characterized by a limited set of parameters. Conclusions: This work constitutes the first determination of the ionized gas kinematics of the galaxies observed in the CALIFA survey. The derived velocity fields, the reported kinematic distortions/peculiarities and the identification of the presence of several gaseous components in different regions of the objects might be used as additional criteria for selecting galaxies for specific studies. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronmico Hispano Alemn (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

García-Lorenzo, B.; Márquez, I.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Masegosa, J.; Husemann, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, J.; Mast, D.; García-Benito, R.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; van de Ven, G.; Spekkens, K.; Holmes, L.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; del Olmo, A.; Ziegler, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Marino, R. A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Bekerait?, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Bomans, D.

2015-01-01

231

Potential of gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the determination of sterols in human plasma.  

PubMed

The application of Gas Chromatography (GC)-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI)-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF-MS) is presented for sterol analysis in human plasma. A commercial APCI interface was modified to ensure a well-defined humidity which is essential for controlled ionization. In the first step, optimization regarding flow rates of auxiliary gases was performed by using a mixture of model analytes. Secondly, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of sterols including oxysterols, cholesterol precursors, and plant sterols as trimethylsilyl-derivatives was successfully carried out. The characteristics of APCI together with the very good mass accuracy of TOF-MS data enable the reliable identification of relevant sterols in complex matrices. Linear calibration lines and plausible results for healthy volunteers and patients could be obtained whereas all mass signals were extracted with an extraction width of 20 ppm from the full mass data set. One advantage of high mass accuracy can be seen in the fact that from one recorded run any search for m/z can be performed. PMID:24463103

Matysik, S; Schmitz, G; Bauer, S; Kiermaier, J; Matysik, F-M

2014-04-11

232

Miniature Gas Chromatograph (GC): Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES) Instrument for the Trace Analyses of Extraterrestrial Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ exploration of the solar system to identify its early chemistry as preserved in icy bodies and to look for compelling evidence of astrobiology will require new technology for chemical analysis. Chemical measurements in space flight environments highlight the need for a high level of positive identification of chemical compounds, since re-measurement by alternative techniques for confirmation will not be feasible. It also may not be possible to anticipate all chemical species that are observed, and important species may be present only at trace levels where they can be masked by complex chemical backgrounds. Up to now, the only techniques providing independent sample identification of GC separated components across a wide range of chemical species have been Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS). We describe here the development of a versatile and robust miniature GC detector based on Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES), for use with miniature GC systems being developed for planetary missions. PIES identifies the sample molecule through spectra related to its ionization potential. The combination of miniature GC technology with the primary identification capabilities of PIES provides an analytical approach ideal for planetary analyses.

Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

2006-01-01

233

Pulsed Chemical Oxygen Iodine Lasers Excited by Pulse Gas Discharge with the Assistance of Surface Sliding Discharge Pre-ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous-wave chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs) can be operated in a pulsed operation mode to obtain a higher peak power. The key point is to obtain a uniform and stable glow discharge in the mixture of singlet delta oxygen and iodide. We propose using an electrode system with the assistance of surface sliding pre-ionization to solve the problem of the stable glow discharge with a large aperture. The pre-ionization unit is symmetrically fixed on the plane of the cathode surface. A uniform and stable glow discharge is obtained in a mixture of iodide (such as CH3I) and nitrogen at the specific deposition energy of 4.5 J/L, pressure of 1.99-3.32 kPa, aperture size of 11 cm × 10 cm. The electrode system is applied in a pulsed COIL. Laser energy up to 4.4 J is obtained and the specific energy output is 2 J/L.

Li, Guo-Fu; Yu, Hai-Jun; Duo, Li-Ping; Jin, Yu-Qi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Feng-Ting; Wang, De-Zhen

2012-05-01

234

Determination of percent composition of a mixture analyzed by gas chromatography. Comparison of a helium pulsed-discharge photoionization detector with a flame ionization detector.  

PubMed

We present the results of a study of percent composition for a mixture which has been separated by gas chromatography and analyzed using helium pulsed-discharge photoionization detection (He-PDPID) and flame ionization detection (FID). FID has long been the means by which the percent composition of a hydrocarbon mixture has been determined since it has been previously established as a "carbon counting device". However, in this study we present results which show that He-PDPID is more accurate in determining the percent composition of a hydrocarbon mixture and, because it is a universal detection method and can detect compounds that FID cannot, it is also more effective for determining the percent composition of mixtures containing organic compounds with a variety of other functional groups. PMID:11403470

Dojahn, J G; Wentworth, W E; Deming, S N; Stearns, S D

2001-05-11

235

Fluorohydrogenate Cluster Ions in the Gas Phase: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of the [1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium+][F(HF)2.3–] Ionic Liquid  

SciTech Connect

Electrospray ionization of the fluorohydrogenate ionic liquid [1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium][F(HF)2.3] ionic liquid was conducted to understand the nature of the anionic species as they exist in the gas phase. Abundant fluorohydrogenate clusters were produced; however, the dominant anion in the clusters was [FHF-], and not the fluoride-bound HF dimers or trimers that are seen in solution. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that HF molecules are bound to the clusters by about 30 kcal/mol. The DFT-calculated structures of the [FHF-]-bearing clusters show that the favored interactions of the anions are with the methynic and acetylenic hydrogen atoms on the imidazolium cation, forming planar structures similar to those observed in the solid state. A second series of abundant negative ions was also formed that contained [SiF5-] together with the imidazolium cation and the fluorohydrogenate anions that originate from reaction of the spray solution with silicate surfaces.

Gary S. Groenewold; James E. Delmore; Michael T. Benson; Tetsuya Tsuda; Rika Hagiwara

2013-12-01

236

In-gas-cell laser ionization spectroscopy in the vicinity of 100Sn: Magnetic moments and mean-square charge radii of N=50-54 Ag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-gas-cell laser ionization spectroscopy studies on the neutron deficient 97-101Ag isotopes have been performed with the LISOL setup. Magnetic dipole moments and mean-square charge radii have been determined for the first time with the exception of 101Ag, which was found in good agreement with previous experimental values. The reported results allow tentatively assigning the spin of 97,99Ag to 9/2 and confirming the presence of an isomeric state in these two isotopes, whose collapsed hyperfine structure suggests a spin of 1/2 >. The effect of the N=50 shell closure is not only manifested in the magnetic moments but also in the evolution of the mean-square charge radii of the isotopes investigated, in accordance with the spherical droplet model predictions.

Ferrer, R.; Bree, N.; Cocolios, T. E.; Darby, I. G.; De Witte, H.; Dexters, W.; Diriken, J.; Elseviers, J.; Franchoo, S.; Huyse, M.; Kesteloot, N.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Pauwels, D.; Radulov, D.; Roger, T.; Savajols, H.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.

2014-01-01

237

Rapid analysis of ethanol and water in commercial products using ionic liquid capillary gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detection and/or barrier discharge ionization detection.  

PubMed

Analysis of ethanol and water in consumer products is important in a variety of processes and often is mandated by regulating agencies. A method for the simultaneous quantitation of ethanol and water that is simple, accurate, precise, rapid, and cost-effective is demonstrated. This approach requires no internal standard for the quantitation of both ethanol and water at any/all levels in commercial products. Ionic liquid based gas chromatography (GC) capillary columns are used to obtain a fast analysis with high selectivity and resolution of water and ethanol. Typical run times are just over 3 min. Examination of the response range of water and ethanol with GC, thermal conductivity detection (TCD), and barrier ionization detection (BID) is performed. Quantitation of both ethanol and water in consumer products is accomplished with both TCD and BID GC detectors using a nonlinear calibration. Validation of method accuracy is accomplished by using standard reference materials. PMID:24527961

Weatherly, Choyce A; Woods, Ross M; Armstrong, Daniel W

2014-02-26

238

Use of a hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer for self-chemical ionization identification of degradation products related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX).  

PubMed

The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H](+)) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H](+) ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d(15) provided evidence that [M+H](+) production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H](+) ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample. PMID:21435478

Smith, Philip A; Lepage, Carmela R Jackson; Savage, Paul B; Bowerbank, Christopher R; Lee, Edgar D; Lukacs, Michael J

2011-04-01

239

Heating the warm ionized medium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If photoelectric heating by grains within the diffuse ionized component of the interstellar medium is 10 exp -25 ergs/s per H atom, the average value within diffuse H I regions, then grain heating equals or exceeds photoionization heating of the ionized gas. This supplemental heat source would obviate the need for energetic ionizing photons to balance the observed forbidden-line cooling and could be responsible in part for enhanced intensities of some of the forbidden lines.

Reynolds, R. J.; Cox, D. P.

1992-01-01

240

Determination of microbial fatty acid profiles at femtomolar levels in human urine and the initial marine microfouling community by capillary gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry with negative ion detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Room temperature esterification with the electron capturing pentafluorobenzyl bromide in glass capillaries, with analysis by capillary gas-liquid chromatography coupled with chemical ionization mass spectrometry and negative ion detection in the selected ion mode, allowed detection and identification of fatty acids from micro- bial biofilms at the femtomolar level. This sensitivity was achieved without loss of specificity of the mass

Goran Odham; Anders Tunlid; Gunilla Westerdahl; Lennart Larsson; James B. Guckert; David C. White

1985-01-01

241

A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This experiment is designed for upper-division undergraduate laboratory courses and can be implemented in conjunction with physical chemistry, analytical…

Lee, Shan-Hu; Mukherjee, Souptik; Brewer, Brittany; Ryan, Raphael; Yu, Huan; Gangoda, Mahinda

2013-01-01

242

Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

2014-06-13

243

Simultaneous Determination of Miconazole Nitrate and Metronidazole in Different Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms by Gas Chromatography and Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID)  

PubMed Central

A simple, rapid and precise gas chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of miconazole nitrate (MIZ) and metronidazole (MNZ) in tablets and ovules, using a capillary column AE.SE-54 (15 m × 0.53 mm, i.d.) and nitrogen as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 9 mL min?1. The oven temperature was programmed at 140°C for 3 min, with a rise of 40°C min?1 up to 180°C (held for 2 min) and then increased to a final temperature of 250°C. The injector and detector port temperatures were maintained at 260°C. Detection was carried out using flame ionization detector. Results of assay and recovery studies were statistically evaluated for its accuracy and precision. The retention times were about 3.50 and 12.90 min for MNZ and MIZ, respectively. Linearity ranges were 50.0–6030.0 and 62.5–2000.0 ?g mL?1 for MNZ and MIZ, with limit of detection values of 2.5 and 3.1 ?g mL?1, respectively. Correlation coefficients (R2) of the regression equations were greater than 0.999 in all cases. No interference from any components of pharmaceutical dosage forms or degradation products was observed. According to the validation results, the proposed method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and could be applied to the simultaneous quantitative analysis of MIZ and MNZ in tablets and ovules. PMID:23675171

Ashour, Safwan; Kattan, Nuha

2010-01-01

244

A field-deployable, chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer: application to the measurement of gas-phase organic and inorganic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new field-deployable chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-TOFMS) for the direct measurement of trace gases in the atmosphere. We apply the technique to the measurement of gas-phase inorganic and organic acids via negative-ion proton transfer, using acetate as the reagent ion. A novel high pressure interface, incorporating two RF-only quadrupoles is used to efficiently focus ions through four stages of differential pumping before analysis with a compact TOFMS. The high ion-duty cycle (>20%) of the TOFMS, coupled to efficient production and transmission of ions in the high pressure interface results in a highly sensitive (>300 ions s-1 pptv-1) instrument capable of the fast measurement of atmospheric gases at trace levels. We demonstrate the efficient transfer and detection of both bare ions and ion-molecule clusters, and characterize the instrument during field measurements aboard the R/V Atlantis as part of the CalNex campaign during the spring of 2010. The in-field short-term precision is better than 5% at 1 pptv (pL/L), for 1-second averages. The detection limit (3?, 1-second averages) of the current version of the CI-TOFMS, as applied to the in situ detection of gas-phase acids, is limited by the magnitude and variability in the background determination and was determined to be 4 pptv.

Bertram, T. H.; Kimmel, J. R.; Crisp, T. A.; Ryder, O. S.; Yatavelli, R. L. N.; Thornton, J. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Gonin, M.; Worsnop, D. R.

2011-03-01

245

Deep Narrow-Band Imaging of M87: a Close Look at the Disk of Ionized Gas Fueling a Massive Black Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M87 provides a unique example of a 100 pc scale disk of ionized gasfueling a massive black hole (Ford et al. 1994, Harms et al. 1994).The disk shows tantalizing evidence for spiral structure and a possibleconnection to large scale, wrapped filaments. Sparks, Ford, and Kinney(1993) used observations of dust absorption in the filaments andblueshifted velocities with respect to M87 to conclude that thefilaments are an outflow from the nucleus. If the wrapped filamentsare in fact an outflow, we are witnessing the solution to anoutstanding problem in astrophysics, that of removing angular momentumfrom a disk to allow the gas to flow onto the central massive black hole.We propose to use 6 orbits to take deep, half-pixel stepped,Halpha+[Nii] on-band images to study the morphology in the disk andfilaments. The images will be one magnitude deeper than previousimages and will reach the 0.06'' diffraction limit of the telescopeat Halpha. Our goals are to use the deep, high resolution images to:1) Investigate and understand the apparent connection between thefilaments and the disk.2) Delineate the apparent spiral structure in the disk.3) Confirm the presence of faint Halpha+[Nii] emission associated withthe jet, which could be gas which has been entrained by the jet.

Ford, Holland

1995-07-01

246

Analysis of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in human urine is the method of choice for assessing exposure to carcinogenic compounds. The objective of this study was the development of a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) method using a flame ionisation detector (FID) to simultaneously determine 10 hydroxylated PAH. The method was based on enzymatic deconjugation, liquid–liquid extraction, and

Leiliane Coelho André Amorim; Jean-Marie Dimandja; Zenilda de Lourdes Cardeal

2009-01-01

247

Comprehensive 2-dimensional gas chromatography fast quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC × GC-qMS) for urinary steroid profiling: mass spectral characteristics with chemical ionization.  

PubMed

Comprehensive 2-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), coupled to either a time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) or a fast scanning quadrupole MS (qMS) has greatly increased the peak capacity and separation space compared to conventional GC-MS. However, commercial GC × GC-TOFMS systems are not equipped with chemical ionization (CI) and do not provide dominant molecular ions or enable single ion monitoring for maximal sensitivity. A GC × GC-qMS in mass scanning mode was investigated with electron ionization (EI) and positive CI (PCI), using CH(4) and NH(3) as reagent gases. Compared to EI, PCI-NH(3) produced more abundant molecular ions and high mass, structure-specific ions for steroid acetates. Chromatography in two dimensions was optimized with a mixture of 12 endogenous and 3 standard acetylated steroids (SM15-AC) relevant to doping control. Eleven endogenous target steroid acetates were identified in normal urine based on their two retention times, and EI and PCI-NH(3) mass spectra; nine of these endogenous target steroid acetates were identified in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients. The difference between the urinary steroids profiles of normal individuals and those from CAH patients can easily be visually distinguished by their GC × GC-qMS chromatograms. We focus here on the comparison and interpretation of the various mass spectra of the targeted endogenous steroids. PCI-NH(3) mass spectra were most useful for unambiguous molecular weight determination and for establishing the number of -OH by the losses of one or more acetate groups. We conclude that PCI-NH(3) with GC × GC-qMS provides improved peak capacity and pseudomolecular ions with structural specificity. PMID:22147458

Zhang, Ying; Tobias, Herbert J; Auchus, Richard J; Brenna, J Thomas

2011-01-01

248

Highly sensitive and selective analysis of urinary steroids by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with positive chemical ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) provides greater separation space than conventional GC. Because of fast peak elution, a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) is the usual structure-specific detector of choice. The quantitative capabilities of a novel GC×GC fast quadrupole MS were investigated with electron ionization (EI), and CH4 or NH3 positive chemical ionization (PCI) for analysis of endogenous urinary steroids targeted in anti-doping tests. Average precisions for steroid quantitative analysis from replicate urine extractions were 6% (RSD) for EI and 8% for PCI-NH3. The average limits of detection (LOD) calculated by quantification ions for 12 target steroids spiked into steroid-free urine matrix (SFUM) were 2.6 ng mL?1 for EI, 1.3 ng mL?1 for PCI-CH4, and 0.3 ng mL?1 for PCI-NH3, all in mass scanning mode. The measured limits of quantification (LOQ) with full mass scan GC×GC-qMS were comparable with the LOQ values measured by one-dimensional GC-MS in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PCI-NH3 yields fewer fragments and greater (pseudo)molecular ion abundances than EI or PCI-CH4. These data show a benchtop GC×GC-qMS system has the sensitivity, specificity, and resolution to analyze urinary steroids at normal urine concentrations, and that PCI-NH3, not currently available on most GC×GC-TOFMS instruments, is of particular value for generation of structure-specific ions. PMID:22606686

Zhang, Ying; Tobias, Herbert J.; Brenna, J. Thomas

2014-01-01

249

Quadrupole ionization gage measures ultrahigh vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quadrupole system, energized with a 200 MHz electric field, restrains ionizing electrons within the center of the ionization gage. Oscillatory trajectory of the electrons increases the probability of ionizing the gas molecules, lowers background X-ray level, and increases the signal-to-noise ratio.

Schwarz, H. J.

1970-01-01

250

ON THE ORIGINS OF THE DIFFUSE H{alpha} EMISSION: IONIZED GAS OR DUST-SCATTERED H{alpha} HALOS?  

SciTech Connect

It is known that the diffuse H{alpha} emission outside of bright H II regions not only are very extended, but also can occur in distinct patches or filaments far from H II regions, and the line ratios of [S II] {lambda}6716/H{alpha} and [N II] {lambda}6583/H{alpha} observed far from bright H II regions are generally higher than those in the H II regions. These observations have been regarded as evidence against the dust-scattering origin of the diffuse H{alpha} emission (including other optical lines), and the effect of dust scattering has been neglected in studies on the diffuse H{alpha} emission. In this paper, we reexamine the arguments against dust scattering and find that the dust-scattering origin of the diffuse H{alpha} emission cannot be ruled out. As opposed to the previous contention, the expected dust-scattered H{alpha} halos surrounding H II regions are, in fact, in good agreement with the observed H{alpha} morphology. We calculate an extensive set of photoionization models by varying elemental abundances, ionizing stellar types, and clumpiness of the interstellar medium (ISM) and find that the observed line ratios of [S II]/H{alpha}, [N II]/H{alpha}, and He I {lambda}5876/H{alpha} in the diffuse ISM accord well with the dust-scattered halos around H II regions, which are photoionized by late O- and/or early B-type stars. We also demonstrate that the H{alpha} absorption feature in the underlying continuum from the dust-scattered starlight ({sup d}iffuse galactic light{sup )} and unresolved stars is able to substantially increase the [S II]/H{alpha} and [N II]/H{alpha} line ratios in the diffuse ISM.

