Sample records for gas chromatography-electron ionization

  1. Qualitative confirmation procedure for ephedrines as acetonide derivatives in doping urine samples by gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Porto, Rodny Montes de Oca; Pérez, Arístides Rosado; Vidal, Margarita Teresa Correa; Fraga, Mario Granda

    2009-01-01

    Ephedrines are sympathomimetic amines which have central nervous system stimulating properties and, for this reason, some of them are forbidden in sport by the World Antidoping Agency (WADA). They are screened and quantitated in urine by several published techniques and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In this paper, a simple and easy confirmation procedure for norpseudoephedrine, norephedrine, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in human urine by GC/electron ionization (EI)-MS is described. After the addition of diphenylamine as internal standard, a liquid-liquid extraction procedure under alkaline conditions with tert-butyl methyl ether was applied to the samples. The analytes were derivatized with acetone and pyridine to form the correspondent oxazolidine derivatives (acetonide). The EI mass spectra of all the studied substances have many diagnostic ions with relative abundance in accordance with WADA requirements and show great structural information content. The fragmentation of theses derivatives is discussed. PMID:19072865

  2. Gas chromatography-electron ionization and chemical ionization mass spectrometric analysis of urinary phenmetrazine after derivatization with 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride--a new derivative.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A; Hart, A; Humphrey, P; Blackwell, W

    1998-05-01

    Phenmetrazine is a central nervous system stimulant currently used as an anorectic agent. The drug is abused and is reported to cause death from overdose. We describe a new derivatization method for phenmetrazine using 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride. Quantitation of urinary phenmetrazine can be easily achieved by using N-ethyl amphetamine as an internal standard. The electron ionization mass spectrum of 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl derivative of phenmetrazine showed a molecular ion at m/z 427 and a base peak at m/z 70. In the methane chemical ionization mass spectrum, the base peak was observed at m/z 428 (protonated molecular ion). In the electron ionization mass spectrum of 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl derivative of the internal standard, N-ethyl amphetamine we did not observe a molecular ion. However, in the chemical ionization mass spectrum, the protonated molecular ion at m/z 414 was the base peak. The retention time of derivatized phenmetrazine (8.4 min) was substantially longer than the retention time of the underivatized molecule. Moreover, underivatized phenmetrazine showed poor peak shape (substantial tailing) while derivatized phenmetrazine had excellent chromatographic properties. The within-run and between-run precisions of the assay were 2.6% and 3.1% respectively at a urinary phenmetrazine concentration of 10 micrograms/mL. The assay was linear for urinary phenmetrazine concentration of 1 to 100 micrograms/mL with a detection limit of 0.2 microgram/mL. PMID:9608702

  3. DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN RAT SERUM AND SCIATIC NERVE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTRON-CAPTURE DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modified method for the derivatization and analysis of acrylamide as 2-bromopropenamide by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was validated in serum and sciatic nerve from rats. he method was accurate and precise over the concentration range of 2240 to 74700 ppm (w/v...

  4. Determination of acrylamide in rat serum and sciatic nerve by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Raymer, J H; Sparacino, C M; Velez, G R; Padilla, S; MacPhail, R C; Crofton, K M

    1993-09-22

    A modified method for the derivatization and determination of acrylamide as 2-bromopropenamide by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection was developed and applied to serum and sciatic nerve from rats. The method was accurate and precise over the calibration range 2.24-7.47 micrograms/ml in serum diluted 1:125 and 4-122 micrograms/g in sciatic nerve homogenate (5 mg/ml). limits of detection were estimated to be 1200 ng/ml in undiluted serum and 3 micrograms/g in intact sciatic nerve. The use of less dilute samples to allow for lower limits of detection appears feasible. The time-course of acrylamide in serum and sciatic nerve was studied after acute dosing and indicated elimination half-lives of 1.8 and 2.0 h for serum and sciatic nerve, respectively. A dose-effect relationship was established for each matrix after acute dosing and the measured acrylamide concentrations in serum (microgram/ml) were approximately the same as in sciatic nerve (microgram/g). PMID:8263094

  5. Nano-high-performance liquid chromatography–electron ionization mass spectrometry approach for environmental analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achille Cappiello; Giorgio Famiglini; Filippo Mangani; Pierangela Palma; Antonella Siviero

    2003-01-01

    We describe a method, based on a new nano-HPLC gradient generator coupled to a modified direct electron ionization (EI) LC–MS interface, for the analysis of several compounds of environmental interest. The gradient generator was installed on a conventional HPLC system and the nano-flow rate was achieved using a double splitter. Reproducible gradients of different shapes (i.e. linear, convex, concave) can

  6. Quantitative detection of trace explosive vapors by programmed temperature desorption gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher R; Lubrano, Adam; Woytowitz, Morgan; Giordano, Braden C; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    The direct liquid deposition of solution standards onto sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes is used for the quantitative analysis of trace explosive vapor samples. The direct liquid deposition method yields a higher fidelity between the analysis of vapor samples and the analysis of solution standards than using separate injection methods for vapors and solutions, i.e., samples collected on vapor collection tubes and standards prepared in solution vials. Additionally, the method can account for instrumentation losses, which makes it ideal for minimizing variability and quantitative trace chemical detection. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector is an instrumentation configuration sensitive to nitro-energetics, such as TNT and RDX, due to their relatively high electron affinity. However, vapor quantitation of these compounds is difficult without viable vapor standards. Thus, we eliminate the requirement for vapor standards by combining the sensitivity of the instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition protocol to analyze trace explosive vapor samples. PMID:25145416

  7. Gas chromatography-electron capture determination of styrene-7,8-oxide enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Kezi?, S; Jakasa, I; Wenker, M A; Boogaard, P J; Monster, A C; de Wolff, F A

    2000-12-01

    The enantiomers of styrene-7,8-oxide (phenyloxirane, SO) were determined using a method based on base catalysed hydrolysis with sodium methoxide. The oxirane ring opening resulted in formation, without racemisation, of the enantiomeric pairs of the two regional isomers, 2-methoxy-1-phenylethanol and 2-methoxy-2-phenylethanol. The structure of these regional isomers was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). To improve sensitivity of determination, the formed methoxy alcohols were subsequently derivatised with pentafluoropropionic anhydride enabling electron capture detection. This derivatization proceeded also without racemisation and the formed pentafluoropropionyl derivatives were separated on two serially coupled columns, a non-chiral AT 1705 and a chiral CP Chirasil-Dex-CB. As internal standard 2S,3S-(-)-2-methyl-3-phenyloxirane was used. The limit of quantitation of the method was 0.2 microM. The repeatability of the method was assessed at two concentration levels (2.5 and 25 microM) and ranged from 6 to 9% for both enantiomers. The method was applied to the determination of the rate and enantioselectivity of the cytochrome P-450 dependent oxidation of styrene to SO enantiomers in human liver microsomes. PMID:11145063

  8. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu.

    PubMed

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Ramesh, B; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N; Babu, K Suresh

    2015-05-01

    "Triphalaguggulu" is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of "Triphalaguggulu" preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  9. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu

    PubMed Central

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P. R. Rao; Ramesh, B.; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    “Triphalaguggulu” is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of “Triphalaguggulu” preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  10. Simultaneous determination of amitraz and its metabolite residue in food animal tissues by gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huan Yu; Yanfei Tao; Tao Le; Dongmei Chen; Awais Ishsan; Yu Liu; Yulian Wang; Zonghui Yuan

    2010-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determination and confirmation of amitraz and its main metabolite, 2,4-dimethylaniline, in food animal tissues using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS). This method is based on a new extraction procedure using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). It consists of an n-hexane\\/methanol extraction step, a cleaning-up step by BakerBond octadecyl

  11. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples by membrane-assisted solvent extraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xizhi; Tang, Zigang; Sun, Aili; Zhou, Lei; Zhao, Jian; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong; Pan, Daodong

    2014-12-01

    A highly efficient and environment-friendly membrane-assisted solvent extraction system combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector was applied in the simultaneous determination of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples. Variables affecting extraction efficiency, including extraction solvent used, stirring rate, extraction time, and temperature, were optimized extensively. Under optimal extraction conditions, recoveries between 76.9% and 104.6% in seawater samples were achieved, and relative standard deviation values below 10% were obtained. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) and limit of quantification (signal-to-noise ratio=10) of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater ranged from 0.14ngL(-1) to 0.36ngL(-1) and 0.46ngL(-1) to 1.19ngL(-1), respectively. Matrix effects on extraction efficiency were evaluated by comparing with the results obtained using tap water. The extraction effect of developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction method was further demonstrated by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry which can provide structural information of the analytes for more accurate identification, and results identical to those produced by gas chromatography-electron capture detector were obtained. These findings demonstrate the applicability of the developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction determination method for coupling to gas chromatography-electron capture detector or tandem mass spectrometry for determining polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples. PMID:25310709

  12. Analysis and characterization of naphthenic acids by gas chromatography–electron impact mass spectrometry of tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne P St. John; Jagdish Rughani; Sarah A Green; Gary D McGinnis

    1998-01-01

    The renewed interest in naphthenic acid (NA) as a wood preservative has driven the need for analytical techniques to characterize commercial supplies of NA. The compositional heterogeneity of NA makes analytical characterization extremely difficult. Fluoride ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (FI-MS) has proven to be an effective technique in NA characterization. However, FI-MS is very complicated and expensive to perform.

  13. [Analysis of organochlorine pesticides and pyrethroid pesticides in vegetables by gas chromatography-electron capture detection coupled with solid-phase extraction using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Jia, Yanxia; Ding, Mingyu; Sun, Dajiang; Zhao, Mengbin

    2011-05-01

    A multi-residue analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed. The determination of 6 organochlorine pesticides and 7 pyrethroid pesticides in vegetables (including cucumber, cherry tomato, cabbage, lettuce, purple cabbage, leek, shallot and onion) was carried out by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The GC-ECD method used two columns (HP-50 and HP-1) and two ECD detectors. The HP-50 column was used for the analysis and the HP-1 column for validation. The clean-up conditions were optimized. The analytes were extracted by acetonitrile, and the extract was cleaned up by the MWCNTs SPE cartridge. The extract was re-dissolved by hexane, eluted with acetone-hexane (7:3, v/v) from the columns. The recoveries were over 70% for the 11 pesticides in the 13 pesticides. The results indicated that the MWCNTs SPE cartridge was efficient for 8 vegetable samples, because it reduced the contamination of the coloring materials to GC-ECD. The experimental results showed the MWCNTs SPE cartridge can adsorb the coloring materials and the eluant was nearly colorless. PMID:21847981

  14. Radiative feedback from ionized gas

    E-print Network

    S. C. O. Glover

    2007-03-28

    H2 formation in metal-free gas occurs via the intermediate H- or H2+ ions. Destruction of these ions by photodissociation therefore serves to suppress H2 formation. In this paper, I highlight the fact that several processes that occur in ionized primordial gas produce photons energetic enough to photodissociate H- or H2+ and outline how to compute the photodissociation rates produced by a particular distribution of ionized gas. I also show that there are circumstances of interest, such as during the growth of HII regions around the first stars, in which this previously overlooked form of radiative feedback is of considerable importance.

  15. Optimization of matrix solid phase dispersion coupled with gas chromatography electron capture detection for determination of chlorinated pesticides in soil.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Amir; Shafiei, Elham; Vosough, Maryam

    2012-11-15

    A fast, simple and efficient technique based on matrix solid phase dispersion has been presented for extraction and clean-up of some chlorinated pesticides and derivative products; ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan 1, endosulfan 2, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, endosulfan sulfate. Box-Behnken response surface methodology was employed for optimization of the extraction efficiency. As the optimized procedure, 0.5 g of dried and sieved soil samples were mixed with 2.0 g of 10% C18 in silica (w/w) as dispersant and after transferring into the extraction tube they were extracted with 8 mL of dichloromethane-n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Gas chromatography with electron capture detector was used for selective and sensitive determination of the analytes. Recoveries for the extraction of the proposed analytes were calculated and were satisfying (more than 75%), except for endrin aldehyde (59%) and endosulfan sulfate (62%). Also the method was linear over the calibration range (R(2)>0.991) and the quantitative results were reasonably reproducible and sensitive (LODs ranged between 0.3 and 1.8 ng g(-1)). PMID:23158355

  16. Analysis of corky off-flavour compounds at ultra trace level with multidimensional gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Slabizki, Petra; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    A robust method for routine quality control of corky off-flavour compounds in wine and cork soak matrices has been established. Based on an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), the method needs only marginal sample preparation and achieves low (sub-ng L(-1)) trace level detection limits (LODs) for the most relevant off-flavour compounds, such as 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole (TeCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA). Particularly for wine matrix, reliable trace level quantification had only been achieved after applying heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC). Using a halogen-sensitive electron capture detector (ECD) and quantification with a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA), LODs of 0.1ng L(-1) for TCA, TeCA and TBA could be obtained. Since a SIDA based quantification method is used with a non-mass spectrometric detector, the necessary chromatographic resolution of internal standard and target analyte peaks resulted from the use of highly deuterated [(2)H(5)]-isotopologues. PMID:23219330

  17. Analysis of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticisers in water by isotope dilution gas chromatography-electron ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Teo, Tiffany L L; McDonald, James A; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-10-01

    The widespread use of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in commercial products have led to their increased presence in the environment. In this study, a rapid and reliable analytical method was developed for the analysis of five PFRs in water using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with electron ionisation (EI) and a run time of 13min. The PFRs investigated were tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP). Solid phase extraction (SPE) was undertaken to extract and concentrate target analytes from aqueous matrices. All water samples were extracted from a volume of 500mL. Isotopically labelled compounds were used to account for analytical variability and for accurate quantification by isotope dilution. Method recoveries for all compounds were above 80% in all tested water samples. Method detection limits for all target analytes ranged from 0.3 to 24ng/L in ultrapure water, tap water, seawater, surface water, secondary effluent and swimming pool water. Validation of this method confirmed satisfactory method stability with less than 1% coefficients of variation, verifying that this approach produced good reproducibility. PMID:26078137

  18. Quantification of L-tryptophan and L-kynurenine by liquid chromatography/electron capture negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boni, R L; Simpson, J T; Naritsin, D B; Saito, K; Markey, S P

    1994-01-01

    In a number of infectious and inflammatory diseases, stimulation of the immune system can lead to increased accumulation of tryptophan metabolites via induction of kynurenine pathway enzymes in extrahepatic tissues. We developed a liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) method suitable for tracing the disposition of 13C isotopomers of L-tryptophan and L-kynurenine in various cultured cell, tissue slice, and whole animal model systems used to investigate tryptophan flux through the kynurenine pathway. The method employs extractive derivatization of the analytes and their 2H internal standards with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in order to enhance the negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) mass spectrometric response. Normal-phase liquid chromatographic separation of derivatized analytes was optimized using a silica column with organic solvents, followed by particle beam transfer and NICI-MS. Standard curves were linear over the range 1-250 ng per sample. Particle beam and mass spectrometric operating parameters were optimized with direct flow injections of 1-(methylamino) anthraquinone, which is an ideal test compound for the evaluation of LC/NICI-MS. The developed method was used to quantify the conversion of (13C6)L-tryptophan to (13C6)L-kynurenine by human monocytes (THP-1) stimulated with interferon-gamma, lung and brain tissue slices obtained from gerbils immune-stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. The effect of whole body immune stimulation on the plasma levels of endogenous L-kynurenine in mice stimulated with interferon-gamma was also quantified. PMID:8155745

  19. Ionization in nearby interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.; Fowler, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Due to dielectric recombination, neutral magnesium represents an important tracer for the warm low-density gas around the solar system. New Mg I 2852 absorption-line data from IUE are presented, including detections in a few stars within 40 pc of the sun. The absence of detectable Mg I in Alpha CMa and other stars sets limits on the combined size and electron density of the interstellar cloud which gives rise to the local interstellar wind. For a cloud radius greater than 1 pc and density of 0.1/cu cm, the local cloud has a low fractional ionization, n(e)/n(tot) less than 0.05, if magnesium is undepleted, equilibrium conditions prevail, the cloud temperature is 11,750 K, and 80 percent of the magnesium in the sightline is Mg II.

  20. Ionized gas in the Smith Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. S.; Haffner, L. M.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2012-09-01

    We present WHAM observations of H?, [N II], and [S II] in the Smith Cloud. A map of H? emission from the cloud shows ionized gas coincident with the brightest H I emission, but nearly-as-bright H? in some regions with faint H I. The ionized mass of the cloud is at least as large as the neutral mass, >106M?. Ionized gas in the core of the Smith Cloud has an electron temperature 6000 K < T < 16 000 K. The observed ratio [N II]/H? = 0.39 ± 0.09 shows that the cloud has a non-primordial nitrogen abundance, 0.1 - 1× solar.

  1. Diffuse Ionized Gas Toward Beta Canis Majoris

    E-print Network

    O. Dupin; C. Gry

    1998-06-12

    This paper presents the study of the interstellar medium toward beta CMa, a disk sight-line known for its low neutral gas density. This study uses high and medium resolution HST-GHRS spectra including lines from many species. The line of sight to beta CMa (153 pc) is dominated by two ionized regions with a velocity difference of 10 km/s. Their gas-phase abundances indicate that their depletion is low, especially for the more ionized of the two clouds. Special models of photoionization by the two EUV-excess stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa would be needed for a detailed discussion of the ionizing mechanisms of the clouds ; their ionization ratios are nevertheless roughly compatible with collisional ionization at temperatures around 20 000 K, substantially higher than the kinetic temperatures derived from the line widths. Their characteristics suggest that the clouds may be in the process of cooling down and recombining after having been shocked and ionized by some violent events, possibly related to the Local Bubble formation.

  2. Laboratory simulation of cometary neutral gas ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tsuey-Fen; Rahman, H. U.; White, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The laboratory simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with a comet is used to study the cometary neural gas ionization. The experiment is carried out in the UCR T-1 facility with an ice ball as the comet model. Photographs and data are taken with a variety of values of the solar wind velocity, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and comet configurations. The results show that the cometary neutral gas ionization depends on both the velocity of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field. The plasma cloud surrounding the comet is visible only when the solar wind velocity and IMF are both above certain minimum values. This velocity dependent phenomena is explained by Alfven's critical ionization velocity effect. The critical magnetic field may be explained by assuming two stream lower hybrid instability as a triggering mechanism for the ionization of the neutral gas by plasma flow. Critical upper and lower limits for the magnetic field, required by anomalous ionization, are also derived that satisfy the experimental observations.

  3. Validation of a headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure with gas chromatography-electron capture detection of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mee Kin Chai; Guan Huat Tan

    2009-01-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was evaluated for the determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The fibre used was coated with polydimethylsiloxane (100?m thickness) and the analytical conditions employed have been developed and optimised in a previous work [Chai, M. K., Tan, G. H., & Asha, L. (2008). Optimisation of

  4. Interlaboratory reproducibility of fast gas chromatography–electron impact–time of flight mass spectrometry (GC–EI–TOF\\/MS) based plant metabolomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. William Allwood; Alexander Erban; Sjaak de Koning; Warwick B. Dunn; Alexander Luedemann; Arjen Lommen; Lorraine Kay; Ralf Löscher; Joachim Kopka; Royston Goodacre

    2009-01-01

    The application of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to the ‘global’ analysis of metabolites in complex samples\\u000a (i.e. metabolomics) has now become routine. The generation of these data-rich profiles demands new strategies in data mining\\u000a and standardisation of experimental and reporting aspects across laboratories. As part of the META-PHOR project’s (METAbolomics\\u000a for Plants Health and OutReach: http:\\/\\/www.meta-phor.eu\\/) priorities towards robust technology

  5. Use of green coating (cork) in solid-phase microextraction for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in water by gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Dias, Adriana Neves; Simão, Vanessa; Merib, Josias; Carasek, Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    A novel method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples with extraction using cork fiber and analysis by gas chromatography with electron capture detector was developed. Also, the procedure to extract these pesticides with DVB/Car/PDMS fiber was optimized. The optimization of the variables involved in the extraction of organochlorine pesticides using the aforementioned fibers was carried out by multivariate design. The optimum extraction conditions were sample temperature 75 °C, extraction time 60 min and sodium chloride concentration 10% for the cork fiber and sample temperature 50 °C and extraction time 60 min (without salt) for the DVB/Car/PDMS fiber. The quantification limits for the two fibers varied between 1.0 and 10.0 ng L(-1). The linear correlation coefficients were >0.98 for both fibers. The method applied with the use of the cork fiber provided recovery values between 60.3 and 112.7 and RSD?25.5 (n=3). The extraction efficiency values for the cork and DVB/Car/PDMS fibers were similar. The results show that cork is a promising alternative as a coating for SPME. PMID:25618687

  6. Analysis of C(14)-C(17) Polychloro-n-alkanes in Environmental Matrixes by Accelerated Solvent Extraction-High-Resolution Gas Chromatography/Electron Capture Negative Ion High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tomy, G T; Stern, G A

    1999-11-01

    A method for quantifying medium-chain (C(14)-C(17)) polychloroalkanes (mPCAs) in environmental matrixes by accelerated solvent extraction high-resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion high-resolution mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode is presented. The formula group abundance profiles of industrial mPCA mixtures, which are used as standards, and of samples are first determined by monitoring [M - Cl](-) ions of specific m/z values corresponding to the molecular formulas present and by correcting the integrated ion signals for the fractional abundance of the specific m/z value monitored and the number of chlorine atoms in the formula group. mPCA concentrations in environmental samples are then determined by comparing the response of a specific m/z peak in the sample to that in the standard. Extraction recoveries of mPCAs from spiked fish and sodium sulfate (in place of sediment) were >79%. Method detection limits were 13 ng/g for fish and 1.4 ng/?L for sediment, while the analytical detection limit was ?200 pg, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 4:1. By this method, mPCAs were detected in biota and sediment from the mouth of the Detroit River (MI) and ranged from 70 to 900 ng/g. The simultaneous quantitation of C(10)-C(13) (sPCAs) and C(14)-C(17) PCAs, based on monitoring two specific m/z peaks, one characteristic of sPCAs and the other of mPCAs, is also demonstrated. PMID:21662834

  7. Diffuse Ionized Gas in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenawalt, Bruce Emerson

    Sensitive H? images have been obtained for nine nearby spiral galaxies typically permitting detection of DIG down to a surface brightness of 1-2 × 10-17 ergs s-1 cm -2 arcsecond-2, or 5-10 pc cm -6 in emission measure. For four of these galaxies, SII images were obtained to permit analysis of the spectral properties of the DIG on galactic scales. Both the intensity and the diffuse nature of the emission were incorporated into an automated masking technique to distinguish the DIG and HII regions in all galaxies studied. For this reason, selection effects were minimized when comparing DIG properties between galaxies. Additionally, optical spectra of DIG regions with various surface brightness levels in M31 permitted detailed analysis of the ionization state for these regions. From these spectra, H?, H?, H?, H?, NII (?6583), SII (?6717 + ?6731), OIII (?5007), and OII (?3727) line intensities were measured and provided a test to typical ionization models. Diffuse ionized gas is present in all galaxies observed, occurring as smooth, diffuse emission in distant galaxies, but resolving into clumps and filaments in nearby galaxies. It is responsible for roughly 35%-50% of the total H? emission from each galaxy. The SII (?6717 + ?6731)/H? ratio observed in DIG is elevated compared to values in HII regions. Typical values for DIG are 0.40-0.60, while HII region values are 0.20- 0.25. The line ratio increases steadily from values around 0.2 to values of 0.7 as the surface brightness decreases from the brightest HII regions to the faintest DIG. This smooth decrease is a natural consequence of photo-ionization models with increasingly more dilute radiation fields ionizing the fainter regions. In M31, spectroscopic observations suggested that photoionization models in which dilute radiation fields are responsible for the ionization of DIG were the most successful at reproducing the observed optical line ratios.

  8. Highly ionized atoms in cooling gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, R. J.; Chevalier, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The ionization of low density gas cooling from a high temperature was calculated. The evolution during the cooling is assumed to be isochoric, isobaric, or a combination of these cases. The calculations are used to predict the column densities and ultraviolet line luminosities of highly ionized atoms in cooling gas. In a model for cooling of a hot galactic corona, it is shown that the observed value of N(N V) can be produced in the cooling gas, while the predicted value of N(Si IV) falls short of the observed value by a factor of about 5. The same model predicts fluxes of ultraviolet emission lines that are a factor of 10 lower than the claimed detections of Feldman, Brune, and Henry. Predictions are made for ultraviolet lines in cooling flows in early-type galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It is shown that the column densities of interest vary over a fairly narrow range, while the emission line luminosities are simply proportional to the mass inflow rate.

  9. IONIZED GAS IN THE SMITH CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Alex S.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Reynolds, Ronald J., E-mail: hill@astro.wisc.ed, E-mail: haffner@astro.wisc.ed, E-mail: reynolds@astro.wisc.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    We present Wisconsin Halpha Mapper observations of ionized gas in the Smith Cloud, a high-velocity cloud which Lockman et al. have recently suggested is interacting with the Galactic disk. Our Halpha map shows the brightest Halpha emission, 0.43 +- 0.04 R, coincident with the brightest H I, while slightly fainter Halpha emission (0.25 +- 0.02 R) is observed in a region with H I intensities <0.1 times as bright as the brightest H I. We derive an ionized mass of approx>3 x 10{sup 6} M {sub sun}, comparable to the H I mass, with the H{sup +} mass spread over a considerably larger area than that of H I. An estimated Galactic extinction correction could adjust these values upward by 40%. Halpha and [S II] line widths toward the region of brightest emission constrain the electron temperature of the gas to be between 8000 K and 23,000 K. A detection of [N II] lambda6583 in the same direction with a line ratio [N II]/Halpha = 0.32 +- 0.05 constrains the metallicity of the cloud: for typical photoionization temperatures of 8000-12,000 K, the nitrogen abundance is 0.15-0.44 times solar. These results lend further support to the claim that the Smith Cloud is new material accreting onto the Galaxy.

  10. The Diffuse Ionized Gas in the large telescopes era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.

    2005-12-01

    In this workshop we summarize the ``state of the art'' of the Diffuse Ionized Gas. We present all the possible situations which can produce ionization outside an H II region, as well as some of the observations that can be performed with the GTC instrumentation and how relevant they can be in the undestanding of the ionization mechanisms of the DIG.

  11. The Ionization of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halo of NGC 891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Richard; Benjamin, Robert; Wood, Kenneth

    2005-06-01

    The ionization of Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) layers in galaxies remains a critical but unsolved problem for our understanding of galaxy energetics. Work using optical emission lines has indicated that photo-ionization by massive stars in the disk dominates the energy input, but no pure photo-ionization model can reproduce all the observed line ratios, leading to the possibility that non-ionizing heat sources and/or secondary ionization sources may be important for the energetics. However, the optical diagnostics present three main problems: sensitivity to extinction, gas temperature, and (for some crucial lines) weak emission. The MIR diagnostic ratio [Ne III]/[Ne II] provides a measurable, extinction-free diagnostic of the hardness of the ionizing spectrum with little temperature sensitivity. Thus this ratio will provide an excellent test of whether photo-ionization alone can maintain the DIG, or whether a second source of ionization is required. We therefore propose to use the SH module on the Spitzer IRS to observe two fields in the lower halo (z=1 kpc) and one field in the disk of the well studied edge-on NGC 891 to determine how this ratio changes with distance from the thin disk of ionizing sources. We will compare our results with predictions from our own 2-d and 3-d simulations of the ionization structure, where such inputs as the ionizing spectrum, spectral hardening by propagation through intervening gas, and additional heat sources can be modeled.

  12. Kinematics of Diffuse Ionized Gas Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, R. J.

    2005-06-01

    Existing long-slit spectral data for edge-on spiral galaxies suggesting that their Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) halos rotate slower than their underlying disks are summarized. An attempt to characterize lagging halos using a model of purely ballistic disk-halo flow is discussed, with the result that the model fails badly for the lagging halo of NGC 891, but is somewhat more successful for NGC 5775. New two-dimensional kinematic data on the DIG halo of NGC 4302 are presented, along with a preliminary analysis of its rotation. Two-dimensional data on NGC 5775 and a preliminary analysis of its halo rotation is discussed by Heald et al. (this volume). The halo of NGC 4302 shows clear signs of lagging on its approaching side, but also strong indications of peculiar kinematics. The kinematics of the receding side are more complex.

  13. Kinematics of Diffuse Ionized Gas Halos

    E-print Network

    R. J. Rand

    2004-09-22

    Existing long-slit spectral data for edge-on spiral galaxies suggesting that their Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) halos rotate slower than their underlying disks are summarized. An attempt to characterize lagging halos using a model of purely ballistic disk-halo flow is discussed, with the result that the model fails badly for the lagging halo of NGC 891, but is somewhat more successful for NGC 5775. New two-dimensional kinematic data on the DIG halo of NGC 4302 are presented, along with a preliminary analysis of its rotation. Two-dimensional data on NGC 5775 and a preliminary analysis of its halo rotation is discussed by Heald et al. (this volume). The halo of NGC 4302 shows clear signs of lagging on its approaching side, but also strong indications of peculiar kinematics. The kinematics of the receding side are more complex.

  14. Origins of highly ionized gas in high-velocity clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Fox

    2005-01-01

    I present a study of highly ionized gas in high-velocity clouds (HVCs) along many sight lines through the Galaxy, using Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Hubble Space Telescope observations. In the first and second chapters I discuss the origin of the highly ionized gas in HVCs with and without neutral hydrogen 21 cm emission, showing that multiple gaseous phases exist in

  15. Gas chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for determination of impurities in the anti-cancer drug isophosphoramide mustard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Richard B.; Chou, Chau-Wen; Boué, Stephen M.; Leblanc, Blaise W.; Rodgers, Andrew H.; Struck, Robert F.; Morgan, Lee Roy

    2004-02-01

    Isophosphoramide mustard (IPM) is known to have substantial anti-cancer activities in various animal models. Liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS) and LC-ES-MS/MS methodologies have been developed and applied to the analysis of synthesized preparations of IPM. Our studies reveal that the principal impurity in IPM is N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-ethylphosphorodiamidic acid (MC-IPM) formed by dehydrochlorination of IPM with subsequent hydrogenation during synthesis. This impurity is present at levels in the range of 2-5% depending upon synthesis conditions. In addition, a second IPM derivative has been characterized by LC-ES-MS/MS and has been shown to be the product of a reaction of IPM with the dilute perchloric acid mobile phase used for liquid chromatography separations. The LC-ES-MS/MS method has been successfully employed to detect IPM spiked into a blood plasma sample. This work establishes that LC-ES-MS/MS is a viable tool for the detailed characterization of IPM and related products.

  16. Pre-ionizing trigger system for a gas laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Marchetti; E. Penco; U. Perito

    1984-01-01

    A pair of excitation electrodes in a laser cavity, filled with a gas mixture at substantially atmospheric pressure, are connected across a pumping capacitor by way of part of the winding of an autotransformer in series with a pre-ionizing device within the cavity acting as a trigger switch. The pre-ionizing device comprises a dielectric tube carrying a plurality of axially

  17. The Propagation of Photons in the Dilute Ionized Gas

    E-print Network

    Yijia Zheng

    2013-05-02

    The dilute ionized gas is very popular in the Universe. Usually only the Compton interactions, the "Sunyaev-Zel'dovich" effect, were considered while photons propagated in this medium. In this paper the "soft-photon process" is considered. Due to the soft photons emitted during the propagation of a photon in the dilute ionized gas, the main photon (propagating in the original direction) will be redshifted. The formula to calculate this redshift is derived.

  18. Laser induced avalanche ionization in gases or gas mixtures with resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization or femtosecond laser pulse pre-ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Miles, Richard B. [Applied Physics Group, MAE Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The paper discusses the requirements for avalanche ionization in gas or gas mixtures initiated by REMPI or femtosecond-laser pre-ionization. Numerical examples of dependencies on partial composition for Ar:Xe gas mixture with REMPI of argon and subsequent classic avalanche ionization of Xe are presented.

  19. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Richard J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals.

  20. Experimental investigation of the critical ionization velocity in gas mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Axnas

    1978-01-01

    Results are summarized for systematic experiments performed to determine the critical ionization velocity (E\\/B) for gas mixtures as a function of mixing ratio for several different binary gas mixtures. In the experiments a coaxial plasma gun with an azimuthal magnetic field and a radial discharge current was used to measure E\\/B for gas-mixture discharge as a function of neutral gas

  1. Diffuse ionized gas in the ? CMa tunnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Dupin; Cécile Gry

    We present HST observations of the interstellar medium toward the star ? CMa known to be located in a low density extension of the Local Bubble. Most of the matter in the sight-line is ionized and\\u000a clumped in two main components. One of them, as well as one of the components detected toward ? CMa, is mostly ionized and\\u000a only

  2. Origins of highly ionized gas in high-velocity clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Andrew J.

    I present a study of highly ionized gas in high-velocity clouds (HVCs) along many sight lines through the Galaxy, using Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Hubble Space Telescope observations. In the first and second chapters I discuss the origin of the highly ionized gas in HVCs with and without neutral hydrogen 21 cm emission, showing that multiple gaseous phases exist in both cases. A new model of the Galactic ionizing radiation field is presented, together with a discussion of its effect on the ionization of HVCs. In the third chapter I present a survey of all highly ionized O VI HVCs seen with FUSE , finding that counterparts in C III and H I appear in approximately 80% of cases. Conductive interfaces provide a good explanation for most high- velocity O VI absorbers; these interfaces represent the collisionally ionized boundary layers between warm, photoionized clouds and a hot, exterior medium. This hot medium is likely an extended, million-degree Galactic corona that can provide thermal pressure equilibrium to the high-velocity clouds. The high- velocity O VI absorbers known as positive-velocity wings may have an alternative origin, in a cooling, vertical Galactic outflow, as we show using ballistic modelling. Such an outflow would have to be patchy and out of collisional ionization equilibrium to explain the observations.

  3. Ionized Gas in the Galactic Center: New Observations and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Wesley T.; Lacy, John H.; Richter, Matthew J.

    2012-08-01

    We present new observations of the [Ne II] emission from the ionized gas in Sgr A West with improved resolution and sensitivity. About half of the emission comes from gas with kinematics indicating it is orbiting in a plane tipped about 25° from the Galactic plane. This plane is consistent with that derived previously for the circumnuclear molecular disk and the northern arm and western arc ionized features. However, unlike most previous studies, we conclude that the ionized gas is not moving along the ionized features, but on more nearly circular paths. The observed speeds are close to, but probably somewhat less than expected for orbital motions in the potential of the central black hole and stars and have a small inward component. The spatial distribution of the emission is well fitted by a spiral pattern. We discuss possible physical explanations for the spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized gas, and conclude that both may be best explained by a one-armed spiral density wave, which also accounts for both the observed low velocities and the inward velocity component. We suggest that a density wave may result from the precession of elliptical orbits in the potential of the black hole and stellar mass distribution.

  4. The kinematics of the diffuse ionized gas in NGC 4666

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigtländer, P.; Kamphuis, P.; Marcelin, M.; Bomans, D. J.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The global properties of the interstellar medium with processes such as infall and outflow of gas and a large scale circulation of matter and its consequences for star formation and chemical enrichment are important for the understanding of galaxy evolution. Aims: In this paper we studied the kinematics and morphology of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the disk and in the halo of the star forming spiral galaxy NGC 4666 to derive information about its kinematical properties. Especially, we searched for infalling and outflowing ionized gas. Methods: We determined surface brightness, radial velocity, and velocity dispersion of the warm ionized gas via high spectral resolution (R ? 9000) Fabry-Pérot interferometry. This allows the determination of the global velocity field and the detection of local deviations from this velocity field. We calculated models of the DIG distribution and its kinematics for comparison with the measured data. In this way we determined fundamental parameters such as the inclination and the scale height of NGC 4666, and established the need for an additional gas component to fit our observed data. Results: We found individual areas, especially along the minor axis, with gas components reaching into the halo which we interpret as an outflowing component of the DIG. As the main result of our study, we were able to determine that the vertical structure of the DIG distribution in NGC 4666 is best modeled with two components of ionized gas, a thick and a thin disk with 0.8 kpc and 0.2 kpc scale height, respectively. Therefore, the enhanced star formation in NGC 4666 drives an outflow and also maintains a thick ionized gas layer reminiscent of the Reynold's layer in the Milky Way.

  5. Similarity of ionized gas nebulae around unobscured and obscured quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-08-01

    Quasar feedback is suspected to play a key role in the evolution of massive galaxies, by removing or reheating gas in quasar host galaxies and thus limiting the amount of star formation. In this paper, we continue our investigation of quasar-driven winds on galaxy-wide scales. We conduct Gemini Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of a sample of luminous unobscured (type 1) quasars, to determine the morphology and kinematics of ionized gas around these objects, predominantly via observations of the [O III] ?5007 Å emission line. We find that ionized gas nebulae extend out to ˜13 kpc from the quasar, that they are smooth and round, and that their kinematics are inconsistent with gas in dynamical equilibrium with the host galaxy. The observed morphological and kinematic properties are strikingly similar to those of ionized gas around obscured (type 2) quasars with matched [O III] luminosity, with marginal evidence that nebulae around unobscured quasars are slightly more compact. Therefore, in samples of obscured and unobscured quasars carefully matched in [O III] luminosity, we find support for the standard geometry-based unification model of active galactic nuclei, in that the intrinsic properties of the quasars, of their hosts and of their ionized gas appear to be very similar. Given the apparent ubiquity of extended ionized regions, we are forced to conclude that either the quasar is at least partially illuminating pre-existing gas or that both samples of quasars are seen during advanced stages of quasar feedback. In the latter case, we may be biased by our [O III]-based selection against quasars in the early `blow-out' phase, for example due to dust obscuration.

  6. Weak turbulence theory of enhanced gas ionization by plasma flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Galeev

    1981-01-01

    A quasilinear theory of collisionless energy transfer from a counterstreaming plasma-gas flow to electrons is presented. The critical ionization velocity was reexamined. It is recognized that this phenomenon requires enhanced heating of electrons, via some hypothetical collisionless interaction between plasma species, that can be studied by a well developed weak plasma turbulence theory. Since a plasma cannot interact collisionlessly with

  7. Electron and Ion Runaway in a Fully Ionized Gas. I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dreicer

    1959-01-01

    Hydrodynamic equations are used to describe the flow of the electrons and ions of a fully ionized gas under the action of an electric field, E, of arbitrary magnitude. The dynamical friction force exerted by the electrons and ions upon each other through the agency of two-body Coulomb encounters is evaluated. In this connection the electrons and ions have been

  8. Numerical Methods for Weakly Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquel, F.; Marmignon, C.

    1998-10-01

    This paper is devoted to the numerical approximation of the discontinuous solutions of the Euler equations for weakly ionized mixtures of reacting gases. The main difficulty stems from the non conservative formulation of these equations due to a widely used physical assumption. We show how to derive a well-posed conservative reformulation of the equations from the analysis of the associated full convective-diffusive system. We then propose an exact Roe-type linearization for the equivalent system of conservation laws on the basis of an original Lemma for averagings. Our results can be seen as an extension of the classical Roe average, for nonlinearities that cannot be recast under quadratic form.

  9. The ionization sources of the diffuse ionized gas in nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voges, Erica Susan

    Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) has been shown to be an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM), with its large filling factor (>= 20%) and a mass that makes it the most massive component of the Galactic ionized ISM. Given that it has been found to be ubiquitous in both the Galaxy and external disk galaxies, the energy source to create and maintain the DIG must necessarily be large. Massive OB stars are the only known sources with enough energy to power the DIG, and DIG is also linked morphologically to OB stars as it is brightest near bright star forming regions. However, the details of the location and spectral types of the ionizing stars, as well as the relevance of other ionizing mechanisms, are still not clear. I present the results of three different studies aimed at exploring the ionization sources of the DIG. Optical spectroscopy of DIG in M33 and NGC 891 using the Gemini-North telescope has been obtained to compare diagnostic emission line ratios with photoionization models. The first detection of (O I] l6300 was made in the DIG of M33. In M33, models in which ionizing photons leaking from H II regions are responsible for the ionization of the DIG best fit our observed line ratios. In NGC 891, we found evidence that shock ionization may need to be included along with photoionization in order to explain our observed emission line ratios. The diffuse Ha fraction in eight nearby galaxies was studied as a function of radius and star formation rate per unit area. We found no correlation with radius, but we did find that regions with higher star formation rates have lower diffuse fractions. Neither of these results had any dependence on galaxy type. These results have implications regarding the circumstances under which H II regions may be leaking ionizing photons and thus ionizing DIG. We also compared observed and predicted ionizing photon emission rates for 39 H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our results indicate that five of the H II regions are reliably density bounded, with the remaining regions consistent with being either radiation or density bounded. All three of these studies suggest that OB stars, both in H II regions and in the field, play a major role in creating and maintaining the DIG, and that other mechanisms, such as shocks, may also contribute to the ionization of the DIG.

  10. Diffuse ionized gas toward Canis Majoris?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Dupin; Cecile Gry

    This paper presents the study of the interstellar medium toward CMa, a disk sight-line known for its low neu- tral gas density. This study uses high and medium resolution HST-GHRS spectra including lines from the following species: Hi ,D i ,N i ,O i ,S ii ,S iii ,S iii ,S iiii ,S iiv ,A lii ,A liii ,F eii,

  11. Diffuse ionized gas toward beta Canis Majoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Dupin; Cecile Gry

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the study of the interstellar medium toward beta CMa, a disk sight-line known for its low neutral gas density. This study uses high and medium resolution HST-GHRS spectra including lines from the following species: H i, D i, N i, O i, S ii, S iii, Si ii, Si iii, Si iv, Al ii, Al iii, Fe

  12. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, R.J.; Kulkarni, S.R.; Hester, J.J. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA) Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals. 19 refs.

  13. Viscosity Coefficient Curve Fits for Ionized Gas Species Grant Palmer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viscosity coefficient curve fits for neutral gas species are available from many sources. Many do a good job of reproducing experimental and computational chemistry data. The curve fits are usually expressed as a function of temperature only. This is consistent with the governing equations used to derive an expression for the neutral species viscosity coefficient. Ionized species pose a more complicated problem. They are subject to electrostatic as well as intermolecular forces. The electrostatic forces are affected by a shielding phenomenon where electrons shield the electrostatic forces of positively charged ions beyond a certain distance. The viscosity coefficient for an ionized gas species is a function of both temperature and local electron number density. Currently available curve fits for ionized gas species, such as those presented by Gupta/Yos, are a function of temperature only. What they did was to assume an electron number density. The problem is that the electron number density they assumed was unrealistically high. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, the proper expression for determining the viscosity coefficient of an ionized species as a function of both temperature and electron number density will be presented. Then curve fit coefficients will be developed using the more realistic assumption of an equilibrium electron number density. The results will be compared against previous curve fits and against highly accurate computational chemistry data.

  14. Plasma wakefield acceleration in self-ionized gas or plasmas.

    PubMed

    Deng, S; Barnes, C D; Clayton, C E; O'Connell, C; Decker, F J; Erdem, O; Fonseca, R A; Huang, C; Hogan, M J; Iverson, R; Johnson, D K; Joshi, C; Katsouleas, T; Krejcik, P; Lu, W; Marsh, K A; Mori, W B; Muggli, P; Tsung, F

    2003-10-01

    Tunnel ionizing neutral gas with the self-field of a charged particle beam is explored as a possible way of creating plasma sources for a plasma wakefield accelerator [Bruhwiler et al., Phys. Plasmas (to be published)]. The optimal gas density for maximizing the plasma wakefield without preionized plasma is studied using the PIC simulation code OSIRIS [R. Hemker et al., in Proceeding of the Fifth IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference (IEEE, 1999), pp. 3672-3674]. To obtain wakefields comparable to the optimal preionized case, the gas density needs to be seven times higher than the plasma density in a typical preionized case. A physical explanation is given. PMID:14683089

  15. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed.

  16. Surface Ionization Gas Detection on Platinum and Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hackner; A. Habauzit; G. Muller; E. Comini; G. Faglia; G. Sberveglieri

    2009-01-01

    Surface ionization (SI) gas detection experiments have been performed on platinum (Pt) and metal oxide (MOX) films. The probability of surface ion emission varies with temperature in an Arrhenius-type manner. Among all hydrocarbons studied so far those with amine functional groups exhibited the lowest activation energies allowing detection in the ppm concentration range at emitter operation temperatures of about 400degC.

  17. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

  18. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  19. Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L. [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Aerodynamic effects in ionized gases, often neglected phenomena, have been subject of a renewed interest in recent years. After a brief historical account, we discuss a selected number of effects and unresolved problems that appear to be relevant in both aeronautic and propulsion applications in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow. Interaction between acoustic shock waves and weakly ionized gas is manifested either as plasma-induced shock wave dispersion and acceleration or as shock-wave induced double electric layer in the plasma, followed by the localized increase of the average electron energy and density, as well as enhancement of optical emission. We describe the phenomenology of these effects and discuss several experiments that still do not have an adequate interpretation. Critical for application of aerodynamic effects is the energy deposition into the flow. We classify and discuss some proposed wall-free generation schemes with respect to the efficiency of energy deposition and overall generation of the aerodynamic body force.

  20. Residual-gas-ionization beam profile monitors in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, R.; Fite, J.; Jao, S.; Trabocchi, C.

    2010-05-02

    Four ionization profile monitors (IPMs) are in RHIC to measure vertical and horizontal beam profiles in the two rings. These work by measuring the distribution of electrons produced by beam ionization of residual gas. During the last two years both the collection accuracy and signal/noise ratio have been improved. An electron source is mounted across the beam pipe from the collector to monitor microchannel plate (MCP) aging and the signal electrons are gated to reduce MCP aging and to allow charge replenishment between single-turn measurements. Software changes permit simultaneous measurements of any number of individual bunches in the ring. This has been used to measure emittance growth rates on six bunches of varying intensities in a single store. Also the software supports FFT analysis of turn-by-turn profiles of a single bunch at injection to detect dipole and quadrupole oscillations.

  1. Two-step laser ionization schemes for in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Yu., E-mail: yuri.kudryavtsev@fys.kuleuven.be; Ferrer, R.; Huyse, M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)] [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy technique has been developed at the Leuven isotope separator on-line facility for the production and in-source laser spectroscopy studies of short-lived radioactive isotopes. In this article, results from a study to identify efficient optical schemes for the two-step resonance laser ionization of 18 elements are presented.

  2. CNT-based MEMS/NEMS gas ionizers for portable mass spectrometry applications

    E-print Network

    Velasquez-Heller, Luis Fernand

    We report the fabrication and experimental characterization of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based MEMS/NEMS electron impact gas ionizer with an integrated extractor gate for portable mass spectrometry. The ionizer achieves ...

  3. Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Disk of Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Alexander; Howley, K.; Guhathakurta, P.; Dorman, C.; SPLASH Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the flattened rotating diffuse ionized gas (DIG) disk of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). For this we use spectra from 25 multislit masks obtained by the SPLASH collaboration using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck-II 10-meter telescope. Each mask contains 200 slits covering the region around M32 (S of the center of M31), the major axis of M31, and the SE minor axis. DIG emission was serendipitously detected in the background sky of these slits. By creating a normalized "sky spectrum” to remove various other sources of emission (such as night sky lines) in the background of these slits, we have examined the rotation of the DIG disk using individual line-of-sight velocity measurements of H?, [NII] and [SII] emission. his emission is probably the result of newly formed stars ionizing the gas in the disk. The measured IG rotation will be compared to the rotation of M31's stellar disk and HI gas disk, as well as models of an infinitely thin rotating disk, to better understand the relationship between the components of the galactic disk and its differential rotation. We wish to acknowledge the NSF for funding on this project.

  4. What controls the ionized gas turbulent motions in dwarf galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexei V.; Tikhonov, Anton V.; Klypin, Anatoly

    2015-06-01

    Using three-dimensional (3D) spectroscopy with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer, we study the kinematics of ionized gas in 59 nearby dwarf galaxies. Combining our results with data from the literature, we provide a global relation between the gas velocity dispersion ? and the star formation rate (SFR) and H? luminosity for galaxies with a very broad range of star formation rates: SFR = 0.001-300 M? yr-1. We find that the SFR-? relation for the combined sample of dwarf galaxies, star-forming, local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies can be fitted in the form ? ? SFR5.3 ± 0.2. This implies that the slope of the L-? relation inferred from a sample of rotation-supported disc galaxies (including mergers) is similar to the L-? relation of individual giant H II regions. We present arguments that the velocity dispersion of the ionized gas does not reflect virial motions in the gravitational potential of dwarf galaxies and instead is determined mainly by the energy injected into the interstellar medium by ongoing star formation.

  5. Ionized gas rotation curves in nearby dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of study of the ionized gas velocity fields in 28 nearby (systemic velocity below 1000 km s-1) dwarf galaxies. The observations were made at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer in the H ? emission line. We were able to measure regular circular rotation parameters in 25 galaxies. As a rule, rotation velocities measured in HII are in a good agreement with the data on the HI kinematics at the same radii. Three galaxies reveal position angles of the kinematic axis in the HII velocity fields that strongly (tens of degrees) differ from the measurements in neutral hydrogen at large distances from the center or from the orientation of the major axis of optical isophotes. The planes of the gaseous and stellar disks in these galaxies most likely do not coincide. Namely, in DDO99 the gaseous disk is warped beyond the optical radius, and in UGC3672 and UGC8508 the inclination of orbits of gas clouds varies in the inner regions of galaxies. It is possible that the entire ionized gas in UGC8508 rotates in the plane polar to the stellar disk.

  6. Diffuse Ionized Gas in the Dwarf Galaxy DDO 53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.

    We study the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the M81 group dwarf irregular galaxy DDO 53. We use long-slit spectroscopy in order to determine the most interesting line ratios. We compare these ratios with classical and leaking photoionization, shocks and turbulent layer models. As other dwarf irregular galaxies, the spectral characteristics are very diferent to those of the DIG in spiral galaxies: the excitation is higher and the [SII/H?] much lower. A combination of leakage photoionization models plus shocks will be able to explain these characteristics.

  7. Diffuse Ionized Gas inside the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.; Peimbert, A.

    2007-05-01

    We have studied the differences between the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) and the H II regions along a slit position in the local dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. The slit position passes through the two most prominent H II regions: Hubble V and Hubble X. Important differences have been found in the excitation, ionization, and [N II] ?6584/H? and [S II] ?6717/H? line ratios between the DIG and the H II locations. Moreover, the values of all the line ratios are not similar to those in the DIG locations of spiral galaxies but are very similar to the values in other irregular galaxies, such as IC 10. We also determined the rate of recombination using the He I ?5875 line. Finally, we obtained a picture of the ionization sources of the DIG. We consider that the leakage of photons from the H II regions might explain most of the line ratios, except [N II]/H?, which might be explained by turbulence. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, proposal 69.C-0203(A).

  8. 3D Photoionization Models of Diffuse Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, K.

    2005-06-01

    We present 3D photoionization simulations of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Milky Way to examine the possibility of using [N II]/H? line ratios to probe the 3D structure of the DIG. Compared to data from the Perseus arm, smooth density models produce [N II]/H? values that are lower than observed at small distances above the midplane. This is because N is mostly N2+ close to the midplane ionizing sources, so [N II]/H? is small. As we make our density grid more porous, a smaller luminosity is required to ionize the grid. At small distances from the sources N changes from being being mostly N2+ for the smooth model to mostly N+ in a model with a very small DIG filling factor. We find that simulations with a DIG volume filling factor of around 20% give the best match to observations. This filling factor is remarkably close to that derived from traditional analyses of emission and dispersion measures in the DIG. Clearly, there is no limit to the parameter space that could be investigated using 3D photoionization codes. We comment on future directions for using 3D radiation transfer techniques to critically test 3D dynamical models of the ISM.

  9. A Novel Gas Sensor Based on Tunneling-Field-Ionization on Whisker-Covered Gold Nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramin Banan Sadeghian; Mojtaba Kahrizi

    2008-01-01

    Typical gas ionization sensors (GISs) work by fingerprinting the ionization breakdown voltages of the gases to be identified. In this work, we developed a GIS that operates by field-ionizing the unknown gas at exceptionally low voltages. The resultant field-ion current-voltage (I-V) characteristic was then used to identify the gas. Freestanding gold nanowires (AuNW), terminated with nanoscale whisker-like features, were employed

  10. Neutral gas plasma interactions and critical ionization velocity phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    1983-11-01

    The interplay of collisional and collisionless phenomena in the interaction of a magnetoplasma streaming through neutral gas produces some of the most fascinating plasma physics phenomena. A key notion controlling such interactions is the existence of a critical velocity (U sub c) effect postulated in an ad hoc fashion by Alfven, in his model of the formation of the solar system. According to Alfven's postulate, whenever the relative velocity between a neutral gas and a streaming magnetoplasma exceeds a value U sub c identical with Square root of (2Esub i/M), where E sub i is the ionization energy and M the mass of the neutral atoms, rapid ionization and anomalous momentum coupling occurs. Guided by recent laboratory and space experiments and plasma physics theory we present the basic plasma physics underlying the interaction. This is followed by a discussion of its relevance to the formation of the solar system and cometary tails, its controlling effect on plasma centrifuges and homopolar generators, and the fascinating possibility that critical velocity phenomena are controlling the space shuttle environment, transforming it into an artificial comet.

  11. Photoionized Mixing Layer Models of the Diffuse Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, Luc; Flores-Fajardo, Nahiely; Raga, Alejandro C.; Drissen, Laurent; Morisset, Christophe

    2009-04-01

    It is generally believed that O stars, confined near the galactic midplane, are somehow able to photoionize a significant fraction of what is termed the "diffuse ionized gas" (DIG) of spiral galaxies, which can extend up to 1-2 kpc above the galactic midplane. The heating of the DIG remains poorly understood, however, as simple photoionization models do not reproduce the observed line ratio correlations well or the DIG temperature. We present turbulent mixing layer (TML) models in which warm photoionized condensations are immersed in a hot supersonic wind. Turbulent dissipation and mixing generate an intermediate region where the gas is accelerated, heated, and mixed. The emission spectrum of such layers is compared with observations of Rand of the DIG in the edge-on spiral NGC 891. We generate two sequence of models that fit the line ratio correlations between [S II]/H?, [O I]/H?, [N II]/[S II], and [O III]/H? reasonably well. In one sequence of models, the hot wind velocity increases, while in the other, the ionization parameter and layer opacity increase. Despite the success of the mixing layer models, the overall efficiency in reprocessing the stellar UV is much too low, much less than 1%, which compels us to reject the TML model in its present form.

  12. Gas detection by carbon nanotube gas-ionization sensor based on Lyapunov exponent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohua Hui

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method utilizing a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) gas-ionization sensor based on Lyapunov exponent algorithm was proposed for argon, ethanol, acetone, and ammonia detection. The sensor was used as anodic sensor. Responses of MWNT sensor to four gases was measured and processed by Lyapunov exponent. Experimental results showed that the MWNT sensor array based on Lyapunov

  13. Intermediate- and High-Velocity Ionized Gas toward zeta Orionis

    E-print Network

    D. E. Welty; E. B. Jenkins; J. C. Raymond; C. Mallouris; D. G. York

    2002-08-20

    We combine UV spectra obtained with the HST/GHRS echelle, IMAPS, and Copernicus to study the abundances and physical conditions in the predominantly ionized gas seen at high (-105 to -65 km/s) and intermediate velocities (-60 to -10 km/s) toward zeta Ori. We have high resolution (FWHM ~ 3.3-4.5 km/s) and/or high S/N spectra for at least two significant ions of C, N, Al, Si, S, and Fe -- enabling accurate estimates for both the total N(H II) and the elemental depletions. C, N, and S have essentially solar relative abundances; Al, Si, and Fe appear to be depleted by about 0.8, 0.3-0.4, and 0.95 dex, respectively. While various ion ratios would be consistent with collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) for T ~ 25,000-80,000 K, the widths of individual high-velocity absorption components indicate that T ~ 9000 K -- so the gas is not in CIE. Analysis of the C II fine-structure excitation equilibrium yields estimated densities (n_e ~ n_H ~ 0.1-0.2 cm^{-3}), thermal pressures (2 n_H T ~ 2000-4000 cm^{-3}K), and thicknesses (0.5-2.7 pc) for the individual clouds. We compare the abundances and physical properties derived for these clouds with those found for gas at similar velocities toward 23 Ori and tau CMa, and also with several models for shocked gas. While the shock models can reproduce some features of the observed line profiles and some of the observed ion ratios, there are also significant differences. The measured depletions suggest that \\~10% of the Al, Si, and Fe originally locked in dust in the pre-shock medium may have been returned to the gas phase, consistent with predictions for the destruction of silicate dust in a 100 km/s shock. The near-solar gas phase abundance of carbon, however, seems inconsistent with the predicted longer time scales for the destruction of graphite grains.

  14. Turbulent Diffusion of Magnetic Fields in Weakly Ionized Gas

    E-print Network

    Eun-jin Kim; P. H. Diamond

    2002-09-25

    The diffusion of uni-directional magnetic fields by two dimensional turbulent flows in a weakly ionized gas is studied. The fields here are orthogonal to the plane of fluid motion. This simple model arises in the context of the decay of the mean magnetic flux to mass ratio in the interstellar medium. When ions are strongly coupled to neutrals, the transport of a large--scale magnetic field is driven by both turbulent mixing and nonlinear, ambipolar drift. Using a standard homogeneous and Gaussian statistical model for turbulence, we show rigorously that a large-scale magnetic field can decay on at most turbulent mixing time scales when the field and neutral flow are strongly coupled. There is no enhancement of the decay rate by ambipolar diffusion. These results extend the Zeldovich theorem to encompass the regime of two dimensional flows and orthogonal magnetic fields, recently considered by Zweibel (2002). The limitation of the strong coupling approximation and its implications are discussed.