Seon, Kwang-Il [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Witt, Adolf N., E-mail: kiseon@kasi.re.kr [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2012-10-20

251

Ionization Chamber Measures Extreme Ultraviolet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionization chamber operates in nearly total photon absorption as stable, self-calibrating detector of ionizing extreme ultraviolet radiation. Working gas of instrument is neon; photoionization properties well known and readily applicable to absolute measurements. Designed for measurements of solar ultraviolet flux aboard sounding rocket, instrument used on Earth to measure ultraviolet radiation in vacuum systems. Ionization chamber collects positive neon ions and electrons produced by irradiation of neon gas by ultraviolet photons. Approximately one ion produced by each photon; consequently, photoionization current nearly proportional to photon flux.

Carlson, Robert W.

1987-01-01

252

[Analysis of C4 fluoride compounds in alkylation materials by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID)].  

PubMed

A method for the analysis of C4 fluoride compounds in alkylation materials was developed by GC/FID. In order to confirm the presence of C4 fluoride compounds in alkylation materials, 1-fluorobutane, 2-fluorobutane and 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane were synthesized and analysed by GC/FID, gas chromatography/atomic emission detection (GC/AED) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that only 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane existed in the alkylation materials. Based on the properties of element response on GC/AED, the calibration factors of C4 fluoride compounds on GC/FID were calculated. The analysis was performed on OV-225 (50 m x 0.25 mm i. d. x 0.25 microm) and SE-54 (44 m x 0.22 mm i. d. x 0.25 microm) columns, which were connected in series. FID was used as the detector. In quantitative analysis of the alkylation materials the methods of calibration normalization and indirect external standard were suggested. The calibration curves were linear (r = 0.992) in the concentration range of 156 - 700 microL/L. The minimum detection limit of 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane in real samples was 150 microL/L (S/N = 3). The method is simple, reproducible and easy to be applied. The other components in the alkylation materials can also be analyzed if the calibration normalization method is used. PMID:15706940

Han, Jianghua; Yang, Haiying

2004-09-01

253

An advanced method for the determination of carboxyl methyl esterase activity using gas chromatography-chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We developed a quantitative method for the determination of methyl esterase activity, analyzing substrate specificity against three major signal molecules, jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA), salicylic acid methyl ester (MeSA), and indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester (MeIAA). We used a silylation reagent for chemical derivatization and used gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy in analyses, for high precision. To test this method, an Arabidopsis esterase gene, AtME8, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the kinetic parameters of the recombinant enzyme were determined for three substrates. Finally, this method was also applied to the direct quantification of phytohormones in petals from lilies and roses. PMID:18255361

Koo, Yeon Jong; Yoon, Eunsil; Song, Jong Tae; Seo, Hak Soo; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jong Seob; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do

2008-02-15

254

Total OH reactivity measurements using a new fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary and most important oxidant in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH). Currently OH sinks, particularly gas phase reactions, are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. To date, direct measurements of total OH reactivity have been either performed using a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system ("pump-and-probe" or "flow reactor") or the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). Both techniques require large, complex and expensive detection systems. This study presents a feasibility assessment for CRM total OH reactivity measurements using a new detector, a Gas Chromatographic Photoionization Detector (GC-PID). Such a system is smaller, more portable, less power consuming and less expensive than other total OH reactivity measurement techniques. Total OH reactivity is measured by the CRM using a competitive reaction between a reagent (here pyrrole) with OH alone and in the presence of atmospheric reactive molecules. The new CRM method for total OH reactivity has been tested with parallel measurements of the GC-PID and the previously validated PTR-MS as detector for the reagent pyrrole during laboratory experiments, plant chamber and boreal field studies. Excellent agreement of both detectors was found when the GC-PID was operated under optimum conditions. Time resolution (60-70 s), sensitivity (LOD 3-6 s-1) and overall uncertainty (25% in optimum conditions) for total OH reactivity were similar to PTR-MS based total OH reactivity measurements. One drawback of the GC-PID system was the steady loss of sensitivity and accuracy during intensive measurements lasting several weeks, and a possible toluene interference. Generally, the GC-PID system has been shown to produce closely comparable results to the PTR-MS and thus in suitable environments (e.g. forests) it presents a viably economical alternative for groups interested in total OH reactivity observations.

Nölscher, A. C.; Sinha, V.; Bockisch, S.; Klüpfel, T.; Williams, J.

2012-12-01

255

[Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor dust using ultrasonic-assisted extraction and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method for the determination of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust was developed. A vacuum cleaner was used for gathering the house dust, and n-hexane was added and the extraction was performed in an ultrasonic bath. The supernatant was concentrated and then n-hexane was added to 0.1 mL. Gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) has been investigated for the determination of the eight PBDE congeners in indoor dust. The eight PBDEs were separated within 20 min. The absolute recoveries were 53.2% - 107.6%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day were between 2.8% and 16.5%, while the RSDs of inter-day were between 6.4% and 22.6%. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) were in the range of 0.003 - 0.015 ng/g except the LOD of BDE-209 was 0.15 ng/g. The results indicated that the proposed method is sensitive, accurate, fast, simple, low solvent consumption and suitable for the determination of tri- to deca-BDEs in indoor dust. PMID:23593880

Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Bingling; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Zhengdong

2012-12-01

256

Negative ion chemical ionization-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of residues of different pyrethroid insecticides in whole blood and serum.  

PubMed

A new rapid and sensitive analytical method using negative ion chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode has been developed for the determination of residues of different synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, allethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, cyphonothrin, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin, permethrin, prallethrin, and trans-fluthrin, in whole blood. The residues of pyrethroid molecules were extracted from the whole blood using a hexane and acetone (8:2, v/v) solvent mixture without separating the serum. The method was found sensitive to detect the residues of pyrethroids up to the level 0.2 pg/mL. Experiments conducted with the whole blood samples at the fortification level 1-100 pg/mL showed 91-103% recovery, whereas blood serum samples collected after the fortification of pyrethroids in whole blood showed 36-54% recovery. Recovery experiments conducted by direct fortification of pyrethroids in blood serum samples showed 96-108%. The applications of the analytical method was tested by analyzing 73 human blood samples collected from the population exposed continuously to different pyrethroid-based formulations. None of the blood samples showed residues of pyrethroids. The results were also confirmed by the detection of the appropriate amounts in a number of these samples, which had subsequently been spiked with known quantity of pyrethroids. PMID:15538961

Ramesh, Atmakuru; Ravi, Perumal Elumalai

2004-01-01

257

Environmental PAH analysis by gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure laser ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-APLI-MS).  

PubMed

The application of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis by gas chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure laser ionization and mass spectrometry (GC-APLI-MS) to environmental samples was investigated in the study. The limit of detection for 40 PAH in a standard mixture was 5-100 fg, demonstrating GC-APLI-MS to be a highly sensitive technique and more sensitive by a factor of 100-3,500 compared to GC-MS. Acenaphthylene and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene were not detectable <2,500 fg per injection. To make use of this very high PAH sensitivity, the technique was applied to samples of environmental interest with limited available sample amounts such as particulate matter (PM), soot and a sample from a bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus. First, special sample preparation was necessary and ultrasonic extraction proved to be suitable, if a thorough clean-up was performed and plastic materials avoided. By GC-APLI-MS and GC-MS, 224 and 28 single PAH compounds were detected in PM, about 1,000 and 15 in birch soot, and 9 and 2 in worm tissue, respectively, revealing the enormous potential of the method. The selectivity of GC-APLI-MS was shown for a crude oil where >2,200 PAH were detected without any sample preparation. PMID:23852149

Stader, Christian; Beer, Fokko Tjark; Achten, Christine

2013-09-01

258

Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

2010-04-08

259

Simultaneous determination of anthraquinones in radix Polygoni multiflori by capillary gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

A rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five major anthraquinones, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, emodin, physcion, and rhein, in radix Polygoni multiflori, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The method comprises a fast ultrasonic extraction with methanol and derivatization with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)+1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The effect of reaction time on the derivatization of anthraquinones was examined. A baseline separation of the anthraquinone and internal standard derivatives was achieved in 15min. The detection limits range from 0.22 to 0.60microg/mL for the five anthraquinones. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range studied (from the detection limits to 40.0microg/mL) with the squares of correlation coefficients, R2, greater than 0.998. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of anthraquinones in radix P. multiflori samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. The contents of anthraquinones in radix P. multiflori samples studied were 27.41, 289.6, 64.22, 202.1, 288.6microg/g for chrysophanol, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, rhein, respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 3.2%. The recoveries range from 80.2% to 119.3% for the five analytes. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first GC method reported for the simultaneous determination of the five anthraquinones in radix P. multiflori. PMID:18262194

Zuo, Yuegang; Wang, Chengjun; Lin, Yuejuan; Guo, Jinwen; Deng, Yiwei

2008-07-18

260

Ambient gas/particle partitioning. 3. Estimating partition coefficients of apolar, polar, and ionizable organic compounds by their molecular structure.  

PubMed

Equilibrium gas/particle partitioning coefficients of terrestrial aerosols, Kip, are dependent on various intermolecular interactions that can be quantified by experimentally determined compound-specific descriptors. For many compounds of environmental interest, such as emerging contaminants and atmospheric phototransformation products, these compound-specific descriptors are unknown or immeasurable. Often, only the molecular structure is known. Here we present the ability of two computer programs to predict equilibrium partitioning to terrestrial aerosols solely on the basis of molecular structure: COSMOtherm and SPARC. The greatest hurdle with designing such an approach is to identify suitable molecular surrogates to represent the dominating sorbing phases, which for ambient terrestrial aerosols are the water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) phase and the mixed-aqueous phase. For the WI0M phase, hypothetical urban secondary organic aerosol structural units from Kalberer et al. Science 2004, 303, 1659-1662 were investigated as input surrogates, and for the mixed-aqueous phase mildly acidic water was used as a surrogate. Using a validation data set of more than 1400 experimentally determined Kip values for polar, apolar, and ionic compounds ranging over 9 orders of magnitude (including semivolatile compounds such as PCDD/Fs, pesticides, and PBDEs), SPARC and COSMOtherm were generally able to predict Kip values well within an order of magnitude over an ambient range of temperature and relative humidity. This is remarkable as these two models were not fitted or calibrated to any experimental data. As these models can be used for potentially any organic molecule, they are particularly recommended for environmental screening purposes and for use when experimental compound descriptor data are not available. PMID:19368193

Arp, Hans Peter H; Gosses, Kai-Uwe

2009-03-15

261

An Evaluation of the Response of Some Portable, Direct-Reading 10.2?eV and 11.8?eV Photoionization Detectors, and a Flame Ionization Gas Chromatograph for Organic Vapors in High Humidity Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three portable, direct-reading instruments were tested to evaluate their ability to detect organic vapors in high humidity atmospheres. The instruments included two photoionization detectors (10.2?eV and 11.8?eV), and an organic vapor analyzer with a flame ionization detector. The organic vapors used were hexanes, 1,1-dichloroethane, chloroform, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, benzene, toluene and chloro-benzene. Relatively impervious gas bags were used to contain atmospheres

J. B. BARSKY; S. S. QUE HEE; C. S. CLARK

1985-01-01

262

On possible structures of transverse ionizing shock waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible structures of ionizing shock waves propagating in gases across the magnetic field are investigated taking account of both ionization kinetics and the non-isothermality of the plasma which is formed within the shock front. It is shown that a definite factor in shaping the structure of the transverse ionizing shock wave is photo-ionization of the neutral gas across the

M A Liberman; A L Velikovich

1978-01-01

263

Gridded electron reversal ionizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

1993-01-01

264

Determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in powdered milk using injection-port derivatization and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with furan chemical ionization.  

PubMed

A reliable, sensitive and eco-friendly injection-port trimethylsilylated (TMS) derivatization and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with furan chemical ionization (furan-CI) method was developed to determine melamine and cyanuric acid in powdered milk samples. The effects of several parameters related to the TMS-derivatization process (i.e., injection-port temperature, residence time and volume of silylating agent) and of various CI agents were investigated. Addition of a solution (3 ?L) of bis(trimethyl)silyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) reagent to a 20-?L extract from the powdered milk sample gave an excellent yield of the tris-TMS-derivatives of melamine and cyanuric acid at an injection-port temperature of 90°C. Furthermore, using furan as the CI agent in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry provided the greatest sensitivity and selectivity of detection. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) for melamine and cyanuric acid were 0.5 and 1.0 ng/g in 0.5-g of powdered milk samples, respectively. The recoveries from spiked samples--after simple ultra-sonication with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide in acetonitrile coupled with n-hexane liquid-liquid extraction--ranged from 72% to 93% with relative standard deviations of lower than or equal to 18%. In three of four real powdered milk samples, melamine was detected at concentrations ranging from 36 to 1460 ng/g; and cyanuric acid was detected in two of these samples at concentrations of 17 and 180 ng/g. PMID:20800234

Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ding, Wang-Hsien

2010-10-01

265

Determination of fuel dialkyl ethers and BTEX in water using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.  

PubMed

A simple procedure for the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), ethyl butyl ether (EBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in water using headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was developed. The analysis was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) equipped with flame ionization detector (FID) and 100% dimethylpolysiloxane fused capillary column. A 2 Plackett-Burman design for screening and a central composite design (CCD) for optimizing the significant variables were applied. Fiber type, extraction temperature, sodium chloride concentration, and headspace volume were the significant variables. A 65 microm poly(dimethylsiloxane)-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB) SPME fiber, 10 degrees C, 300 g/l, and 20 ml of headspace (in 40 ml vial) were respectively chosen for the best extraction response. An extraction time of 10 min was enough to extract the ethers and BTEX. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for the procedure varied from 2.6 (benzene) to 8.5% (ethylbenzene). The method detection limits (MDLs) found were from 0.02 (toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) to 1.1 microg/l (MTBE). The optimized method was applied to the analysis of the rivers, marinas and fishing harbors surface waters from Gipuzkoa (North Spain). Three sampling were done in 1 year from June 2002 to June 2003. Toluene was the most detected analyte (in 90% of the samples analyzed), with an average concentration of 0.56 microg/l. MTBE was the only dialkyl ether detected (in 15% of the samples) showing two high levels over 400 microg/l that were related to accidental fuel spill. PMID:15088739

Arambarri, Idoia; Lasa, Maitena; Garcia, Rosa; Millán, Esmeralda

2004-04-16

266

Validation of a qualitative screening method for pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.  

PubMed

A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acquisition was performed through two alternating scan events: one at low collision energy and another at a higher collision energy ramp (MS(E)). In this way, both protonated molecule and/or molecular ion together with fragment ions were obtained in a single run. Validation was performed according to SANCO/12571/2013 by analysing 20 samples (10 different commodities in duplicate), fortified with a test set of 132 pesticides at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1). For screening, the detection was based on one diagnostic ion (in most cases the protonated molecule). Overall, at the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, 89% of the 2620 fortifications made were detected. The screening detection limit for individual pesticides was 0.01mg kg(-1) for 77% of the pesticides investigated. The possibilities for identification according to the SANCO criteria, requiring two ions with a mass accuracy ?±5ppm and an ion-ratio deviation ?±30%, were investigated. At the 0.01mg kg(-1) level, identification was possible for 70% of the pesticides detected during screening. This increased to 87% and 93% at the 0.05 and 0.20mg kg(-1) level, respectively. Insufficient sensitivity for the second ion was the main reason for the inability to identify detected pesticides, followed by deviations in mass accuracy and ion ratios. PMID:25064246

Portolés, T; Mol, J G J; Sancho, J V; López, Francisco J; Hernández, F

2014-08-01

267

Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

2014-05-13

268

Gas  

MedlinePLUS

... swallow and the breakdown of undigested food by bacteria in the large intestine. Certain foods may cause gas. Foods that produce gas in one person may not cause gas in another. You can reduce the amount of gas you have by Drinking lots of water and non-fizzy drinks Eating more slowly so ...

269

Miniature Oxidizer Ionizer for a Fuel Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed miniature device for ionizing the oxygen (or other oxidizing gas) in a fuel cell would consist mostly of a membrane ionizer using the same principles as those of the device described in the earlier article, Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster (NPO-21057). The oxidizing gas would be completely ionized upon passage through the holes in the membrane ionizer. The resulting positively charged atoms or molecules of oxidizing gas could then, under the influence of the fringe fields of the ionizer, move toward the fuel-cell cathode that would be part of a membrane/electrode assembly comprising the cathode, a solid-electrolyte membrane, and an anode. The electro-oxidized state of the oxidizer atoms and molecules would enhance transfer of them through the cathode, thereby reducing the partial pressure of the oxidizer gas between the ionizer and the fuel-cell cathode, thereby, in turn, causing further inflow of oxidizer gas through the holes in the membrane ionizer. Optionally the ionizer could be maintained at a positive electric potential with respect to the cathode, in which case the resulting electric field would accelerate the ions toward the cathode.

Hartley, Frank

2006-01-01

270

Optical ionization detector  

DOEpatents

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01

271

Optical ionization detector  

DOEpatents

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

1994-03-29

272

Dispersion of ionization waves in positive columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersion relations for ionization, ion-acoustic, and electron plasma waves are calculated numerically from the continuity and momentum equations for electrons and ions, the energy-balance equation for electrons, and the Maxwell equations. Only ionization waves are detectable at a gas pressure of a few torr. It is confirmed that the values for the real part of the frequency agree well with

Kazuyuki Ohe; Susumu Takeda

1975-01-01

273

Three-dimensional modeling of ionized gas. II. Spectral energy distributions of massive and very massive stars in stationary and time-dependent modeling of the ionization of metals in HII regions  

E-print Network

HII regions play a crucial role in the measurement of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium and provide fundamental data about element abundances that constrain models of galactic chemical evolution. Discrepancies that still exist between observed emission line strengths and those predicted by nebular models can be partly attributed to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the sources of ionizing radiation used in the models as well as simplifying assumptions made in nebular modeling. The influence of stellar metallicity on nebular line strength ratios, via its effect on the SEDs, is of similar importance as variations in the nebular metallicity. We have computed a grid of model atmosphere SEDs for massive and very massive O-type stars covering a range of metallicities from significantly subsolar (0.1 Zsun) to supersolar (2 Zsun). The SEDs have been computed using a state-of-the-art model atmosphere code that takes into account the attenuation of the ionizing flux by the spectral lines of ...