  15. Molecular and ionized gas in the peculiar galaxy NGC 2146

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.S.; Claussen, M.J.; Kleinmann, S.G.; Rubin, V.C.; Scoville, N.

    1988-08-01

    New observations probing the molecular and ionized gas content of the ultrahigh surface brightness, peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 2146 are presented. The dynamical center of the galaxy lies toward a dense dust lane. The molecular mass of the galaxy in the central 15 kpc is 10 to the 10th solar. Strong emission from the central 5 kpc, as well as a string of H II regions extending along an arc 8 arcmin long are observed. Evidence is found for a high mass concentration within the central 100 pc, highly noncircular motions along the major axis, and a significant discrepancy between the velocities of the H II regions in the arc and those in the disk. The high-mass star formation efficiency is elevated by more than two orders of magnitude in the center of the galaxy relative to that in the outer disk. 25 references.

  16. THE KINEMATICS AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF WARM IONIZED GAS IN SPIRAL DISKS

    E-print Network

    Bershady, Matthew A.

    THE KINEMATICS AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF WARM IONIZED GAS IN SPIRAL DISKS Matthew A. Bershady1 integral-field echelle observations of the warm, ionized phase of the interstellar medium (ISM) of many Way and high-z galaxies. 1. Introduction What drives gas velocity dispersions in star-forming galaxies

  17. Analysis of the diffuse ionized gas database: DIGEDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Morisset, C.; Binette, L.

    2009-10-01

    Studies of the Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) have progressed without providing so far any strict criterion to distinguish DIGs from H II regions. In this work, we compile the emission line measurements of 29 galaxies that are available in the scientific literature, thereby setting up the first DIG database (DIGEDA). Making use of this database, we proceed to analyze the global properties of the DIG using the [NII]?6583/H?, [O I]?6300/H?, [O III]?5007/H? and [SII]?6716/H? lines ratios, including the H ? emission measure. This analysis leads us to conclude that the [N II]/H? ratio provides an objective criterion for distinguishing whether an emission region is a DIG or an H II region, while the EM(H?) is a useful quantity only when the galaxies are considered individually. Finally, we find that the emission regions of Irr galaxies classified as DIG in the literature appear in fact to be much more similar to H II regions than to the DIGs of spiral galaxies.

  18. A new mini gas ionization chamber for IBA applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, A. M.; Cassimi, A.; Döbeli, M.; Mallepell, M.; Monnet, I.; Simon, M. J.; Suter, M.; Synal, H.-A.

    2011-12-01

    Novel prototypes of high resolution gas ionization chambers ( GIC) were designed with increased compactness and simplicity of the setup. They have no Frisch-grid and a simple anode wire. Under certain operating conditions these mini detectors have an energy resolution comparable with that of state-of-the-art GICs of much higher complexity. They can be operated both under vacuum and atmospheric pressure. First measurements were made with protons in the energy range of 0.3-1.0 MeV. For protons at 0.3 MeV an energy resolution of about 12 keV was achieved. With a 72 MeV 129Xe beam a relative resolution of 1.4% was obtained. Due to their versatility and reduced size the detectors can easily be applied in the field of ion beam analysis ( IBA) and accelerator mass spectrometry ( AMS) . Since they are almost completely insensitive to radiation damage they are especially suited for use in high fluence applications such as scanning transmission ion microscopy ( STIM). A comparison of the radiation hardness of the mini GIC with a Si PIN diode was therefore performed. The GIC showed no peak shift or change in energy resolution at all after collecting 10 15 protons per cm 2 while the performance of the Si detector clearly started to degrade at 10 12 particles per cm 2.

  19. Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Svetozar

    2006-10-01

    Successful application of gas discharges in aerodynamics requires their efficient generation, sustaining and control at supersonic or hypersonic flow conditions. Wall-free plasma formations that meet the requirements may then act as time-controlled and space-localized actuators to modify the flow. Potential candidates for this challenging task are plasmas contained in open or linear-cavity microwave field structures. We present and discuss direct observations of aerodynamic effects activated or modified by wall-free discharges. Further, we compare two generic types of wall-free discharges. First group, applicable for inlet-type structures, consists of a periodic series of microwave-induced plasmoids generated in a linear cavity, using the outgoing wave from a microwave antenna and the reflected wave from a nearby on-axis concave reflector. The plasmoids are spaced at half-wavelength separations according to the standing-wave pattern. The plasmoids are enhanced by an ``effective focusing'' in the near field of the antenna (Fresnel region) as a result of diffraction effects and mode structure. Second group, applicable to supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers, are the surface microwave discharges enhanced by a structure of Hertz dipoles. Standard microwave discharge phenomenology, such as microwave breakdown, mode structure and plasma parameters, is revisited to present a quantitative interpretation of the observed effects. Special attention is given to complex phenomena specific to flow-plasma interaction (double electric layers, ionization waves, instabilities), which provide the physical basis for localized heating in the aerodynamic flow.

  20. Backward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas

    SciTech Connect

    Balakin, A.A.; Fraiman, G.M. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, Nizhnii Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Fisch, N.J. [Department of Astrophysical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Suckewer, S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Compressing laser pulses to extremely high intensities through backward Raman amplification might be accomplished in a plasma medium. While the theory is relatively straightforward for homogeneous fully ionized plasma, a number of important effects enter when the plasma is not fully ionized. In particular, when a mixture of gases is employed to accomplish the coupling, there can be several thresholds for incremental ionization. The refraction of both the pump and the seed is then strongly affected by the plasma ionization. Moreover, in the case of Raman backscattering in partially ionized plasma, the degree of plasma ionization is particularly sensitive to the counterpropagating geometry. This idea is examined in light of data for a recent experiment on a Raman amplifier.

  1. Ionized Gas in Damped Lyman-alpha Systems and Its Effects on Elemental Abundance Studies

    E-print Network

    J. Christopher Howk; Kenneth R. Sembach

    1999-07-29

    Recent high-resolution observations of metal absorption lines in high-redshift damped Ly-alpha systems have shown that Al III, a tracer of moderately-ionized gas, very often has a velocity structure indistinguishable from that of low-ionization gas. Regions of ionized and neutral hydrogen in these systems are likely cospatial. The higher-ionization Si IV and C IV absorption shows a much weaker or non-existent correlation with the low ionization material, implying that the regions traced by Al III are photoionized by a soft (stellar) spectrum, by a hard (power law) spectrum with a very low ionization parameter, or a combination of both. We discuss the ionization of the damped Ly-alpha systems and use photoionization equilibrium models to make quantitative estimates of its effects on abundance studies in these systems. We show that ionization effects may be large enough to account for the observed dispersion in absolute metal abundances in damped Ly-alpha systems, causing systematically higher abundances in lower column density systems. The observed Si^+/Fe^+ and Zn^+/Cr^+ ratios may systematically overestimate the intrinsic Si/Fe and Zn/Cr ratios, respectively, if ionized gas is present in these systems, thereby mimicking the effects of alpha-element enrichment or dust depletion.

  2. Time-Dependent Ionization in Radiatively Cooling Gas Orly Gnat1,2

    E-print Network

    of Technology, MC 130-33, Pasadena, CA 91125. orlyg@tapir.caltech.edu ABSTRACT We present new computationsTime-Dependent Ionization in Radiatively Cooling Gas Orly Gnat1,2 and Amiel Sternberg1 1 School of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium cooling efficiencies and ionization states for low-density radiatively cooling

  3. Gas temperature measurements in weakly ionized glow discharges with filtered Rayleigh scattering

    E-print Network

    Miles, Richard

    Gas temperature measurements in weakly ionized glow discharges with filtered Rayleigh scattering background. We perform measurements in weakly ionized glow discharges in pure argon and in an argon-plus-1:sapphire laser is used as the illumination source, and a mercury filter provides strong suppression of elastic

  4. Diffuse Ionized Gas in the beta CMa Tunnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Dupin; C. Gry

    1998-01-01

    We present HST observations of the interstellar medium toward the star beta CMa known to be located in a low density extension of the Local Bubble. Most of the matter in the sight-line is ionized and clumped in two main components. One of them, as well as one of the components detected toward epsilon CMa, is mostly ionized and only

  5. Frustrated tunnel ionization of noble gas dimers with Rydberg-electron shakeoff by electron charge oscillation.

    PubMed

    von Veltheim, A; Manschwetus, B; Quan, W; Borchers, B; Steinmeyer, G; Rottke, H; Sandner, W

    2013-01-11

    Strong field single ionization of homo- and heteronuclear noble gas dimers with ultrashort infrared laser pulses is experimentally investigated. A pronounced photoelectron yield maximum is found for dimers in the momentum range |p|?0.1??a.u. which is absent for the corresponding monomer. This yield enhancement can be attributed to a new two-step strong field ionization mechanism active only in the dimers. In the first step, frustrated tunnel ionization at one of the atomic centers populates Rydberg states, which then become ionized in a second step through charge oscillation within the dimer ion core. PMID:23383900

  6. Influence of ionization on ultrafast gas-based nonlinear fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Chang, W; Nazarkin, A; Travers, J C; Nold, J; Hölzer, P; Joly, N Y; Russell, P St J

    2011-10-10

    We numerically investigate the effect of ionization on ultrashort high-energy pulses propagating in gas-filled kagomé-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers by solving an established uni-directional field equation. We consider the dynamics of two distinct regimes: ionization induced blue-shift and resonant dispersive wave emission in the deep-UV. We illustrate how the system evolves between these regimes and the changing influence of ionization. Finally, we consider the effect of higher ionization stages. PMID:21997110

  7. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS-THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Jachowicz, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  8. Ion acceleration by an electron beam with neutral gas ionization by an external source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, Victor I.; Kurilko, Victor I.; Ostrovsky, Alexey O.

    1995-02-01

    The theoretical results for ion acceleration by a high current relativistic electron beam (REB) at the neutral-gas ionization front are presented. For a significant increase in the ion energy it is necessary to control the drift velocity of the ionization front so that it is close to the synchronous particle velocity. The most feasible way for such a control is gas ionization by an external source moving in synchronism with the accelerated particles. This work is devoted to estimating the characteristics of such a source. The space-time distribution of accelerating field is also analyzed and the dynamics of accelerated ion bunch formation is studied.

  9. Nanoparticle Synthesis by Ionizing Source Gas in Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoaki Adachi; Shigeki Tsukui; Kikuo Okuyama

    2003-01-01

    A new chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method called ionization CVD, in which reactant gases are ionized, was developed for the synthesis of nanoparticles. In such a CVD method, the particles formed are charged and the repulsive Coulombic force between them suppresses their coagulation, producing non-agglomerated particles that have a relatively high number concentration and small size. A tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS)\\/O2 mixture

  10. Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Egorov, M.; Esteve, R.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Gil, A.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, H.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jinete, M. A.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Miller, T.; Moiseenko, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Natal da Luz, H.; Navarro, G.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Palma, R.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Seguí, L.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Tomás, A.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Vázquez, D.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2013-05-01

    High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

  11. DETECTION OF HIGHLY IONIZED C IV GAS WITHIN THE LOCAL CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Wheatley, Jonathan; Siegmund, Oswald H. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lallement, Rosine [IPSL/LATMOS, Versailles (France)

    2010-04-01

    We present high resolution (R = 114,000) ultraviolet measurements of the interstellar absorption line profiles of the C IV (1550 A) high ionization doublet recorded toward the nearby B2Ve star HD 158427 (d {approx} 74 pc). These data, which were recorded with the recently re-furbished Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope, represent the most convincing detection yet of highly ionized C IV absorption that can be associated with interstellar gas located within the boundary of the Local Cavity (LC). Two highly ionized gas clouds at V {sub 1} = -24.3 km s{sup -1} and V {sub 2} = -41.3 km s{sup -1} are revealed in both C IV absorption lines, with the V {sub 1} component almost certainly being due to absorption by the Local Interstellar Cloud (d < 5 pc). Although the observed column densities for both cloud components can be explained by the predictions of current theoretical models of the local interstellar medium, the narrow Doppler width of the V {sub 2} line profile (b = 6.8 km s{sup -1}) indicates an unusually low gas temperature of {<=}34,000 K for this highly ionized component. It is conjectured that the V {sub 2} cloud may be due to an outflow of highly ionized and hot gas from the nearby Loop I superbubble. These new data also indicate that absorption due to highly ionized gas in the LC can be best described as being 'patchy' in nature.

  12. Mass spectrometric behavior of anabolic androgenic steroids using gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Part I: ionization.

    PubMed

    Raro, M; Portolés, T; Sancho, J V; Pitarch, E; Hernández, F; Marcos, J; Ventura, R; Gómez, C; Segura, J; Pozo, O J

    2014-06-01

    The detection of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is one of the most important topics in doping control analysis. Gas chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry (GC-MS(/MS)) with electron ionization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry have been traditionally applied for this purpose. However, both approaches still have important limitations, and, therefore, detection of all AAS is currently afforded by the combination of these strategies. Alternative ionization techniques can minimize these drawbacks and help in the implementation of a single method for the detection of AAS. In the present work, a new atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source commercialized for gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight analyzer has been tested to evaluate the ionization of 60 model AAS. Underivatized and trimethylsylil (TMS)-derivatized compounds have been investigated. The use of GC-APCI-MS allowed for the ionization of all AAS assayed irrespective of their structure. The presence of water in the source as modifier promoted the formation of protonated molecules ([M+H](+)), becoming the base peak of the spectrum for the majority of studied compounds. Under these conditions, [M+H](+), [M+H-H2O](+) and [M+H-2·H2O](+) for underivatized AAS and [M+H](+), [M+H-TMSOH](+) and [M+H-2·TMSOH](+) for TMS-derivatized AAS were observed as main ions in the spectra. The formed ions preserve the intact steroid skeleton, and, therefore, they might be used as specific precursors in MS/MS-based methods. Additionally, a relationship between the relative abundance of these ions and the AAS structure has been established. This relationship might be useful in the structural elucidation of unknown metabolites. PMID:24913403

  13. Surface Ionization Gas Detection at SnO{sub 2} Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krenkow, A.; Oberhuettinger, C.; Habauzit, A.; Kessler, M.; Goebel, J.; Mueller, G. [EADS Innovation Works, D-81663 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-23

    In surface ionization (SI) gas detection adsorbed analyte molecules are converted into ionic species at a heated solid surface and extracted into free space by an oppositely biased counter electrode. In the present work we consider the formation of positive and negative analyte gas ions at SnO{sub 2} surfaces. We find that SI leads to positive ion formation only, with the SI efficiency scaling with the ionization energy of the analyte gas molecules. Aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons with amine functional groups exhibit particularly high SI efficiencies.

  14. Prediction of Shock Wave Structure in Weakly Ionized Gas Flow by Solving MGD Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Z. T.; Oviedo-Rojas, Ruben; Chow, Alan; Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the recent research results of shockwave structure predictions using a new developed code. The modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations across a standing normal shock wave are discussed and adopted to obtain jump conditions. Coupling a electrostatic body force to the Burnett equations, the weakly ionized flow field across the shock wave was solved. Results indicated that the Modified Rankine-Hugoniot equations for shock wave are valid for a wide range of ionization fraction. However, this model breaks down with small free stream Mach number and with large ionization fraction. The jump conditions also depend on the value of free stream pressure, temperature and density. The computed shock wave structure with ionization provides results, which indicated that shock wave strength may be reduced by existence of weakly ionized gas.

  15. Miniature triaxial metastable ionization detector for gas chromatographic trace analysis of extraterrestrial volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Kojiro, D. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a miniature metastable ionization detector featuring an unconventional electrode configuration, whose performance characteristics parallel those of traditional design. The ionization detector is to be incorporated in a flight gas chromatograph (GC) for use in the Space Shuttle. The design of the detector is discussed, taking into account studies which verified the sensitivity of the detector. The triaxial design of the detector is compared with a flat-plate style. The obtained results show that the principal goal of developing a miniature, highly sensitive ionization detector for flight applications was achieved. Improved fabrication techniques will utilize glass-to-metal seals and brazing procedures.

  16. Ionized Gas In The Galactic Center: New Observations, Interpretation, And Speculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Wesley; Lacy, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    We Present new observations of the [Ne II] emission from the ionized gas in Sgr A West with improved resolution and sensitivity. About half of the emission comes from gas with kinematics indicating it is moving on nearly circular orbits in a plane tipped about 25 degrees from the Galactic plane. This plane is consistent with that derived previously for the circumnuclear molecular disk and the northern arm and western arc ionized features. However, unlike most previous studies, we conclude that the ionized gas is not moving along the ionized features, but rather diagonally across them. The observed speeds are close to, but probably somewhat less than expected for orbital motions in the potential of the central black hole and stars. The spatial distribution of the emission is best fitted by a spiral pattern. We discuss possible physical explanations for the spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized gas, but are unable to find a satisfactory model. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-0607312.

  17. An analysis of an application of radioactive ionization for gas flow metering 

    E-print Network

    Lam, Carroll Frank

    1959-01-01

    LIBRARY A 4 M COLLEGE OF TEXAS AN ANALYSIS OF AN APPLICATION OF RADIOACTIVE IONIZATION FOR GAS FLOW METERINO A Thesis Carroll Frank I am Submitted to the Qratiuate School of the Agricultuxai and Mechanical College of Tsxtae in yartia1... fulfillment of the requirements for ths legree of MASTER OF SC1ENCE May 1959 Major Subject: Electrical Engines x ing AN ANALYSIS OF AN APPLICATION OF RADIOACTIVE IONIZATION FOR l 1 '~, '1 1 ', '1 ' 1 1 "1 g 1 n \\ '& \\ GAS FLOW METERING A...

  18. Ammonia quantitative analysis model based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rongfei

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, ammonia quantitative analysis based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model was proposed. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was used to obtain the current-voltage (I-V) data. Measurement data was processed by non-linear bistable dynamics model. Results showed that the proposed method quantitatively determined ammonia concentrations. PMID:25975362

  19. A novel miniature gas ionization sensor based on freestanding gold nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramin Banan Sadeghian; Mojtaba Kahrizi

    2007-01-01

    Freestanding gold nanowires (AuNW) were incorporated to fabricate a miniaturized gas ionization sensor. The device exhibited improved sensitivity in sub-Torr pressure (P) regime compared to similar devices reported earlier, since the room temperature breakdown voltage (Vb) was further reduced in low gas pressures or concentrations (N). Also excellent selectivity was achieved for pressures up to 10Torr, while Vb remained almost

  20. Sparsepak Observations of Diffuse Ionized Gas Halo Kinematics in NGC891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George H.; Rand, Richard J.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    We present WIYN SparsePak observations of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) hallo of NGC891. Preliminary results of an analysis of the halo velocity field reveal a clear gradient of the azimuthal velocity with z which agrees with results for the neutral gas. The magnitude of the gradient has been determined, using two independent methods, to be approximately 15 km s-1 kpc-1.

  1. Isotopically selective counting of noble gas atoms, using resonance ionization spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H.

    1984-04-01

    The technique of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) is being extended to develop a means for counting individual atoms of a selected isotope of a noble gas. In this method, lasers are used for RIS to obtain atomic species (Z) selectivity and a small quadrupole mass spectrometer provides isotopic (A) selectivity. A progress report on the objective of counting each atom of a particular isotope of a noble gas is given. 10 references, 4 figures.

  2. Ionization and current growth in N2 at very high electric field to gas density ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. T. Gylys; B. M. Jelenkovic´; A. V. Phelps

    1989-01-01

    Measurements and analyses have been made of electron impact ionization and of current growth in pulsed, low-current, prebreakdown discharges in parallel-plane geometry in N2 at very high electric field to gas density ratios E\\/n and low products of the gas density n and electrode separation d. The E\\/n range and nd ranges were 1

  3. Ionization and current growth in N2 at very high electric field to gas density ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. T. Gylys; B. M. Jelenkovic; A. V. Phelps

    1989-01-01

    Measurements and analyses have been made of electron impact ionization and of current growth in pulsed, low-current, prebreakdown discharges in parallel-plane geometry in Nâ at very high electric field to gas density ratios E\\/n and low products of the gas density n and electrode separation d. The E\\/n range and nd ranges were 1

  4. Absorption by Highly Ionized Interstellar Gas Along Extragalactic and Galactic Sight Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Lu, Limin

    1997-06-01

    We present intermediate resolution (FWHM ˜10-20 km s-1) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph observations of Galactic C IV and N V absorption along the sight lines to Fairall 9, Mrk 509, PKS 2155-304, and NGC 5548. These observations also provide measures of Si II and S II along the sight lines. Recent measurements of Si IV absorption for Mrk 509 and archival C IV data for NGC 3516 and NGC 4151 increase the high ion information available for complete paths through the Galactic halo. We combine these data with earlier GHRS and lUE measurements to study the distribution and properties of highly ionized gas in the Milky Way. Exponential scale heights determined from an N sin?b? vs ?z? analysis are h(Si IV) =5.1±.07kpc, h(C IV)=4.4±0.6 kpc, and h(N V)=3.9±1.4 kpc. A kinematical analysis of the Milky Way C IV profiles toward 6 extragalactic objects yields <(h(C IV)>=4.5±1.4 kpc, which is in essential agreement with the N(C IV) sin?b? vs ?z? result. The extension of the highly ionized gas away from the Galactic plane exceeds that of the H I gas measured for the sarne sight lines by about a factor of 10. Values of N(C IV)/N(N V) and N(Si IV)/N(N V) for objects with 2ionizing processes may be changing with ?z?. While some of the ionization may be due to photoionization from the extragalactic EUV background, models for the expected behavior of the photoionized halo gas predict an increase in N(C IV)/N(Si IV) with ?z?, which is not observed. The unusual ionization conditions of the observed gas may be associated with the non-equilibrium processes occurring in Galactic supershells and chimneys. The C IV turbulent velocity of ˜60 km s-1, which includes the effects of inflow and outflow, falls short by a factor of approximately 2.8 in being able to support the highly ionized gas at its observed scale height of ˜4.4kpc by turbulent pressure alone. The additional support required must be provided by other sources, such as the Galactic magnetic field or cosmic ray pressure. The observed line profiles suggest that highly ionized disk and halo gases are kinematically coupled and that the highly ionized gases corotate to ?z? ?5 kpc for sight lines with Galactocentric distances exceeding 5 kpc. A clear trend for increasing velocity dispersion with increasing ionization level in the gas is seen. In high latitude directions, a net inflow of highly ionized gas is found along 7 sight lines, while outflow is found for 2. The magnitude of these high ionization ?z? motions averages 20 km s-1, or twice that of the neutral gas. 0 1997 American Astronomical Society.

  5. Backward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas A. A. Balakin,1

    E-print Network

    of data for a recent experiment on a Raman amplifier. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.72.036401 PACS number s : 52Backward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas A. A. Balakin,1 G. M. Fraiman,1 N. J. Fisch; published 2 September 2005 Compressing laser pulses to extremely high intensities through backward Raman

  6. Field ionization kinetic and electron impact studies of gas phase transition states - The cyclic bromonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. M.; Giguere, R. J.; Falick, A. M.; Aberth, W.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Cis- and trans-isomers of 4-t-butylcyclohexyl bromide were studied to determine the mechanism of cyclic bromonium ion formation. The field ionization kinetic and electron impact data indicate that the formation of the cyclic structure occurs simultaneously with loss of the neutral fragment. The data also show that little or no gas-phase cis-trans isomerization occurs.

  7. Analysis of pesticide residues by fast gas chromatography in combination with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renáta Húšková; Eva Matisová; Svetlana Hrouzková; ?ubomír Švorc

    2009-01-01

    A combination of fast GC with narrow-bore column and bench top quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) detector in negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode (with methane as reagent gas) is set up and utilized for the ultratrace analysis of 25 selected pesticides. The observed pesticides, belonging to the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), were from different chemical classes. A comparative study with electron

  8. Noble gas detection using resonance ionization spectroscopy and a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Chen; G. S. Hurst

    1983-01-01

    The technique of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) is being extended to develop a means for counting individual atoms of a selected isotope of a noble gas. In this method, lasers are used for RIS to obtain atomic species (Z) selectivity and a small quadrupole mass spectrometer provides isotopic (A) selectivity. A progress report on the objective of counting each atom

  9. Isotopically selective counting of noble gas atoms, using resonance ionization spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Chen

    1984-01-01

    The technique of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) is being extended to develop a means for counting individual atoms of a selected isotope of a noble gas. In this method, lasers are used for RIS to obtain atomic species (Z) selectivity and a small quadrupole mass spectrometer provides isotopic (A) selectivity. A progress report on the objective of counting each atom

  10. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...You may use a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to measure CH4 concentrations of diluted exhaust for... (b) Component requirements. We recommend that you use a GC-FID that meets the specifications in Table 1 of §...

  11. Warm Ionized Gas on the Outskirts of Active and Star-Forming Galaxies

    E-print Network

    S. Veilleux

    2001-08-10

    The preliminary results from a deep emission-line search for warm ionized material in the halos of nearby active and star-forming galaxies are presented. The origin of this gas is discussed in the context of galaxy formation and evolution.

  12. Shocked Molecular Gas in the Supernova Remnant IC443: Models with an Enhanced Ionization Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Mitchell

    1988-01-01

    IC 443 is the only supernova remnant which we know to be interacting with interstellar molecular gas. The purpose of the present work is to see whether shock models are consistent with recent molecular observations and to assess the effects of an increased cosmic ray ionization rate on molecular abundances. New calculations of molecular abundances behind shocks have been carried

  13. Neutral gas plasma interactions and critical ionization velocity phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Papadopoulos

    1983-01-01

    The interplay of collisional and collisionless phenomena in the interaction of a magnetoplasma streaming through neutral gas produces some of the most fascinating plasma physics phenomena. A key notion controlling such interactions is the existence of a critical velocity (U sub c) effect postulated in an ad hoc fashion by Alfven, in his model of the formation of the solar

  14. Ionized gas outflows and global kinematics of low-z luminous star forming galaxies

    E-print Network

    Arribas, Santiago; Bellocchi, Enrica; Maiolino, Roberto; Villar-Martin, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    We study the kinematic properties of the ambient ionized ISM and ionized gas outflows in a large and representative sample of local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) (58 systems, 75 galaxies), on the basis of integral field spectroscopy (IFS)-based high S/N integrated spectra at galactic and sub-galactic, i.e. star forming (SF) clumps, scales. Ambient ionized gas. The velocity dispersion of the ionized ISM in U/LIRGs ( ~ 70 kms-1) is larger than in lower luminosity local star forming galaxies ( ~ 25 kms-1). While for isolated disc LIRGs star formation appears to sustain turbulence, gravitational energy release associated to interactions and mergers plays an important role driving sigma in the U/LIRG range. We also find that the impact of an AGN in ULIRGs is strong, increasing sigma by a factor 1.5 on average. The observed weak dependency of sigma on SFR surface density for local U/LIRGs is in very good agreement with that measured in some high-z sources. Ionized outflows. The presence of ...

  15. Position-velocity diagrams of ionized gas in the inner regions of disk galaxies

    E-print Network

    J. G. Funes; E. M. Corsini; M. Cappellari; A. Pizzella; J. C. Vega Beltran; C. Scarlata; F. Bertola

    2002-04-01

    We use long-slit spectroscopy along the major axis of a sample of 23 nearby disk galaxies to study the kinematic properties of the ionized-gas component in their inner regions. For each galaxy, we derive the position-velocity diagram of the ionized gas from its emission lines. We discuss the variety of shapes observed in such position-velocity diagrams by comparing the gas velocity gradient, velocity dispersion and integrated flux measured in the inner (r +/-1'') and outer regions (r +/-4''). This kind of analysis allows the identification of galaxies which are good candidates to host a circumnuclear Keplerian gaseous disk rotating around a central mass concentration, and to follow up with Hubble Space Telescope observations.

  16. Position-velocity diagrams of ionized gas in the inner regions of disk galaxies

    E-print Network

    Funes, J G; Cappellari, M; Pizzella, A; Vega-Beltrán, J C; Scarlata, C; Bertola, F

    2002-01-01

    We use long-slit spectroscopy along the major axis of a sample of 23 nearby disk galaxies to study the kinematic properties of the ionized-gas component in their inner regions. For each galaxy, we derive the position-velocity diagram of the ionized gas from its emission lines. We discuss the variety of shapes observed in such position-velocity diagrams by comparing the gas velocity gradient, velocity dispersion and integrated flux measured in the inner (r +/-1'') and outer regions (r +/-4''). This kind of analysis allows the identification of galaxies which are good candidates to host a circumnuclear Keplerian gaseous disk rotating around a central mass concentration, and to follow up with Hubble Space Telescope observations.

  17. Dissociation and ionization of molecular gas in the spiral arms of M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. F.; Lo, K. Y.

    1990-07-01

    Researchers derive the star formation rate and efficiency in the arm and interarm regions of M51 from observations of the molecular (Lo et al. 1987) and ionized (van der Hulst et al. 1988) phases of the interstellar medium, and show that the HI observations of Tilanus and Allen (1989) are consistent with dissociation of molecular gas by these young, massive stars if nH greater than or equal to 200 cm (-2). However, these stars are not able to dissociate or ionize all the gas, and at least 60 percent must remain molecular in the interarm regions. The efficiency of star formation in M51 seems to be similar to that in the Galaxy, and does not appear to be enhanced in the spiral arms. Therefore, the effect of the strong density wave may be only to concentrate the gas, and hence the young stars, to the arm regions.

  18. Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetozar Popovic

    2006-01-01

    Successful application of gas discharges in aerodynamics requires their efficient generation, sustaining and control at supersonic or hypersonic flow conditions. Wall-free plasma formations that meet the requirements may then act as time-controlled and space-localized actuators to modify the flow. Potential candidates for this challenging task are plasmas contained in open or linear-cavity microwave field structures. We present and discuss direct

  19. Ionized Gas in the First 10 kpc of the Interstellar Galactic Halo: Metal Ion Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Consiglio, S. Michelle

    2012-11-01

    We present direct measures of the ionization fractions of several sulfur ions in the Galactic warm ionized medium (WIM). We obtained high-resolution ultraviolet absorption-line spectroscopy of post-asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters Messier 3 [(l, b) = (42fdg2, +78fdg7), d = 10.2 kpc, and z = 10.0 kpc] and Messier 5 [(l, b) = (3fdg9, +46fdg8), d = 7.5 kpc, and z = +5.3 kpc] with the Hubble Space Telescope and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to measure, or place limits on, the column densities of S I, S II, S III, S IV, S VI, and H I. These clusters also house millisecond pulsars, whose dispersion measures give an electron column density from which we infer the H II column in these directions. We find fractions of S+2 in the WIM for the M 3 and M 5 sight lines x(S+2) ? N(S+2)/N(S) = 0.33 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.09, respectively, with variations perhaps related to location. With negligible quantities of the higher ionization states, we conclude that S+ and S+2 account for all of the S in the WIM. We extend the methodology to study the ion fractions in the warm and hot ionized gas of the Milky Way, including the high ions Si+3, C+3, N+4, and O+5. The vast majority of the Galactic ionized gas is warm (T ~ 104 K) and photoionized (the WIM) or very hot (T > 4 × 105 K) and collisionally ionized. The common tracer of ionized gas beyond the Milky Way, O+5, traces <1% of the total ionized gas mass of the Milky Way. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA Contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO9150 and GO9410. Also based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. FUSE was operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA Contract NAS5-32985.

  20. Warm Ionized Gas Revealed in the Magellanic Bridge Tidal Remnant: Constraining the Baryon Content and the Escaping Ionizing Photons around Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2013-07-01

    The Magellanic System includes some of the nearest examples of galaxies disturbed by galaxy interactions. These interactions have redistributed much of their gas into the halos of the Milky Way (MW) and the Magellanic Clouds. We present Wisconsin H? Mapper kinematically resolved observations of the warm ionized gas in the Magellanic Bridge over the velocity range of +100 to +300 km s-1 in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H? intensity map and the corresponding intensity-weighted mean velocity map of the Magellanic Bridge across ({l, b}) = (281.5°, -30.0° to (3025.°, -46.7°). Using the H? emission from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-Tail and the Bridge, we estimate that the mass of the ionized material is between (0.7-1.7) × 108 M?, compared to 3.3 × 108 M? for the neutral mass over the same region. The diffuse Bridge is significantly more ionized than the SMC-Tail, with an ionization fraction of 36%-52% compared to 5%-24% for the Tail. The H? emission has a complex multiple-component structure with a velocity distribution that could trace the sources of ionization or distinct ionized structures. We find that incident radiation from the extragalactic background and the MW alone are insufficient to produced the observed ionization in the Magellanic Bridge and present a model for the escape fraction of the ionizing photons from both the SMC and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). With this model, we place an upper limit of 4.0% for the average escape fraction of ionizing photons from the LMC and an upper limit of 5.5% for the SMC. These results, combined with the findings of a half a dozen other studies for dwarf galaxies in different environments, provide compelling evidence that only a small percentage of the ionizing photons escape from dwarf galaxies in the present epoch to influence their surroundings.

  1. Ionized gas velocity dispersion and multiple supernova explosions

    E-print Network

    Vasiliev, Evgenii O; Shchekinov, Yuri A

    2014-01-01

    Using 3D numerical simulations we study the evolution of the H$\\alpha$ intensity and velocity dispersion for single and multiple supenova (SN) explosions. We find that the $I_{\\rm H\\alpha}-\\sigma$ diagram obtained for simulated gas flows is similar in shape to that observed in dwarf galaxies. We conclude that colliding SN shells with significant difference in age are resposible for high velocity dispersion that reaches values high as $\\simgt 100$kms$^{-1}$. Such a high velocity dispersion could be hardly got for a single SN remnant. Peaks of velocity dispersion on the $I_{\\rm H\\alpha}-\\sigma$ diagram may correspond to several stand-alone or merged SN remnants with moderately different ages. The procedure of the spatial resolution degrading in the H$\\alpha$ intensity and velocity dispersion maps makes the simulated $I_{\\rm H\\alpha}-\\sigma$ diagrams close to those observed in dwarf galaxies not only in shape, but also quantitatively.

  2. Ultralow-voltage field-ionization discharge on whiskered silicon nanowires for gas-sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Banan Sadeghian, Ramin; Islam, M Saif; Saif Islam, M

    2011-02-01

    Several hundred million volts per centimetre of electric-field strength are required to field-ionize gas species. Such fields are produced on sharp metallic tips under a bias of a few kilovolts. Here, we show that field ionization is possible at dramatically lower fields on semiconductor nanomaterials containing surface states, particularly with metal-catalysed whiskers grown on silicon nanowires. The low-voltage field-ionization phenomena observed here cannot be explained solely on the basis of the large field-amplification effect of suspended gold nanoparticles present on the whisker tips. We postulate that field penetration causes upward band-bending at the surface of exposed silicon containing surface states in the vicinity of the catalyst. Band-bending enables the valence electron to tunnel into the surface states at reduced fields. This work provides a basis for development of low-voltage ionization sensors. Although demonstrated on silicon, low-voltage field ionization can be detected on any sharp semiconductor tip containing proper surface states. PMID:21240290

  3. Synthesis of refractory organic matter in the ionized gas phase of the solar nebula

    PubMed Central

    Kuga, Maïa; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Tissandier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In the nascent solar system, primitive organic matter was a major contributor of volatile elements to planetary bodies, and could have played a key role in the development of the biosphere. However, the origin of primitive organics is poorly understood. Most scenarios advocate cold synthesis in the interstellar medium or in the outer solar system. Here, we report the synthesis of solid organics under ionizing conditions in a plasma setup from gas mixtures (H2(O)?CO?N2?noble gases) reminiscent of the protosolar nebula composition. Ionization of the gas phase was achieved at temperatures up to 1,000 K. Synthesized solid compounds share chemical and structural features with chondritic organics, and noble gases trapped during the experiments reproduce the elemental and isotopic fractionations observed in primitive organics. These results strongly suggest that both the formation of chondritic refractory organics and the trapping of noble gases took place simultaneously in the ionized areas of the protoplanetary disk, via photon- and/or electron-driven reactions and processing. Thus, synthesis of primitive organics might not have required a cold environment and could have occurred anywhere the disk is ionized, including in its warm regions. This scenario also supports N2 photodissociation as the cause of the large nitrogen isotopic range in the solar system. PMID:26039983

  4. Synthesis of refractory organic matter in the ionized gas phase of the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Kuga, Maïa; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Tissandier, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    In the nascent solar system, primitive organic matter was a major contributor of volatile elements to planetary bodies, and could have played a key role in the development of the biosphere. However, the origin of primitive organics is poorly understood. Most scenarios advocate cold synthesis in the interstellar medium or in the outer solar system. Here, we report the synthesis of solid organics under ionizing conditions in a plasma setup from gas mixtures (H2(O)-CO-N2-noble gases) reminiscent of the protosolar nebula composition. Ionization of the gas phase was achieved at temperatures up to 1,000 K. Synthesized solid compounds share chemical and structural features with chondritic organics, and noble gases trapped during the experiments reproduce the elemental and isotopic fractionations observed in primitive organics. These results strongly suggest that both the formation of chondritic refractory organics and the trapping of noble gases took place simultaneously in the ionized areas of the protoplanetary disk, via photon- and/or electron-driven reactions and processing. Thus, synthesis of primitive organics might not have required a cold environment and could have occurred anywhere the disk is ionized, including in its warm regions. This scenario also supports N2 photodissociation as the cause of the large nitrogen isotopic range in the solar system. PMID:26039983

  5. Studies of Flow in Ionized Gas: Historical Perspective, Contemporary Experiments, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L. [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2007-04-23

    Since the first observations that a very small ionized fraction (order of 1 ppm) could strongly affect the gas flow, numerous experiments with partially or fully wall-free discharges have demonstrated the dispersion of shock waves, the enhancement of lateral forces in the flow, the prospects of levitation, and other aerodynamic effects with vast potential of application. A review of physical effects and observations are given along with current status of their interpretation. Special attention will be given to the physical problems of energy efficiency in generating wall-free discharges and the phenomenology of filamentary discharges. Comments and case examples are given on the current status of availability of necessary data for modelling and simulation of the aerodynamic phenomena in weakly ionized gas.

  6. A study of micro-strip gas chambers for the measurement of ionizing radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Miyamoto

    1997-01-01

    This dissertation presents some empirical and theoretical studies of micro-strip gas chambers (MSGC) with emphasis on their gain and energy resolution characteristics. The analysis was extended to the micro-gap chamber (MGC), which is a new and enhanced type of MSGC. MSGCs and MGCs are newly developed detectors of ionizing radiation closely related to the well-established multi-wire proportional counter. In MSGCs,

  7. A VUV Photoionization and Ab Initio Determination of the Ionization Energy of a Gas-Phase Sugar (Deoxyribose)

    E-print Network

    Krylov, Anna I.

    A VUV Photoionization and Ab Initio Determination of the Ionization Energy of a Gas-Phase Sugar, Clusters, Excited States Sugars, together with phosphates, constitute the scaffold on which nucleic acids ionization energy for sugars such as deoxyribose stems from the difficulty to prepare intact molecules

  8. Investigating the Diffuse Ionized Gas throughout the Magellanic Cloud System with WHAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen; Madsen, Gregory J.; Hill, Alex S.

    2015-01-01

    We present early stages of an H-? survey of the Magellanic System using the Wisconsin H-? Mapper (WHAM). Our maps of the Small Magellanic Cloud, Large Magellanic Cloud, and Magellanic Bridge are the most sensitive kinematic maps of ionized gas throughout the System. With a velocity resolution of 12 km/s, WHAM observations can cleanly separate diffuse emission at Magellanic velocities from that of the Milky Way and terrestrial sources. These new maps of the SMC and LMC compliment observations of the Magellanic Bridge by Barger et al. (2013), who found H-alpha emission extending throughout and beyond the observed H I emission. Using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to the limit of atmospheric line confusion (~ 10s of mR), we find that ionized gas emission extends at least 5 degrees beyond the traditional boundary of the SMC when compared to recent deep-imaging surveys (e.g., MCELS; Smith et al. 2005). The diffuse ionized emission extent is similar to the neutral gas extent as traced by 21 cm. We present spectra comparing H I and H-alpha kinematic signatures throughout the emission region, which are dominated by galactic rotation. Multi-wavelength observations are also underway in [S II] and [N II] for the SMC and LMC. WHAM research and operations are supported through NSF Award AST-1108911.

  9. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES IN WATER AND SOIL BY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY UNDER CHEMICAL IONIZATION CONDITIONS WITH ISOBUTANE AS REAGENT GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate determination is important because phthalates often are major impurities in samples and can have significant health effects. Tandem mass spectrometry under chemical ionization mass spectrometry conditions with isobutane as the reagent gas was used to determine 11 phthal...

  10. H-alpha LEGUS: Unveiling the Interplay Between Stars, Star Clusters, and Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandar, Rupali

    2014-10-01

    We propose to obtain narrow-band, H-alpha observations for a significant subset of the star-forming, nearby galaxies recently targeted by the LEGUS treasury program (GO-13364). LEGUS is observing these galaxies in five broad-band filters: NUV, U, B, V, and I. The new H-alpha observations will reveal thousands of previously undetected HII regions, including those ionized by stellar clusters and single massive stars, allow us to measure their luminosities and sizes, and to separate discrete sources from diffuse ionized gas. We will use our narrow-band imaging survey to: (1) establish the connection between star and cluster formation, and determine the prevelance with which isolated massive stars form in different galaxies; (2) determine whether the initial cluster mass function is universal; (3) investigate the size evolution of ionized gas bubbles, and how this depends on cluster age and mass, as well as on local galactic conditions; and (4) place stringent limits on the leakage of ionizing photons from HII regions, and better understand how the interplay between properties of the ionizing source and the morphology of the HII region impacts leakage. The broad goal of this study is to better understand how feedback from massive stars affects the surrounding medium. Ultimately, the interplay between feedback and the ISM on these scales will enable a better understanding of galaxy-scale outflows in the early universe, a process critical to galaxy evolution. This program naturally lends itself to an improvement of the scientific output by involving the general public via an already established Citizen Science program.

  11. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo [National Radio Astronomy Observatory Avenida Nueva Costanera 4091, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Kenney, Jeffrey D. P., E-mail: jcortes@alma.cl, E-mail: ehardy@nrao.cl, E-mail: jeff.kenney@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion ?, and the ionized gas velocity (H? and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter ? {sub R}. An evaluation of the galaxies in the ? {sub R} ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact H? morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  12. GAS ACCRETION IS DOMINATED BY WARM IONIZED GAS IN MILKY WAY MASS GALAXIES AT z {approx} 0

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, M. Ryan; Putman, Mary E.; Bryan, Greg L.; Fernandez, Ximena; Peek, J. E. G., E-mail: moo@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We perform high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of a Milky Way mass galaxy in a fully cosmological setting using the adaptive mesh refinement code, Enzo, and study the kinematics of gas in the simulated galactic halo. We find that the gas inflow occurs mostly along filamentary structures in the halo. The warm-hot (10{sup 5} K 10{sup 6} K) ionized gases are found to dominate the overall mass accretion in the system (with M-dot = 3-5 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) over a large range of distances, extending from the virial radius to the vicinity of the disk. Most of the inflowing gas (by mass) does not cool, and the small fraction that manages to cool does so primarily close to the galaxy (R {approx}< 100 kpc, with more pronounced cooling at smaller R), perhaps comprising the neutral gas that may be detectable as, e.g., high-velocity clouds. The neutral clouds are embedded within larger, accreting filamentary flows, and represent only a small fraction of the total mass inflow rate. The inflowing gas has relatively low metallicity (Z/Z {sub Sun} < 0.2). The outer layers of the filamentary inflows are heated due to compression as they approach the disk. In addition to the inflow, we find high-velocity, metal-enriched outflows of hot gas driven by supernova feedback. Our results are consistent with observations of halo gas at low z.

  13. Dense clumps of ionized gas near Pi Scorpii, as revealed by the fine-structure excitation of N II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertoldi, Frank; Jenkins, Edward B.

    1992-01-01

    The column density and the emission of the ionized gas along the line of sight toward the B1 V + B2 V binary star Pi Sco are measured on the basis of the fine-structure absorption lines of the ground state N II. It is found that the bulk of this ionized gas must be clumped on a length scale of 0.025 pc, which is far smaller than the observed size of the diffuse H II region surrounding Pi Sco of about 6 pc. The observed column density of S III toward Pi Sco yields an upper limit on the distance of the absorbing, clumped gas from the star of less than about 0.02 pc, assuming that both the N II and S III absorption arise from the same gas. The possibility that the ionized gas originates from a photoevaporating circumstellar disk directly surrounding Pi Sco is excluded, since such a disk would have an unusual size of order 0.025 pc and would have had to survive for the estimated age of Pi Sco of 5-8 Myr. The derived mean density of the clumped gas is of order 40/cu cm, so that the gas is at a pressure that far exceeds the mean pressure in the H II region. It is concluded that the ionized gas could originate from evaporation flows off a cluster of compact neutral objects that evaporate due to the ionizing radiation of Pi Sco.

  14. Diffuse Ionized Gas in Irregular Galaxies. I. GR 8 and ESO 245-G05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.

    2006-04-01

    We have studied the spectral characteristics of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in two irregular galaxies with low metallicities and intermediate star formation rates: ESO 245-G05 and GR 8. The [O III]/H? ratio in these galaxies is higher than in the DIG of spiral galaxies but not as high as in other irregular galaxies previously studied, such as IC 10 and NGC 6822. The [N II]/H? and [S II]/H? ratios have very small values, indicating the absence of shocks as the ionization source for this gas. This ionization can be explained in both galaxies with photon leakage from the H II regions as the only source. The percentage of photons that have escaped from the H II regions is small in ESO 245-G05, only 35%, but varies from 35% up to 60% in GR 8. We also investigated whether the differences found between spiral and irregular galaxies in the [O III]/H? and the [N II]/H? ratios are due to differences in the metal content between these types of galaxies. Although the number of galaxies studied is not very large, it can be concluded that the [O III]/H? ratio is not related to the oxygen content, while the situation is more ambiguous for the [N II]/H? ratio.

  15. Gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ostman, Pekka; Luosujärvi, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Grigoras, Kestas; Ketola, Raimo A; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto

    2006-05-01

    An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) microchip is presented for combining a gas chromatograph (GC) to a mass spectrometer (MS). The chip includes capillary insertion channel, stopper, vaporizer channel, nozzle and nebulizer gas inlet fabricated on the silicon wafer, and a platinum heater sputtered on a glass wafer. These two wafers are joined by anodic bonding creating a two-dimensional version of an APCI microchip. The sample from GC is directed via heated transfer line capillary to the vaporizer channel of the APCI chip. The etched nozzle forms narrow sample plume, which is ionized by an external corona discharge needle, and the ions are analyzed by a mass spectrometer. The GC-microchip APCI-MS combination provides an efficient method for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The spectra produced by microchip APCI show intensive protonated molecule and some fragmentation products as in classical chemical ionization for structure elucidation. In quantitative analysis the GC-microchip APCI-MS showed good linearity (r(2) = 0.9989) and repeatability (relative standard deviation 4.4%). The limits of detection with signal-to-noise ratio of three were between 0.5 and 2 micromol/L with MS mode using selected ion monitoring and 0.05 micromol/L with MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring. PMID:16642989

  16. Ionized gas velocity dispersion in nearby dwarf galaxies: looking at supersonic turbulent motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexei V.; Lozinskaya, Tatiana A.

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of an ionized gas turbulent motions study in several nearby dwarf galaxies using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS). Combining the ‘intensity-velocity dispersion’ diagrams (?) with two-dimensional maps of radial velocity dispersion, we found a number of common patterns pointing to the relation between the value of chaotic ionized gas motions and processes of current star formation. In five out of the seven analysed galaxies, we identified expanding shells of ionized gas with diameters of 80-350 pc and kinematic ages of 1-4 Myr. We also demonstrate that the ? diagrams may be useful for the search of supernova remnants, other small expanding shells or unique stars in nearby galaxies. As an example, a candidate luminous blue variable (LBV) was found in UGC 8508. We propose some additions to the interpretation, previously used by Muñoz-Tuñón et al. to explain the ? diagrams for giant star formation regions. In the case of dwarf galaxies, a major part of the regions with high velocity dispersion belongs to the diffuse low surface brightness emission, surrounding the star-forming regions. We attribute this to the presence of perturbed low-density gas with high values of turbulent velocities around the giant H II regions. Based on observations obtained with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The observations were carried out with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation (contracts no. 16.518.11.7073 and 16.552.11.7028).

  17. Application of the screening potential approach for Electron Impact ionization of rare-gas atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Hari

    2013-05-01

    The triple differential cross section for electron impact ionization of rare-gas atoms will be investigated using our recently extended MCHF method. It is well known electron correlation effects in both the initial and the final states are very important. To incorporate these effects we will use the multi-configuration Hartree-Fock method to account for electron correlation in the initial state. The electron correlation in the final state will be taken into account using the angle-dependent screening potential approximation. As a test case, the triple differential cross section (TDCS) will be calculated for electron impact ionization of Argon atom, which has experimental results. Our results will be compared with available experimental and the theoretical observations.

  18. Miniature triaxial metastable ionization detector for gas chromatographic trace analysis of extraterrestrial volatiles.

    PubMed

    Woeller, F H; Kojiro, D R; Carle, G C

    1984-04-01

    Gas chromatography has found highly successful application in NASA's flight programs. Gas chromatographs have been flown to both Mars and Venus where detailed compositional measurements were made. These instruments were quite small and relatively sensitive when compared to commercially available instruments; however, they do not appear adequate for future missions currently being planned. The earlier flight GC's had incorporated thermistor bead thermal conductivity cells as the detector. This detector requires very precise temperature control and only provides about 1 ppm sensitivity. Temperature stabilization causes the detector to be quite heavy, i.e., about 200 g. Greater sensitivity will be required for measurements of trace components in extraterrestrial environments. Review of other detector types revealed the metastable ionization detector as a likely candidate because of its superior thermal stability and high sensitivity. The metastable detector, first described by Lovelock as an argon ionization detector, has been studied and somewhat modified by others. The commercial design by Hartmann and Dimick was used for comparison purposes in our work. In the past, three features of the metastable detector are prominent: it has part-per-billion sensitivity, contamination must be carefully controlled, and anomalous response is common. Since it is an ionization detector, however, temperature instabilities do not cause the major perturbations experienced by the thermal conductivity detectors. This paper describes a miniature metastable ionization detector featuring an unconventional electrode configuration, whose performance characteristics parallel those of traditional design, while its weight is quite small. The prototype has been used in our laboratories routinely for 2 years, and the concept will be incorporated into a flight GC for use in the Space Shuttle. PMID:11536577

  19. WARM IONIZED GAS REVEALED IN THE MAGELLANIC BRIDGE TIDAL REMNANT: CONSTRAINING THE BARYON CONTENT AND THE ESCAPING IONIZING PHOTONS AROUND DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bland-Hawthorn, J., E-mail: kbargers@nd.edu, E-mail: haffner@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: jbh@physics.usyd.edu.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-07-10

    The Magellanic System includes some of the nearest examples of galaxies disturbed by galaxy interactions. These interactions have redistributed much of their gas into the halos of the Milky Way (MW) and the Magellanic Clouds. We present Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper kinematically resolved observations of the warm ionized gas in the Magellanic Bridge over the velocity range of +100 to +300 km s{sup -1} in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H{alpha} intensity map and the corresponding intensity-weighted mean velocity map of the Magellanic Bridge across (l, b) = (281 Degree-Sign .5, -30 Degree-Sign .0) to (302. Degree-Sign 5, -46. Degree-Sign 7). Using the H{alpha} emission from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-Tail and the Bridge, we estimate that the mass of the ionized material is between (0.7-1.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, compared to 3.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} for the neutral mass over the same region. The diffuse Bridge is significantly more ionized than the SMC-Tail, with an ionization fraction of 36%-52% compared to 5%-24% for the Tail. The H{alpha} emission has a complex multiple-component structure with a velocity distribution that could trace the sources of ionization or distinct ionized structures. We find that incident radiation from the extragalactic background and the MW alone are insufficient to produced the observed ionization in the Magellanic Bridge and present a model for the escape fraction of the ionizing photons from both the SMC and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). With this model, we place an upper limit of 4.0% for the average escape fraction of ionizing photons from the LMC and an upper limit of 5.5% for the SMC. These results, combined with the findings of a half a dozen other studies for dwarf galaxies in different environments, provide compelling evidence that only a small percentage of the ionizing photons escape from dwarf galaxies in the present epoch to influence their surroundings.

  20. Ionized gas outflow in the isolated S0 galaxy NGC 4460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexei; Karachentsev, Igor; Kaisin, Serafim

    2010-04-01

    We used integral-field and long-slit spectroscopy to study a bright extended nebulosity recently discovered in the isolated lenticular galaxy NGC 4460 during an H? survey of nearby galaxies. An analysis of archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, GALEX and Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that current star formation is entirely concentrated in the central kiloparsec of the galaxy disc. The observed ionized gas parameters (morphology, kinematics and ionization state) can be explained by a gas outflow above the plane of the galaxy, caused by star formation in the circumnuclear region. Galactic wind parameters in NGC 4460 (outflow velocity, total kinetic energy) are several times smaller, compared with the known galactic wind in NGC 253, which is explained by the substantially lower total star formation rate. We discuss the cause of the star formation processes in NGC 4460 and in two other known isolated lenticular (S0) and elliptical (E) galaxies of the Local Volume: NGC 404 and 855. We provide evidence suggesting that the feeding of isolated galaxies by intergalactic gas on a cosmological time-scale is a steady process without significant variations. Based on observations collected with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which is operated under the financial support of the Science Department of Russia (registration number 01-43). E-mail: moisav@gmail.com

  1. Can the Lyman Continuum Leaked Out of H II Regions Explain Diffuse Ionized Gas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Kwang-Il

    2009-09-01

    We present an attempt to explain the diffuse H? emission of a face-on galaxy M 51 with the "standard" photoionization model, in which the Lyman continuum (Lyc) escaping from H II regions propagates large distances into the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). The diffuse H? emission of M 51 is analyzed using thin slab models and exponential disk models in the context of the "on-the-spot" approximation. The scale height of the ionized gas needed to explain the diffuse H? emission with the scenario is found to be of the order of ~1-2 kpc, consistent with those of our Galaxy and edge-on galaxies. The model also provides a vertical profile, when the galaxy is viewed edge-on, consisting of two-exponential components. However, it is found that an incredibly low absorption coefficient of ?0 ? 0.4-0.8 kpc-1 at the galactic plane, or, equivalently, an effective cross section as low as ?eff ~ 10-5 of the photoionization cross section at 912 Å is required to allow the stellar Lyc photons to travel through the H I disk. Such a low absorption coefficient is out of accord with the properties of the ISM. Furthermore, we found that even the model that has the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) phase only and no H I gas phase shows highly concentrated H? emissions around H II regions, and can account for only lsim26% of the H? luminosity of the DIG. This result places a strong constraint on the ionizing source of the DIG. We also report that the H? intensity distribution functions not only of the DIG, but also of H II regions in M 51, appear to be lognormal.

  2. CAN THE LYMAN CONTINUUM LEAKED OUT OF H II REGIONS EXPLAIN DIFFUSE IONIZED GAS?

    SciTech Connect

    Seon, Kwang-Il, E-mail: kiseon@kasi.re.k [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Hwaam-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-20

    We present an attempt to explain the diffuse Halpha emission of a face-on galaxy M 51 with the 'standard' photoionization model, in which the Lyman continuum (Lyc) escaping from H II regions propagates large distances into the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). The diffuse Halpha emission of M 51 is analyzed using thin slab models and exponential disk models in the context of the 'on-the-spot' approximation. The scale height of the ionized gas needed to explain the diffuse Halpha emission with the scenario is found to be of the order of {approx}1-2 kpc, consistent with those of our Galaxy and edge-on galaxies. The model also provides a vertical profile, when the galaxy is viewed edge-on, consisting of two-exponential components. However, it is found that an incredibly low absorption coefficient of kappa{sub 0} {approx} 0.4-0.8 kpc{sup -1} at the galactic plane, or, equivalently, an effective cross section as low as sigma{sub eff} {approx} 10{sup -5} of the photoionization cross section at 912 A is required to allow the stellar Lyc photons to travel through the H I disk. Such a low absorption coefficient is out of accord with the properties of the ISM. Furthermore, we found that even the model that has the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) phase only and no H I gas phase shows highly concentrated Halpha emissions around H II regions, and can account for only {approx}<26% of the Halpha luminosity of the DIG. This result places a strong constraint on the ionizing source of the DIG. We also report that the Halpha intensity distribution functions not only of the DIG, but also of H II regions in M 51, appear to be lognormal.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, EXPLOSIVES DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, SRI INSTRUMENTS, MODEL 8610C, GAS CHROMATOGRAPH/THERMIONIC IONIZATION DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SRI Model 86 1 OC gas chromatograph (GC) is a transportable instrument that can provide on-site analysis of soils for explosives. Coupling this transportable gas chromatograph with a thermionic ionization detector (TID) allows for the determination of explosives in soil matri...

  4. Fundamental Processes in A general definition of a plasma is: plasma is an ionized gas or other medium

    E-print Network

    Callen, James D.

    particle. Thus, the trajectory of a charged test particle is influenced by many simultaneous, small angle is an ionized gas or other medium in which charged particle interactions are predominantly collective. In a neutral gas the particle interactions are dominated by isolated, distinct two-particle (binary) collisions

  5. Ionization gas sensing of the ion flow current in a microtripolar electrode system with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhongyu; Cai, Bingchu; Xu, Dong

    2008-06-01

    We report the tests of a tripolar on-chip microelectrode system with carbon nanotubes, where the ion flow current (Ii) and the partial discharge current produced by the field ionization process of gaseous molecules can be measured to characterize the gas species and concentration. A theoretical account is given regarding the underlying differences between their sensing mechanisms. Further, comparative analysis of these two outputs in response to the concentration dynamic changes of ethanol/acetone in N2 demonstrates the explicit cases of improved sensitivity and selectivity of the Ii measurement.