Weber, J A; Hoffmann, T L

2015-01-01

274

Formation of ionization clusters in nanometric structures of propane-based tissue-equivalent gas or liquid water by electrons and a-particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of ionization yield formation in sub-cellular structures a few nanometres in size, with regard to radiation damage our present knowledge in this respect is almost exclusively based on Monte Carlo simulations which in turn are based on cross section sets for water vapour or liquid water. Experimental data, although urgently needed, are still missing because the direct

B. Grosswendt

2002-01-01

275

Quantitative analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by capillary gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection: Quadrupole and sector mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of a flame-ionization detector and of two mass detectors,viz. a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a sector mass spectrometer, is described. A relationship between the amount of a fatty\\u000a acid methyl ester and the relative response in the three detectors was found. The detectors were compared and their possible\\u000a use for biological samples was discussed.

T. Koza; T. ?ezanka; M. Wurst

1989-01-01

276

Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental Study Employing Single-Photon Ionization  

E-print Network

Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental employed for the study of the reactions of neutral vanadium oxide clusters (VmOn) with sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the gas phase. VmOn clusters are generated by reaction of a laser-generated vanadium plasma with O2

Rocca, Jorge J.

277

Single photon ionization (SPI) via incoherent VUV-excimer light: robust and compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for on-line, real-time process gas analysis.  

PubMed

Fast on-line detection of organic compounds from complex mixtures, such as industrial process gas streams, require selective and sensitive analytical methods. One feasible approach for this purpose is the use of mass spectrometry (MS) with a selective and soft (fragment-free) ionization technique, such as chemical ionization (CI) or photo ionization (PI). Single photon ionization (SPI) with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light is a particularly sof tionization technique, well-suited for detection of both aromatic and aliphatic species. Problematic, however, is the generation of the VUV light. In general, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light sources for SPI-MS are based either on lasers (e.g., 118-nm radiation generated by frequency-tripling of the third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser) or on conventional VUV lamps, such as deuterium lamps. Althoughthe laser-based techniques are very sophisticated and expensive, the conventional lamps have serious drawbacks regarding their optical parameters, such as low-output power, low spectral power density, and broad emission bands. In this work, a novel excimer VUV light source, in which an electron beam is used to form rare gas excimer species, is used. The excimer VUV light sourceproduces brilliant and intense VUV light. The novel VUV light source was coupled to a compact and mobile time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A special interface design, including optical (VUV optics) as well as electronic measures (e.g., pulsed ion extraction) was realized. The use of the excimer VUV lamp for SPI will allow the realization of very compact, rugged, and sensitive SPI-TOFMS devices, which preferably will be adapted for process analytical application or monitoring issues (e.g., chemical warfare detection). The excimer VUV-lamp technology delivers VUV light with a good beam quality and high-output power at low costs. Furthermore, it allows changing the emitted wavelength as well as the bandwidth of the excimer VUV lamp in t he 100-200-nm region by changing the gas filling. Consequently, SPI-TOFMS with an excimer light source is a fast detection technique that can be used for online monitoring, for example, in environmental studies or industrial manufacturing processes. In this paper, technology and characteristics of the new excimer light source, as well as the combination with the TOFMS, are presented. Furthermore, a first characterization of the SPI-TOFMS instrument, regarding analytical parameters such as detection limits and selectivity, is given. This includes a discussion of potential improvements that probably will be achievable within a future prototype genertation. Finally, first applications of the system for on-line measurement of organic trace species in a complex gas mixture (here, motorcycle exhaust gas) are presented. PMID:12175168

Mühlberger, F; Wieser, J; Ulrich, A; Zimmermann, R

2002-08-01

278

Determination of molecular weight distribution of aromatic components in petroleum products by chemical ionization mass spectrometry with chlorobenzene as reagent gas  

SciTech Connect

A chemical ionization mass spectrometic technique for direct determination of the the molecular weight distributions of the major aromatic components in liquid fuels and other petro-products is discussed. The basic mechanism involves selective charge exchange reactions between chlorobenzene cations and the substituted benzenes and naphthalenes present in the sample. Chlorobenzene also serves as the solvent for the fuel, and screening of successive samples can be carried out with a 3-min turn-around time. Depending upon conditions, the paraffinic components present in the fuel are absent in the resulting mass spectrum.

Sieck, L.W.

1983-01-01

279

Special feature: Tutorial. Desorption ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

CH 5 ` NH 4 ` in proton transfer to M to form (M ) H)`. In each of these methods, the sample molecule is originally in the gas phase. The volatilization process must create these gas-phase sample molecules without sample decomposi- tion or reorganization. For non-volatile sample molecules, other ionization methods must be used and have been developed over

Kenneth L. Busch

1995-01-01

280

Online comprehensive two-dimensional characterization of puff-by-puff resolved cigarette smoke by hyphenation of fast gas chromatography to single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: quantification of hazardous volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

This work presents the direct coupling of a custom-made smoking machine (SM) to fast gas chromatography combined with single-photon ionization mass spectrometry (GC × SPI-MS) utilizing a six-port, two-position valve for online puff-resolved comprehensive two-dimensional investigation of cigarette smoke. The innovative electron-beam pumped rare gas excimer light source (EBEL) filled with argon provided vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons of 9.8 ± 0.4 eV (126 ± 9 nm) for SPI. Puff-by-puff quantification of 14 hazardous volatile organic smoke constituents from the 2R4F Kentucky research cigarette was enabled for two smoking regimes, i.e., ISO and Canadian Intense, after determination of photoionization cross sections. The investigated analytes comprised NO, acetaldehyde, butadiene, acrolein, propanal, acetone, isoprene, furan, crotonaldehyde, isobutanal, butanal, 2-butanone, benzene, and toluene. The determined amounts of these compounds in cigarette smoke agreed excellently with the literature values. Furthermore, the two well-known patterns of puff-by-puff behaviors for these different smoke constituents were obtained for both whole smoke and gas-phase measurements. PMID:21699253

Eschner, Markus S; Selmani, Ismailhaki; Gröger, Thomas M; Zimmermann, Ralf

2011-09-01

281

Characterization of fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition in animal fats using silver-ion and non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection.  

PubMed

Fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TG) composition of natural oils and fats intake in the diet has a strong influence on the human health and chronic diseases. In this work, non-aqueous reversed-phase (NARP) and silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection and gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC/FID) and mass spectrometry detection are used for the characterization of FA and TG composition in complex samples of animal fats from fallow deer, red deer, sheep, moufflon, wild boar, cock, duck and rabbit. The FA composition of samples is determined based on the GC/FID analysis of FA methyl esters. In total, 81 FAs of different acyl chain length, double bond (DB) number, branched/linear, cis-/trans- and DB positional isomers are identified. TGs in animal fats contain mainly monounsaturated and saturated FAs. High amounts of branched and trans-FAs are observed in the samples of ruminants. In NARP mode, individual TG species are separated including the separation of trans- and branched TGs. Silver-ion mode provides the separation of TG regioisomers, which enables the determination of their ratios. Great differences in the preference of unsaturated and saturated FAs in the sn-2 position on the glycerol skeleton are observed among individual animal fats. Unsaturated FAs are preferentially occupied in the sn-2 position in all animal samples except for wild boar with the strong preference of saturated FAs in the sn-2 position. PMID:21835413

Lísa, Miroslav; Netušilová, Kate?ina; Fran?k, Lukáš; Dvo?áková, Hana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hol?apek, Michal

2011-10-21

282

Laserspray Ionization, a New Atmospheric Pressure MALDI Method for Producing Highly Charged Gas-phase Ions of Peptides and Proteins Directly from Solid Solutions*  

PubMed Central

The first example of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) process producing multiply charged mass spectra nearly identical to those observed with electrospray ionization (ESI) is presented. MALDI is noted for its ability to produce singly charged ions, but in the experiments described here multiply charged ions are produced by laser ablation of analyte incorporated into a common MALDI matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, using standard solvent-based sample preparation protocols. Laser ablation is known to produce matrix clusters in MALDI provided a threshold energy is achieved. We propose that these clusters (liquid droplets) are highly charged, and under conditions that produce sufficient matrix evaporation, ions are field-evaporated from the droplets similarly to ESI. Because of the multiple charging, advanced mass spectrometers with limited mass-to-charge range can be used for protein characterization. Thus, using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, low femtomole quantities of proteins produce full-range mass spectra at 100,000 mass resolution with <5-ppm mass accuracy and with 1-s acquisition. Furthermore, the first example of protein fragmentation using electron transfer dissociation with MALDI is presented. PMID:19955086

Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D.; Herath, Thushani N.; McEwen, Charles N.

2010-01-01

283

GAS-PHASE SYNTHESIS OF PRECURSORS OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE: A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ACETIC ACID WITH HYDROXYLAMINE AND ITS IONIZED AND PROTONATED DERIVATIVES  

SciTech Connect

A computational study of the reactions of hydroxylamine and its ionized and protonated derivatives with acetic acid is provided. The reaction of neutral hydroxylamine with acetic acid, despite being clearly exothermic, involves a very large energy barrier. The reaction of ionized hydroxylamine with acetic acid is also clearly exothermic, but again a significant energy barrier is found (around 24 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). The reaction of the most stable protonated isomer of hydroxylamine, NH{sub 3}OH{sup +}, with acetic acid also involves a high barrier (more than 27 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Only the higher energy isomer, NH{sub 2}OH{sup +}{sub 2}, leads to a sensibly lower energy barrier (about 2.3 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Nevertheless, an estimate of the reaction coefficient at low temperatures such as those reigning in the interstellar medium gives very low values. Therefore, it seems that precursors of interstellar glycine could not be efficiently produced from the reactions of hydroxylamine-derived ions with acetic acid.

Barrientos, Carmen; Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Laura; Rayon, Victor M.; Largo, Antonio, E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

2012-04-01

284

Determination of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol in truffle fermentation broth by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector/electron impact mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel method using solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (FID)/electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS) was developed for the determination of 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol (androstenol), a steroidal compound belonging to the group of musk odorous 16-androstenes, in truffle fermentation broth. Comparison studies between FID and EIMS indicated two detectors gave similar quantitative results. The highest androstenol concentration of 123.5 ng/mL was detected in Tuber indicum fermentation broth, while no androstenol was found in Tuber aestivum fermentation broth. For the first time, this work confirmed the existence of androstenol in the truffle fermentation broth, which suggested truffle fermentation is a promising alternative for androstenol production on a large scale. PMID:18585987

Wang, Guan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Dong-Sheng; Tang, Ya-Jie

2008-07-15

285

Characterization of plant materials by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry: high-resolution mass spectrometry, time-resolved high-resolution mass spectrometry, and Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of spruce needles  

SciTech Connect

In the course of a forest damage research project spruce needles are analyzed, without pretreatment except drying and milling, by in-source pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry. The mass signals are assigned by using high-resolution mass measurements and thermal degradation products identified by Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography. It is demonstrated that the thermal degradation products characterize the main chemical constituents of spruce needs such as polysaccharides and lignin. Furthermore, thermostable constituents such as lipids, steroids, and flavons are detected. The thermal degradation process is studied by temperature-programmed microfurnace pyrolysis in combination with time-resolved high-resolution mass spectrometry. The integrated interpretation of results achieved by the presented methods can be applied for the universal characterization of complex and in particular nonsoluble, polydisperse biological and geochemical materials.

Schulten, H.F.; Simmleit, N.; Mueller, R.

1989-02-01

286

Ionization potentials of seaborgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic

E. Johnson; V. Pershina; B. Fricke

1999-01-01

287

A gas chromatographic-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometric method for the determination of I-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM), norLAAM, and dinorLAAM in plasma, urine, and tissue.  

PubMed

l-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) is approved as a substitute for methadone for the treatment of opiate addiction. Analytical methods are needed to quantitate LAAM and its two psychoactive metabolites, norLAAM and dinorLAAM, to support pharmacokinetic and other studies. We developed a gas chromatographic-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometric method for these analyses. The method uses 0.5 mL urine or 1.0 mL plasma or tissue homogenate, deuterated (d3) isotopomers as internal standards, methanolic denaturation of protein (for plasma and tissue), and extraction of the buffered sample with n-butyl chloride. For tissue homogenates, an acidic back extraction is included. norLAAM and dinorLAAM were derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Chromatographic separation of LAAM and derivatized norLAAM and dinorLAAM is achieved with a 5% phenyl methylsilicone capillary column. Positive ion chemical ionization detection using methane-ammonia as the reagent gas produces abundant protonated ions (MH+) for LAAM (m/z 354) and LAAM-d3 (m/z 357) and ammonia adduct ions (MNH4+) for the derivatized norLAAM (m/z 453), norLAAM-d3 (m/z 45 6), dinorLAAM (m/z 439), and dinorLAAM-d3 (m/z 442). The linear range of the calibration curves were matrix dependent: 5-300 ng/mL for plasma, 10-1000 ng/mL for urine, and 10-600 ng/g for tissue homogenates. The low calibrator was the validated limit of quantitation for that matrix. The method is precise and accurate with percent coefficients of variation and percent of targets within 13%. The method was applied to the analysis of human urine and plasma samples; rat plasma, liver, and brain samples; and human liver microsomes following incubation with LAAM. PMID:8926727

Moody, D E; Crouch, D J; Sakashita, C O; Alburges, M E; Minear, K; Schulthies, J E; Foltz, R L

1995-10-01

288

Real-time air monitoring of mustard gas and lewisite 1 by detecting their in-line reaction products by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow ion introduction.  

PubMed

A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds. In-line chemical reactions, ionization reactions, and ion fragmentations of these agents were investigated. Mustard gas is oxygenated in small quantity by reactive oxygen species generated in the corona discharge. With increasing air humidity, the MS(2) signal intensity of protonated molecules of mono-oxygenated HD decreases but exceeds that of dominantly existing intact HD. This result can be explained in view of proton affinity. Lewisite 1 is hydrolyzed and oxidized. As the humidity increases from zero, the signal of the final product, namely, didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, and mono-oxygenated L1, quickly increases and reaches a plateau, giving the highest MS(2) and MS(3) signals among those of L1 and its reaction products. The addition of minimal moisture gives the highest signal intensity, even under low humidity. The method was demonstrated to provide sufficient analytical performance to meet the requirements concerning hygienic management and counter-terrorism. It will be the first practical method, in view of sensitivity and specificity, for real-time air monitoring of HD and L1 without sample pretreatment. PMID:25553788

Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

2015-01-20

289

A bipolar outflow of ionized gas in K3-50A: H76 alpha radio recombination line and continuum observations of K3-50  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The H II regions near K3-50 (G70.3 + 1.6) have been imaged at high angular resolution (approximately 1 sec .3) in the continuum and the recombination lines H76(sub alpha and He76(sub alpha) using the Very Large Array (VLA). The helium line is detected in only the brightest component K3-50A while the hydrogen line is detected in three components (K3-50A, B and C1). K3-50A shows a pronounced velocity gradient of approximately 150 km/sec/pc along its major axis (P.A. = 160 deg); in addition a wide range of line widths are observed, from 20 to 65 km/sec. Kinematics from the line data and the morphology of the continuum emission suggest that the ionized material associated with K3-50A is undergoing a high-velocity bipolar outflow.

Depree, C. G.; Goss, W. M.; Palmer, Patrick; Rubin, Robert H.

1994-01-01

290

Dicarboxylic degradation products of nonylphenol polyethoxylates: synthesis and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using electron and chemical ionization modes.  

PubMed

The synthesis, mass spectra and detectability of four selected dicarboxylic degradation products (CAPECs) of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are reported. The selected isomers have an alpha,alpha-dimethyl configuration (expressed as "dm" in their abbreviation), five to eight C atoms and a carboxyl group in the alkyl chain, and a carboxymethoxy acid group (dm-CA5-8P1ECs). The synthesis was successfully accomplished via a reaction sequence that started from anisole. After trimethylsilylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide or methylation with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane, the derivatives of the dm-CA5-8P1ECs were subjected to a GC-electron ionization (EI)-MS and GC-isobutane chemical ionization (CI)-MS. In EI-MS, ion peaks at m/z = 265 and 207, corresponding to the alpha,alpha-dimethyl structures via the benzyl cleavage of carboxyalkyl chain, were the most significant ions of the trimethylsilyl and methyl derivatives, respectively. In CI-MS, the main ion peaks of dm-CA5-, dm-CA6-, dm-CA7-, and dm-CA8P1EC after methylation were at m/z= 129, 143, 157, and 171, respectively, corresponding to the loss of methyl phenoxyacetate from [M+ H]+; meanwhile significant peaks were detected at 321, 335, 349, and 363, corresponding to the loss of the trimethylsilanol after trimethylsilylation. The potential for the identification and quantification of individual branched carboxyalkyl isomeric mixtures of CA5-, CA6-, CA7-, and CA8P1EC metabolites based on corresponding dm-CA5-8P1ECs revealed the advantage of the GC-CI-MS although the detection limits in CI were clearly higher than those in EI. PMID:15633752

Hoai, Pham Manh; Tsunoi, Shinji; Ike, Michihiko; Inui, Naoko; Tanaka, Minoru; Fujita, Masanori

2004-12-17

291

Field ionization of argon using -phase W nanorods J. P. Singh,a)  

E-print Network

Field ionization of argon using -phase W nanorods J. P. Singh,a) T. Karabacak,b) T.-M. Lu, and G 11 August 2004) We report testing of -phase W nanorods as a gas ionizer for neutral argon atoms voltage 3­4 V applied to the W nanorods generates a high electric field, which ionizes gas-phase argon

Wang, Gwo-Ching

292

Field ionizing elements and applications thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field ionizing element formed of a membrane that houses electrodes therein that are located closer to one another than the mean free path of the gas being ionized. The membrane includes a supporting portion, and a non supporting portion where the ions are formed. The membrane may be used as the front end for a number of different applications including a mass spectrometer, a thruster, an ion mobility element, or an electrochemical device such as a fuel cell.

Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

293

Kinetic simulation of neutral/ionized gas and electrically charged dust in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko  

SciTech Connect

The cometary coma is a unique phenomenon in the solar system being a planetary atmosphere influenced by little or no gravity. As a comet approaches the sun, the water vapor with some fraction of other gases sublimate, generating a cloud of gas, ice and other refractory materials (rocky and organic dust) ejected from the surface of the nucleus. Sublimating gas molecules undergo frequent collisions and photochemical processes in the near-nucleus region. Owing to its negligible gravity, comets produce a large and highly variable extensive dusty coma with a size much larger than the characteristic size of the cometary nucleus.The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. Both, interpretation of measurements and safety consideration of the spacecraft require modeling of the comet's dusty gas environment.In this work we present results of a numerical study of multispecies gaseous and electrically charged dust environment of comet Chyuryumov-Gerasimenko. Both, gas and dust phases of the coma are simulated kinetically. Photolytic reactions are taken into account. Parameters of the ambient plasma as well as the distribution of electric/magnetic fields are obtained from an MHD simulation of the coma connected to the solar wind. Trajectories of ions and electrically charged dust grains are simulated by accounting for the Lorentz force and the nucleus gravity.

Tenishev, Valeriy; Rubin, Martin; Combi, Michael R. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2011-05-20

294

Probing Angular Correlations in Sequential Double Ionization  

SciTech Connect

We study electron correlation in sequential double ionization of noble gas atoms and HCl in intense, femtosecond laser pulses. We measure the photoelectron angular distributions of Ne{sup +} relative to the first electron in a pump-probe experiment with 8 fs, 800 nm, circularly polarized laser pulses at a peak intensity of a few 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Using a linear-linear pump-probe setup, we further study He, Ar, and HCl. We find a clear angular correlation between the two ionization steps in the sequential double ionization intensity regime.

Fleischer, A. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Woerner, H. J. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Arissian, L. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Liu, L. R. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); University of Toronto, 40 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2E4 (Canada); Meckel, M.; Rippert, A.; Doerner, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe Universitaet, Max-von-Laue Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Staudte, A. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2011-09-09

295

Ionized Hydrogen at Large Galactocentric Distances  

E-print Network

We summarize recent attempts to detect warm ionized gas at large galactocentric distances. This includes searching for gas at the edges of spirals, in between cluster galaxies, towards extragalactic HI clouds, and towards high velocity clouds and the Magellanic Stream in the Galaxy. With the exception of extragalactic HI clouds, all of these experiments have proved successful. Within each class, we have only observed a handful of objects. It is premature to assess what fraction of the missing baryonic mass fraction might be in the form of ionized gas. But, in most cases, the detections provide a useful constraint on the ambient ionizing flux, and in the case of spiral edges, can even trace dark matter haloes out to radii beyond the reach of radio telescopes.

J. Bland-Hawthorn

1997-04-15

296

High resolution UV resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy with mass selection of biologically relevant molecules in the gas phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high resolution Doppler-free resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization (R2PI) spectroscopy with mass selection of jet-cooled (2-12 K) molecular species is a powerful experimental method providing comprehensive information on both isolated molecules and molecular clusters. We have demonstrated for the first time that this technique can be applied to large molecules and provides detailed information on their conformational structure. It allows rotationally resolved (FWHM = 70 MHz) spectra of the vibronic bands of the S1<--S0 electronic transition of the studied molecular systems to be measured. A specially designed computer-assisted fitting routine based on genetic algorithms is used to determine their rotational constants in the ground and excited electronic states, respectively, and the transition moment ratio. To interpret the experimental information and to discriminate and unambiguously assign the observed approach to the study of the neurotransmitter molecule, ephedrine. The results elucidate the role of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds stabilizing the respective conformations and affecting their intrinsic properties.

Chervenkov, S.; Wang, P. Q.; Karaminkov, R.; Chakraborty, T.; Braun, Juergen E.; Neusser, Hans J.

2005-04-01

297

Ionization in Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets. V. Alfvén Ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of continuous radio and sporadic X-ray emission from low-mass objects suggest they harbor localized plasmas in their atmospheric environments. For low-mass objects, the degree of thermal ionization is insufficient to qualify the ionized component as a plasma, posing the question: what ionization processes can efficiently produce the required plasma that is the source of the radiation? We propose Alfvén ionization as a mechanism for producing localized pockets of ionized gas in the atmosphere, having sufficient degrees of ionization (>=10-7) that they constitute plasmas. We outline the criteria required for Alfvén ionization and demonstrate its applicability in the atmospheres of low-mass objects such as giant gas planets, brown dwarfs, and M dwarfs with both solar and sub-solar metallicities. We find that Alfvén ionization is most efficient at mid to low atmospheric pressures where a seed plasma is easier to magnetize and the pressure gradients needed to drive the required neutral flows are the smallest. For the model atmospheres considered, our results show that degrees of ionization of 10-6-1 can be obtained as a result of Alfvén ionization. Observable consequences include continuum bremsstrahlung emission, superimposed with spectral lines from the plasma ion species (e.g., He, Mg, H2, or CO lines). Forbidden lines are also expected from the metastable population. The presence of an atmospheric plasma opens the door to a multitude of plasma and chemical processes not yet considered in current atmospheric models. The occurrence of Alfvén ionization may also be applicable to other astrophysical environments such as protoplanetary disks.

Stark, C. R.; Helling, Ch.; Diver, D. A.; Rimmer, P. B.

2013-10-01

298

Ionization potentials of seaborgium  

SciTech Connect

Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic radii obtained will be used to predict some physiochemical properties of seaborgium and its compounds.

Johnson, E.; Pershina, V.; Fricke, B.

1999-10-21

299

Ionization structure of the nebula NGC 6857  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of our spectroscopic studies of the nebula NGC 6857 located in a region of current star formation. Data on the surface brightness distribution in the central region of the nebula (˜60? × 60?) in the H ?, H ?, [OIII], 5007 Å, [N II], 6548, 6583 Å, [S II], 6717, 6731 Å, and He I, 6678 Å lines have been obtained with an angular resolution of ˜4.?5 × 4.?5. The zones of maximum surface brightness and the region of maximum gas ionization ratio are located 12? south of the central star, which may suggest the existence of a second gas ionization source.

Kondrat'eva, L. N.; Rspaev, F. K.; Aimuratov, E. K.

2014-11-01

300

IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. II. DUST-INDUCED COLLISIONAL IONIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Observations have shown that continuous radio emission and also sporadic H{alpha} and X-ray emission are prominent in singular, low-mass objects later than spectral class M. These activity signatures are interpreted as being caused by coupling of an ionized atmosphere to the stellar magnetic field. What remains a puzzle, however, is the mechanism by which such a cool atmosphere can produce the necessary level of ionization. At these low temperatures, thermal gas processes are insufficient, but the formation of clouds sets in. Cloud particles can act as seeds for electron avalanches in streamers that ionize the ambient gas, and can lead to lightning and indirectly to magnetic field coupling, a combination of processes also expected for protoplanetary disks. However, the precondition is that the cloud particles are charged. We use results from DRIFT-PHOENIX model atmospheres to investigate collisional processes that can lead to the ionization of dust grains inside clouds. We show that ionization by turbulence-induced dust-dust collisions is the most efficient kinetic process. The efficiency is highest in the inner cloud where particles grow quickly and, hence, the dust-to-gas ratio is high. Dust-dust collisions alone are not sufficient to improve the magnetic coupling of the atmosphere inside the cloud layers, but the charges supplied either on grains or within the gas phase as separated electrons can trigger secondary nonlinear processes. Cosmic rays are likely to increase the global level of ionization, but their influence decreases if a strong, large-scale magnetic field is present as on brown dwarfs. We suggest that although thermal gas ionization declines in objects across the fully convective boundary, dust charging by collisional processes can play an important role in the lowest mass objects. The onset of atmospheric dust may therefore correlate with the anomalous X-ray and radio emission in atmospheres that are cool, but charged more than expected by pure thermal ionization.

Helling, Ch.; Jardine, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Mokler, F., E-mail: ch80@st-andrews.ac.uk [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2011-08-10

301

Method and apparatus utilizing ionizing and microwave radiation for saturation determination of water, oil and a gas in a core sample  

DOEpatents

A system is described for determining the relative permeabilities of gas, water and oil in a core sample has a microwave emitter/detector subsystem and an X-ray emitter/detector subsystem. A core holder positions the core sample between microwave absorbers which prevent diffracted microwaves from reaching a microwave detector where they would reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the microwave measurements. The microwave emitter/detector subsystem and the X-ray emitter/detector subsystem each have linear calibration characteristics, allowing one subsystem to be calibrated with respect to the other subsystem. The dynamic range of microwave measurements is extended through the use of adjustable attenuators. This also facilitates the use of core samples with wide diameters. The stratification characteristics of the fluids may be observed with a windowed cell separator at the outlet of the core sample. The condensation of heavy hydrocarbon gas and the dynamic characteristics of the fluids are observed with a sight glass at the outlet of the core sample. 11 figs.

Maerefat, N.L.; Parmeswar, R.; Brinkmeyer, A.D.; Honarpour, M.

1994-08-23

302

Determination of 14 benzodiazepines and hydroxy metabolites, zaleplon and zolpidem as tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives compared with other common silylating reagents in whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The most common commercially available silylating reagents, N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide+1% trimethylchlorosilane (BSTFA+1% TMCS) and N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) were evaluated to achieve optimal derivatization conditions for analyzing various benzodiazepines based on gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). Sensitivity, repeatability, retention times and stability of the derivatives, as well as specificity of mass fragmentation, were studied in detail. Also other parameters affecting the derivatization chemistry of benzodiazepines are discussed. tert-Butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives proved to be more stable, reproducible and sensitive than corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives for the GC-EI-MS analysis of benzodiazepines. Based on the TBDMS derivatives, a rapid, reliable, sensitive and quantitative GC-MS method was developed for the determination of 14 benzodiazepines and two hydroxy metabolites, as well as two non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents, zolpidem and zaleplon, using 50 microl of whole blood. The method was completely validated in terms of accuracy, intra- and interday precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), linearity, selectivity and extraction efficiency; these were all within the required limits, except for the accuracy of nitrazepam at a medium concentration level. PMID:15734157

Gunnar, Teemu; Ariniemi, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

2005-04-25

303

Gas Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a brief introduction to the concepts of injection and detection in gas chromatography, focusing on the split/splitless injection port and flame ionization detectors. The treatment is similar to that in analytical chemistry textbooks, and includes detailed illustrations.

304

An evaluation of the response of some portable, direct-reading 10.2 eV and 11.8 eV photoionization detectors, and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for organic vapors in high humidity atmospheres.  

PubMed

Three portable, direct-reading instruments were tested to evaluate their ability to detect organic vapors in high humidity atmospheres. The instruments included two photoionization detectors (10.2 eV and 11.8 eV), and an organic vapor analyzer with a flame ionization detector. The organic vapors used were hexanes, 1,1-dichloroethane, chloroform, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, benzene, toluene and chlorobenzene. Relatively impervious gas bags were used to contain atmospheres of low (zero) and high (90 percent) relative humidities for comparisons. The response of the organic vapor analyzer was practically independent of humidity. The responses of the photoionization detectors were influenced by high humidity even though the 10.2 eV lamp did not detect water vapor itself. The photoionization detectors were adjudged to be unsuitable for quantitative sampling of humid confined spaces since the 11.8 eV lamp was sensitive to water vapor and the 10.2 eV lamp showed unpredictable response factors in high humidity. PMID:4025151

Barsky, J B; Que Hee, S S; Clark, C S

1985-01-01

305

Characterization and quantitative amino acids analysis of analgesic peptides in cinobufacini injection by size exclusion chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cinobufacini injection that comes from the water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor skin is widely used for cancer treatment in China. Peptide is one of its major types of constituents, however the biological effects and content of this injection are little reported. In present study, the analgesic effect of peptides was determined and evaluated by in-vivo models. To characterize and quantitatively analyze these peptides, a reliable and efficient method combining size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with amino acid analysis was developed. The peptides presented as a series of analogs with similar molecular weights mostly ranging from 2 to 8 kDa. The amino acid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine both free and combined amino acids (FAA and CAA) in cinobufacini injection. This method achieved good linearity (R(2) , 0.9909-0.9999) and low limit of detection and quantification. FAA and CAA samples were efficiently analyzed by modified Phenomenex EZ: faast procedure. For the sample analysis, the method showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD???10%). For most FAA and CAA the mean recoveries were >80% with RSD <10%. The GC-MS based method is useful for quality assurance of both FAA and CAA in cinobufacini injection. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24924921

Wu, Xu; Si, Nan; Bo, Gao; Hu, Hao; Yang, Jian; Bian, Baolin; Zhao, Hai Yu; Wang, Hongjie

2015-01-01

306

Deconstructing Desorption Electrospray Ionization: Independent Optimization of Desorption and Ionization by Spray Desorption Collection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spray desorption collection (SDC) and reflective electrospray ionization (RESI) were used to independently study the desorption and ionization processes that together comprise desorption electrospray ionization (DESI). Both processes depend on several instrumental parameters, including the nebulizing gas flow rate, applied potential, and source geometries. Each of these parameters was optimized for desorption, as represented by the results obtained by SDC, and ionization, as represented by the results obtained by RESI. The optimized conditions were then compared to the optimization results for DESI. Our results confirm that optimal conditions for desorption and ionization are different and that in some cases the optimized DESI conditions are a compromise between both sets. The respective results for DESI, RESI, and SDC for each parameter were compared across the methods to draw conclusions about the contribution of each parameter to desorption and ionization separately and then combined within DESI. Our results indicate that desorption efficiency is (1) independent of the applied potential and (2) the impact zone to inlet distance, and that (3) gas pressure settings and (4) sprayer to impact zone distances above optimal for DESI are detrimental to desorption but beneficial for ionization. In addition, possible interpretations for the observed trends are presented.

Douglass, Kevin A.; Jain, Shashank; Brandt, William R.; Venter, Andre R.

2012-11-01

307

Analytical Estimates of the Dispersion Curve in Planar Ionization Fronts  

SciTech Connect

Fingers from ionization fronts for a hydrodynamic plasma model result from a balance between impact ionization and electron diffusion in a non-attaching gas. An analytical estimation of the size of the fingers and its dependence on both the electric field and electron diffusion coefficient can be done when the diffusion is low and the electric field is strong.

Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L. [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain); Betelu, Santiago [Department of Mathematics, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311430, Denton, TX 76203-1430 (United States); Fontelos, Marco A. [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

2009-04-27

308

Fundamentals of Biomolecule Analysis by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a soft ionization technique that allows transfer of fragile biomolecules directly from solution into the gas phase. An instrumental analysis laboratory experiment is designed that would introduce the students to the ESI technique, major parameters of the ion trap mass spectrometers and some caveats in…

Weinecke, Andrea; Ryzhov, Victor

2005-01-01

309

Quantitation of cocaine and its major metabolites in human saliva using gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-MS).  

PubMed

An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of cocaine (COC) and its major metabolites, ecgonine methyl ester (EME) and benzoylecgonine (BEG), in saliva was developed. The method involves liquid-liquid extraction in Toxitubes A, derivatization with 99:1 (v/v) N,O-bis-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)/trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The detector response thus obtained is linear over the range 25-1000 ng/mL, with a reproducibility better than 93% and a recovery close to 100% for the three analytes. The limits of detection achieved were 0.9 ng/mL for EME, 2.2 ng/mL for cocaine, and 0.2 ng/mL for BEG, and the limits of quantitation were 3.0 ng/mL for EME, 7.4 ng/mL for cocaine, and 0.8 ng/mL for BEG. The proposed method was applied to 48 saliva samples from cocaine users, 96% of which were positive for the drug and/or its metabolites. Saliva is thus a suitable biological fluid for determining cocaine, EME, and BEG by GC-PCI-MS. PMID:12908939

Cámpora, P; Bermejo, A M; Tabernero, M J; Fernández, P

2003-01-01

310

Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the negative chemical ionization mode with different reagent gases.  

PubMed

Reagent gases that are used in mass spectrometry in the NCI mode for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are discussed. Ion-molecule reactions and respective characteristic ions that form while using reagent gases (CH(4), O(2), i-C(4)H(10), NH(3), H(2), He, Ar, Xe, SF(6)) or gas mixtures (CH(4)/O(2), Ar/CH(4), CH(4)/H(2)O, Ar/O(2), i-C(4)H(10)/CH(2)Cl(2)/O(2)) are reviewed. It is shown that only CH(4), O(2), CH(4)/O(2), and CH(4)/N(2)O are widely used and well studied, even though-in the case of these reagent gases-there are contradictions between the publications of various authors. Such reagent gases as NH(3) and He are not well studied, but further investigations of their use for the determination of organochlorine pollutants could be of interest. The possibilities of more sensitive and selective determination of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs are discussed. PMID:12666147

Chernetsova, Elena S; Revelsky, Alexander I; Revelsky, Igor A; Mikhasenko, Ilya A; Sobolevsky, Tim G

2002-01-01

311

Combination of TLC blotting and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of peroxidized cholesterol.  