  6. Spatially Resolved Thermodynamics of the Partially Ionized Exciton Gas in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieker, S.; Henn, T.; Kiessling, T.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the observation of macroscopic free exciton photoluminescence (PL) rings that appear in spatially resolved PL images obtained on a high purity GaAs sample. We demonstrate that a spatial temperature gradient in the photocarrier system, which is due to nonresonant optical excitation, locally modifies the population balance between free excitons and the uncorrelated electron-hole plasma described by the Saha equation and accounts for the experimentally observed nontrivial PL profiles. The exciton ring formation is a particularly instructive manifestation of the spatially dependent thermodynamics of a partially ionized exciton gas in a bulk semiconductor.

  7. Filling factors and scale heights of the diffuse ionized gas in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhuijsen, E. M.; Mitra, D.; Mueller, P.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of dispersion measures of pulsars, distances from the model of Cordes & Lazio (\\cite{cordes+lazio02}) and emission measures from the WHAM survey enabled a statistical study of electron densities and filling factors of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Milky Way. The emission measures were corrected for absorption and contributions from beyond the pulsar distance. For a sample of 157 pulsars at |b|>5° and 60° < ? < 360°, located in mainly interarm regions within about 3 kpc from the Sun, we find that: (1) The average volume filling factor along the line of sight /line{f}v and the mean density in ionized clouds /line{n}c are inversely correlated: /line{f}v(/line{n}c ) = (0.0184± 0.0011) /line{n}c{ -1.07± 0.03} for the ranges 0.03 < /line{n}c < 2 {cm-3 and 0.8 > /line{f}v > 0.01. This relationship is very tight. The inverse correlation of /line{f}v and /line{n}c causes the well-known constancy of the average electron density along the line of sight. As /line{f}v(z) increases with distance from the Galactic plane |z|, the average size of the ionized clouds increases with |z|. (2) For |z| < 0.9 kpc the local density in clouds nc (z) and local filling factor f(z) are inversely correlated because the local electron density ne (z) = f(z) nc (z) is constant. We suggest that f(z) reaches a maximum value of >0.3 near |z| = 0.9 kpc, whereas nc (z) continues to decrease to higher |z|, thus causing the observed flattening in the distribution of dispersion measures perpendicular to the Galactic plane above this height. (3) For |z| < 0.9 kpc the local distributions nc (z), f(z) and ne2(z) have the same scale height which is in the range 250 < h ? 500 pc. (4) The average degree of ionization of the warm atomic gas /line{I}w (z) increases towards higher |z| similarly to /line{f}v (z). Towards |z| = 1 kpc, /line{f}v (z) = 0.24± 0.05 and /line{I}w (z) = 0.24± 0.02. Near |z| = 1 kpc most of the warm, atomic hydrogen is ionized.

  8. Isothermal flow measurements in a gas turbine combustor using a fast flame ionization detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, R. W.; Hochgreb, S.

    2010-05-01

    A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) has been used to study isothermal gas transport and mixing inside a gas turbine combustion chamber. The large, highly linear dynamic range of the FFID coupled with a frequency response that extends up to approximately 200 Hz can reveal large-scale features of interest in turbulent flows. Experiments were performed in a ground-based test facility simulating high-altitude restart conditions. Pulses of propane were discharged into the core swirler of a fuel injector through a high-speed valve. The mole fraction of this tracer was monitored at various locations inside the combustion chamber. These measurements allowed the identification of recirculation timescales and flow instabilities at different points inside the combustion chamber, providing important insights into the altitude restart process.

  9. Interrelated structures of the transport shock and collisional relaxation layer in a multitemperature, multilevel ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinolo, A. R.; Clarke, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    The gas dynamic structures of the transport shock and the downstream collisional relaxation layer are evaluated for partially ionized monatomic gases. Elastic and inelastic collisional nonequilibrium effects are taken into consideration. Three electronic levels are accounted for in the microscopic model of the atom. Nonequilibrium processes with respect to population of levels and species plus temperature are considered. By using an asymptotic technique the shock morphology is found on a continuum flow basis. The asymptotic procedure gives two distinct layers in which the nonequilibrium effects to be considered are different. A transport shock appears as the inner solution to an outer collisional relaxation layer in which the gas reaches local equilibrium. A family of numerical examples is displayed for different flow regimes. Argon and helium models are used in these examples.

  10. Dust and ionized gas in elliptical galaxies: Signatures of merging collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Dejong, Teije

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally elliptical galaxies were thought to be essentially devoid of interstellar matter. However, recent advances in instrumental sensitivity have caused a renaissance of interest in dust and gas in - or associated with - elliptical galaxies. In particular, the technique of co-adding IRAS survey scans has led to the detection of more than half of all ellipticals with BT less than 11 mag. in the Revised Shapley-Ames catalog, indicating the presence of 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) solar mass of cold interstellar matter (Jura et al. 1987). In addition, CCD multi-color surface photometry shows dust patches in about 30 percent of the cases studied to date (e.g., Veron-Cetty & Veron 1988). Thorough study of the gas and dust in ellipticals is important to (1) determine its origin (mass-loss from late-type stars, merging collisions with other galaxies or accretion inflows from cooling X-ray gas), and (2) investigate the 3-D shape of ellipticals, as can be derived from the orientation of the dust lanes and the 2-D velocity field of the gas. An important result of our comprehensive CCD imaging program is that a relevant fraction (approximately 40 percent) of the sample objects exhibits dust patches within extended H-alpha+(NII) line-emitting filaments. This common occurrence can be easily accounted for if the dust and gas have an external origin, i.e., mergers or interactions with gas-rich galaxies. Evidence supporting this suggestion: (1) the ionized gas is usually dynamically decoupled from the stellar velocity field (see, e.g., Sharples et al. 1983, Bertola & Bettoni 1988); (2) it is shown in a companion paper (Goudfrooij et al. 1992) that internal stellar mass loss alone can not account for the dust content of elliptical galaxies.

  11. Gas kinematics and ionization along the extended sight line to HD 116852

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.

    1994-01-01

    We present Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph intermediate observations of the interstellar medium toward HD 116852, a low halo star at a distance of 4.8 kpc (z = -1.3 kpc) in the direction l = 304. deg 9, b = 16.deg 1. The small science aperture observations have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 30 to 90 and resolutions of 11 to 18 km/s (FWHM). We confirm the optical MK classification of this star through an analysis of its ultraviolet photosperic and stellar wind profiles. We detect interstellar lines of Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V together with lines of C I, C I*, C I**, Si II, Ge II, P II, and Ni II. We convert the Mg II, P II, S II, Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V profiles into measure of apparent column density as a function of LSR velocity. Gas scale height, velocity dispersion, and differential Galactic rotation effects govern the profile shapes. A simple computer model of the expected sight line column density profiles for the low and high ion species indicates that the gas velocity dispersions and scale heights increase as the ionization level of the gas increases. We find scale heigts H greater than or = 1 kpc for the high ions, which are comparable to the z-distance of the star, whereas we find H approximatley = 0.6 to 0.7 kpc for A1 III and H approximatley 0.1 kpc for P II and Ge II. An enhancement in the Al II profile near -15 km/s accounts for approximately 25% of the A1 III column along the sight line and probably arises within gas located approximately 500 pc below the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm link. Portions of the broad underlying A1 III distribution are associated with the higher ionization lines, perhaps in conductive interfaces. The presence of N V and the column density ratios of Si IV, C IV, and N V favor the interpretation that much of the high ion absorption is produced by collisional ionization in gas with T = 1-3 x 10(exp 5) K. An enhancement near -35 km/s in both the Si IV and C IV profiles may be due to an outflow from the Norma spiral arm at a z-distance of about -1 kpc. The smooth decrease of the N(C IV)/N(Si IV) ratio at negative velocities may be due to an ISM ionization structure for hot gas that changes distance from the Galactic plane or to a two phase gas distribution in which the relative contribution from each phase changes with distance from the Galactic plane.

  12. Numerical models for the diffuse ionized gas in galaxies. I. Synthetic spectra of thermally excited gas with turbulent magnetic reconnection as energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Lieb, S.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Lesch, H.; Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Birk, G. T.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to verify whether turbulent magnetic reconnection can provide the additional energy input required to explain the up to now only poorly understood ionization mechanism of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in galaxies and its observed emission line spectra. Methods: We use a detailed non-LTE radiative transfer code that does not make use of the usual restrictive gaseous nebula approximations to compute synthetic spectra for gas at low densities. Excitation of the gas is via an additional heating term in the energy balance as well as by photoionization. Numerical values for this heating term are derived from three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic two-fluid plasma-neutral-gas simulations to compute energy dissipation rates for the DIG under typical conditions. Results: Our simulations show that magnetic reconnection can liberate enough energy to by itself fully or partially ionize the gas. However, synthetic spectra from purely thermally excited gas are incompatible with the observed spectra; a photoionization source must additionally be present to establish the correct (observed) ionization balance in the gas.

  13. Ionized and neutral gas in the XUV discs of nearby spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sánchez, A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Westmeier, T.; Esteban, C.

    2015-02-01

    We are conducting a multiwavelength study of XUV discs in nearby, gas-rich spiral galaxies combining the available UV (GALEX) observations with H i data obtained at the ATCA as part of the Local Volume HI Survey (LVHIS) project and multi-object fibre spectroscopy obtained using the 2dF/AAOmega instrument at the 3.9m AAT. Here we present the results of the multiwavelength analysis of the galaxy pair NGC 1512/1510. The H i distribution of NGC 1512 is very extended with two pronounced spiral/tidal arms. Hundreds of independent UV-bright regions are associated with dense H i clouds in the galaxy outskirts. We confirm the detection of ionized gas in the majority of them and characterize their physical properties, chemical abundances and kinematics. Both the gas distribution andthe distribution of the star-forming regions are affected by gravitational interactionwith the neighbouring blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 1510. Our multiwavelength analysis provides new clues about local star-formation processes, the metal redistribution in the outer gaseous discs of spiral galaxies, the importance of galaxy interactions, the fate of the neutral gas and the chemical evolution in nearby galaxies.

  14. Minimum Condition of Target Gas Material at an Ionization-Stage Control Scheme in a Laser-Plasma Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Michiaki; Kando, Masaki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Yukio; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Okada, Hajime; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Kondo, Kiminori; Bolton, Paul R.

    We report on minimum condition of target gas material at an ionization-stage control scheme in a laser-plasma electron acceleration. In order to study on such dependence, feature of energetic electron beam generation in argon and neon were compared. The energetic electron generations were significantly different between two gas targets. Propagations of driving laser were also different. Results of ray-tracing suggest that such dependencies were caused by the diffraction of laser beam by a gradient of electron plasma density created by the ionization stage slopes.

  15. Chemical abundances and properties of the ionized gas in NGC 1705

    E-print Network

    Annibali, F; Pasquali, A; Aloisi, A; Mignoli, M; Romano, D

    2015-01-01

    We obtained [O III] narrow-band imaging and multi-slit MXU spectroscopy of the blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 1705 with FORS2@VLT to derive chemical abundances of PNe and H II regions and, more in general, to characterize the properties of the ionized gas. The auroral [O III]\\lambda4363 line was detected in all but one of the eleven analyzed regions, allowing for a direct estimate of their electron temperature. The only object for which the [O III]\\lambda4363 line was not detected is a possible low-ionization PN, the only one detected in our data. For all the other regions, we derived the abundances of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Neon, Sulfur and Argon out to ~1 kpc from the galaxy center. We detect for the first time in NGC 1705 a negative radial gradient in the oxygen metallicity of -0.24 \\pm 0.08 dex kpc^{-1}. The element abundances are all consistent with values reported in the literature for other samples of dwarf irregular and blue compact dwarf galaxies. However, the average (central) oxygen abundance, 12 +...

  16. Detecting benzodiazepines: immunoassays compared with negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R L; Rexin, D A; Herold, D A

    1994-03-01

    We tested 231 urine samples by six immunoassay methods--EMIT d.a.u., EMIT II, Roche Abuscreen Online, Abbott TDx, Diagnostic Products Corp. (DPC) double-antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA), and Biosite Triage--and by negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine how the immunoassays performed on samples selected for suspected benzodiazepine use (n = 100) and in random urine drug screening (n = 131). In general, all of the assays were successful in detecting oxazepam and related metabolites, even at concentrations below the stated cutoffs. However, the negative predictive value of benzodiazepine immunoassays for samples selected for suspected benzodiazepine use ranged from 86% to 96%. A primary difference between the test kits was the ability of DPC RIA and Triage to detect lorazepam when other assays did not. Contrary to previous reports, pretreatment of specimens with glucuronidase was not necessary to detect oxazepam-related metabolites with these immunoassays. PMID:8131270

  17. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  18. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-07-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  19. Self-detection of x-ray Fresnel transmittivity using photoelectron-induced gas ionization

    E-print Network

    Stoupin, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Electric response of an x-ray mirror enclosed in a gas flow ionization chamber was studied under the conditions of total external reflection for hard x-rays. It is shown that the electric response of the system as a function of the incidence angle is defined by x-ray Fresnel transmittivity and photon-electron attenuation properties of the mirror material. A simple interpretation of quantum yield of the system is presented. The approach provides non-invasive in-situ diagnostics of hard x-ray optics, easy access to complementary x-ray transmittivity data in x-ray reflectivity experiments and can also pave the way to novel schemes for angle and energy resolving x-ray detectors.

  20. Identification of volatiles by headspace gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Tiscione, Nicholas B; Yeatman, Dustin Tate; Shan, Xiaoqin; Kahl, Joseph H

    2013-10-01

    Volatiles are frequently abused as inhalants. The methods used for identification are generally nonspecific if analyzed concurrently with ethanol or require an additional analytical procedure that employs mass spectrometry. A previously published technique utilizing a capillary flow technology splitter to simultaneously quantitate and confirm ethyl alcohol by flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection after headspace sampling and gas chromatographic separation was evaluated for the detection of inhalants. Methanol, isopropanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, isoamyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (Norflurane, HFC-134a), chloroethane, trichlorofluoromethane (Freon®-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon®-12), dichlorofluoromethane (Freon®-21), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon®-22) and 1,2-dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Freon®-114) were validated for qualitative identification by this method. The validation for qualitative identification included evaluation of matrix effects, sensitivity, carryover, specificity, repeatability and ruggedness/robustness. PMID:24005155

  1. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 577 (2007) 93102 Effects of finite pulse length, magnetic field, and gas ionization

    E-print Network

    Kaganovich, Igor

    2007-01-01

    length, magnetic field, and gas ionization on ion beam pulse neutralization by background plasma Igor D of a solenoidal magnetic field, gas ionization and the transition regions during beam pulse entry and exit from the degree of current neutralization of the ion beam pulse. However, simulations also show that the self-magnetic

  2. Plasma ionization frequency, edge-to-axis density ratio, and density on axis of a cylindrical gas discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Palacio Mizrahi, J. H. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-06-15

    A rigorous derivation of expressions, starting from the governing equations, for the ionization frequency, edge-to-axis ratio of plasma density, plasma density at the axis, and radially averaged plasma density in a cylindrical gas discharge has been obtained. The derived expressions are simple and involve the relevant parameters of the discharge: Cylinder radius, axial current, and neutral gas pressure. The found expressions account for ion inertia, ion temperature, and changes in plasma ion collisionality.

  3. Gas chromatography with surface ionization detection: a highly sensitive method for determining underivatized codeine and dihydrocodeine in body fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Seno; H. Hattori; S. Kurono; T. Yamada; T. Kumazawa; A. Ishii; O. Suzuki

    1995-01-01

    Underivatized codeine and dihydrocodeine in human plasma and urine have been determined with a high degree of accuracy by capillary gas chromatography (GC) with surface ionization detection (SID). The drugs were extracted with the aid of Sep-Pak C18 cartridges. Recovery of both drugs was ? 90%. The calibration curves obtained with dimemorfan as an internal standard showed linearity in the

  4. Quasars as Cosmological Probes: The Ionizing Continuum, Gas Metallicity and the EW-L Relation

    E-print Network

    Kirk Korista; Jack Baldwin; Gary Ferland

    1998-05-27

    Using a realistic model for line emission from the broad emission line regions of quasars, we are able to reproduce the previously observed correlations of emission-line ratios with the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED). In agreement with previous studies, we find that the primary driving force behind the Baldwin Effect (EW ~ L^beta, beta < 0) is a global change in the SED with quasar luminosity, in that more luminous quasars must have characteristically softer ionizing continua. This is completely consistent with observations that show correlations between L_uv, alpha_ox, alpha_uvx, line ratios and EWs. However, to explain the complete lack of a correlation in the EW(NV)--L_uv diagram we propose that the more luminous quasars have characteristically larger gas metallicities (Z). As a secondary element, nitrogen's rapidly increasing abundance with increasing Z compensates for the losses in EW(NV) emitted by gas illuminated by softer continua in higher luminosity quasars. A characteristic relationship between Z and L has an impact on the EW--L_uv relations for other lines as well. For a fixed SED, an increasing gas metallicity reduces the EW of the stronger metal lines (the gas cools) and that of Ly_alpha and especially HeII (because of the increasing metal opacity), while the weaker lines (e.g., CIII] 1909) generally respond positively. The interplay between the effects of a changing SED and Z with L results in the observed luminosity dependent spectral variations. All of the resulting dependences on L_uv are within the range of the observed slopes.

  5. Ionized gas in the XUV disc of the NGC 1512/1510 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Westmeier, T.; Esteban, C.; Koribalski, B. S.

    2015-07-01

    We present deep, intermediate-resolution, optical spectroscopy of 136 genuine UV-bright regions located in both the inner and outer regions of NGC 1512. This galaxy is in close interaction with the blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 1510 and possesses two prominent H I arms where extended ultraviolet complexes are found. Our data were taken using 2dF/AAOmega at the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope and are combined with the H I data from Local Volume H I Survey and Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV data. We detect ionized gas in 82 per cent of the complexes, many of them located between 1 and 6.6 R25. We found significant differences between regions along the Arm 1 - 8.25 ? 12+log(O/H) ? 8.45 -, and knots located in the external debris of Arm 2, -8.40 ? 12+log(O/H) ? 8.60-. Considering a radial and an azimuthal gradient following the H I arms, we confirm that Arm 2 has experienced an enhancement in star formation because of the interaction with NGC 1510 and flattened the radial metallicity at large radii. Arm 1 appears to retain the original and poorly disturbed radial distribution. We trace the kinematics of the system up to 78 kpc using the H? emission, which matches well that provided by the H I. We estimate that the gas existing at large galactocentric radii had a metallicity of 12+log(O/H) ˜ 8.1 before the interaction started around 400 Myr ago. The metals within the H I gas are very likely not coming from the inner regions of NGC 1512 but probably from material accreted during minor mergers or outflow-enriched intergalactic medium gas during the life of the galaxy.

  6. Development of resonance ionization in a supersonic gas-jet for studies of short-lived and long-lived radioactive nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsuka, Takaaki; Tomita, Hideki; Sonnenschein, Volker; Sonoda, Tetsu; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Sakamoto, Chika; Mita, Hiroki; Noto, Takuma; Ito, Chikara; Maeda, Shigetaka; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Michiharu; Wendt, Klaus; Moore, Iain

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) is required for laser spectroscopy and trace analysis of short-lived and long-lived radioactive nuclei. We have proposed high-resolution resonance ionization spectroscopy in a gas jet combined with a narrow band-width injection-locked Ti:Sapphire laser. Resonance ionization of stable 93Nb in a gas jet was demonstrated using a broad bandwidth Ti:Sapphire laser. In addition, a setup for high-resolution RIS in a gas-jet was designed using numerical simulations of the gas-jet conditions based on computational fluid dynamics.

  7. Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halos of NGC 891 and NGC 5775

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, G. H.; Rand, R. J.; Benjamin, R. A.; Bershady, M. A.; Collins, J. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2005-12-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to characterize the nature of the disk-halo interaction in spiral galaxies, we present an investigation into the kinematics of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) halos of two edge-on spirals, NGC 891 and NGC 5775. Observations of optical emission lines were obtained at high spectral resolution with the SparsePak fiber array at WIYN, and the TAURUS-II Fabry-Perot interferometer at the AAT, respectively. Detailed three-dimensional models of the galaxies were created and compared with the data, revealing the presence of a vertical gradient in rotational velocity in each case. The sense of the gradient corresponds to decreasing rotation speed with increasing height above the disk; the magnitude is approximately 15 km s-1 kpc-1 in NGC 891, and 8 km s-1 kpc-1 in NGC 5775. Qualitatively, this behavior is predicted by models of the disk-halo interaction which consider gas being lifted out of the disk, but quantitative agreement has not yet been achieved. We describe the results of our observations, present a comparison with a purely ballistic model of disk-halo flow, and discuss prospects for a better understanding of this critical process in the evolution of galaxies. This material is based on work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST 99-86113.

  8. Numerical studies of the behavior of ionized residual gas in an energy recovering linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöplau, Gisela; van Rienen, Ursula; Meseck, Atoosa

    2015-04-01

    Next generation light sources such as energy recovering linacs (ERLs) are highly sensitive to instabilities due to ionized residual gas, which must be mitigated for successful operation. Vacuum pumps are insufficient for removal of the ions, as the ions are trapped by the beam's electrical potential. Two effective measures are (i) introducing clearing gaps in the bunch train, and (ii) installing clearing electrodes which pull out the trapped ions from the electrical potential of the beam. In this paper, we present numerical studies on the behavior of ion clouds that interact with bunch trains in an ERL taking into account the effects of the clearing gaps and clearing electrodes. We present simulations with different compositions of the residual gas. Simulations are done using the MOEVE PIC Tracking software package developed at Rostock University, which has been upgraded to include the behavior of ion clouds in the environment of additional electromagnetic fields, such as generated by clearing electrodes. The simulations use the parameters of the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (bERLinPro) to allow for the deduction of appropriate measures for bERLinPro 's design and operation.

  9. Very metal-poor galaxies: ionized gas kinematics in nine objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. V.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2010-07-01

    The study of ionized gas morphology and kinematics in nine extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxies with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer on the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) 6-m telescope is presented. Some of these very rare objects (with currently known range of O/H of 7.12 < 12 + log(O/H) < 7.65, or ) are believed to be the best proxies of `young' low-mass galaxies in the high-redshift Universe. One of the main goals of this study is to look for possible evidence of star formation (SF) activity induced by external perturbations. Recent results from HI mapping of a small subsample of XMD star-forming galaxies provided confident evidence for the important role of interaction-induced SF. Our observations provide complementary or new information that the great majority of the studied XMD dwarfs have strongly disturbed gas morphology and kinematics or the presence of detached components. We approximate the observed velocity fields by simple models of a rotating tilted thin disc, which allows us the robust detection of non-circular gas motions. These data, in turn, indicate the important role of current/recent interactions and mergers in the observed enhanced SF. As a by-product of our observations, we obtained data for two Low Surface Brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies: Anon J012544+075957 that is a companion of the merger system UGC 993, and SAO 0822+3545 which shows off-centre, asymmetric, low star formation rate star-forming regions, likely induced by the interaction with the companion XMD dwarf HS 0822+3542. Based on observations obtained with the Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS 6-m telescope. E-mail: moisav@gmail.com (AVM); sap@sao.ru (SAP); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK)

  10. Densities and filling factors of the diffuse ionized gas in the Solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhuijsen, E. M.; Müller, P.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: We analyse electron densities and filling factors of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Solar neighbourhood. Methods: We have combined dispersion measures and emission measures towards 38 pulsars at distances known to better than 50%, from which we derived the mean density in clouds, N_c, and their volume filling factor, F_v, averaged along the line of sight. The emission measures were corrected for absorption by dust and contributions from beyond the pulsar distance. Results: The scale height of the electron layer for our sample is 0.93± 0.13 kpc and the midplane electron density is 0.023± 0.004 cm-3, in agreement with earlier results. The average density along the line of sight is < n_e> = 0.018± 0.002 cm-3 and is nearly constant. Since < n_e> = F_vN_c, an inverse relationship between Fv and Nc is expected. We find F_v(N_c) = (0.011± 0.003) N_c-1.20± 0.13, which holds for the ranges N_c= 0.05-1 cm-3 and F_v= 0.4-0.01. Near the Galactic plane the dependence of Fv on Nc is significantly stronger than away from the plane. Fv does not systematically change along or perpendicular to the Galactic plane, but the spread about the mean value of 0.08± 0.02 is considerable. The total pathlength through the ionized regions increases linearly to about 80 pc towards |z| = 1 kpc. Conclusions: Our study of Fv and Nc of the DIG is the first one based on a sample of pulsars with known distances. We confirm the existence of a tight, nearly inverse correlation between Fv and Nc in the DIG. The exact form of this relation depends on the regions in the Galaxy probed by the pulsar sample. The inverse F_v-Nc relation is consistent with a hierarchical, fractal density distribution in the DIG caused by turbulence. The observed near constancy of < n_e> then is a signature of fractal structure in the ionized medium, which is most pronounced outside the thin disk.

  11. Self-injection and acceleration of electrons during ionization of gas atoms by a short laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.P. [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Using a relativistic three-dimensional single-particle code, acceleration of electrons created during the ionization of nitrogen and oxygen gas atoms by a laser pulse has been studied. Barrier suppression ionization model has been used to calculate ionization time of the bound electrons. The energy gained by the electrons peaks for an optimum value of laser spot size. The electrons created near the tail do not gain sufficient energy for a long duration laser pulse. The electrons created at the tail of pulse escape before fully interacting with the trailing part of the pulse for a short duration laser pulse, which causes electrons to retain sufficient energy. If a suitable frequency chirp is introduced then energy of the electrons created at the tail of the pulse further increases.

  12. IZI: Inferring the Gas Phase Metallicity (Z) and Ionization Parameter (q) of Ionized Nebulae Using Bayesian Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Guillermo A.; Kewley, Lisa; Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method for inferring the metallicity (Z) and ionization parameter (q) of H II regions and star-forming galaxies using strong nebular emission lines (SELs). We use Bayesian inference to derive the joint and marginalized posterior probability density functions for Z and q given a set of observed line fluxes and an input photoionization model. Our approach allows the use of arbitrary sets of SELs and the inclusion of flux upper limits. The method provides a self-consistent way of determining the physical conditions of ionized nebulae that is not tied to the arbitrary choice of a particular SEL diagnostic and uses all the available information. Unlike theoretically calibrated SEL diagnostics, the method is flexible and not tied to a particular photoionization model. We describe our algorithm, validate it against other methods, and present a tool that implements it called IZI. Using a sample of nearby extragalactic H II regions, we assess the performance of commonly used SEL abundance diagnostics. We also use a sample of 22 local H II regions having both direct and recombination line (RL) oxygen abundance measurements in the literature to study discrepancies in the abundance scale between different methods. We find that oxygen abundances derived through Bayesian inference using currently available photoionization models in the literature can be in good (~30%) agreement with RL abundances, although some models perform significantly better than others. We also confirm that abundances measured using the direct method are typically ~0.2 dex lower than both RL and photoionization-model-based abundances.

  13. Ionized Gas and Intrinsic Magnetic Fields in the Spiral Galaxy NGC6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehle, M.; Beck, R.

    1993-06-01

    The spiral galaxy NGC 6946 was observed in radio continuum at ?2.8 cm with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope both in total intensity and linear polarization at 68" (~2.5 kpc) angular resolution. The distribution of polarized intensity at ?2.8 cm is rather symmetric with respect to the nucleus, in contrast to observations at decimeter wavelengths which are strongly affected by asymmetric Faraday depolarization effects. A consistent model for Faraday rotation, depolarization and thermal radio emission is presented in which most of the ionized gas resides in small clouds within a thin disk of ~100 pc full thickness. Each cloud has a mean electron density of 5.4 +/- 2.7 cm^-3^, decreasing with galactocentric radius proportional to the star-formation rate, and a mean size of ~1 pc. Their averages of = 0.27+/-0.05cm^-3^ and = 1.5 +/- 0.7 cm^-6^ are higher than the values for classical HII regions and for the diffuse ionized gas in our Galaxy. The average filling factor in NGC 6946 of f = 0.05 +/- 0.03 is ~ 3x higher than for the suspected similar population of small H II regions in our Galaxy. The uniform component of the intrinsic magnetic field almost precisely follows the spiral arms. The strongest polarized intensities and degrees of polarization (up to 19%) occur in interarm regions. The pitch angles in interarm regions are smaller than those in the spiral arms which indicates an influence of the density-wave gas flow on the field lines. A large fraction of the magnetic field is ordered on scalelengths below 2.5 kpc, not yet resolved by the present observations. The observed large-scale structure of the uniform magnetic field and the general distribution of polarized intensities are fairly well simulated by a dynamo model (axisymmetric spiral mode S0). The model parameters indicate that the dynamo does not only operate in the disk, but also in the halo. Faraday rotation between ?2.8 cm and ?6.3 cm shows a singly-periodical variation with azimuthal angle in the plane of NGC 6946 giving further support to an axisymmetric S0 field. The Faraday rotation measures (RM) are explained by the thin disk of small HII regions containing a uniform field of 12 +/- 2 microG. At ?20.5 cm the thickness effective for RM is reduced to ~15 pc because the disk is no longer transparent to polarized radio waves due to Faraday depolarization. A close correspondence between RM and HI velocity dispersion is interpreted in terms of vertical field lines due to Parker instabilities or outflow of gas.

  14. Gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Taiki; Uchimura, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Totaro

    2011-05-23

    A sample mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured by gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/MPI/TOF-MS) using four types of laser sources. When a fourth harmonic emission (266 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) was utilized, highly chlorinated PCBs larger than hepta-CBs were not observed. A fifth harmonic emission (213 nm) of the picosecond Nd:YAG laser allowed the measurement of PCBs from di-CBs to octa-CBs, and the limit of detection (LOD) was several pg for each component of PCBs. The LOD for the total amount of PCBs, which was calculated using the protocol provided by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, was 1000 pg. The signal intensity of the congeners with chlorine atoms at the ortho positions (non-coplanar PCBs) was enhanced by using the fifth harmonic emission. When the fourth harmonic emission remaining after fifth harmonic generation was simultaneously used, the LOD for total PCBs was improved to 667 pg. The PCB sample was also measured using a third harmonic emission (267 nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm), providing an LOD of 677 pg. Thus, the two-color beam (266/213 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser had a comparable, or even slightly superior, performance to the more expensive femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. PMID:21565310

  15. Can the Lyman Continuum leaked out of H II regions explain Diffuse Ionized Gas?

    E-print Network

    Seon, Kwang-Il

    2009-01-01

    We present an attempt to explain the diffuse H_alpha emission of a face-on galaxy M 51 with the ``standard'' photoionization model, in which the Lyman continuum (Lyc) escaping from H II regions propagates large distances into the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). The diffuse H_alpha emission of M 51 is analyzed using thin slab models and exponential disk models in the context of the ``on-the-spot'' approximation. The scale height of the ionized gas needed to explain the diffuse H_alpha emission with the scenario is found to be of the order of ~ 1-2 kpc, consistent with those of our Galaxy and edge-on galaxies. The model also provides a vertical profile, when the galaxy is viewed edge-on, consisting of two-exponential components. However, it is found that an incredibly low absorption coefficient of kappa_0 ~ 0.4-0.8 kpc^{-1} at the galactic plane, or, equivalently, an effective cross-section as low as sigma_eff ~ 10^{-5} of the photoionization cross-section at 912A is required to allow the stellar Lyc photons...

  16. Aerial surveillance for gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines using a flame ionization detector (FID)

    SciTech Connect

    Riquetti, P.V.; Fletcher, J.I.; Minty, C.D. [Airwave Environmental Technologies, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A novel application for the detection of airborne hydrocarbons has been successfully developed by means of a highly sensitive, fast responding Flame Ionization Detector (FID). The traditional way to monitor pipeline leaks has been by ground crews using specific sensors or by airborne crews highly trained to observe anomalies associated with leaks during periodic surveys of the pipeline right-of-way. The goal has been to detect leaks in a fast and cost effective way before the associated spill becomes a costly and hazardous problem. This paper describes a leak detection system combined with a global positioning system (GPS) and a computerized data output designed to pinpoint the presence of hydrocarbons in the air space of the pipeline`s right of way. Fixed wing aircraft as well as helicopters have been successfully used as airborne platforms. Natural gas, crude oil and finished products pipelines in Canada and the US have been surveyed using this technology with excellent correlation between the aircraft detection and in situ ground detection. The information obtained is processed with a proprietary software and reduced to simple coordinates. Results are transferred to ground crews to effect the necessary repairs.

  17. WFPC2 Imaging of the Multiphase Halos of Two Spiral Galaxies: Dust and Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueff, Katherine; Pitterle, M.; Hirschauer, A.; Lehner, N.; Howk, C.

    2006-12-01

    We present high-resolution optical images of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the thick disks of the spiral galaxies NGC 4013 and NGC 4302. Our broadband (BVI) images acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope’s WFPC2 show extensive extraplanar dust clouds seen in absorption against the background stellar light, while our narrow-band H-alpha images taken with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope show the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in these galaxies. The dusty, thick disk clouds visible in our WFPC2 images, which can be found to heights approaching 2 kpc from the midplanes of these galaxies, trace a phase of the ISM that shows significant structure on quite small scales. In general this material is seen to be highly filamentary. By contrast, the thick disk DIG in these galaxies has significantly smoother distribution. We note several unresolved knots of H-alpha emission which may represent thick disk H II regions. We discuss the relationship of the dust-bearing clouds and the DIG in these galaxies.

  18. LARGE-SCALE SHOCK-IONIZED AND PHOTOIONIZED GAS IN M83: THE IMPACT OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Carollo, Marcella [Department of Physics, ETH-Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Disney, Michael J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Frogel, Jay A. [Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Hall, Donald [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kimble, Randy A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); O'Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Paresce, Francesco [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Silk, Joseph I. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Trauger, John T. [NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Walker, Alistair R., E-mail: wpb@pha.jhu.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

    2011-04-10

    We investigate the ionization structure of the nebular gas in M83 using the line diagnostic diagram, [O III](5007 A)/H{beta} versus [S II](6716 A+6731 A)/H{alpha}, with the newly available narrowband images from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We produce the diagnostic diagram on a pixel-by-pixel (0.''2 x 0.''2) basis and compare it with several photo- and shock-ionization models. We select four regions from the center to the outer spiral arm and compare them in the diagnostic diagram. For the photoionized gas, we observe a gradual increase of the log ([O III]/H{beta}) ratios from the center to the spiral arm, consistent with the metallicity gradient, as the H II regions go from super-solar abundance to roughly solar abundance from the center out. Using the diagnostic diagram, we separate the photoionized from the shock-ionized component of the gas. We find that the shock-ionized H{alpha} emission ranges from {approx}2% to about 15%-33% of the total, depending on the separation criteria used. An interesting feature in the diagnostic diagram is a horizontal distribution around log ([O III]/H{beta}) {approx} 0. This feature is well fit by a shock-ionization model with 2.0 Z{sub sun} metallicity and shock velocities in the range of 250-350 km s{sup -1}. A low-velocity shock component, <200 km s{sup -1}, is also detected and is spatially located at the boundary between the outer ring and the spiral arm. The low-velocity shock component can be due to (1) supernova remnants located nearby, (2) dynamical interaction between the outer ring and the spiral arm, and (3) abnormal line ratios from extreme local dust extinction. The current data do not enable us to distinguish among those three possible interpretations. Our main conclusion is that, even at the HST resolution, the shocked gas represents a small fraction of the total ionized gas emission at less than 33% of the total. However, it accounts for virtually all of the mechanical energy produced by the central starburst in M83.

  19. Tracing kinematic (mis)alignments in CALIFA merging galaxies: Stellar and ionized gas kinematic orientations at every merger stage

    E-print Network

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J K; Falcón-Barroso, J; van de Ven, G; Lyubenova, M; Wild, V; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez, S F; Marquez, I; Masegosa, J; Monreal-Ibero, A; Ziegler, B; del Olmo, A; Verdes-Montenegro, L; García-Benito, R; Husemann, B; Mast, D; Kehrig, C; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Marino, R A; Aguerri, J A L; Walcher, C J; Vílchez, J M; Bomans, D J; Cortijo-Ferrero, C; Delgado, R M González; Bland-Hawthorn, J; McIntosh, D H; Bekeraite, Simona

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially resolved stellar and/or ionized gas kinematic properties for a sample of 103 interacting galaxies, tracing all merger stages: close companions, pairs with morphological signatures of interaction, and coalesced merger remnants. We compare our sample with 80 non-interacting galaxies. We measure for the stellar and the ionized gas components the major (projected) kinematic position angles (PA$_{\\mathrm{kin}}$, approaching and receding) directly from the velocity fields with no assumptions on the internal motions. This method allow us to derive the deviations of the kinematic PAs from a straight line ($\\delta$PA$_{\\mathrm{kin}}$). Around half of the interacting objects show morpho-kinematic PA misalignments that cannot be found in the control sample. Those misalignments are present mostly in galaxies with morphological signatures of interaction. Alignment between the kinematic sides for both samples is similar, with most of the galaxies displaying small misalignments. Radial deviations of the...

  20. Gas-phase Meerwein reaction of epoxides with protonated acetonitrile generated by atmospheric pressure ionizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lianming Wu; David Q. Liu; Alireza S. Kord

    2010-01-01

    Ethylnitrilium ion can be generated by protonation of acetonitrile (when used as the LC-MS mobile phase) under the conditions\\u000a of atmospheric pressure ionizations, including electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\u000a (APCI) as well as atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Ethylnitrilium ion ($$CH_3 - C \\\\equiv \\\\mathop N\\\\limits^ + H$$ and its canonical form $$CH_3 - \\\\mathop C\\\\limits^ + =

  1. Axisymmetric Expansion of an Ionized Propellant Gas Under the Effect of Magnetic Fields in Advanced Rocket Nozzle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora Elia Gonzalez Villarreal

    1994-01-01

    An iterative finite-difference mathematical model is formulated to predict the effect of magnetic fields applied to an ionized propellant gas expanding through a converging-diverging rocket nozzle. The numerical model solves the fluid mechanical equations of motion combined with energy and electromagnetic equations. A multi-step pressure correction procedure with an implicit density treatment is used to establish the pressure and velocity

  2. Gas chromatography negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry: application to the detection of alkyl nitrates and halocarbons in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Mills, Graham P; Oram, David E; Sturges, William T

    2008-08-01

    Alkyl nitrates and very short-lived halocarbon species are important atmospheric trace gas species that are present in the low to sub parts per trillion concentration range. This presents an analytical challenge for their detection and quantification that requires instrumentation with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this paper, we present a new in situ gas chromatograph negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer (GC/NICI-MS) coupled to a non-cryogen sample pre-concentration system. This instrument, with detection limits of <0.01 ppt, is capable of detecting and quantifying a large suite of alkyl nitrate and halocarbon species with high sensitivity and precision. The effects of ion source temperature and reagent gas pressure on the ionization efficiency of the NICI mode are investigated and the results are used to optimize the sensitivity. The NICI mode is compared to the more frequently used electron impact (EI) ionization and the enhancements in sensitivity are presented for all the calibrated compounds. PMID:18586255

  3. Low-Ionization Emission Regions in Quasars: Gas Properties Probed with Broad O I and Ca II Lines

    E-print Network

    Y. Matsuoka; K. Kawara; S. Oyabu

    2007-12-19

    We have compiled the emission-line fluxes of O I 8446, O I 11287, and the near-IR Ca II triplet (8579) observed in 11 quasars. These lines are considered to emerge from the same gas as do the Fe II lines in the low-ionized portion of the broad emission line region (BELR). The compiled quasars are distributed over wide ranges of redshift (0.06 gas properties in various quasar environments. The measured line strengths and velocities, as functions of the quasar properties, are analyzed using photoionization model calculations. We found that the flux ratio between Ca II and O I 8446 is hardly dependent on the redshift or luminosity, indicating similar gas density in the emission region from quasar to quasar. On the other hand, a scatter of the O I 11287/8446 ratios appears to imply the diversity of the ionization parameter. These facts invoke a picture of the line-emitting gases in quasars that have similar densities and are located at regions exposed to various ionizing radiation fluxes. The observed O I line widths are found to be remarkably similar over more than 3 orders of magnitude in luminosity, which indicates a kinematically determined location of the emission region and is in clear contrast to the well-studied case of H I lines. We also argue about the dust presence in the emission region since the region is suggested to be located near the dust sublimation point at the outer edge of the BELR.

  4. Two-dimensional Kinematical and Ionization Structure of the Warm Gas in the Nuclear Regions of Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Santiago; Colina, Luis; Clements, David

    2001-10-01

    Integral field optical spectroscopy using the INTEGRAL system has been used to characterize the kinematic and ionization properties of the warm gas within 2 kpc of the dust-enshrouded nucleus of Arp 220. Owing to the large internal extinction toward the nuclei, the brightest stellar and line-emitting regions observed at optical wavelengths do not coincide with the dust-enshrouded near-infrared and radio nuclei of Arp 220 but are located northwest of the nucleus at a distance of about 750 pc. Moreover, although the continuum and the line-emitting gas share similar distributions, their emission peaks are displaced, with the H? emission peak located at about 300 pc southwest of the optical stellar continuum emission peak. A line decomposition analysis has been performed in the complex and high spatially variable emission-line profiles. Three different kinematically distinct and extended gaseous components have been identified in the ionized gas. One narrow component (R) indicates rotation, while the other two components (O and B) are well interpreted by the presence of a biconical outflow. Specifically, the rotational component R traces quiescent gas located in a nuclear disk with the spin axis along the southeast-northwest direction (P.A. 135°). This component of ionized gas seems to be coupled with the 100 kpc disklike H I gas and the 1 kpc molecular disk detected in CO (Scoville et al.). The inclination-corrected rotational velocities imply a dynamical mass (Mdyn) of 2×1010 Msolar within a radius of 1.5 kpc. This relatively high value indicates a large mass concentration in the nuclear region of Arp 220, as Scoville et al. already inferred by the presence of 5×109 Msolar of molecular gas in a nuclear, 0.5 kpc disk. One of the outflow components, O, has peak-to-peak velocities of 1000 km s-1. The broad component B, with an average width of 815 km s-1, is detected at about 600 pc northwest of the dust-enshrouded nucleus and is blueshifted by 300 km s-1 with respect to the system velocity. The two-dimensional distribution and kinematics of the components are consistent with a bipolar cone geometry with an opening angle of about 90° and are perpendicular to the nuclear disk of gas, as expected in the starburst-driven galactic wind scenario proposed by Heckman, Armus, & Miley. In most of the observed regions, the ionization status of the different gas components is consistent with a shock-heated LINER-like or Seyfert 2 nebula as judged by the [N II]/H? and [S II]/H? emission-line ratios. Although the [O III] and H? lines are undetected in most of the regions, the brightest zone located northwest of the nucleus could be classified as a Seyfert 2 nebula based on the additional constraint given by the measured lower limit (>=5) for the [O III]/H? ratio. There is no evidence of excitation gradients along the symmetry axis of the outflow nor of a biconical ionization structure, which suggests that the ionizing field is homogeneous and less collimated than the gas outflow. However, there are four clearly identified extranuclear regions where the [N II]/H? ratio decreases by a factor of 5 and is close to the typical values of H II regions. None of these regions are in spatial agreement with the star clusters found in the infrared by Scoville et al., confirming that they must be relatively old globular clusters.

  5. Diffuse ionized gas in spiral galaxies and the disk-halo interaction

    E-print Network

    R. J. Reynolds; L. M. Haffner; G. J. Madsen; K. Wood; A. S. Hill

    2008-12-22

    Thick layers of warm, low density ionized hydrogen (i.e., the warm ionized medium or WIM) in spiral galaxies provide direct evidence for an interaction between the disk and halo. The wide-spread ionization implies that a significant fraction of the Lyman continuum photons from O stars, produced primarily in isolated star forming regions near the midplane and often surrounded by opaque clouds of neutral hydrogen, is somehow able to propagate large distances through the disk and into the halo. Moreover, even though O stars are the source of the ionization, the temperature and ionization state of the WIM differ significantly from what is observed in the classical O star H II regions. Therefore, the existence of the WIM and observations of its properties provide information about the structure of the interstellar medium and the transport of energy away from the midplane as well as place significant constraints on models.

  6. SIGGMA: A Survey of Ionized Gas in the Galaxy, Made with the Arecibo Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; McIntyre, T.; Terzian, Y.; Minchin, R.; Anderson, L.; Churchwell, E.; Lebron, M.; Anish Roshi, D.

    2013-10-01

    A Survey of Ionized Gas in the Galaxy, made with the Arecibo telescope (SIGGMA), uses the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) to fully sample the Galactic plane (30° <= l <= 75° and -2° <= b <= 2° 175° <= l <= 207° and -2° <= b <= 1°) observable with the telescope in radio recombination lines (RRLs). Processed data sets are being produced in the form of data cubes of 2° (along l) × 4° (along b) × 151 (number of channels), archived and made public. The 151 channels cover a velocity range of 600 km s-1 and the velocity resolution of the survey changes from 4.2 km s-1 to 5.1 km s-1 from the lowest frequency channel to the highest frequency channel. RRL maps with 3.'4 resolution and a line flux density sensitivity of ~0.5 mJy will enable us to identify new H II regions, measure their electron temperatures, study the physics of photodissociation regions with carbon RRLs, and investigate the origin of the extended low-density medium. Twelve Hn? lines fall within the 300 MHz bandpass of ALFA; they are resampled to a common velocity resolution to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) by a factor of three or more and preserve the line width. SIGGMA will produce the most sensitive fully sampled RRL survey to date. Here, we discuss the observing and data reduction techniques in detail. A test observation toward the H II region complex S255/S257 has detected Hn? and Cn? lines with S/N > 10.

  7. Integral Field Unit Observations of NGC 891: Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George H.; Rand, Richard J.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2006-08-01

    We present high and moderate spectral resolution spectroscopy of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) emission in the halo of NGC 891. The data were obtained with the SparsePak integral field unit at the WIYN Observatory. The wavelength coverage includes the [N II] ??6548, 6583, H?, and [S II] ??6716, 6731 emission lines. Position-velocity (PV) diagrams, constructed using spectra extracted from four SparsePak pointings in the halo, are used to examine the kinematics of the DIG. Using two independent methods, a vertical gradient in azimuthal velocity is found to be present in the northeast quadrant of the halo, with magnitude approximately 15-18 km s-1 kpc-1, in agreement with results from H I observations. The kinematics of the DIG suggests that this gradient begins at approximately 1 kpc above the midplane. In another part of the halo, the southeast quadrant, the kinematics is markedly different and suggest rotation at about 175 km s-1, much slower than the disk but with no vertical gradient. We use an entirely ballistic model of disk-halo flow in an attempt to reproduce the kinematics observed in the northeast quadrant. Analysis shows that the velocity gradient predicted by the ballistic model is far too shallow. Based on intensity cuts made parallel to the major axis in the ballistic model and an H? image of NGC 891 from the literature, we conclude that the DIG halo is much more centrally concentrated than the model, suggesting that hydrodynamics dominate over ballistic motion in shaping the density structure of the halo. Velocity dispersion measurements along the minor axis of NGC 891 seem to indicate a lack of radial motions in the halo, but the uncertainties do not allow us to set firm limits.

  8. SIGGMA: A SURVEY OF IONIZED GAS IN THE GALAXY, MADE WITH THE ARECIBO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); McIntyre, T. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Terzian, Y. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Minchin, R. [Arecibo Observatory, HC03 Box 53995, Arecibo 00612, PR (United States); Anderson, L. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Churchwell, E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lebron, M. [University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23323, 00931-3323, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Roshi, D. Anish [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank and Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    A Survey of Ionized Gas in the Galaxy, made with the Arecibo telescope (SIGGMA), uses the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) to fully sample the Galactic plane (30 Degree-Sign {<=} l {<=} 75 Degree-Sign and -2 Degree-Sign {<=} b {<=} 2 Degree-Sign ; 175 Degree-Sign {<=} l {<=} 207 Degree-Sign and -2 Degree-Sign {<=} b {<=} 1 Degree-Sign ) observable with the telescope in radio recombination lines (RRLs). Processed data sets are being produced in the form of data cubes of 2 Degree-Sign (along l) Multiplication-Sign 4 Degree-Sign (along b) Multiplication-Sign 151 (number of channels), archived and made public. The 151 channels cover a velocity range of 600 km s{sup -1} and the velocity resolution of the survey changes from 4.2 km s{sup -1} to 5.1 km s{sup -1} from the lowest frequency channel to the highest frequency channel. RRL maps with 3.'4 resolution and a line flux density sensitivity of {approx}0.5 mJy will enable us to identify new H II regions, measure their electron temperatures, study the physics of photodissociation regions with carbon RRLs, and investigate the origin of the extended low-density medium. Twelve Hn{alpha} lines fall within the 300 MHz bandpass of ALFA; they are resampled to a common velocity resolution to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) by a factor of three or more and preserve the line width. SIGGMA will produce the most sensitive fully sampled RRL survey to date. Here, we discuss the observing and data reduction techniques in detail. A test observation toward the H II region complex S255/S257 has detected Hn{alpha} and Cn{alpha} lines with S/N > 10.

  9. HII region G46.5-0.2: the interplay between ionizing radiation, molecular gas and star formation

    E-print Network

    Paron, S; Dubner, G; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A; Giacani, E; Li, Jin Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2015-01-01

    HII regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing towards the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas, where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic HII region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target to perform this kind of studies. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J=1-0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J=3-2, HCO+ and HCN J=4-3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment and the young stellar objects placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge...

  10. An Ultra-Trace Analysis Technique for SF6 Using Gas Chromatography with Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jong, Edmund C; Macek, Paul V; Perera, Inoka E; Luxbacher, Kray D; McNair, Harold M

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely used as a tracer gas because of its detectability at low concentrations. This attribute of SF6 allows the quantification of both small-scale flows, such as leakage, and large-scale flows, such as atmospheric currents. SF6's high detection sensitivity also facilitates greater usage efficiency and lower operating cost for tracer deployments by reducing quantity requirements. The detectability of SF6 is produced by its high molecular electronegativity. This property provides a high potential for negative ion formation through electron capture thus naturally translating to selective detection using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NCI-MS). This paper investigates the potential of using gas chromatography (GC) with NCI-MS for the detection of SF6. The experimental parameters for an ultra-trace SF6 detection method utilizing minimal customizations of the analytical instrument are detailed. A method for the detection of parts per trillion (ppt) level concentrations of SF6 for the purpose of underground ventilation tracer gas analysis was successfully developed in this study. The method utilized a Shimadzu gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry system equipped with an Agilent J&W HP-porous layer open tubular column coated with an alumina oxide (Al2O3) S column. The method detection limit (MDL) analysis as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency of the tracer data showed the method MDL to be 5.2 ppt. PMID:25452581

  11. Origins of Highly Ionized Gas in High-Velocity Clouds Andrew J. Fox

    E-print Network

    , exterior medium. This hot medium is likely an extended, million-degree Galactic corona that can provide using ballistic modelling. Such an outflow would have to be patchy and out of collisional ionization

  12. CNT-based gas ionizers with integrated MEMS gate for portable mass spectrometry applications

    E-print Network

    Velasquez-Garcia, Luis Fernando

    We report the fabrication and experimental characterization of a novel low-cost carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electron impact ionizer (EII) with integrated gate for portable mass spectrometry applications. The device achieves ...

  13. Ionization of the diffuse gas in galaxies: Hot low-mass evolved stars at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Morisset, C.; Stasinska, G.; Binette, L.

    2011-10-01

    The Diffuse Ionized Medium (DIG) is visible through its faint optical line emission outside classical HII regions (Reynolds 1971) and turns out to be a major component of the interstellar medium in galaxies. OB stars in galaxies likely represent the main source of ionizing photons for the DIG. However, an additional source is needed to explain the increase of [NII]/H?, [SII]/H? with galactic height.

  14. A neutral strongly coupled laser-produced plasma by strong-field ionization in a gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeson, S. D.; Lyon, M.; Peatross, J. B.; Harrison, N.; Crunkleton, D.; Wilson, J.; Rupper, S.; Diaw, A.; Murillo, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    We report measurements of a neutral strongly coupled plasma generated by focusing a femtosecond-duration laser pulse into a room-temperature gas jet. The ion temperature in this plasma is determined by the plasma density through the disorder-induced heating effect. We present measurements of the mass, radius, and energy dependence of the time-varying ion density as the plasma expands. Molecular dynamics model indicate that higher values of the strong coupling parameter could be achieved if the plasma is ionized again by a second laser pulse that follows the first one. However, the final value of the coupling parameter appears to be only weakly dependent on the final ionization state.

  15. Kinematics of Ionized Gas in the Dusty Nuclear Disk in NGC 6251; An Excellent Candidate for a Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland

    1996-07-01

    We propose to use narrow-band WFPC2 images and FOS spectra to study the morphology and dynamics of the ionized gas in the nuclear disk of the elliptical galaxy NGC 6251. Our aim is to study the disk around the active nucleus, and to establish the presence and mass of a central, massive black hole, following the same procedure that led to a successful detection of black holes in M87 and NGC 4261 {Ford et al. 1994, Harmes et al. 1994, Ferrarese et al. 1996}. NGC 6251 is ideal for this type of study; as in M87 and NGC 4261 {Ford et al. 1994, Jaffe et al. 1994}, NGC 6251 harbors a small nuclear dust disk {O'Neil and Lynds, 1994}, and is a very powerful radio galaxy. The minor axis of the dust disk is aligned with the spectacular 100 kpc radio jet and the axis of the Mpc scale radio lobes {Waggett, Warner, and Baldwin, 1977}, an alignment also found in M87 and NGC 4261, suggesting that the NGC 6251 disk is causally related to the nuclear activity. Nuclear disks of ionized gas and dust provide a powerful way to measure the central potential. Indeed, HST/FOS spectra of M87 and NGC 4261 {Harms et al. 1994, Ferrarese et al. 1996} allowed us to study the orbital motion of the ionized gas in the nuclear disks, and enabled measurement of central masses of 2.4X10^9 solar masses and 1.2X10^9 solar masses in the two galaxies.

  16. Fast gas chromatography and negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for forensic analysis of cannabinoids in whole blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurélien Thomas; Christèle Widmer; Gérard Hopfgartner; Christian Staub

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes a fast gas chromatography\\/negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric assay (Fast GC\\/NICI-MS\\/MS) for analysis of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in whole blood. The cannabinoids were extracted from 500?L of whole blood by a simple liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) and then derivatized by using trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as fluorinated agents. Mass spectrometric

  17. Restoration of RI-beams from a projectile fragment separator by Laser Ionization gas Catcher-PALIS-

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, T.; Takamine, A.; Schury, P.; Yamazaki, Y. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wada, M. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitame 351-0198 (Japan); Okada, K. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Yoshida, A.; Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Furukawa, T. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitame 351-0198 (Japan); Wakui, T.; Shinozuka, T. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-0191 (Japan); Iimura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan); Katayama, I. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohtani, S. [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Wollnik, H. [II. Physikalisches Institute, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M Universirty, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.; Huyse, M. [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-03-17

    A fragment separator at heavy ion accelerator facilities is a versatile instrument to provide wide variety of radioactive isotope (RI) beams. However, more than 99.99% of precious RI-ions are simply dumped in the slits or elsewhere in the fragment separator. A novel concept to restore such RI-ions for parasitic slow RI-beams is proposed. Installation of a laser ionization gas catcher in the vicinity of the first or second focal point of the fragment separator enables to collect dead isotopes in the slits. The design concept and expected performance are discussed.

  18. Comparison of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Electron Ionization and Negative-Ion Chemical Ionization for Analyses of Pesticides at Trace Levels in Atmospheric Samples

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Renata; Hall, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of detection limits of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with both electron ionization (EI) and negative-ion chemical ionization (NCI) are presented for over 50 pesticides ranging from organochlorines (OCs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and pre-emergent herbicides used in the Canadian prairies (triallate, trifluralin, ethalfluralin). The developed GC-EI/SIM, GC-NCI/SIM, and GC-NCI/SRM are suitable for the determination of pesticides in air sample extracts at concentrations <100 pg ?L?1 (<100 pg m?3 in air). No one method could be used to analyze the range of pre-emergent herbicides, OPs, and OCs investigated. In general GC-NCI/SIM provided the lowest method detection limits (MDLs commonly 2.5–10 pg ?L?1) along with best confirmation (<25% RSD of ion ratio), while GC-NCI/SRM is recommended for use where added selectivity or confirmation is required (such as parathion-ethyl, tokuthion, carbofenothion). GC-EI/SRM at concentration <100 pg ?L?1 was not suitable for most pesticides. GC-EI/SIM was more prone to interference issues than NCI methods, but gave good sensitivity (MDLs 1–10 pg ?L?1) for pesticides with poor NCI response (OPs: sulfotep, phorate, aspon, ethion, and OCs: alachlor, aldrin, perthane, and DDE, DDD, DDT). PMID:19609395

  19. Gas-phase stability of G-quadruplex DNA determined by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and molecular dynamics simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn L. Mazzitelli; Junmei Wang; Suncerae I. Smith; Jennifer S. Brodbelt

    2007-01-01

    The relative gas-phase stabilities of seven quadruplex DNA structures, [d(TG4T)]4, [d(T2G3T)]4, [d(G4T4G4)]2, [d(T2AG3)2]2, d(T2AG3)4, d(T2G4)4, and d(G2T4)4, were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). MD simulations\\u000a revealed that the G-quadruplexes maintained their structures in the gas phase although the G-quartets were distorted to some\\u000a degree and ammonium ions, retained by [d(TG4T)]4 and [d(T2G3T)]4, played a

  20. H II Region G46.5-0.2: The Interplay between Ionizing Radiation, Molecular Gas, and Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Zeng Li, Jin; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2015-06-01

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J = 1–0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J = 3–2, HCO+, and HCN J = 4–3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10? to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 ?m and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  1. Ionization in a frozen Rydberg gas with attractive or repulsive potentials Matthieu Viteau1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , and such a sample resembles an amorphous solid. Since Rydberg atoms have large dipole moments, scaling as the square is excited, a phenomenon termed the dipole blockade. Local, or partial, blockades have been observed in many of the atoms are ionized and one third are driven to lower states to provide the requisite energy [11, 14

  2. The Kinematics and Ionization of Nuclear Gas Clouds in Centaurus A

    E-print Network

    Bicknell, Geoffrey V; Neumayer, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Neumayer et al. established the existence of a blue-shifted cloud in the core of Centaurus A, within a few parsecs of the nucleus and close to the radio jet. We propose that the cloud has been impacted by the jet, and that it is in the foreground of the jet, accounting for its blue-shifted emission on the Southern side of the nucleus. We consider both shock excitation and photoionization models for the excitation of the cloud. Shock models do not account for the [SiVI] and [CaVIII] emission line fluxes. However, X-ray observations indicate a source of ionizing photons in the core of Centaurus A; photoionization by the inferred flux incident on the cloud can account for the fluxes in these lines relative to Brackett-gamma. The power-law slope of the ionizing continuum matches that inferred from synchrotron models of the X-rays. The logarithm of the ionization parameter is -1.9, typical of that in Seyfert galaxies and consistent with the value proposed for dusty ionized plasmas. The model cloud density depends ...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to measure CH4 concentrations...requirements. We recommend that you use a GC-FID that meets the specifications in...incorporated by reference in § 1065.1010). The GC-FID must meet the linearity...