PubMed

We have established a sensitive and convenient method for analysis of cholesterol hydroperoxides (Chol-OOHs) as trimethylsilyloxyl derivatives using diphenylpyrenylphosphine (DPPP)-thin-layer chromatography (TLC) blotting and gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry/selected-ion monitoring (GC-EI-MS/SIM). Chol-OOH standards were prepared by photosensitized oxidation and azo radical-induced peroxidation of cholesterol. Trimethylsilyloxyl derivatives of cholesterol 5alpha-hydroperoxide (Chol 5alpha-OOH), cholesterol 7alpha-hydroperoxide (Chol 7alpha-OOH), and cholesterol 7beta-hydroperoxide (Chol 7beta-OOH) could be separated from one another in the SIM chromatogram using a fragment ion with elimination of trimethylsilanol from the molecular ion. This method was used to characterize peroxidized cholesterol from azo radical-exposed human low-density lipoprotein and UVA-irradiated human keratinocytes in the presence of hematoporphyrin. Finally, we succeeded in the quantification of each Chol-OOH isomer present in hairless mouse skin with and without UVA irradiation by use of beta-sitosterol hydroperoxide as internal standard. The accumulation of Chol 5alpha-OOH with Chol 7alpha/betaOOH in the skin indicates that singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)) participated in the peroxidation of skin cholesterol, because Chol 5alpha-OOH is known to be a (1)O(2) specific cholesterol peroxidation product. We concluded that the combination of DPPP-TLC blotting and GC-EI-MS/SIM is useful for quantifying peroxidized cholesterol in biological samples and confirming the participation of (1)O(2) in oxidative stress. PMID:17701239

Minami, Yuko; Yokoi, Sayuri; Setoyama, Mari; Bando, Noriko; Takeda, Sayaka; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji

2007-11-01

312

Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in serum and urine by headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is an emerging drug of abuse. Beside relaxation and euphoria it causes hypnosis and unconsciousness. Therefore the substance is misused as recreational drug and at drug-facilitated sexual assaults. An automated and effortless method for quantitation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in serum and urine was optimized and validated. Five hundred microliters sample volume are used for both matrices. The acid catalyzed conversion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to the corresponding gamma-butyrolactone is applied. Furthermore the method is based on headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The extraction process is performed by repeated aspiration and ejection of the headspace through a steel cannula which is coated on the inside with a polydimethylsiloxane sorbent. Thus absorption of analyte molecules by the sorbent is achieved. The influence of parameters as sorbent type, incubation temperature, number of extraction strokes, injection port temperature and injection flow speed on extraction recovery was investigated. The validation revealed good accuracy with a bias less than +/-5%. Intra- and interday precision determined at 10, 50 and 150 microg/ml for each matrix were in following ranges: 1.96-3.49% (intraday, serum), 2.38-4.31% (intraday, urine), 2.33-5.13% (interday, serum) and 2.53-5.64% (interday, urine). The method provided good linearity between 2 and 200 microg/ml yielding coefficients of determination R(2) > or = 0.9985. Limit of detection were determined at 0.16 microg/ml for serum and 0.17 microg/ml for urine, respectively. This method exhibits a fast, solvent-free and widely automated extraction process. It has been applied to toxicological routine analysis and therapeutic drug monitoring successfully. PMID:19327780

Lenz, Daniel; Kröner, Lars; Rothschild, Markus A

2009-05-01

313

Soft ionization device with characterization systems and methods of manufacture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various configurations of characterization systems such as ion mobility spectrometers and mass spectrometers are disclosed that are coupled to an ionization device. The ionization device is formed of a membrane that houses electrodes therein that are located closer to one another than the mean free path of the gas being ionized. Small voltages across the electrodes generate large electric fields which act to ionize substantially all molecules passing therethrough without fracture. Methods to manufacture the mass spectrometer and ion mobility spectrometer systems are also described.

Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

314

Determination of volatile compounds in wine by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection: comparison between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 3sigma approach and Hubaux-Vos calculation of detection limits using ordinary and bivariate least squares.  

PubMed

A capillary GC-flame ionization detection (FID) method to determine volatile compounds (ethyl acetate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, methyl alcohol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol) in wine was investigated in terms of calculation of detection limits and calibration method. The main objectives were: (1) calculation of regression coefficient parameters by ordinary least-squares (OLS) and bivariate least-squares (BLS) regression models, taking into account errors in both axes; (2) estimation of linear dynamic range (LDR) according to International Conference on Harmonization recommendations; (3) performance evaluation of a method by using three different internal standards (ISs) such as acetonitrile, acetone, and 1-pentanol; (4) evaluation of LODs according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3sigma approach and the Hubaux-Vos (H-V) method; (5) application of H-V theory to a gas chromatographic analytical method and to a food matrix; and (6) accuracy assessment of the method relative to methyl alcohol content through a Unione Italiana Vini (UIV) interlaboratory proficiency test. Calibration curves calculated via BLS and OLS show similar slopes, while intercepts are closer to zero in the first case, independent of the chosen IS. The studied ISs show a substantially equivalent behavior, even though the IS closer to the analyte retention time seems to be more appropriate in terms of LDR and LOD. Results indicate an underestimation of LODs using the EPA 3sigma approach instead of the more realistic H-V method, both with OLS and BLS regression models. Methanol contents compared with UIV average values indicate recovery between 90 and 110%. PMID:22649934

Caruso, Rosario; Scordino, Monica; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

2012-01-01

315

Magnetized Silane-Coupling Agent KH-570 Based Solid-Phase Extraction Followed by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection to Determine Venlafaxine in Human Hair and Aqueous Environmental Samples.  

PubMed

In the present study, a novel adsorbent, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized by silane-coupling agent KH-570, was successfully synthesized. The prepared MNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was applied as functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of trace levels of venlafaxine using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. This method was developed and optimized for use in analysis of venlafaxine in human hair and aqueous environmental samples. The main factors influencing the extraction efficiency including pH of sample, amount of the MNPs, adsorption time, volume of sample, and desorption conditions such as volume of solvent and desorption time were studied and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 1-1,000 µg L(-1) for aqueous environmental samples with correlation coefficients (R (2)) 0.996. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.5 ?g L(-1), respectively. Good reproducibility with the relative standard deviations (n = 5) 3.21 % was obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction of venlafaxine from spiked human hair, river water, and surface water samples and the relative recoveries of 89.36, 93.43, and 94.99 % were obtained, respectively. The results indicated that Fe3O4/KH-570 MNPs have a satisfying extraction efficiency and can be served as a sensitive, inexpensive, and reliable method for analysis of antidepressant drugs such as venlafaxine in biological and aqueous environmental samples. PMID:25367213

Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Ebrahimitalab, Abdolhossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Mohammadinejad, Arash

2015-02-01

316

Graphene oxide-based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for separation and preconcentration of nicotine from biological and environmental water samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) has showed great potential to use as an adsorbent in sample preparation procedures. In this research, GO was used as an effective adsorbent in a simple GO-based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (GO-D-µ-SPE) method for isolation and preconcentration of nicotine prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The prepared GO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy techniques. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction recovery, including the amount of GO, extraction time, pH of the sample solution, salt concentration, and desorption conditions were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response was obtained in the concentration range of 5-2000 ng mL(-1) with a determination coefficient of 0.9987. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method at a signal to noise ratio of 3 was 1.5 ng mL(-1). The linearity was in the concentration range of 5-2000 ng mL(-1) with a determination coefficient of 0.9987. Intraday and inter-day precisions were obtained equal to 2.7% and 5.2%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the nicotine analysis in biological and water samples with the recoveries in the range of 88.7-109.7%. PMID:25159381

Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

2014-12-01

317

A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM`s). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests.

Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W. [and others

1997-07-01

318

Two-color laser-ionization injection.  

PubMed

A method is proposed to generate femtosecond, ultralow emittance (?10-8??m?rad), electron beams in a laser-plasma accelerator using two lasers of different colors. A long-wavelength pump pulse, with a large ponderomotive force and small peak electric field, excites a wake without fully ionizing a high-Z gas. A short-wavelength injection pulse, with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field, copropagating and delayed with respect to the pump laser, ionizes a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapping wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wake. PMID:24724654

Yu, L-L; Esarey, E; Schroeder, C B; Vay, J-L; Benedetti, C; Geddes, C G R; Chen, M; Leemans, W P

2014-03-28

319

Determination of photoionization cross-sections of different organic molecules using gas chromatography coupled to single-photon ionization (SPI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) with an electron-beam-pumped rare gas excimer light source (EBEL): influence of molecular structure and analytical implications.  

PubMed

This work describes a fast and reliable method for determination of photoionization cross-sections (PICS) by means of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to single-photon ionization mass spectrometry (SPI-MS). Photoionization efficiency (PIE) data for 69 substances was obtained at a photon energy of 9.8 ± 0.4 eV using an innovative electron-beam-pumped rare gas excimer light source (EBEL) filled with argon. The investigated analytes comprise 12 alkylbenzenes as well as 11 other substituted benzenes, 23 n-alkanes, ten polyaromatic hydrocarbons, seven aromatic heterocycles, and six polyaromatic heterocycles. Absolute PICS for each substance at 9.8 eV are calculated from the relative photoionization efficiencies of the compounds with respect to benzene, whose photoionization cross-section data is well known. Furthermore, a direct correlation between the type of benzene substituents and their absolute PICS is presented and discussed in depth. Finally, comparison of previously measured photoionization cross-sections for 20 substances shows good agreement with the data of the present work. PMID:21740643

Eschner, Markus S; Zimmermann, Ralf

2011-07-01

320

Matrix Assisted Ionization in Vacuum, a Sensitive and Widely Applicable Ionization Method for Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An astonishingly simple new method to produce gas-phase ions of small molecules as well as proteins from the solid state under cold vacuum conditions is described. This matrix assisted ionization vacuum (MAIV) mass spectrometry (MS) method produces multiply charged ions similar to those that typify electrospray ionization (ESI) and uses sample preparation methods that are nearly identical to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Unlike these established methods, MAIV does not require a laser or voltage for ionization, and unlike the recently introduced matrix assisted ionization inlet method, does not require added heat. MAIV-MS requires only introduction of a crystalline mixture of the analyte incorporated with a suitable small molecule matrix compound such as 3-nitrobenzonitrile directly to the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. Vacuum intermediate pressure MALDI sources and modified ESI sources successfully produce ions for analysis by MS with this method. As in ESI-MS, ion formation is continuous and, without a laser, little chemical background is observed. MAIV, operating from a surface offers the possibility of significantly improved sensitivity relative to atmospheric pressure ionization because ions are produced in the vacuum region of the mass spectrometer eliminating losses associated with ion transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum. Mechanistic aspects and potential applications for this new ionization method are discussed.

Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D.

2013-05-01

321

Diffuse Ionized Gas Halos Seen with HST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better characterize the morphology and to determine physical parameters of possible outflows from star-forming galactic disks we have observed four edge-on galaxies with HST/ACS in H?. Here we present first results for two of these objects, namely NGC 4364 and NGC 7090.

Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Rossa, Jörn; Dahlem, Michael; van der Marel, Roeland

322

Variable pressure ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for differentiating organic compounds based on their electron affinity. An electron capture detector cell (ECD) is operated at pressures ranging from atmospheric to less than 1 torr. Through variation of the pressure within the ECD cell, the organic compounds are induced to either capture or emit electrons. Differentiation of isomeric compounds can be obtianed when, at a given pressure, one isomer is in the emission mode and the other is in the capture mode. Output of the ECD is recorded by chromatogram. The invention also includes a method for obtaining the zero-crossing pressure of a compound, defined as the pressure at which the competing emission and capture reactions are balanced and which may be correlated to the electron affinity of a compound.

Buchanan, Michelle V. (Knoxville, TN); Wise, Marcus B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01

323

Ionized absorbers, ionized emitters, and the X-ray spectrum of active galactic nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad absorption features are common in the X-ray spectrum of low-luminosity AGNs. The features have been modeled by leaky neutral absorbers or by highly ionized gas that completely occult the continuum source. Such models are incomplete since they do not take into account all the physical processes in the gas. In particular, no previous model included the X-ray emission by

Hagai Netzer

1993-01-01

324

Theoretical determinations of ionization potentials of dopamine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adiabatic and vertical ionization potentials (IPs) of nine conformers of dopamine in the gas phase are determined using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP, B3P86, B3PW91 methods and high level ab initio HF method with 6-311++G** basis set, respectively. And the nine stable cationic states have been found in the ionization process of dopamine. Vertical ionization potentials of nine conformers of dopamine are calculated using the older outer-valence Green's function (OVGF) calculations at 6-311++G** basis set. Vibrational frequencies and infrared spectrum intensities of G1b and G1b+ at B3LYP/6-311++G** level are discussed.

Lu, J. F.; Yu, Z. Y.

2013-04-01

325

Development of an optical digital ionization chamber  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a new device for optically detecting and imaging the track of a charged particle in a gas. The electrons in the particle track are made to oscillate rapidly by the application of an external, short-duration, high-voltage, RF electric field. The excited electrons produce additional ionization and electronic excitation of the gas molecules in their immediate vicinity, leading to copious light emission (fluorescence) from the selected gas, allowing the location of the electrons along the track to be determined. Two digital cameras simultaneously scan the emitted light across two perpendicular planes outside the chamber containing gas. The information thus obtained for a given track can be used to infer relevant quantities for microdosimetry and dosimetry, e.g., energy deposited, LET, and track structure in the gas. The design of such a device now being constructed and methods of obtaining the dosimetric data from the digital output will be described. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Turner, J.E.; Hunter, S.R.; Hamm, R.N.; Wright, H.A.; Hurst, G.S.; Gibson, W.A.

1988-01-01

326

A surface ionization source  

E-print Network

The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

Buzatu, Daniel J.

2012-06-07

327

IONIZED NITROGEN AT HIGH REDSHIFT  

SciTech Connect

We present secure [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} detections in two millimeter-bright, strongly lensed objects at high redshift, APM 08279+5255 (z = 3.911) and MM 18423+5938 (z = 3.930), using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Due to its ionization energy [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} is a good tracer of the ionized gas phase in the interstellar medium. The measured fluxes are S([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (4.8 {+-} 0.8) Jy km s{sup -1} and (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Jy km s{sup -1}, respectively, yielding line luminosities of L([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (1.8 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} for APM 08279+5255 and L([N II]{sub 205{mu}m}) = (2.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} for MM 18423+5938. Our high-resolution map of the [N II]{sub 205{mu}m} and 1 mm continuum emission in MM 18423+5938 clearly resolves an Einstein ring in this source and reveals a velocity gradient in the dynamics of the ionized gas. A comparison of these maps with high-resolution EVLA CO observations enables us to perform the first spatially resolved study of the dust continuum-to-molecular gas surface brightness ({Sigma}{sub FIR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sup N}{sub CO}, which can be interpreted as the star formation law) in a high-redshift object. We find a steep relation (N = 1.4 {+-} 0.2), consistent with a starbursting environment. We measure a [N II]{sub 205{mu}m}/FIR luminosity ratio in APM 08279+5255 and MM 18423+5938 of 9.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, respectively. This is in agreement with the decrease of the [N II]{sub 205{mu}m}/FIR ratio at high FIR luminosities observed in local galaxies.

Decarli, R.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Neri, R.; Cox, P. [IRAM, 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d'Heres (France); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Carilli, C. [NRAO, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kneib, J. P. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, Observatoire d'Astronomie Marseille-Provence, BP 8, F-13376 Marseille (France); Lestrade, J. F. [Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Maiolino, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Omont, A. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UPMC and CNRS, 98bis Bld. Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Richard, J. [CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. Andre, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Riechers, D. [Astronomy Department, Caltech, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Thanjavur, K. [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, HI 96743 (United States); Weiss, A., E-mail: decarli@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

2012-06-10

328

Determination of bile acids in pig liver, pig kidney and bovine liver by gas chromatography-chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry with total ion chromatograms and extraction ion chromatograms.  

PubMed

An effective method has been developed for quantitative determination of six bile acids including lithocholic acid (LCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), hydodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), cholic acid (CA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in biological tissues including pig liver, pig kidney and bovine liver by gas chromatography-chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (GC-CI/MS/MS). Camphor-10-sulphonic acid (CSA) was proposed as effective catalyst for bile acid derivatization. Reactions were accelerated ultrasonically. The effects of different catalysts and reaction times on derivatization efficiency were evaluated and optimized. Bile acids were determined as methyl ester-trimethylsilyl ether and methyl ester-acetate derivatives. The efficiency of trimethylsilylation and acetylation was evaluated. Trimethylsilylation was done with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) as the trimethylsilyl donating reagent in a ultrasonic bath for 20 min. Acetylation was done in pyridine with acetic anhydride at 40-45°C for 4 h. The former reaction was faster than the latter. Thus, trimethylsilylation was employed for the quantitative analysis. Negligible interferences from sterols in biological matrices were observed when the biological samples were treated with solid phase extraction before GC-CI/MS/MS. The linearity, reproducibility, detection limit and recovery were evaluated under the optimized conditions. Satisfactory results were obtained when bile acid derivatives of LCA, CDCA, HDCA, and UDCA were determined with total ion chromatograms (TIC) while DCA and CA were determined with extracted ion chromatograms (EIC), respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) for six bile acids in biological tissues were ranging from 0.40 to 1.6 ng/mL and the recoveries indicated that the proposed method was feasible for the determination of trace bile acids in the biological samples studied. The experimental results for the animal tissues purchased from five different markets were compared. Interestingly, all of the six bile acids were present in pig liver while only the dihydroxy bile acids, DCA, CDCA and HDCA were found in pig kidney. In addition to DCA and CDCA, trihydroxy bile acid, CA, are the major bile acids in bovine liver. PMID:21176836

Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Zhong, Yao-Shen; Weng, Jen-Feng; Huang, Hsiu-Hua; Hsieh, Pei-Yin

2011-01-21

329

A new photoionization detector for gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new photoionization detector for gas chromatography is discribed. The source of vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) radiation is separated from the ionization chamber by a window and thus the ionization chamber may be run at atmospheric pressure using an intense source of ionizing radiation. The operation consequently is improved and considerably simplified. Except for a ten times reduction in linearity, the

N. Ostoji?; Z. Šternberg

1974-01-01

330

Miniaturization of Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of electrospray ionization (ESI) has proved an enormous breakthrough in structural biology because it provides a means for transferring large biological molecules into the gas-phase as intact charged ions. In the post-genomics era, increased attention has been focused on mass spectrometry techniques capable of providing structural information for biological molecules—especially proteins—with minimal sample consumption. Miniaturized ESI, known as

Troy D. Wood; Marie A. Moy; Anthony R. Dolan; Paul M. Bigwarfe Jr; Thomas P. White; Douglas R. Smith; Daniel J. Higbee

2003-01-01

331

Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector  

DOEpatents

A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

1987-01-01

332

Generation of Ultrahigh-Velocity Ionizing Shocks with Petawatt-Class Laser Pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrahigh-velocity shock waves (˜10000km/s or 0.03c) are generated by focusing a 350-TW laser pulse into low-density helium gas. The collisionless ultrahigh-Mach-number electrostatic shock propagates from the plasma into the surrounding gas, ionizing gas as it becomes collisional. The shock undergoes a corrugation instability due to propagation of the ionizing shock within the gas (the Dyakov-Kontorovich instability). This system may be relevant to the study of very high-Mach-number ionizing shocks in astrophysical situations.

Nilson, P. M.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Willingale, L.; Kaluza, M. C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Tatarakis, M.; Najmudin, Z.; Clarke, R. J.; Lancaster, K. L.; Karsch, S.; Schreiber, J.; Evans, R. G.; Dangor, A. E.; Krushelnick, K.

2009-12-01

333

Simulation study of the ionizing front in the critical ionization velocity phenomenon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simulation of the critical ionization velocity for a neutral gas cloud moving across the static magnetic field is presented. A low-beta plasma is studied, using a two and a half-dimensional electrostatic code linked with the Plasma and Neutral Interaction Code (Goertz and Machida, 1987). The physics of the ionizing front and the instabilities which occur there are discussed. Results are presented from four numerical runs designed so that the effects of the charge separation field can be distinguished from the wave heating.

Machida, S.; Goertz, C. K.; Lu, G.

1988-01-01

334

Oxygen ionization rates at Mars and Venus - Relative contributions of impact ionization and charge exchange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen ion production rates above the ionopauses of Venus and Mars are calculated for photoionization, charge exchange, and solar wind electron impact ionization processes. The latter two require the use of the Spreiter and Stahara (1980) gas dynamic model to estimate magnetosheath velocities, densities, and temperatures. The results indicate that impact ionization is the dominant mechanism for the production of O(+) ions at both Venus and Mars. This finding might explain both the high ion escape rates measured by Phobos 2 and the greater mass loading rate inferred for Venus from the bow shock positions.

Zhang, M. H. G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Nagy, A. F.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

1993-01-01

335

Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.

Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.

1972-01-01

336

Ionization waves in electron-beam-assisted, shielded capillary discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of propagation of cathode-directed ionization waves during the early stages of an electrical breakdown in a shielded, low-pressure capillary is developed. The discharge process occurs due to the ionization of the low-density gas in the capillary by an electron beam that is emanating from a hollow cathode. Due to the strong electric field in the capillary the electrons

I. Rutkevich; M. Mond; Y. Kaufman; P. Choi; M. Favre

2000-01-01

337

Measurement of laser-induced double step ionization of helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient evolution of the free electron density in a thin helium gas jet under intense femtosecond laser irradiation is measured with single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry. The double-step-ionization feature is observed with single shot operation. Optical field ionization is a fundamental and universal phenomenon that occurs in a wide range of media under intense femtosecond laser irradiation. Here, we measure

K. Y. Kim; I. Alexeev; H. M. Milchherg

2003-01-01

338

Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon  

E-print Network

Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope $\\alpha$-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

J. Renner; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; H. S. Matis; T. Miller; Y. Nakajima; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; D. Shuman; V. Álvarez; F. I. G. Borges; S. Cárcel; J. Castel; S. Cebrián; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; T. H. V. T. Dias; J. Díaz; R. Esteve; P. Evtoukhovitch; L. M. P. Fernandes; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; A. Gil; H. Gómez; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; D. González-Díaz; R. M. Gutiérrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; M. A. Jinete; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; J. A. M. Lopes; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzón; A. Marí; J. Martín-Albo; A. Martínez; A. Moiseenko; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muñoz Vidal; H. Natal da Luz; G. Navarro; M. Nebot-Guinot; R. Palma; J. Pérez; J. L. Pérez Aparicio; L. Ripoll; A. Rodríguez; J. Rodríguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Seguí; L. Serra; A. Simón; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; A. Tomás; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. C. Webb; J. White; N. Yahlali

2014-09-09

339

Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon  

E-print Network

Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope $\\alpha$-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

Renner, J; Goldschmidt, A; Matis, H S; Miller, T; Nakajima, Y; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; Shuman, D; Álvarez, V; Borges, F I G; Cárcel, S; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Dafni, T; Dias, T H V T; Díaz, J; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Fernandes, L M P; Ferrario, P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gil, A; Gómez, H; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Díaz, D; Gutiérrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jinete, M A; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; Lopes, J A M; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzón, G; Marí, A; Martín-Albo, J; Martínez, A; Moiseenko, A; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Muñoz; da Luz, H Natal; Navarro, G; Nebot-Guinot, M; Palma, R; Pérez, J; Aparicio, J L Pérez; Ripoll, L; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Seguí, L; Serra, L; Simón, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Tomás, A; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R C; White, J; Yahlali, N

2014-01-01

340

Relativistic runaway ionization fronts.  

PubMed

We investigate the first example of self-consistent impact ionization fronts propagating at relativistic speeds and involving interacting, high-energy electrons. These fronts, which we name relativistic runaway ionization fronts, show remarkable features such as a bulk speed within less than one percent of the speed of light and the stochastic selection of high-energy electrons for further acceleration, which leads to a power-law distribution of particle energies. A simplified model explains this selection in terms of the overrun of Coulomb-scattered electrons. Appearing as the electromagnetic interaction between electrons saturates the exponential growth of a relativistic runaway electron avalanche, relativistic runaway ionization fronts may occur in conjunction with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and thus explain recent observations of long, power-law tails in the terrestrial gamma-ray flash energy spectrum. PMID:24580462

Luque, A

2014-01-31

341

Relativistic Runaway Ionization Fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the first example of self-consistent impact ionization fronts propagating at relativistic speeds and involving interacting, high-energy electrons. These fronts, which we name relativistic runaway ionization fronts, show remarkable features such as a bulk speed within less than one percent of the speed of light and the stochastic selection of high-energy electrons for further acceleration, which leads to a power-law distribution of particle energies. A simplified model explains this selection in terms of the overrun of Coulomb-scattered electrons. Appearing as the electromagnetic interaction between electrons saturates the exponential growth of a relativistic runaway electron avalanche, relativistic runaway ionization fronts may occur in conjunction with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and thus explain recent observations of long, power-law tails in the terrestrial gamma-ray flash energy spectrum.

Luque, A.

2014-01-01

342

Electrospray ionization of volatiles in breath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work by Zenobi and colleagues [H. Chen, A. Wortmann, W. Zhang, R. Zenobi, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (2007) 580] reports that human breath charged by contact with an electrospray (ES) cloud yields many mass peaks of species such as urea, glucose, and other ions, some with molecular weights above 1000 Da. All these species are presumed to be involatile, and to originate from breath aerosols by so-called extractive electrospray ionization EESI [H. Chen, A. Venter, R.G. Cooks, Chem. Commun. (2006) 2042]. However, prior work by Fenn and colleagues [C.M. Whitehouse, F. Levin, C.K. Meng, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 34th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Denver, 1986 p. 507; S. Fuerstenau, P. Kiselev, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 47th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, 1999, Dallas, TX, 1999] and by Hill and colleagues [C. Wu, W.F. Siems, H.H. Hill Jr., Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 396] have reported the ability of electrospray drops to ionize a variety of low vapor pressure substances directly from the gas phase, without an apparent need for the vapor to be brought into the charging ES in aerosol form. The Ph.D. Thesis of Martínez-Lozano [P. Martínez-Lozano Sinués, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Thermal and Fluid Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; April 5, 2006 (in Spanish); http://hdl.handle.net/10016/655] had also previously argued that the numerous human breath species observed via a similar ES ionization approach were in fact ionized directly from the vapor. Here, we observe that passage of the breath stream through a submicron filter does not eliminate the majority of the breath vapors seen in the absence of the filter. We conclude that direct vapor charging is the leading mechanism in breath ionization by electrospray drops, though aerosol ionization may also play a role.

Martínez-Lozano, P.; de La Mora, J. Fernández

2007-08-01

343

Fossil Ionized Bubbles Around Dead Quasars During Reionization  

E-print Network

One of the most dramatic signatures of the reionization era may be the enormous ionized bubbles around luminous quasars (with radii reaching ~40 comoving Mpc), which may survive as "fossil'' ionized regions long after their source shuts off. Here we study how the inhomogeneous intergalactic medium (IGM) evolves inside such fossils. The average recombination rate declines rapidly with time, and the brief quasar episode significantly increases the mean free path inside the fossil bubbles. As a result, even a weak ionizing background generated by galaxies inside the fossil can maintain it in a relatively highly and uniformly ionized state. For example, galaxies that would ionize 20-30% of hydrogen in a random patch of the IGM can maintain 80-90% ionization inside the fossil, for a duration much longer than the average recombination time in the IGM. Quasar fossils at zfossils, at z>10 have a weaker galaxy-generated ionizing background and a higher gas density, so they can attain a swiss-cheese topology similar to the rest of the IGM, but with a smaller contrast between the ionized bubbles and the partially neutral regions separating them. Analogous HeIII-fossils should exist around the epoch of HeII/HeIII reionization at z~3, although rapid recombinations inside the HeIII-fossils will be more common. Our model of inhomogeneous recombination also applies to "double reionization'' models and shows that a non-monotonic reionization history is even more unlikely than previously thought.

Steven Furlanetto; Zoltan Haiman; S. Peng Oh

2008-03-24

344

IONIZING RADIATION OF EGGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Contamination of eggs and egg products by Salmonella is associated with a significant number of illnesses in the U.S. each year. Ionizing radiation can inactivate Salmonella on the egg surface, in the egg white, and in the yolk of shell eggs, and has been approved by the U.S. FDA at doses up to 3.0...

345

Alkali ionization detector  

DOEpatents

A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

Hrizo, John (Monroeville, PA); Bauerle, James E. (Plum Borough, PA); Witkowski, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA)

1982-01-01

346

Precombustion ionization device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precombustion ionization devices are disclosed for treating the vaporizable liquid fuel in internal combustion engines, including at least one foraminous member prepared from a catalytic metal having an oxide coating on the surface thereof. The foraminous member, or screen, is spaced from the carburetor and the engine intake of the internal combustion engine by means of a supporting gasket. The

J. B. Jr. Hicks; D. J. Hicks

1978-01-01

347

ChemTeacher: Ionization Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Ionization Energy page includes resources for teaching students about trends in ionization energy.

2011-01-01

348

Modulated voltage metastable ionization detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The output current from a metastable ionization detector (MID) is applied to a modulation voltage circuit. An adjustment is made to balance out the background current, and an output current, above background, is applied to an input of a strip chart recorder. For low level concentrations, i.e., low detected output current, the ionization potential will be at a maximum and the metastable ionization detector will operate at its most sensitive level. When the detected current from the metastable ionization detector increases above a predetermined threshold level, a voltage control circuit is activated which turns on a high voltage transistor which acts to reduce the ionization potential. The ionization potential applied to the metastable ionization detector is then varied so as to maintain the detected signal level constant. The variation in ionization potential is now related to the concentration of the constituent and a representative amplitude is applied to another input of said strip chart recorder.

Carle, G. C.; Kojiro, D. R.; Humphrey, D. E. (inventors)

1985-01-01

349

Quantitative aspects of and ionization mechanisms in positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The behavior in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of selected model polycyclic aromatic compounds, pyrene, dibenzothiophene, carbazole, and fluorenone, was studied in the solvents acetonitrile, methanol, and toluene. Relative ionization efficiency and sensitivity were highest in toluene and lowest in methanol, a mixture of molecular ions and protonated molecules was observed in most instances, and interferences between analytes were detected at higher concentrations. Such interferences were assumed to be caused by a competition among analyte molecules for a limited number of reagent ions in the plasma. The presence of both molecular ions and protonated analyte molecules can be attributed to charge-transfer from solvent radical cations and proton transfer from protonated solvent molecules, respectively. The order of ionization efficiency could be explained by incorporating the effect of solvation in the ionization reactions. Thermodynamic data, both experimental and calculated theoretically, are presented to support the proposed ionization mechanisms. The analytical implications of the results are that using acetonitrile (compared with methanol) as solvent will provide better sensitivity with fewer interferences (at low concentrations), except for analytes having high gas-phase basicities. PMID:18845448

Herrera, Lisandra Cubero; Grossert, J Stuart; Ramaley, Louis

2008-12-01

350

Nonlinear modulation of ionization waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of ionization waves (moving-striations) in the positive column of glow discharge, a nonlinear modulation of ionization waves in the region of the Pupp critical current is analyzed by means of the reductive perturbation method. The modulation of ionization waves is described by a nonlinear Schroedinger type equation. The coefficients of the equation are

Naoaki Bekki

1981-01-01

351

The Ionization Source and Distance to the Magellanic Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present multiline observations of the ionized gas along the Magellanic Stream towards 39 sight lines. Using the Wisconsin H? Mapper telescope, we detect H? emission brighter than 30-50 mR in 29/39 sight lines. This H? emission extends more than 2° off the HI emission. We further find that the ionization fraction of the Stream increases as the HI column density deceases. Based on comparisons of the [O I] and H? emission, regions with HI column densities between 1019.5 and 1020.0 cm-2 are 15 - 65%. These ionization fractions closely agree with those found in absorption-line studies, implying that there is very little ionization change on the < 1° scale. The sight lines positioned off or on the edge of HI gas of the Stream tend to have higher H? intensities than those that align with the high HI column density gas. The spectral profiles of these offset sight lines are typically kinematically displaced from the HI emission by as much as 30 km s-1. We conclude that these low H I column density sight lines are less shielded from the surrounding coronal gas and ionizing radiation field and are likely evaporating into the Galactic halo. The H? detections, from this and previous studies, towards high H I column density sight lines follow the strength of the incident photoionizing radiation field from the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), the Milky Way (MW), and the extragalactic background (EGB). This compatibility places the distance to the Magellanic Stream at 100° from the Magellanic Clouds between 50 - 75 kpc away from the Sun. This agreement suggests that the combined ionized and neutral gas mass of the Stream is ~2 × 109 M?, based on the work of Fox et al. 2014 for this distance. Additionally, this agreement implies that an ionizing photon escape fraction of ~5% for the Galactic disk, ~4% for the Large Magellanic Cloud, and ~6% for the Small Magellanic Clouds. However, if the trailing gas lies further away, then other sources must also contribute to the ionization. The ionizing contribution from these sources will decreases if the Stream is located further away with a ~50% at 100 kpc and ~15% at very large distances (> 200 kpc).

Barger, Kathleen; Madsen, Gregory J.; Fox, Andrew; Wakker, Bart P.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Nidever, David L.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Lehner, Nicolas; Hill, Alex S.

2015-01-01

352

Additivity of Detector Responses of a Portable Direct-Reading 10.2 eV Photoionization Detector and a Flame Ionization Gas Chromatograph for Atmospheres of Multicomponent Organics: Use of PID\\/FID Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H-Nu PI-101 with a photoionization detector (PID) of 10.2?eV and the Century OVA-128 equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were evaluated for the additivity of their responses to a defined mixture of dissimilar organic vapors at a 0 and 90% relative humidity (RH). The responses of both instruments were additive as long as the effect of RH was

I. N. LEE; S. S. QUE HEE; C. S. CLARK

1987-01-01

353

The ionization rate under a general magnetic field for microwave breakdown  

SciTech Connect

The ionization rate under an extra magnetic field is studied by theory and particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo Collision simulations. The result shows that a magnetic field always decreases the ionization rate if ?(3)??ionization rate if ?(3)??>??{sub m}. The effect of the magnetic field on the ionization rate fades away when the angle between the magnetic field and the electric filed approaches to zero. Furthermore, the peak ionization rate among different magnetic fields is almost independent of ?. This peak ionization rate is in direct proportion to the gas pressure in the low pressure region, while it is about in inverse proportion to the gas pressure in the high pressure region.

Wang, Huihui, E-mail: whhnjznl@163.com; Meng, Lin; Liu, Dagang; Liu, Laqun [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

2014-07-15

354

Reflection of single cycle THz pulses by ionization fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of short intense laser pulses in gas targets can generate relativistic ionization fronts via tunneling ionization of the background gas. The interface gas/plasma can act as a relativistic mirror, reflecting, up-shifting and compressing incident electromagnetic waves. The cut-off condition for reflection, in a gas target, limits the frequencies of the incoming radiation to the THz range. Recent developments in THz sources have opened the way to observe the relativistic mirror effect with single cycle pulses colliding with ionization fronts. We have performed detailed fully relativistic one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations with Osiris 2.0. Our study relies on the systematic use of the Wigner transform for the electromagnetic field, thus allowing for a complete diagnostic of the frequency modulation in the probe pulse. We demonstrate controlled tunability and strong pulse compression. Relativistic ionization fronts imprint a chirp on the reflected pulse due to the finite rise time of the front, while maintaining the bandwidth required for single cycle generation in UV range. Control of this chirp is possible by a careful choice of the gas.

Fiuza, Frederico; Dias, Joao; Fonseca, Ricardo; Mendonca, Tito; Silva, Luis; Jaroszynski, Dino

2006-10-01

355

Ionization Models of Symbiotic Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of a symbiotic system is outlined. The author presents evidence that the main ionization mechanism responsible for the symbiotic nebula is radiative and not collisional. If the ionizing radiation is due to accretion, the boundary layer between accreting star and disc provides the bulk of the ionizing photons. The possibility for distinguishing between different ionization sources are briefly discussed. C/N and O/N abundance ratios, calculated with the outlined ionization model places HM Sge, RS Oph, and T CrB among the novae and not among the symbiotic stars.

Nussbaumer, H.

356

The Escape Fraction of Ionizing Radiation from Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

Benson, Andrew; Venkatesan, Aparna; Shull, J. Michael

2013-06-01

357

THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

Benson, Andrew [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Venkatesan, Aparna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Shull, J. Michael, E-mail: abenson@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: avenkatesan@usfca.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

2013-06-10

358

Ionization-induced tautomerization in cytosine and effect of solvation.  

PubMed

The recent observation of excitation-induced tautomerization in gas-phase cytosine motivated us to investigate the possibility of facile tautomerization in ionized cytosine and the effect of solvation on the tautomerization barriers. The tautomerization mechanisms were characterized at the density functional theory (DFT)/?B97X-D and coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) levels of theory. Vertical and adiabatic ionization energies (VIEs and AIEs, respectively) of the tautomers of cytosine and the microsolvated species were calculated with the equation-of-motion ionization-potential coupled-cluster (EOM-IP-CCSD) method. We observed that, in microsolvated cytosine, the solvatochromic shifts of the VIEs can be both blue- and red-shifted depending on the tautomers. This is explained by the analysis of the charge-dipole interactions between the cytosine and water molecules. We noticed that, upon ionization, gas-phase tautomerization barriers are reduced by 0-4 kcal/mol, whereas microsolvated (with one water) tautomerization barriers are reduced by 4-5 kcal/mol. We also investigated the tautomerization process in solvation using a continuum model with one active water molecule in the quantum mechanical region. We noticed that, even though bulk solvation has a significant effect on ionization energies, its effect on the ionization-induced tautomerization barrier is minimal. PMID:24955479

Das, Tamal; Ghosh, Debashree

2014-07-17

359

PIC Simulations of Beam-Induced Ionization in Recent Plasma Lens Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the E-150 plasma lens experiment at SLAC, a 2.3 ps pulse of 30 GeV electrons has been seen to induce 7a high-density Nitrogen gas, leading to significant beam focussing [1]. Photoionization by the copropagating optical field, direct impact ionization by the 30 GeV electrons, and subsequent impact ionization by the resulting electrons are the likely mechanisms for this ionization.