  4. ORFEUS Observations of G191-B2B: Neutral and Ionized Gas in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, M.; Bowyer, S.

    1995-06-01

    We present high-resolution (?/?? = 3000) observations of far-ultraviolet (900-1170 Å) absorption lines in the spectrum of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B, collected with the Berkeley EUV/FUV spectrometer in the ORFEUS telescope aboard the space platform Astro-SPAS during the mission of space shuttle Discovery flown in 1993 September. Lines of H I, C II, C* II, C III, N I, N II, N III, and O I are detected, and useful upper limits are set on C I and O VI. The apparent position of the H I "Lyman edge," actually the convergence of many lines approaching the H I ionization potential, determines a narrow range of allowed values for the broadening parameter b for H I; equivalent widths of discrete H I features in combination with the column density of H I determined from Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer observations (Dupuis et al. 1995) confirm this range. We find bH I = 11.0±1.0 km s-1. Features of O I allow us to estimate the temperature and turbulence (?) in the gas containing the neutral species; we find 6200 < T < 8700 K and ? < 4.3 km s-1. If the temperature and turbulence are similar to those found by Linsky et al. (1993) for the nearby line of sight to Capella, the column densities of the neutral species O I and N I are consistent with the column of H I and cosmic elemental abundances, suggesting similar ionization fractions for all three elements in the local cloud, and low depletion. The equivalent widths of the C II and N II features are significantly larger than would be expected from the local cloud gas unless hydrogen in the local cloud is very highly ionized. We rule out this possibility on the grounds that the resulting high electron density would overproduce the population of excited-state C* II, whose column density is constrained by our data, and requires ?H < 0.75 in the local cloud. We conclude that one or more additional clouds exist along the line of sight. The column density of hydrogen nuclei in gas beyond the local cloud could be as low as 4 × 1017 cm-2, if the local cloud ionization is at its upper limit and the region is well separated in velocity from the local cloud, or as high as 2 × 1018 cm-2, adopting Doppler b-values for carbon and nitrogen that reconcile their column densities with cosmic abundances in each case. Regardless of how the ionized gas is distributed between the local cloud and other regions, NH II is comparable to or significantly greater than NH I along the line of sight. Our upper limit to NO VI requires that there be no more than two conductive interfaces along the line of sight.

  5. Monte Carlo study of a highly efficient gas ionization detector for megavoltage imaging and image-guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Keller, H; Glass, M; Hinderer, R; Ruchala, K; Jeraj, R; Olivera, G; Mackie, T Rock

    2002-02-01

    The imaging characteristics of an arc-shaped xenon gas ionization chamber for the purpose of megavoltage CT imaging were investigated. The detector consists of several hundred 320 microm thick gas cavities separated by thin tungsten plates of the same thickness. Dose response, efficiency and resolution parameters were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculations were compared to measurements taken in a 4 MV photon beam, assuming that the measured signal in the chambers corresponds to the therein absorbed dose. The measured response profiles for narrow and broad incident photon beams could be well reproduced with the Monte Carlo calculations. They show, that the quantum efficiency is 29.2% and the detective quantum efficiency at zero frequency DQE(0) is 20.4% for the detector arc placed in focus with the photon source. For a detector placed out of focus, these numbers even increase. The efficiency of this kind of radiation detector for megavoltage radiation therefore surpasses the reported efficiency of existing detector technologies. The resolution of the detector is quantified with calculated and measured line spread functions. The corresponding modulation transfer functions were determined for different thicknesses of the tungsten plates. They show that the resolution is only slightly dependent on the plate thickness but is predominantly determined by the cell size of the detector. The optimal plate thickness is determined by a tradeoff between quantum efficiency, total signal generation and resolution. Thicker plates are more efficient but the total signal and the resolution decrease with plate thickness. In conclusion, a gas ionization chamber of the described type is a highly efficient megavoltage radiation detector, allowing to obtain CT images with very little dose for a sufficient image quality for anatomy verification. This kind of detector might serve as a model for a future generation of highly efficient radiation detectors. PMID:11865988

  6. Determination of nitrosamines in water by gas chromatography/chemical ionization/selective ion trapping mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Romina; Bocchini, Paola; Pinelli, Francesca; Galletti, Guido C

    2011-04-01

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for determination of nine N-nitrosamines (NAs) in water is described. Two ionization modes, electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) with methanol, as well as different ion analysis techniques, i.e. full scan, selected ion storage (SIS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were tested. Chemical ionization followed by SIS resulted the mass spectrometric method of choice, with detection limits in the range of 1-2ng/L. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) with coconut charcoal cartridges was applied to extract NAs from real samples, according EPA Method 521. Drinking water samples were collected from seven surface- and two groundwater treatment plants. Three surface water treatment plants were sampled before and after addition of O(3)/ClO(2) to observe the effect of disinfection on NAs' formation. N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), n-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA), n-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and n-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were found up to concentrations exceeding three times the risk level of 10ng/L set by the California Department of Public Health. Because dermal adsorption has been recently indicated as a new contamination route of exposure to NAs for people who practice swimming activity, water samples from five swimming pools in the Bologna (Italy) area were collected. N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) was detected in all samples at concentrations larger than 50ng/L, likely as a disinfection by-product from the amino acid precursor proline, a main constituent of skin collagen. PMID:21377686

  7. Detection of [O I] ?6300 and Other Diagnostic Emission Lines in the Diffuse Ionized Gas of M33 with Gemini-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voges, E. S.; Walterbos, R. A. M.

    2006-06-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in M33 near the H II region NGC 604. We present the first detection of [O I] ?6300 in the DIG of M33, one of the critical lines for distinguishing photoionization from shock ionization models. We measure [O I]/H? in the range of 0.04-0.10 and an increase in this ratio with decreasing emission measure. Our measurements of [S II]/H? and [N II]/H? also rise with decreasing emission measure, while our [O III]/H? measurements remain fairly constant. We have one tentative detection of He I in the region of brightest emission measure, with a ratio of He I/H? = 0.033 +/- 0.019, indicating that the helium is at least partially ionized. We compare our observed emission-line ratios to photoionization models and find that field star ionization models do not fit our data well. Leaky H II region models are consistent with our data, without the need to invoke additional ionization mechanisms to fit our [O I] or [O III] measurements. The closest large H II region is NGC 604 and is therefore a likely candidate for the source of the ionizing photons for the gas in this region.

  8. A VUV photoionization measurement and ab-initio calculation of the ionization energy of gas phase SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Metz, Ricardo B.

    2008-12-05

    In this work we report on the detection and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of gas phase SiO2 generated in situ via laser ablation of silicon in a CO2 molecular beam. The resulting species are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable VUV synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are recorded for SiO and SiO2 and ionization energy estimates are revealed from such measurements. A state-to-state ionizationenergy of 12.60 (+-0.05) eV is recorded by fitting two prominent peaks in the PIE curve for the following process: 1SUM O-Si-O --> 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+. Electronic structure calculations aid in the interpretation of the photoionization process and allow for identification of the symmetric stretch of 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+ which is observed in the PIE spectrum to be 0.11 eV (890 cm-1) above the ground state of the cation and agrees with the 892 cm-1 symmetric stretch frequency calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level.

  9. Isotopologue analysis of sugar phosphates in yeast cell extracts by gas chromatography chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dinh Binh; Troyer, Christina; Mairinger, Teresa; Ortmayr, Karin; Neubauer, Stefan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic flux analysis is based on the measurement of isotopologue ratios. In this work, a new GC-MS-based method was introduced enabling accurate determination of isotopologue distributions of sugar phosphates in cell extracts. A GC-TOFMS procedure was developed involving a two-step online derivatization (ethoximation followed by trimethylsilylation) offering high mass resolution, high mass accuracy and the potential of retrospective data analysis typical for TOFMS. The information loss due to fragmentation intrinsic for isotopologue analysis by electron ionization could be overcome by chemical ionization with methane. A thorough optimization regarding pressure of the reaction gas, emission current, electron energy and temperature of the ion source was carried out. For a substantial panel of sugar phosphates both of the glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, sensitive determination of the protonated intact molecular ions together with low abundance fragment ions was successfully achieved. The developed method was evaluated for analysis of Pichia pastoris cell extracts. The measured isotopologue ratios were in the range of 55:1-2:1. The comparison of the experimental isotopologue fractions with the theoretical fractions was excellent, revealing a maximum bias of 4.6% and an average bias of 1.4%. PMID:25673246

  10. Pulsed discharge helium ionization detector with multiple combined bias/collecting electrodes for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huamin; Stearns, Stanley D

    2013-04-01

    A pulsed discharge ionization detector (PDHID) with multiple combined bias/collecting electrodes (MC-PDHID) has been developed. Unlike most ionization detector designs with only one collecting electrode, the MC-PDHID builds multiple electrodes inside the detector cell. Each electrode serves as both a bias and a collecting electrode, thus gathering more information from the detector cell and improving PDHIP performance. The advantages of the MC-PDHID are: (1) sensitivity is increased by a factor of 2-3 times as compared with a single collecting electrode PDHID; (2) peak symmetry is improved, especially for narrow peaks; (3) it is possible to use a lower helium flow rate without compromising peak tailing; (4) linear dynamic range is increased by an order of magnitude through the calibration of electron and ion response factors; (5) certain groups of compounds can be identified. For example, if a trace amount of water is used as a dopant, the detector can identify alcohols and compounds with a hydrogen bond, since these compounds interact with the water coated on the wall in the detector cell which makes them stay in the detector cell longer than other compounds. In this research, the detector is characterized with different detector temperatures, flow rates, bias electrical potential arrangements, and bias potential polarities. PMID:23484651

  11. Far-Ultraviolet and H? Imaging of Nearby Spiral Galaxies: The OB Stellar Population in the Diffuse Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopes, Charles G.; Walterbos, René A. M.; Bothun, Gregory D.

    2001-10-01

    We have compared H? and far-ultraviolet (FUV) images of 10 nearby spirals, with the goal of understanding the contribution of field OB stars to the ionization of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in spiral galaxies. The FUV images were obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), and the H? images were obtained using various ground-based telescopes. In all of the galaxies, the FH?/FUIT flux ratio is lower in the DIG than in the H II regions. This is likely an indication that the mean spectral type for OB stars in the field is later than that in H II regions. Comparison of the NLyc/LUIT ratio with models of evolving stellar populations shows that the stellar population in the DIG is consistent with either an older single-burst population or a steady state model with constant star formation and an initial mass function (IMF) slope steeper than ?=2.35. The steady state model is probably a more realistic representation of the stellar population outside of H II regions. The steep IMF slope simulates the steep present-day mass function slope expected for field OB stars and does not necessarily indicate that the IMF slope is actually steeper than ?=2.35. We compared the FH?/FUIT ratio in the DIG of these galaxies with that in M33, in which the field OB stellar population has previously been investigated using Hubble Space Telescope images. If the mean spectral types of stars in H II regions and in the DIG are the same as in M33 and the difference in extinction between DIG and H II regions is constant among galaxies, then the analysis suggests that field stars are important sources of ionization in most galaxies and may be the dominant source in some galaxies. The FH?/FUIT ratio is correlated with H? surface brightness in both DIG and H II regions, although there is a large scatter in faint H II regions, which may be due to undersampling the IMF in regions with a low total mass of stars formed. The FH?/FUIT ratio is often highest in the centers of galaxies and in the spiral arms, which is also where the DIG is brightest. This can be explained if the extinction is greater in these regions or if the fraction of DIG ionized by leakage is lower in the interarm regions.

  12. Trace analysis of residual methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate and isopropyl methanesulfonate in pharmaceuticals by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiyong Li

    2004-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method using flame ionization detection was developed and validated for the trace analysis (ppm level) of methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, and isopropyl methanesulfonate in pharmaceutical drug substance. The method utilizes a megabore capillary column with bonded and crosslinked polyethylene glycol stationary phase. A dissolve-and-injection approach was adopted for sample introduction in a splitless mode. The investigated

  13. On the copper oxide neutral cluster distribution in the gas phase: Detection through 355 nm and 193 nm multiphoton and 118 nm single photon ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Matsuda; D. N. Shin; E. R. Bernstein

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of neutral copper oxide clusters in the gas phase created by laser ablation is detected and characterized through time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (TOFMS). The neutral copper oxide clusters are ionized by two different approaches: Multiphoton absorption of 355 and 193 nm radiation; and single photon absorption of 118 nm radiation. Based on the observed cluster patterns as a function

  14. Penning ionization electron spectroscopy in glow discharge: another dimension for gas chromatography detectors.

    PubMed

    Sheverev, V A; Khromov, N A; Kojiro, D R

    2002-11-01

    Admixtures to helium of 100 and 5 ppm of nitrogen, and 100 and 10 ppm of carbon monoxide were identified and measured in the helium discharge afterglow using an electrical probe placed into the plasma. For nitrogen and carbon monoxide gases, the measured electron energy spectra display distinct characteristic peaks (fingerprints). Location of the peaks on the energy scale is determined by the ionization energies of the analyte molecules. Nitrogen and carbon monoxide fingerprints were also observed in a binary mixture of these gases in helium, and the relative concentration of analytes has been predicted. The technically simple and durable method is considered a good candidate for a number of analytical applications, and in particular, in GC and for analytical flight instrumentation. PMID:12433088

  15. On the origins of the diffuse H? emission: ionized gas or dust-scattered H? halos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Kwang-Il; Witt, Adolf N.

    2015-03-01

    We find that the dust-scattering origin of the diffuse H? emission cannot be ruled out. As opposed to the previous contention, the expected dust-scattered H? halos surrounding H II regions are, in fact, in good agreement with the observed H? morphology. We calculate an extensive set of photoionization models by varying elemental abundances, ionizing stellar types, and clumpiness of the interstellar medium (ISM) and find that the observed line ratios of [S II]/H?, [N II]/H?, and He I ?5876/H? in the diffuse ISM accord well with the dust-scattered halos around H II regions, which are photoionized by late O- and/or early B-type stars. We also demonstrate that the H? absorption feature in the underlying continuum from the dust-scattered starlight (``diffuse galactic light'') and unresolved stars is able to substantially increase the [S II]/H? and [N II]/H? line ratios in the diffuse ISM.

  16. Noise characteristics of the gas ionization cascade used in low vacuum scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tileli, Vasiliki; Thiel, Bradley L. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany-SUNY, 257 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Knowles, W. Ralph; Toth, Milos [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The noise characteristics of gas cascade amplified electron signals in low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) are described and analyzed. We derive expressions for each component contributing to the total noise culminating in a predictive, quantitative model that can be used for optimization of LVSEM operating parameters. Signal and noise behavior is characterized experimentally and used to validate the model. Under most operating conditions, the noise is dominated by the excess noise generated in the gas amplification cascade. At high gains, the excess noise increases proportionally with gain such that the signal-to-noise ratio is constant. The effects of several instrument operating parameters, including working distance, gas pressure, beam current, and detector bias, are condensed and presented in the form of a master curve.

  17. Neutral gas plasma interactions and critical ionization velocity phenomena. Interim report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Papadopoulos

    1983-01-01

    The interplay of collisional and collisionless phenomena in the interaction of a magnetoplasma streaming through neutral gas produces some of the most fascinating plasma physics phenomena. A key notion controlling such interactions is the existence of a critical velocity (U sub c) effect postulated in an ad hoc fashion by Alfven, in his model of the formation of the solar

  18. Neutral and ionized gas distribution in and around the radio galaxy Coma A

    E-print Network

    R. Morganti; T. Oosterloo; C. N. Tadhunter; K. A. Wills

    2000-09-06

    HI absorption has been detected with the WSRT against both lobes of the radio galaxy Coma A. This radio galaxy could be expanding in a particularly gas rich environment, perhaps the result from interactions/mergers between the dominant giant galaxy (associated with the radio galaxy) and less massive galaxies in the same group.

  19. Evidence for the interaction of the IRS 16 wind with the ionized and molecular gas at the Galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Wardle, Mark

    1993-01-01

    We present a number of high-resolution radio images showing evidence for the dynamical interaction of the outflow arising from the IRS 16 complex with the ionized gas associated with the Northern Arm of Sgr A West, and with the northwestern segment of the circumnuclear molecular disk which engulfs the inner few parsecs of the Galactic center. We suggest that the wind disturbs the dynamics of the Northern Arm within 0.1 pc of the center, is responsible for the waviness of the arm at larger distances, and is collimated by Sgr A West and the circumnuclear disk. The waviness is discussed in terms of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced by the ram pressure of the wind incident on the surface of the Northern Arm. Another consequence of this interaction is the strong mid-IR polarization of the Northern Arm in the vicinity of the IRS 16 complex which is explained as a result of the ram pressure of the wind compressing the gas and the magnetic field.

  20. [Gas chromatography with a Pulsed discharge helium ionization detector for measurement of molecular hydrogen(H2) in the atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Luan, Tian; Fang, Shuang-xi; Zhou, Ling-xi; Wang, Hong-yang; Zhang, Gen

    2015-01-01

    A high precision GC system with a pulsed discharge helium ionization detector was set up based on the commercial Agilent 7890A gas chromatography. The gas is identified by retention time and the concentration is calculated through the peak height. Detection limit of the system is about 1 x 10(-9) (mole fraction, the same as below). The standard deviation of 140 continuous injections with a standard cylinder( concentration is roughly 600 x 10(-9)) is better than 0.3 x 10(-9). Between 409.30 x 10(-9) and 867.74 x 10(-9) molecular hydrogen mole fractions and peak height have good linear response. By using two standards to quantify the air sample, the precision meets the background molecular hydrogen compatibility goal within the World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) program. Atmospheric molecular hydrogen concentration at Guangzhou urban area was preliminarily measured by this method from January to November 2013. The results show that the atmospheric molecular hydrogen mole fraction varies from 450 x 10(-9) to 700 x 10(-9) during the observation period, with the lowest value at 14:00 (Beijing time, the same as below) and the peak value at 20:00. The seasonal variation of atmospheric hydrogen at Guangzhou area was similar with that of the same latitude stations in northern hemisphere. PMID:25898644

  1. Energy transfer in noble-gas mixtures: Penning ionization in He\\/Xe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Shuker; A. Szoeke; E. Zamir; Y. Binur

    1975-01-01

    Following recent reports on strong uv and ir laser transitions in noble-gas mixtures, we attempted to determine the dominant precursor reactions leading to laser action. In this paper we present experimental results of time-dependent spectroscopy of the various species existing in He\\/Xe mixtures excited by fast transverse electrical discharges. We also present some parametric measurements of the He\\/Xe laser in

  2. The Black Hole in IC 1459 from Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Ionized Gas Disk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gijs A. Verdoes Kleijn; Roeland P. van der Marel; C. Marcella Carollo; P. Tim de Zeeuw

    2000-01-01

    The peculiar elliptical galaxy IC 1459 (MV=-21.19, D=16.5 h-1 Mpc) has a fast counterrotating stellar core, stellar shells and ripples, a blue nuclear point source, and strong radio core emission. We present results of a detailed Hubble Space Telescope study of IC 1459, and in particular its central gas disk, aimed at constraining the central mass distribution. We obtained WFPC2

  3. Fast gas chromatography negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry of explosive compounds using dynamic collision-induced dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Olivier L.; Zimmermann, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of nine explosive compounds by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using negative chemical ionization (NCI) was performed under two different conditions: first, a conventional GC separation coupled with a standard ion dissociation method in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) was performed in segmented selected reaction monitoring mode; second, a fast GC separation on a microbore capillary column was combined with a faster method of collisional activation in ion traps wherein fragmentation is deliberately accomplished during the mass acquisition scan. The conventional GC-MS/MS method provided separation times in 10 min with detection limits between 0.8 and 280 pg on column. The fast GC method with dynamic collision-induced dissociation (DCID) offered a confirmatory method for the analysis of high explosives with separation times under 2.5 min and detection limits between 0.5 and 5 pg on column, without any hardware modifications to the instrument. The implementation of DCID in combination with three-times-faster mass scanning allows the acquisition of tandem mass spectra to at least 5 Hz (while averaging three scans per spectrum). Although detection limits for GC-NCI-MS/MS using conventional CID or DCID are not quite on par with LODs achieved by GC-ECD, the combination of NCI with DCID tandem MS leads to detection limits at least comparable, if not superior, to other mass spectrometric methods. Selected reaction monitoring in the negative ionization mode is anticipated to offer the most selective approach to detecting explosives and eliminating potential interferences, which could ultimately lead to the best detection limits for real, contaminated samples.

  4. DENSITY OF WARM IONIZED GAS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: LOW RADIO FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Subhashis, E-mail: roy@ncra.tifr.res.in [NCRA-TIFR, Pune 411007 (India)

    2013-08-10

    We have observed the Galactic center (GC) region at 0.154 and 0.255 GHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. A total of 62 compact likely extragalactic (EG) sources are detected. Their scattering sizes decrease linearly with increasing angular distance from the GC up to about 1 Degree-Sign . The apparent scattering sizes of the sources are more than an order of magnitude less than predicted earlier by the NE2001 model of Galactic electron distribution within 359. Degree-Sign 5 < l < 0. Degree-Sign 5 and -0. Degree-Sign 5 < b < 0. Degree-Sign 5 (Hyperstrong Scattering Region) of the Galaxy. High free-free optical depths ({tau}) are observed toward most of the extended non-thermal sources within 0. Degree-Sign 6 from the GC. Significant variation of {tau} indicates that the absorbing medium is patchy at an angular scale of {approx}10' and n{sub e} is {approx}10 cm{sup -3}, which matches the NE2001 model. This model predicts the EG sources to be resolved out from 1.4 GHz interferometric surveys. However, out of 10 EG sources expected in the region, 8 likely EG are present in the 1.4 GHz catalog. Ionized interfaces of dense molecular clouds to the ambient medium are most likely responsible for strong scattering and low radio frequency absorption. However, dense GC clouds traced by CS J = 1-0 emission are found to have a narrow distribution of {approx}0. Degree-Sign 2 across the Galactic plane. Angular distribution of most EG sources seen through the so-called Hyperstrong Scattering Region are random in b, and typically {approx}7 out of 10 sources will not be seen through the dense molecular clouds, which explains why most of them are not scatter broadened at 1.4 GHz.

  5. Infrared imaging spectroscopy of the Galactic center - Distribution and motions of the ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, T. M.; Beckwith, S. V. W.; Forrest, W. J.; Pipher, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    High spatial spectral resolution IR images of the Galactic center in the Br-gamma recombination line of hydrogen were taken. A coherent filament of gas extending from north of IRS 1, curving around IRS 16/Sgr A complex, and continuing to the southwest, is seen. Nine stellar sources have associated Br-gamma emission. The total Br-gamma line flux in the filament is approximately 3 x 10 exp -15 W/sq m. The distribution and kinematics of the northern arm suggest orbital motion; the observations are accordingly fit with elliptical orbits in the field of a central point of mass.

  6. Gas-phase oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ --thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO.

    PubMed

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G; Santos, Marta; de Matos, António Pires; Marçalo, Joaquim

    2008-11-13

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm (+) and Cm (2+); parallel studies were carried out with La (+/2+), Gd (+/2+) and Lu (+/2+). Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M (+)-O] (M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO (+) with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO (+)] (M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO (2+) ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO] = 6.4 +/- 0.2 eV; IE[CmO (+)] = 15.8 +/- 0.4 eV; D[Cm-O] = 710 +/- 45 kJ mol (-1); D[Cm (+)-O] = 670 +/- 40 kJ mol (-1); and D[Cm (2+)-O] = 342 +/- 55 kJ mol (-1). Estimates for the M (2+)-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd, and Lu are all intermediate between D[N 2-O] and D[OC-O] - that is, 167 kJ mol (-1) < D[M (2+)-O] < 532 kJ mol (-1) - such that the four MO (2+) ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic oxygen-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO (2+), LaO (2+), GdO (2+), and LuO (2+) dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO 2 (+) ion appeared during the reaction of Cm (+) with O 2 when the intermediate, CmO (+), was not collisionally cooled - although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO 2 (+) is a stable species. PMID:18921989

  7. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ - Thermodynamics of Neutral and Ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K [ORNL; Haire, Richard G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Santos, Marta [ORNL; Pires de Matos, Antonio [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Marcalo, Joaquim [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal

    2008-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O] (M ) Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+] (M ) Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electrontransfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO] ) 6.4 ( 0.2 eV; IE[CmO+] ) 15.8 ( 0.4 eV; D[Cm-O] ) 710 ( 45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O] ) 670 ( 40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O] ) 342 ( 55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M ) Cm, La, Gd, and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O] and D[OC-O] - that is, 167 kJ mol-1 < D[M2+-O] < 532 kJ mol-1 - such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic oxygen-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+, and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2 + ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled - although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2 + is a stable species.

  8. Qualitative analysis of seized synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones by gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Seongshin; Arroyo-Mora, Luis E; Almirall, José R

    2015-02-01

    Designer drugs are analogues or derivatives of illicit drugs with a modification of their chemical structure in order to circumvent current legislation for controlled substances. Designer drugs of abuse have increased dramatically in popularity all over the world for the past couple of years. Currently, the qualitative seized-drug analysis is mainly performed by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) in which most of these emerging designer drug derivatives are extensively fragmented not presenting a molecular ion in their mass spectra. The absence of molecular ion and/or similar fragmentation pattern among these derivatives may cause the equivocal identification of unknown seized-substances. In this study, the qualitative identification of 34 designer drugs, mainly synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones, were performed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques, including electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) only focusing on qualitative seized-drug analysis, not from the toxicological point of view. The implementation of CI source facilitates the determination of molecular mass and the identification of seized designer drugs. Developed multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode may increase sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of seized designer drugs. In addition, CI mass spectra and MRM mass spectra of these designer drug derivatives can be used as a potential supplemental database along with EI mass spectral database. PMID:24827678

  9. COMPLETE IONIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL GAS: WHY THERE ARE SO FEW DETECTIONS OF 21 cm HYDROGEN IN HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, S. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Whiting, M. T., E-mail: sjc@physics.usyd.edu.au [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2012-11-10

    From the first published z {approx}> 3 survey of 21 cm absorption within the hosts of radio galaxies and quasars, Curran et al. found an apparent dearth of cool neutral gas at high redshift. From a detailed analysis of the photometry, each object is found to have a {lambda} = 1216 A continuum luminosity in excess of L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}, a critical value above which 21 cm has never been detected at any redshift. At these wavelengths, and below, hydrogen is excited above the ground state so that it cannot absorb in 21 cm. In order to apply the equation of photoionization equilibrium, we demonstrate that this critical value also applies to the ionizing ({lambda} {<=} 912 A) radiation. We use this to show, for a variety of gas density distributions, that upon placing a quasar within a galaxy of gas, there is always an ultraviolet luminosity above which all of the large-scale atomic gas is ionized. While in this state, the hydrogen cannot be detected or engage in star formation. Applying the mean ionizing photon rate of all of the sources searched, we find, using canonical values for the gas density and recombination rate coefficient, that the observed critical luminosity gives a scale length (3 kpc) similar that of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Milky Way, a large spiral galaxy. Thus, this simple yet physically motivated model can explain the critical luminosity (L {sub 912} {approx} L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}), above which neutral gas is not detected. This indicates that the non-detection of 21 cm absorption is not due to the sensitivity limits of current radio telescopes, but rather that the lines of sight to the quasars, and probably the bulk of the host galaxies, are devoid of neutral gas.