David Bruhwiler; Pisin Chen; Johnny Ng; Wim Leemans; Eric Esarey; John Cary; Rodolfo Giacone; John Verboncoeur; Peter Mardahl

2000-01-01

360

X-ray secondary heating and ionization in quasar emission-line clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate Monte Carlo computations of the X-ray secondary electron heating, ionization, and excitation of H and He gas in interstellar space and in quasar emission-line clouds, are presented. The fraction of energy deposited in each form is sensitive to the background ionization fraction, x = n(H+)\\/n(Htot), and can affect the temperature, ionization state, and line emissivities at large depths in

J. M. Shull; M. E. van Steenberg

1985-01-01

361

Depression and ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

The objective of this at issue paper is the analysis of published data in correlation with the results of own research on the potential role of ionizing radiation in the genesis of depressive disorders. Depression is one of the most significant and long-term effect of the atomic bombings, nuclear testing and radiation emergences. The participants of the accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant increased prevalence of depression (18.0% and 13.1% in controls) and suicide rates. Depression is mainly observed in the structure of an organic mental disorder against cerebrovascular disease. The clinical pattern is dominated by asthenoadynamic and asthenoapathetic depression. Depressive disorders in radiation emergencies are multifactorial, that is the result of exposure to the complex psychogenic and radiological accident's factors, impact of traditional risk factors, somatic and neurological diseases, genetic predisposition, predisposition, etc. At the same time, exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor in the genesis of depression. This impact can be direct (to the Central Nervous System), and indirectly through the somatic and neurological abnormalities (multiorgan dysfunction) as well as by a variety of pathogenic mechanisms of ionizing radiation on the brain that have been discovered recently. It is strongly necessary analytical clinical and epidemiological studies with verification of depression and evidence-based establishment of the role of radiation and non-radiation risk factors. PMID:25191725

Loganovsky, K N; Vasilenko, Z L

2013-01-01

362

Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches  

DOEpatents

Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

1987-02-20

363

Capillary Atmospheric Pressure Electron Capture Ionization (cAPECI): A Highly Efficient Ionization Method for Nitroaromatic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel method for atmospheric pressure ionization of compounds with elevated electron affinity (e.g., nitroaromatic compounds) or gas phase acidity (e.g., phenols), respectively. The method is based on the generation of thermal electrons by the photo-electric effect, followed by electron capture of oxygen when air is the gas matrix yielding O2 - or of the analyte directly with nitrogen as matrix. Charge transfer or proton abstraction by O2 - leads to the ionization of the analytes. The interaction of UV-light with metals is a clean method for the generation of thermal electrons at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, only negative ions are generated and neutral radical formation is minimized, in contrast to discharge- or dopant assisted methods. Ionization takes place inside the transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer leading to comparably short transfer times of ions to the high vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. This strongly reduces ion transformation processes, resulting in mass spectra that more closely relate to the neutral analyte distribution. cAPECI is thus a soft and selective ionization method with detection limits in the pptV range. In comparison to standard ionization methods (e.g., PTR), cAPECI is superior with respect to both selectivity and achievable detection limits. cAPECI demonstrates to be a promising ionization method for applications in relevant fields as, for example, explosives detection and atmospheric chemistry.

Derpmann, Valerie; Mueller, David; Bejan, Iustinian; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Wilberscheid, Sonja; Koppmann, Ralf; Brockmann, Klaus J.; Benter, Thorsten

2014-03-01

364

Capillary atmospheric pressure electron capture ionization (cAPECI): a highly efficient ionization method for nitroaromatic compounds.  

PubMed

We report on a novel method for atmospheric pressure ionization of compounds with elevated electron affinity (e.g., nitroaromatic compounds) or gas phase acidity (e.g., phenols), respectively. The method is based on the generation of thermal electrons by the photo-electric effect, followed by electron capture of oxygen when air is the gas matrix yielding O2(-) or of the analyte directly with nitrogen as matrix. Charge transfer or proton abstraction by O2(-) leads to the ionization of the analytes. The interaction of UV-light with metals is a clean method for the generation of thermal electrons at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, only negative ions are generated and neutral radical formation is minimized, in contrast to discharge- or dopant assisted methods. Ionization takes place inside the transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer leading to comparably short transfer times of ions to the high vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. This strongly reduces ion transformation processes, resulting in mass spectra that more closely relate to the neutral analyte distribution. cAPECI is thus a soft and selective ionization method with detection limits in the pptV range. In comparison to standard ionization methods (e.g., PTR), cAPECI is superior with respect to both selectivity and achievable detection limits. cAPECI demonstrates to be a promising ionization method for applications in relevant fields as, for example, explosives detection and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:24399666

Derpmann, Valerie; Mueller, David; Bejan, Iustinian; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Wilberscheid, Sonja; Koppmann, Ralf; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

2014-03-01

365

Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-Disc Winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This was a project to exploit the unique capabilities of FUSE to monitor variations in the wind- formed spectral lines of the luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables(CV) -- RW Sex. (The original proposal contained two additional objects but these were not approved.) These observations were intended to allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we proposed to track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. We planned to use a new Monte Carlo code to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through the CV wind. The analysis therefore was intended to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time.

Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Long, Knox

2004-01-01

366

Longitudinal field strength, electron temperature, mean neutral gas density, ion flux density at the wall, and mean discharge current density in a positive column for a high degree of ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of high-current low-pressure positive columns are analyzed, with particular reference to discharges in noble gas ion lasers. The mean velocity of neutral atoms reemitted from the wall is taken into consideration. The electrical conductivity of an argon plasma is calculated as a function of the electron temperature, taking into account the momentum transfer from the electron gas to

H.-B. Valentini

1975-01-01

367

Dissociative ionization of biomolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissociative ionization (DI) by electron impact plays a role in many different applications, including low-temperature plasma processing, the study of space and astrophysical plasmas, and the study of biological damages by high-energy radiation. In the present study, our goal is to understand the health hazard to humans from exposure to radiation during an extended space flight. DI by secondary electrons can damage the DNA, either directly by causing a DNA lesion, or indirectly by producing radicals and cations that attack the DNA. The theoretical model employed makes use of the fact that electronic motion is much faster than nuclear motion, allowing DI to be treated as a two-step process. The first step is electron-impact ionization resulting in a dissociative state of the molecular ion with the same geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step the ion relaxes from the initial geometry and undergoes unimolecular dissociation. Thus the DI cross section is given by the product of the ionization cross section and the dissociation probability. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. For unimolecular dissociation, we use the multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) method to determine the minimum energy pathways to possible product channels. This model has been applied to study the DI of H_2O, NH_3, and CH_4, and the results are in good agreement with experiment. The DI from the low-lying channels of benzene has also been studied and the dissociation products are compared with photoionization measurements. The DI of the DNA bases guanine and cytosine are then discussed. Of the four DNA bases, guanine has the largest ionization cross section and cytosine has the smallest. The guanine radical cation is considered to be one of the precursors to the primary, direct-type lesions formed in DNA when it is irradiated. Comparison of DI products of guanine and cytosine will be made to understand the differences in their behavior upon irradiation.

Huo, Winifred

2004-09-01

368

Ionized Outflows from Compact Steep Spectrum Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive outflows are known to exist, in the form of extended emission-line regions (EELRs), around about one-third of powerful FR II radio sources. We investigate the origin of these EELRs by studying the emission-line regions around compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies that are younger (103-105 yr old) versions of the FR II radio galaxies. We have searched for and analyzed the emission-line regions around 11 CSS sources by taking integral field spectra using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North. We fit the [O III] ?5007 line and present the velocity maps for each detected emission-line region. We find, in most cases, that the emission-line regions have multi-component velocity structures with different velocity dispersions and/or flux distributions for each component. The velocity gradients of the emission-line gas are mostly well aligned with the radio axis, suggesting a direct causal link between the outflowing gas and the radio jets. The complex velocity structure may be a result of different driving mechanisms related to the onset of the radio jets. We also present the results from the line-ratio diagnostics we used to analyze the ionization mechanism of the extended gas, which supports the scenario where the emission-line regions are ionized by a combination of active galactic nucleus radiation and shock excitation.

Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan; Kewley, Lisa

2013-08-01

369

ADVANTAGES OF THE PULSED DISCHARGE HELIUM IONIZATION DETECTOR (PDHID) IN DETECTING SEPARATIONS OF BACTERIAL METABOLITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional gas chromatographic methods for the determination of hydrogen and methane at the ppmv level require two separations with different detectors; a Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD) for hydrogen and a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) for methane. A Pulsed Discharge Helium Ionization Detecto...

370

Effect of a finite ionization rate on the radiative heating of outer planet atmospheric entry probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of finite rate ionization in the inviscid gas just behind the stagnation shock wave on the radiation heating of probes entering the hydrogen helium atmospere of the major planets was investigated. At the present time, there is disagreement as to whether the radiative flux increases or decreases relative to its equilibrium value when finite rate ionization is considered.

H. F. Nelson

1981-01-01

371

Journal of Chromatography B, 800 (2004) 145153 Application of liquid chromatographyelectrospray ionization mass  

E-print Network

Journal of Chromatography B, 800 (2004) 145­153 Application of liquid chromatography A high-performance liquid chromatography­atmospheric pressure ionization­electrospray ionization mass by Makin et al. [1]. The most frequently exploited methods for steroid anal- ysis are gas chromatography

Miksik, Ivan

372

Soft-x-ray wavelength shift induced by ionization effects in a capillary  

E-print Network

laser pulse.6 In gas jets, ionization- induced blueshift effects have been observed and used to tune. The laser system is a 1 kHz Ti:sapphire chirped- pulse amplifier system producing 1 mJ, 30 fs pulsesSoft-x-ray wavelength shift induced by ionization effects in a capillary Christopher A. Froud

Steiner, Ullrich

373

Ionization Driven Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks and Observational Signatures of Ionization Suppression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circumstellar disks around young stars set the stage for the formation of planetary systems. The ionization fraction of the disk fundamentally regulates turbulence, which drives accretion onto the star and plays a role in the formation of planetesimals. Ionization is also central to the chemistry of the coldest disk gas, where comets and other icy bodies are assembled. During my PhD I studied the expected levels --- including possible severe suppression --- of the primary ionizing agents in disks, including cosmic rays, X-rays and the decay of short-lived radionuclides. Within this framework, I examined how each of these sources impacts turbulence-free "dead zones," and I identified submillimeter molecular emission tracers that can be used to spatially map-out ionization in disks with ALMA. I applied these theoretical results to SMA and ALMA observations of the extensively studied TW Hya protoplanetary disk, and I measured a disk-averaged upper limit to the cosmic ray ionization rate ~100 times below the canonical rate of 10-17 s-1 per H2. These results point to extensive CR deflection by either natal winds or twisted magnetic fields from the background environment or within the disk itself. One of the important implications of this work is that cold disk chemistry is inefficient without sufficient ionization, and as a direct result, deuterated water (HDO) is not significantly produced in disks. Given the elevated levels of HDO/H2O present throughout Solar System bodies, these results point to a substantial interstellar inheritance of deuterium-enriched ices during the formation of our own planetary system.

Cleeves, Lauren Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.

2015-01-01

374

Interstellar gas in the Gum Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the interstellar gas near the Gum Nebula by optical observation of 67 stars at Ca II, 42 stars at Na I, and 14 stars in the UV with the Copernicus satellite provided radial velocities and column densities for all resolved absorption components. Velocity dispersions for gas in the Gum Nebula are not significantly larger than in the general interstellar medium; the ionization structure is predominantly that of an H II region with moderately high ionization. Denser, more highly ionized clouds are concentrated toward the Gum Nebula; these clouds do not show the anomalously high ionization observed in the Vela remnant clouds.

Wallerstein, G.; Jenkins, E. B.; Silk, J.

1980-01-01

375

Ionization Instability Induced by Intense, Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionization instability in plasmas induced by intense, ultra-short laser pulses was observed. We focus 100 fs, 790 nm laser pulses into a gas jet backed with He, N2, and Ar. at an intensity of 10^18 W cm-2. From the shadowgrams of the plasmas, we can identify a set of 'fish bone' structure that has strong dependence on the gas density

Yuelin Li; Sergei Nikitin; Ilya Alxeev; Howard Milchberg; Zhigang Bian; Thomas Antonsen

1999-01-01

376

Energytransport models for charge carriers involving impact ionization in semiconductors  

E-print Network

Energy­transport models for charge carriers involving impact ionization in semiconductors Isabelle of conduction electrons and holes in a semiconductor. The charge carriers are assumed to obey a degenerate gas in semiconductors under relatively high electric fields. For example: The order of magnitude is above around 1.5 e

Schmeiser, Christian

377

Ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometry of intact diacyl phosphatidylcholine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectra have been obtained on molecular spe- cies of intact diacyl phosphatidylcholine by means of ammonia gas-induced chemical ionization. MH+ ions were observed with all species, and other prominent ions in the spectra identified the fatty acid composition. Spectra of phosphatidylcholine con- taining deuterated methyl groups and spectra obtained using ( ''Nlammonia have allowed identification of fragments con- taining

C. G. Crawford; R. D. Plattner

378

The role of the electron energy distribution in ionization waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved electron energy distribution measurements have been made in p, r, s and high-current types of ionization wave in neon discharges. The different types of wave at low current are shown to be associated with spatial resonances of the electron gas. The physical nature of the resonance mechanism accounts for the constancy of E?, characteristic of each wave type, and

S W Rayment

1974-01-01

379

Stability of an ionizing shock wave in an electromagnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of a plane shock wave, which is ionizing a gas, against small two-dimensional perturbations in the presence of a uniform electromagnetic field is analyzed. The applied electric field is assumed to be normal to the wave front while the magnetic field is parallel to the front and perpendicular to the plane in which the perturbations are propagating. The

A. A. Barmin; N. V. Golubin

1978-01-01

380

Chemical ionization mass spectrometry of trimethylsilylated carbohydrates and organic acids retained in uremic serum.  

PubMed

After appropriate sample pretreatment and derivatization, uremic serum was investigated by combined high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, using both electron impact and chemical ionization methods. Electron impact and chemical ionization spectra of a number of identified (trimethylsilylated) carbohydrates and organic acids are compared. The utilization of chemical ionization mass spectrometry, with isobutane as the reagent gas, is discussed in detail. The influence of the reagent gas pressure on the total ion current and on the spectral appearance was studied. The identification of compounds, based on electron impact mass spectral data, was confirmed and often aided appreciably by using this technique. The chemical ionization spectra of trimethylsilyated alditols and aldonic acids, as well as of other organic acids showed protonated molecular ions, whereas aldoses did not. Differences with electron impact spectra are found mainly in the high mass region. The loss of one or more trimethylsilanol groups becomes the predominating fragmentation route at higher reagent gas pressures. PMID:534687

Schoots, A C; Leclercq, P A

1979-11-01

381

Stability of a plane, ionizing shock wave in a magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that with a constant transverse magnetic field present, a plane, ionizing, gas-dynamical shock wave becomes more stable with respect to small displacements of its front from the equilibrium position.

O. A. Sinkevich

1972-01-01

382

NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION STUDIES OF HUMAN AND FOOD CHAIN CONTAMINATION WITH XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasm...

383

Ionization Structure and Spectra of Iron in Gaseous Nebulae}  

E-print Network

The emission spectra and the ionization structure of the low ionization stages of iron, Fe I--IV, in gaseous nebulae are studied. This work includes: (i) new atomic data: photoionization cross sections, total e-ion recombination rates, excitation collision strengths, and transition probabilities; (ii) detailed study of excitation mechanisms for the [Fe II], [Fe III], and [Fe IV] emission, and spectroscopic analysis of the observed IR, optical, and UV spectra; (iii) study of the physical structure and kinematics of the nebulae and their ionization fronts. Spectral analysis of the well observed Orion nebula is carried out as a test case, using extensive collisional-radiative and photoionization models. It is shown that the [Fe II] emission from the Orion nebula is predominantly excited via electron collisions in high density partially ionized zones; radiative fluorescence is relatively less effective. Further evidence for high density zones is derived from the [O I] and [Ni II] spectral lines, as well as from the kinematic measurements of ionic species in the nebula. The ionization structure of iron in Orion is modeled using the newly calculated atomic data, showing some significant differences from previous models. The new model suggests a fully ionized H II region at densities on the order of $10^3$ cm$^{-3}$, and a dynamic partially ionized H II/H I region at densities of $10^5-10^7$ \\cm3. Photoionization models also indicate that the optical [O I] and [Fe II] emission originates in high density partially ionized regions within ionization fronts. The gas phase iron abundance in Orion is estimated from observed spectra.

Manuel A. Bautista; Anil K. Pradhan

1997-10-07

384

Highly ionized collimated outflow from HE 0238-1904  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed analysis of a highly ionized, multiphased and collimated outflowing gas detected through O V, O VI, Ne VIII and Mg X absorption associated with the QSO HE 0238-1904 (zem? 0.629). Based on the similarities in the absorption-line profiles and estimated covering fractions, we find that the O VI and Ne VIII absorption trace the same phase of the absorbing gas. Simple photoionization models can reproduce the observed ?, ? and ? from a single phase whereas the low-ionization species (e.g. N III, N IV and O IV) originate from a different phase. The measured ? ratio is found to be remarkably similar (within a factor of ˜2) in several individual absorption components kinematically spread over ˜1800 km s-1. Under photoionization this requires a fine-tuning between hydrogen density (nH) and the distance of the absorbing gas from the Quasi Stellar Object (QSO). Alternatively, this can also be explained by collisional ionization in hot gas with T? 105.7 K. Long-term stability favours the absorbing gas being located outside the broad-line region. We speculate that the collimated flow of such a hot gas could possibly be triggered by the radio jet interaction.

Muzahid, S.; Srianand, R.; Savage, B. D.; Narayanan, A.; Mohan, V.; Dewangan, G. C.

2012-07-01

385

Ionizable-Substance Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device that includes all conventional components of fuel cell and electrolyzer continuously monitors concentration of ionizable substance in stream of fluid without significantly disrupting flow or chemical composition. Among substances monitored are hydrogen, sodium, fluorine, chlorine, oxygen, and bromine. Useful in early detection of fluctuations, malfunctions, or hazards. Particularly useful for detecting hydrogen in stream of water in closed system containing oxygen, wherein concentration of hydrogen must not exceed given maximum, lest hydrogen react explosively with oxygen. Also used to monitor exhaust stream to comply with environmental-protection requirements.

Mcelroy, William; Smith, William

1991-01-01

386

The Ionization History of The Intergalactic Medium:  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The funded project seeked a unified description of the ionization, physical structure, and evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and quasar intervening absorption systems. We proposed to conduct theoretical studies of the IGM and QSO absorbers in the context of current theories of galaxy formation, developing and using numerical and analytical techniques aimed at a detailed modeling of cosmological radiative transfer, gas dynamics, and thermal and ionization evolution. The ionization history of the IGM has important implications for the metagalactic UV background, intergalactic helium absorption 21-cm tomography, metal absorption systems, fluctuations in the microwave background, and the cosmic rate of structure and star formation. All the original objectives of our program have been achieved, and the results widely used and quoted by the community. Indeed, they remain relevant as the level and complexity of research in this area has increased substantially since our proposal was submitted, due to new discoveries on galaxy formation and evolution, a flood of high-quality data on the distant universe, new theoretical ideas and direct numerical simulations of structure formation in hierarchical clustering theories.

Madau, Piero

2003-01-01

387

Nanowire Impact Ionization FETs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One limiting factor in the scaling of transistor technology is the room temperature limit of 60 mV/decade of the inverse sub-threshold slope. As supply- and threshold voltages are scaled down leakage currents rise exponentially causing the standby power of highly integrated circuits to suffer. New types of devices based on band-to-band tunneling [1] or impact ionization [2] have recently been demonstrated that can circumvent the 60 mV/decade limit thereby offering lower leakage currents. We have demonstrated vertical integration [3] of a single surround-gated silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (NW FET) having an inverse sub-threshold slope as low as 6 mV/decade at room temperature that spans four orders of magnitude in current [4]. The transistor shows slopes below 60 mV/decade for supply voltages above 2 V. Due to the use of a top Schottky contact and two ungated regions the devices show ambipolar characteristics with impact ionization for both electron and hole branch. The rather small voltages reduce hot carrier injection into the gate dielectric making threshold voltage shifts and degradation of the performance minimal. [1] J. Appenzeller, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 196805 (2004). [2] K. Gopalakrishnan, et al., IEDM Tech. Dig., 289 (2002). [3] V. Schmidt et al., Small 2, 85 (2006). [4] M. T. Björk et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142110 (2007).

Bjork, Mikael

2008-03-01

388

Electron ionization of cyclohexene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute total cross section of electron ionization on cyclohexene (CHE) and the branching ratios of the product ions are measured in an electron energy range of 10–200 eV. The total cross section reaches a maximum of 1.5 × 10?15 cm2 at 80 eV. Sixteen noteworthy product ions are observed from the ionization of CHE that have partial cross sections greater than 5 × 10?18 cm2 at 50 eV: C2H3+, C3H3,5+, C4H2–7+, C5H5–7+, and C6H5,7,9,10+, where branching ratios are reported for each. The most abundant ions within the electron energy range studied are the parent ion C6H10+ and fragment ions C5H7+ and C4H6+, with combined abundance accounting more than half of the ion population. The reaction pathways forming certain fragment ions at energies near their thresholds are discussed.

Jiao, C. Q.; Adams, S. F.

2014-11-01

389

Primary and secondary droplet and charge transmission characteristics of desorption electro-flow focusing ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the investigation of droplet charging and charge transmission characteristics of an electro-flow focusing nozzle for desorption-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The electro-flow focusing geometry utilizes a concentrically flowing gas to focus a charged solvent stream through a small orifice, generating a steady liquid jet and charged droplet stream that impinges and ionizes the analyte and surface. Transmitted current measurements and a scaling analysis were incorporated to decouple analyte desorption and ionization from secondary droplet charging and to identify the regimes of operation, secondary droplet charge transport characteristics, and parameters limiting transmitted charge relevant for ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

Forbes, Thomas P.; Brewer, Tim M.; Gillen, Greg

2013-05-01

390

Additivity of detector responses of a portable direct-reading 10.2 eV photoionization detector and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for atmospheres of multicomponent organics: use of PID/FID ratios.  

PubMed

The H-Nu PI-101 with a photoionization detector (PID) of 10.2 eV and the Century OVA-128 equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were evaluated for the additivity of their responses to a defined mixture of dissimilar organic vapors at a 0 and 90% relative humidity (RH). The responses of both instruments were additive as long as the effect of RH was accounted for with the PID. The PI-101 was not as precise as the Century OVA-128 for 90% RH atmospheres. PID/FID ratios did not change in the presence of 90% RH as long as the effect of RH also was accounted for in the PID reading. PMID:3591664

Lee, I N; Que Hee, S S; Clark, C S

1987-05-01

391

Development and validation of a sensitive gas chromatography-ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometry method for the determination of tabun enantiomers in hemolysed blood and plasma of different species.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fast, sensitive and easily applicable GC-MS assay for the chiral quantification of the highly toxic organophosphorus compound tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate, GA) in hemolysed swine blood for further use in toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies. These requirements were fulfilled best by a GC-MS assay with positive chemical ionization with ammonia (GC-PCI-MS). Separation was carried out on a beta-cyclodextrin capillary column (Supelco BetaDex 225) after reversed phase (C18) solid-phase extraction. The limit of detection was 1 pg/ml for each enantiomer (approximately 500 fg on column) and the limit of quantification 5 pg/ml. The GC-PCI-MS method was applied for the quantification of tabun enantiomers in spiked swine blood after hemolysis and in spiked plasma of different species including humans. PMID:19766064

Tenberken, Oliver; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Reiter, Georg

2010-05-15

392

Additivity of detector responses of a portable direct-reading 10. 2 eV photoionization detector and a flame ionization gas chromatograph for atmospheres of multicomponent organics: use of PID/FID ratios  

SciTech Connect

The H-Nu PI-101 with a photoionization detector (PID) of 10.2 eV and Century OVA-128 equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) were evaluated for the additivity of their responses to a defined mixtures of dissimilar organic vapors at a 0 and 90% relative humidity (RH). The responses of both instruments were additive as long as the effect of RH was accounted for the PID. The PI-101 was not as precise as the Century OVA-128 for 90% RH atmospheres. PID/FID ratios did not change in the presence of 90% RH as long as the effect of RH also was accounted for in the PID reading. The compounds investigated included: toluene, benzaldehyde; 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, methyl chloroform, methylene dichloride, methyl ethyl ketone, ethanol and acetonitrile.

Lee, I.N.; Hee, S.S.Q.; Clark, C.S.

1987-05-01

393

Amplification of critical velocity ionization by associative ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of associative ionization (AI) in barium jet critical ionization velocity (CIV) experiments in space is discussed. It is suggested that AI reactions involving barium may occur in these experiments, and since the products would be indistinguishable from those generated by electron impact ionization, it is likely that the AI-generated ions may be mistaken for those generated by CIV. The electrons formed in AI and by electron impact may be energized by the ion beams, generated by both CIV and AI. The energized electrons may ionize, enhancing the CIV process. In this way, the AI-CIV double process could amplify CIV. The amplification is especially important for sustaining CIV when the CIV energy budget is tight or when the ionization rate due to CIV alone is too low to satisfy Townsend's criterion. An AI-assisted experiment in which a samarium beam could undergo AI, promoting CIV in an accompanying xenon beam, is suggested.

Lai, Shu T.; Murad, Edmond; McNeil, William J.

1992-04-01

394

Kinematics in Partially Ionized Molecular Clouds: Implications for the Transition to Coherence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous paper by Bailey & Basu shows analysis of density and mass-to-flux ratio maps for simulations with either an ionization profile which takes into account photoionization (step-like profile) or a cosmic ray only ionization profile. We extend this study to analyze the effect of these ionization profiles on velocity structures, kinematics, and synthetic spectra. Clump regions are found to occur at the convergence of two flows with a low velocity region and velocity direction transition occurring at the junction. Models with evident substructure show that core formation occurs on the periphery of these velocity valleys. Analysis of synthetic spectra reveals the presence of large non-thermal components within low-density gas, especially for models with the step-like ionization profile. All cores show small, sub-thermal relative motions compared to background gas. Large deviations within this analysis are due to the line of sight intersecting low- and high-density regions across the velocity switch transition. Positive deviations correspond to a foreground core moving away from the observer while negative deviations correspond to a background core moving toward the observer. Comparison of velocities resulting from different ionization profiles suggest that high ionization fractions yield supersonic velocities, up to two times the sound speed, while regions with low ionization fractions tend to be subsonic or mildly supersonic. This suggests that the transition to coherence within cores could be a transition between high and low ionization fractions within the gas.

Bailey, Nicole D.; Basu, Shantanu; Caselli, Paola

2015-01-01

395

Femtosecond growth dynamics of an underdense ionization front measured by spectral blueshifting  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive report of time-resolved spectral blue shifts of 100-femtosecond laser pulses caused by ionization of atmospheric density N[sub 2] and noble gases subjected to high (10[sup 14] W/cm[sup 2] - 10[sup 16] W/cm[sup 2]) light intensities is presented. Included are data for two experiments: (1) self-shifting of the ionizing laser pulses for varying peak intensities, pressures (1-5 atm.), and gas species; and (2) time-resolved blueshifts of a weak copropagating probe pulse for the same range of ionization conditions. The self-shift data reveal a universal, reproducible pattern in the shape of the blueshifted spectra: as laser intensity, gas pressure, or atomic number increase, the self-blueshifted spectra develop from a near replica of the incident pulse spectrum into a complex structure consisting of two spectral peaks. The time-resolved data reveal different temporal dependence for each of these two features. A quantitative model for a simplified cylindrical focal geometry is presented which explains the presence of the two spectral features in terms of two distinct ionization mechanisms: collisionless tunneling ionization, which dominates early in the ionizing pulse profile, and electron impact ionization, which dominates during the intense maximum of the ionizing pulse. Transient resonant enhancements may also contribute to ionization near the peak of the pulse.

Wood, W.M.; Siders, C.W.; Downer, M.C.

1993-01-01

396

Femtosecond growth dynamics of an underdense ionization front measured by spectral blueshifting  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive report of time-resolved spectral blue shifts of 100-femtosecond laser pulses caused by ionization of atmospheric density N{sub 2} and noble gases subjected to high (10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} - 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}) light intensities is presented. Included are data for two experiments: (1) self-shifting of the ionizing laser pulses for varying peak intensities, pressures (1-5 atm.), and gas species; and (2) time-resolved blueshifts of a weak copropagating probe pulse for the same range of ionization conditions. The self-shift data reveal a universal, reproducible pattern in the shape of the blueshifted spectra: as laser intensity, gas pressure, or atomic number increase, the self-blueshifted spectra develop from a near replica of the incident pulse spectrum into a complex structure consisting of two spectral peaks. The time-resolved data reveal different temporal dependence for each of these two features. A quantitative model for a simplified cylindrical focal geometry is presented which explains the presence of the two spectral features in terms of two distinct ionization mechanisms: collisionless tunneling ionization, which dominates early in the ionizing pulse profile, and electron impact ionization, which dominates during the intense maximum of the ionizing pulse. Transient resonant enhancements may also contribute to ionization near the peak of the pulse.

Wood, W.M.; Siders, C.W.; Downer, M.C.

1993-06-01

397

The effect of photo-ionization on the cooling rates of enriched, astrophysical plasmas  

E-print Network

Radiative cooling is central to a wide range of astrophysical problems. Despite its importance, cooling rates are generally computed using very restrictive assumptions, such as collisional ionization equilibrium and solar relative abundances. We simultaneously relax both assumptions and investigate the effects of photo-ionization of heavy elements by the meta-galactic UV/X-ray background and of variations in relative abundances on the cooling rates of optically thin gas in ionization equilibrium. We find that photo-ionization by the meta-galactic background radiation reduces the net cooling rates by up to an order of magnitude for gas densities and temperatures typical of the shock-heated intergalactic medium and proto-galaxies. In addition, photo-ionization changes the relative contributions of different elements to the cooling rates. We conclude that photo-ionization by the ionizing background and heavy elements both need to be taken into account in order for the cooling rates to be correct to order of magnitude. Moreover, if the rates need to be known to better than a factor of a few, then departures of the relative abundances from solar need to be taken into account. We propose a method to compute cooling rates on an element-by-element basis by interpolating pre-computed tables that take photo-ionization into account. We provide such tables for a popular model of the evolving UV/X-ray background radiation, computed using the photo-ionization package CLOUDY.

Robert P. C. Wiersma; Joop Schaye; Britton D. Smith

2008-11-04

398

Ionization Instability Induced by Intense, Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionization instability in plasmas induced by intense, ultra-short laser pulses was observed. We focus 100 fs, 790 nm laser pulses into a gas jet backed with He, N2, and Ar. at an intensity of 10^18 W cm-2. From the shadowgrams of the plasmas, we can identify a set of 'fish bone' structure that has strong dependence on the gas density and gas species. Furthermore, the structure has clear correlation with spatial structures with strong spatial modulation in the spatially resolved side-scattered spectra. The scattered energy measured from the side scattered spectra also has a strong density dependence. We attribute the phenomenon to scattering of the laser due to ionization instability. Simulation and theoretical analysis give very good qualitative agreement with the experiments.

Li, Yuelin; Nikitin, Sergei; Alxeev, Ilya; Milchberg, Howard; Nikitin, Sergei; Bian, Zhigang; Antonsen, Thomas

1999-11-01

399

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Mendez, Victor P. (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1988-01-01

400

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors  

DOEpatents

Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

1988-11-15

401

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOEpatents

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

402

An Analysis of Ionization Correction Factors in Planetary Nebulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present here some of the results derived from our recent analysis of ionization correction factors (ICFs) in planetary nebulae (PNe). We compute an extensive grid of ~15000 photoionization models using the c10.00 version of Cloudy code (Ferland et al. 1998) that cover a wide range of effective temperatures, nebular radius, luminosities, and gas densities. We use both blackbodies and Rauch atmospheres as ionizing sources, and we calculate constant and non-constant density models as well as radiation-and matter-bounded models. We derive new ICFs for PNe and their associated uncertainties. I will discuss the differences with previous ICFs used in the literature.

Delgado-Inglada, G.

2014-04-01

403

Quantum statistical mechanics of dense partially ionized hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of dense hydrogen plasmas beginning with the two component quantum grand partition function is reviewed. It is shown that ionization equilibrium and molecular dissociation equilibrium can be treated in the same manner with proper consideration of all two-body states. A quantum perturbation expansion is used to give an accurate calculation of the equation of state of the gas for any degree of dissociation and ionization. The statistical mechanical calculation of the plasma equation of state is intended for stellar interiors. The general approach is extended to the calculation of the equation of state of the outer layers of large planets.

Dewitt, H. E.; Rogers, F. J.

1972-01-01

404

A simple way to model nebulae with distributed ionizing stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This work is a follow-up of a recent article by Ercolano et al. that shows that, in some cases, the spatial dispersion of the ionizing stars in a given nebula may significantly affect its emission spectrum. The authors found that the dispersion of the ionizing stars is accompanied by a decrease in the ionization parameter, which at least partly explains the variations in the nebular spectrum. However, they did not research how other effects associated to the dispersion of the stars may contribute to those variations. Furthermore, they made use of a unique and simplified set of stellar populations. The scope of the present article is to assess whether the variation in the ionization parameter is the dominant effect in the dependence of the nebular spectrum on the distribution of its ionizing stars. We examined this possibility for various regimes of metallicity and age. We also investigated a way to model the distribution of the ionizing sources so as to bypass expensive calculations. Methods: We wrote a code able to generate random stellar populations and to compute the emission spectra of their associated nebulae through the widespread photoionization code cloudy. This code can process two kinds of spatial distributions of the stars: one where all the stars are concentrated at one point, and one where their separation is such that their Strömgren spheres do not overlap. Results: We found that, in most regimes of stellar population ages and gas metallicities, the dependence of the ionization parameter on the distribution of the stars is the dominant factor in the variation of the main nebular diagnostics with this distribution. We derived a method to mimic those effects with a single calculation that makes use of the common assumptions of a central source and a spherical nebula, in the case of constant density objects. This represents a computation time saving by a factor of at least several dozen in the case of H ii regions ionized by massive clusters.

Jamet, L.; Morisset, C.

2008-04-01

405

Ionizations scintillation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few references are made to factors which affect the energy resolution of proportional scintillation. The coupling of proportional or primary scintillation devices to photoionization detectors (PIPS chamber) is considered, both in the gas and liquid phases, and using the data available some information is given concerning its expected characteristics of energy, position and time resolution.

Policarpo, A. J. P. L.

406

Gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

showing little biodegradation 41 7 Gas chromatograms of bitumen content from biogenic gas hydrate cores showing little biodegradation. 44 8 Gas chromatograms of GB-388 bitumen content showing severe biodegradation in shallow core section and less... Hewlett-Packard (HP) 5790 gas chromatograph and a HP 3390 integrator. The 12(WH were separated isothermally at 50 C on a 3m Porpak-Q column and quantified by a flame ionization detector. Gases were standardized against a Natural Gas Reference Standard...

Cox, Henry Benjamin

2012-06-07

407

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

1989-01-01

408

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

Markey, J.K.

1989-11-14

409

Pulsed helium ionization detection system  

DOEpatents

A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

1985-04-09

410

Note: Discharging fused silica test masses with ionized nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a technique for discharging fused silica test masses in a gravitational-wave interferometer with nitrogen ionized by an electron beam. The electrons are produced from a heated filament by thermionic emission in a low-pressure region to avoid contamination and burnout. Some electrons then pass through a small aperture and ionize nitrogen in a higher-pressure region, and this ionized gas is pumped across the test mass surface, neutralizing both polarities of charge. The discharge rate varies exponentially with charge density and filament current, quadratically with filament potential, and has an optimal working pressure of ˜8 mT. Adapting the technique to larger test mass chambers is also discussed.

Ugolini, D.; Funk, Q.; Amen, T.

2011-04-01