  10. Complete Ionization of the Neutral Gas: Why There are So Few Detections of 21 cm Hydrogen in High-redshift Radio Galaxies and Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, S. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2012-11-01

    From the first published z >~ 3 survey of 21 cm absorption within the hosts of radio galaxies and quasars, Curran et al. found an apparent dearth of cool neutral gas at high redshift. From a detailed analysis of the photometry, each object is found to have a ? = 1216 Å continuum luminosity in excess of L 1216 ~ 1023 W Hz-1, a critical value above which 21 cm has never been detected at any redshift. At these wavelengths, and below, hydrogen is excited above the ground state so that it cannot absorb in 21 cm. In order to apply the equation of photoionization equilibrium, we demonstrate that this critical value also applies to the ionizing (? <= 912 Å) radiation. We use this to show, for a variety of gas density distributions, that upon placing a quasar within a galaxy of gas, there is always an ultraviolet luminosity above which all of the large-scale atomic gas is ionized. While in this state, the hydrogen cannot be detected or engage in star formation. Applying the mean ionizing photon rate of all of the sources searched, we find, using canonical values for the gas density and recombination rate coefficient, that the observed critical luminosity gives a scale length (3 kpc) similar that of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Milky Way, a large spiral galaxy. Thus, this simple yet physically motivated model can explain the critical luminosity (L 912 ~ L 1216 ~ 1023 W Hz-1), above which neutral gas is not detected. This indicates that the non-detection of 21 cm absorption is not due to the sensitivity limits of current radio telescopes, but rather that the lines of sight to the quasars, and probably the bulk of the host galaxies, are devoid of neutral gas.

  11. Exploring petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater by double solid phase extraction coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Pindado Jiménez, Oscar; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Escolano Segovia, Olga; del Reino Querencia, Susana

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes an analytical procedure for measuring aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons fractions present in groundwater. In this method, hydrocarbons are solid phase extracted (SPE) twice from the groundwater and the resulting fractions are analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The first SPE disposes the hydrocarbons present in groundwater in organic solvents and the second SPE divides them into aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The validation study is carried out and its uncertainties are discussed. Identifying the main sources of uncertainty is evaluated through applying the bottom-up approach. Limits of detection for hydrocarbons ranges are below 5 µg L(-1), precision is not above of 30%, and acceptable recoveries are reached for aliphatic and aromatic fractions studied. The uncertainty due to volume of the sample, factor of calibration and recovery are the highest contributions. The expanded uncertainty range from 13% to 26% for the aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges and from 14% to 23% for the aromatic hydrocarbons ranges. As application, the proposed method is satisfactorily applied to a set of groundwater samples collected in a polluted area where there is evidence to present a high degree of hydrocarbons. The results have shown the range of aliphatic hydrocarbons >C21-C35 is the most abundant, with values ranging from 215 µg L(-1) to 354 µg L(-1), which it is associated to a contamination due to diesel. PMID:25281108

  12. IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. DISCOVERY OF A DOUBLE INFRARED CLUSTER IN II Zw 40

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Sara; Lahad, Ohr [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Turner, Jean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Lacy, John [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Greathouse, Thomas [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228-0510 (United States)] [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228-0510 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    The nearby dwarf galaxy II Zw 40 hosts an intense starburst. At the center of the starburst is a bright compact radio and infrared source, thought to be a giant dense H II region containing Almost-Equal-To 14, 000 O stars. Radio continuum images suggest that the compact source is actually a collection of several smaller emission regions. We accordingly use the kinematics of the ionized gas to probe the structure of the radio-infrared emission region. With TEXES on the NASA-IRTF we measured the 10.5 {mu}m [S IV] emission line with effective spectral resolutions, including thermal broadening, of {approx}25 and {approx}3 km s{sup -1} and spatial resolution {approx}1''. The line profile shows two distinct, spatially coextensive, emission features. The stronger feature is at galactic velocity and has FWHM 47 km s{sup -1}. The second feature is {approx}44 km s{sup -1} redward of the first and has FWHM 32 km s{sup -1}. We argue that these are two giant embedded clusters, and estimate their masses to be Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} and Almost-Equal-To 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. The velocity shift is unexpectedly large for such a small spatial offset. We suggest that it may arise in a previously undetected kinematic feature remaining from the violent merger that formed the galaxy.

  13. FR II QUASARS: INFRARED PROPERTIES, STAR FORMATION RATES, AND EXTENDED IONIZED GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Hai [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stockton, Alan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)], E-mail: fu@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2009-05-10

    We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer photometry of 12 radio-loud QSOs with FR II morphologies at z {approx} 0.3. Six of the sources are surrounded by luminous extended emission-line regions (EELRs), while the other six do not have such extended nebulae. The two subsamples are indistinguishable in their mid-infrared (MIR) spectra and overall IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). For both subsamples, the MIR aromatic features are undetected in either individual sources or their stacked spectra, and the SEDs are consistent with pure quasar emission without significant star formation. The upper limits to the star formation rate (SFR) are sufficiently low that starburst-driven superwinds can be ruled out as a mechanism for producing the EELRs, which are instead likely the result of the ejection of most of the gas from the system by blast waves accompanying the launching of the radio jets. The FR II quasars deviate systematically from the correlation between host galaxy SFR and black hole accretion rate apparently followed by radio-quiet QSOs, implying little or no bulge growth coeval with the current intensive black hole growth. We also present a new Spitzer estimate of the SFR for the starburst in the host galaxy of the compact steep-spectrum radio quasar 3C 48.

  14. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (?100 ?l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura B. Rivera-Rodríguez; Ricardo Rodríguez-Estrella; James Jackson Ellington; John J. Evans

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100?l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102pg\\/?l and the method reporting limit from 0.036

  15. Development, validation and application of a method to analyze phenols in water samples by solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando M. Lanças; Igor R. B. Olivares; Priscila M. Alves

    2007-01-01

    In this work the development, validation and application of method using Solid Phase Microexctration (SPME) for the analyses of five pollutants (phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chloro, 3-methyl phenol) in supplying water, using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) is described. The optimal conditions obtained for SPME were: fiber type: Poliacrylate (PA); extraction time: 40 minutes; extraction temperature:

  16. Determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel particulate-related standard reference materials by using gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawit Z. Bezabeh; Holly A. Bamford; Michele M. Schantz; Stephen A. Wise

    2003-01-01

    Gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) with negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) detection was utilized for quantitative determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) in diesel particulate-related standard reference materials (SRMs). Prior to GC\\/MS analysis, isolation of the nitro-PAHs from the complex diesel particulate extract was accomplished using solid phase extraction (SPE) and normal-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) fractionation using an amino\\/cyano stationary

  17. Ionization-induced asymmetric self-phase modulation and universal modulational instability in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    E-print Network

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Travers, John C; Russell, Philip St J; Biancalana, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the propagation of relatively long pulses with ionizing intensities in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with a Raman-inactive gas. Due to photoionization, previously unknown types of asymmetric self-phase modulation and `universal' modulational instabilities existing in both normal and anomalous dispersion regions appear. We also show that it is possible to spontaneously generate a plasma-induced continuum of blueshifting solitons, opening up new possibilities for pushing supercontinuum generation towards shorter and shorter wavelengths.

  18. Gas-Phase Synthesis of Singly and Multiply Charged Polyoxovanadate Anions Employing Electrospray Ionization and Collision Induced Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Al Hasan, Naila M.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with in-source fragmentation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were used to generate a wide range of multiply charged vanadium oxide cluster anions including VxOyn- and VxOyCln- ions (x = 1 ? 14, y= 2 ? 36, n = 1 ? 3), protonated clusters, and ligand-bound VxOyn- species. These cluster anions were produced by electrospraying a solution of tetradecavanadate, V14O36Cl(L)5 (L= Et4N+, tetraethylammonium), in acetonitrile. Under mild source conditions, ESI-MS generates a distribution of doubly and triply charged VxOyCln- and VxOyCl(L)(n-1)- clusters predominantly containing 14 vanadium atoms. Accurate mass measurement using high-resolution mass spectrometry (m/?m = 60,000 at m/z 410) enabled unambiguous assignment of the elemental composition of the majority of peaks in the ESI-MS spectrum. In addition, high-sensitivity mass spectrometry allowed the charge state of the cluster ions to be assigned based on the separation of the major from the minor isotope of vanadium. In-source fragmentation resulted in facile formation of smaller VxOyCl(1-2)- and VxOy(1-2)- anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments enabled systematic study of the gas-phase fragmentation pathways of the cluster anions generated from solution. Surprisingly simple fragmentation patterns were obtained for all singly and doubly charged VxOyCl and VxOy species generated through multiple MS/MS experiments. In contrast, cluster ions originating directly from solution produced comparatively complex CID spectra. These results indicate that low-energy CID results in formation of stable cage-like structures of VxOyCl and VxOy anions. Furthermore, solution-phase synthesis of one precursor cluster combined with gas-phase CID is an efficient approach for the top-down synthesis of a wide range of multiply charged gas-phase metal oxide clusters for subsequent investigations of structure and reactivity.

  19. Carbon nanotube-based field ionization vacuum

    E-print Network

    Jang, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a novel micropump architecture that uses arrays of isolated vertical carbon nanotubes (CNT) to field ionize gas particles. The ionized gas molecules are accelerated to and implanted into a ...

  20. Evaluation of the analyses of tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives of naphthenic acids by gas chromatography–electron impact mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce S. Clemente; Phillip M. Fedorak

    2004-01-01

    Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of carboxylic acids with the general formula CnH2n+ZO2 and they are natural, toxic components of crude oils. GC–MS analyses of tert-butyldimethylsilyl esters of naphthenic acids are used to estimate component distribution within naphthenic acids mixtures. Our evaluations of the GC–MS method showed that ions from column bleed erroneously appear as C14 Z = ?4

  1. Ionized gas in the halos of edge-on, starburst galaxies: Data and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehnert, Matthew D.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1995-01-01

    We present narrowband H-alpha and broadband R images, as well as long-slit spectra oriented along the minor and major axes of a sample of about 50 edge-on (a/b greater than or equal to 2), infrared-warm (S(sub 60 microns)/S(sub 100 microns) greater than 0.04), infrared-bright S(sub 60 microns) greater than or equal to 5.4 Jy galaxies. The infrared luminosity of the sample ranges over 10(exp 10) - 10(exp 12) solar luminosity. The spatially resolved spectroscopy includes the measurement of velocity relative to the nuclear velocity, full width at half-maximum, total integrated flux in the profile (for those spectra taken under photometric conditions) for the lines (N II) lambda lambda 6548, 6583, (O I) lambda 6300, H-alpha, and (S II) lambda lambda 6716, 6713 and line ratios as a function of slit position along both the major and minor axes. The resolution of the spectra are between about 3 and 5 A. The spectroscopic data are presented for 5 bins along each axis -- a nuclear bin that is a sum of the CCD rows that cover the half-light diameter centered on the nucleus of the galaxy, two near-nuclear bins which are sums of the CCD rows that cover from one to two half-light radii on each side of the nucleus, and two off-nuclear bins which are sums of the rows at nuclear distances greater than two half-light radii on each side of the nucleus. Additionally, we present recession velocities, nuclear line asymmetries, rotation speeds, minor axis velocity shears, H-alpha luminosities, R-band absolute magnitudes, minor axis H-alpha `excess' and effective radii of the galaxies in h-alpha and the R continuum. We defer discussion of the properties of the emission-line gas and their correlation with the infrared properties of this sample of galaxies to a later paper and limit ourselves to a presentation of the data and analysis.

  2. Reactions of metal ions and their clusters in the gas phase using laser ionization: Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Progress report, February 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Freiser, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    This report focuses on progress in seven areas: (1) Gas-Phase Reactions of Fe(Benzyne){sup +} with Simple Alkyl Halides; (2) Photodissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Molecular Ions From Methylphenol and Chloromethylphenol; (3) Isotopomer Differentiation Using Metal Ion Chemical Ionization Reagents; (4) Multiple Excitation Collisional Activation (MECA) in Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry; (5) Chemistry of Fe{sup +}-Arene Ions with Halobenzenes; (6) Gas-Phase Photodissociaton Study of Ag(Benzene){sup +} and Ag(Toluene){sup +}; and (7) Reactivity of Ti{sup 2+} and V{sup 2+} with Small Alkanes.

  3. The critical ionization velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Raadu

    1980-01-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect is discussed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a certain marginal velocity, the critical velocity, is exceeded. Laboratory experiments clearly establish the significance of the critical velocity and provide evidence for

  4. CO/H2, C/CO, OH/CO, and OH/O2 in dense interstellar gas: from high ionization to low metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialy, Shmuel; Sternberg, Amiel

    2015-07-01

    We present numerical computations and analytic scaling relations for interstellar ion-molecule gas-phase chemistry down to very low metallicities (10-3 × solar), and/or up to high driving ionization rates. Relevant environments include the cool interstellar medium (ISM) in low-metallicity dwarf galaxies, early enriched clouds at the reionization and Pop-II star formation era, and in dense cold gas exposed to intense X-ray or cosmic ray sources. We focus on the behaviour for H2, CO, CH, OH, H2O and O2, at gas temperatures ˜100 K, characteristic of a cooled ISM at low metallicities. We consider shielded or partially shielded one-zone gas parcels, and solve the gas-phase chemical rate equations for the steady-state `metal-molecule abundances for a wide range of ionization parameters, ?/n, and metallicties, Z '. We find that the OH abundances are always maximal near the H-to-H2 conversion points, and that large OH abundances persist at very low metallicities even when the hydrogen is predominantly atomic. We study the OH/O2, C/CO and OH/CO abundance ratios, from large to small, as functions of ?/n and Z '. Much of the cold dense ISM for the Pop-II generation may have been OH-dominated and atomic rather than CO-dominated and molecular.

  5. What Happens to Hydrophobic Interactions during Transfer from the Solution to the Gas Phase? The Case of Electrospray-Based Soft Ionization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barylyuk, Konstantin; Balabin, Roman M.; Grünstein, Dan; Kikkeri, Raghavendra; Frankevich, Vladimir; Seeberger, Peter H.; Zenobi, Renato

    2011-07-01

    The disappearance of the hydrophobic effect in the gas phase due to the absence of an aqueous surrounding raises a long-standing question: can noncovalent complexes that are exclusively bound by hydrophobic interactions in solution be preserved in the gas phase? Some reports of successful detection by mass spectrometry of complexes largely stabilized by hydrophobic effect are questionable by the presence of electrostatic forces that hold them together in the gas phase. Here, we report on the MS-based analysis of model supramolecular complexes with a purely hydrophobic association in solution, ?-cyclodextrin, and synthetic adamantyl-containing ligands with several binding sites. The stability of these complexes in the gas phase is investigated by quantum chemical methods (DFT-M06). Compared with the free interaction partners, the inclusion complex between ?-cyclodextrin and adamantyl-containing ligand is shown to be stabilized in the gas phase by ? G = 9.6 kcal mol-1. The host-guest association is mainly enthalpy-driven due to strong dispersion interactions caused by a large nonpolar interface and a high steric complementarity of the binding partners. Interference from other types of noncovalent binding forces is virtually absent. The complexes are successfully detected via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, although a high dissociation yield is also observed. We attribute this pronounced dissociation of the complexes to the collisional activation of ions in the atmospheric interface of mass spectrometer. The comparison of several electrospray-based ionization methods reveals that cold spray ionization provides the softest ion generation conditions for these complexes.

  6. DECIPHERING THE IONIZED GAS CONTENT IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX G75.78+0.34

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)] [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kurtz, Stan; Lizano, Susana [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)] [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Palau, Aina [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain)] [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Dpt d'Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [Dpt d'Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Shepherd, Debra [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States)] [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Franco, Jose [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garay, Guido, E-mail: asanchez@arcetri.astro.it [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-04-01

    We present subarcsecond observations toward the massive star-forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 3}OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40{alpha} and H30{alpha}). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) H II region with an electron density {approx}3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCH II region (EAST), located {approx}6'' to the east of the cometary UCH II region, with an electron density {approx}1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located {approx}2'' to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 M{sub Sun }. The CORE source is resolved into two compact and unresolved sources which can be well fit by two homogeneous hypercompact H II regions each one photoionized by a B0.5 zero-age main sequence star, or by free-free radiation from shock-ionized gas resulting from the interaction of a jet/outflow system with the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution and kinematics of water masers close to the CORE-N and S sources, together with excess emission at 4.5 {mu}m and the detected dust emission, suggest that the CORE source is a massive protostar driving a jet/outflow.

  7. Method development for the characterization of biofuel intermediate products using gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometric and flame ionization detections.

    PubMed

    S?ávová, Jana; Stahl, Danese C; Seames, Wayne S; Kubátová, Alena

    2012-02-10

    Accurate analytical methods are required to develop and evaluate the quality of new renewable transportation fuels and intermediate organic liquid products (OLPs). Unfortunately, existing methods developed for the detailed characterization of petroleum products, are not accurate for many of the OLPs generated from non-petroleum feedstocks. In this study, a method was developed and applied to the detailed characterization of complex OLPs formed during triacylglyceride (TG) pyrolysis which is the basis for generating one class of emerging biofuels. This method uses gas chromatography coupled simultaneously with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detectors (GC-FID/MS). The FID provided accurate quantification of carbonaceous species while MS enabled identification of unknown compounds. A programed temperature vaporizer using a 25 °C, 0.1 min, 720 °C min(-1), 350 °C, 5 min temperature program is employed which minimizes compound discrimination better than the more commonly utilized split/splitless injector, as verified with injections at 250 and 350 °C. Two standard mixtures featuring over 150 components are used for accurate identification and a designed calibration standard accounts for compound discrimination at the injector and differing FID responses of various classes of compounds. This new method was used to identify and quantify over 250 species in OLPs generated from canola oil, soybean oil, and canola methyl ester (CME). In addition to hydrocarbons, the method was used to quantify polar (upon derivatization) and unidentified species, plus the unresolved complex mixture that has not typically been determined in previous studies. Repeatability of the analytical method was below 5% RSD for all individual components. Using this method, the mass balance was closed for samples derived from canola and soybean oil but only ca. 77 wt% of the OLP generated from CME could be characterized. The ability to close the mass balance depended on sample origin, demonstrating the need for an accurate quantification method for biofuels at various stages of production. PMID:22245174

  8. A VLT VIMOS study of the anomalous BCD Mrk996: mapping the ionized gas kinematics and abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Barlow, M. J.; Westmoquette, M. S.; Walsh, J. R.; Cuisinier, F.; Exter, K. M.

    2009-09-01

    A study of the blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Mrk996 based on high-resolution optical Very Large Telescope Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit spectroscopy is presented. Mrk996 displays multicomponent line emission, with most line profiles consisting of a narrow, central Gaussian [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ~ 110kms-1] with an underlying broad component (FWHM ~ 400kms-1). The broad HI Balmer component splits into two separate broad components inside a 1.5-arcsec radius from the nucleus; these are attributed to a two-armed minispiral. This spiral-like nucleus rotates in the same sense as the extended narrow line ionized gas but is offset by ~50kms-1 from the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The rotation curve of Mrk996 derived from the H? narrow component yields a total mass of 5 × 108Msolar within a radius of 3kpc. From the H? luminosity we infer a global star formation rate of ~2Msolaryr-1. The high excitation energy, high critical density [OIII] ?4363 and [NII] ?5755 lines are only detected from the inner region and exist purely in broad component form, implying unusual excitation conditions. Surface brightness, radial velocity and FWHM maps for several emission components are presented. A separate physical analysis of the broad and narrow emission line regions is undertaken. We derive an upper limit of 10000K for the electron temperature of the narrow line gas, together with an electron density of 170cm-3, typical of normal HII regions. For the broad line component, measured [OIII] and [FeIII] diagnostic line ratios are consistent with a temperature of 11000K and an electron density of 107cm-3. The broad line emission regions show N/H and N/O enrichment factors of ~20 relative to the narrow line regions, but no He/H, O/H, S/H or Ar/H enrichment is inferred. Previous studies indicated that Mrk996 showed anomalously high N/O ratios compared with BCDs of a similar metallicity. Our multicomponent analysis yields a revised metallicity of >=0.5Zsolar (12 + logO/H = 8.37) for both the narrow and broad gas components, significantly higher than previous studies. As a result the narrow line region's N/O ratio is now typical for the galaxy's metallicity. The narrow line component's N/O ratio peaks outside the core region, spatially correlating with ~3-Myr-old stellar populations. The dominant line excitation mechanism is photoionization by the ~3000 Wolf-Rayet stars and ~150000 O-type stars estimated to be present in the core. This is indeed a peculiar BCD, with extremely dense zones of gas in the core, through which stellar outflows and possible shock fronts permeate contributing to the excitation of the broad line emission. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 078.B-0353(A). E-mail: bj@star.ucl.ac.uk (BLJ); tsamis@iaa.es (YGT)

  9. HST/COS detection of a Ne VIII absorber towards PG 1407+265: An unambiguous tracer of collisionally ionized hot gas?

    E-print Network

    Hussain, Tanvir; Narayanan, Anand; Srianand, Raghunathan; Wakker, Bart P; Charlton, Jane C; Pathak, Amit

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of Ne VIII in a z_abs = 0.59961 absorber towards the QSO PG 1407+265 (z_em = 0.94). Besides Ne VIII, absorption from HI Lyman series lines (HI 1025 - 915), several other low (C II, N II, O II, and S II), intermediate (C III, N III, N IV, O III, S IV, and S V) and high (S VI, O VI, and Ne VIII) ionization metal lines are detected. Disparity in the absorption line kinematics between different ions implies that the absorbing gas comprises of multiple ionization phases. The low and the intermediate ions (except S V) trace a compact (~ 410 pc), metal-rich (Z ~ Z_sun) and over-dense (log n_H ~ -2.6) photoionized region that sustained star-formation for a prolonged period. The high ions, Ne VIII and O VI, can be explained as arising in a low density (-5.3 Z_sun) and diffuse (~ 180 kpc) photoionized gas. The S V, S VI and C IV (detected in the FOS spectrum) require an intermediate photoionization phase with -4.2 < log n_H < -3.5. Alternatively, a pure collisional ionization model, as us...

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of pyrolysis oil by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Michailof, Chrysa; Lappas, Angelos; Li, Qiangyi; Kneale, Brian

    2011-05-27

    Pyrolysis oils have attracted a lot of interest, as they are liquid energy carriers and general sources of chemicals. In this work, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) techniques were used to provide both qualitative and quantitative results of the analysis of three different pyrolysis oils. The chromatographic methods and parameters were optimized and solvent choice and separation restrictions are discussed. Pyrolysis oil samples were diluted in suitable organic solvent and were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. An average of 300 compounds were detected and identified in all three samples using the ChromaToF (Leco) software. The deconvoluted spectra were compared with the NIST software library for correct matching. Group type classification was performed by use of the ChromaToF software. The quantification of 11 selected compounds was performed by means of a multiple-point external calibration curve. Afterwards, the pyrolysis oils were extracted with water, and the aqueous phase was analyzed both by GC-FID and, after proper change of solvent, by GC×GC-TOFMS. As previously, the selected compounds were quantified by both techniques, by means of multiple point external calibration curves. The parameters of the calibration curves were calculated by weighted linear regression analysis. The limit of detection, limit of quantitation and linearity range for each standard compound with each method are presented. The potency of GC×GC-TOFMS for an efficient mapping of the pyrolysis oil is undisputable, and the possibility of using it for quantification as well has been demonstrated. On the other hand, the GC-FID analysis provides reliable results that allow for a rapid screening of the pyrolysis oil. To the best of our knowledge, very few papers have been reported with quantification attempts on pyrolysis oil samples using GC×GC-TOFMS most of which make use of the internal standard method. This work provides the ground for further analysis of pyrolysis oils of diverse sources for a rational design of both their production and utilization process. PMID:21036362

  11. Optimization of Direct Ionization of CO2 by Controlling the Gas Flow Inside of a Beam-Target

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar Quintero, G A; Ognibene, T

    2011-03-07

    We designed and optimized a target that directs a CO{sub 2} pulse onto a Ti surface where a Cs{sup +} sputtering beam ionizes the CO{sub 2} to generate C{sup -}. These targets will be used for the direct ionization of CO{sub 2} pulses to enable the measurement of carbon isotope ratios in real time. The design was based on the results of Comsol{trademark} simulations of the target configurations.

  12. Rapid comprehensive characterization of crude oils by thermogravimetry coupled to fast modulated gas chromatography-single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, S; Fischer, M; Saraji-Bozorgzad, M; Matuschek, G; Streibel, T; Post, E; Denner, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-09-01

    Comprehensive multi-dimensional hyphenation of a thermogravimetry device (i.e. a thermobalance) to gas chromatography and single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TG-GC×SPI-MS) has been used to investigate two crude oil samples of different geographical origin. The source of the applied vacuum ultraviolet radiation is an electron beam pumped rare gas excimer lamp (EBEL). The soft photoionization favors the formation of molecular ions. Introduction of a fast, rapidly modulated gas chromatographic separation step in comparison with solely TG-SPI-MS enables strongly enhanced detection especially with such highly complex organic matrices as crude oil. In contrast with former TG-SPI-MS measurements, separation and identification of overlying substances is possible because of different GC retention times. The specific contribution of isobaric compounds to one mass signal is determined for alkanes, naphthalenes, alkylated benzenes, and other compounds. PMID:23715673

  13. CF3+ fragmentation by electron impact ionization of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl-ethers, C5F10O, in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Toshio; Miyawaki, Yudai; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-04-01

    The gas phase fragmentations of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl ether (PPVE, C5F10O) are studied experimentally. Dominant fragmentations of PPVE are found to be the result of a dissociative ionization reaction, i.e., CF3+ via direct bond cleavage, and C2F3O? and C3F7O? via electron attachment. Regardless of the appearance energy of around 14.5 eV for the dissociative ionization of CF3+, the observed ion efficiency for the CF3+ ion was extremely large the order of 10?20 cm?2, compared with only 10?21 cm?2 for the other channels. PPVE characteristically generated CF3+ as the largest abundant ion are advantageous for use of feedstock gases in plasma etching processes.

  14. Field ionization from carbon nanofibers

    E-print Network

    Adeoti, Bosun J

    2008-01-01

    The Micro Gas Analyzer project aims to develop power-efficient, high resolution, high sensitivity, portable and real-time gas sensors. We developed a field ionizer array based on gated CNTs. Arrays of CNTs are used because ...

  15. A study of gas-phase cationization in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Erb, William J; Hanton, Scott D; Owens, Kevin G

    2006-01-01

    A specially constructed split sample probe was used to unequivocally demonstrate that gas-phase cationization occurs within the desorption plume during a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization experiment. Two separate samples were prepared for analysis: on side A, a mixture of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 1500 analyte and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix, and on side B a mixture of DHB matrix and lithium hydroxide (LiOH), the cationization reagent. Analysis of the data showed that when the ionization laser was focused on the split (so that both sides were illuminated), Li(+)-cationized PEG peaks were observed. Since the PEG analyte did not come into contact with Li(+) in either the solution or solid phase, the only possibility for the observed cationization was a reaction in the gas phase. Due to the difficulty in completely removing the adventitious cations (Na(+) and K(+)) present in DHB and on sample surfaces, gas-phase cationization could not be demonstrated to be either the only or most important mechanism operating in the MALDI experiment. PMID:16779867

  16. Gas-phase smiles rearrangement reactions of deprotonated 2-(4, 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ylsulfanyl)-N-phenylbenzamide and its derivatives in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuping Zhou; Yuanjiang Pan; Xiaoji Cao; Jun Wu; Kezhi Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The negative ions of deprotonated 2-(4, 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ylsulfanyl)-N-phenylbenzamide and its derivatives are studied\\u000a by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS\\/MS). Upon collisional activation, the [M?H]? ions dissociate in two competitive pathways that can be considered as the gas-phase Smiles rearrangement reactions, giving\\u000a rise to the characteristic fragment ions [M?H?C7H4OS]? and [M?H?C13H8NSR]? (R=substituent). Theoretical computations were invoked to shed light on the

  17. Investigation of combwax of honeybees with high-temperature gas chromatography and high-temperature gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. High-temperature gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aichholz, R; Lorbeer, E

    1999-09-10

    The combwaxes of the honeybee species Apis mellifera, Apis cerana, Apis dorsata, Apis laboriosa, Apis florea and Apis andreniformis have been examined by high-temperature gas chromatography. Combwax consists of a complex mixture of homologous neutral lipids. These compounds containing up to 64 carbons were chromatographed intact on a 10 m x 0.2 mm high-temperature stable SOP-50-PFD (50%-diphenyl/50%-1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecylmethylpolysiloxane)-co ated Duran glass capillary column. The use of this stationary phase results in lower retention values and, at last, in lower thermal stress of the analytes. In order to minimize the discrimination effect due to adsorption and/or degradation, a two-step derivatization was performed resulting in the formation of tert.-butyldimethylsilyl esters of the long chain fatty acids and trimethylsilyl ethers of complex hydroxyesters, respectively. The derivatization procedure was optimized using a modification of the extended Donike test. In addition this test allows the quantification of the thermal stability of the derivatives performed. The derivatization procedure was applied for combwax analysis. More than 80 compounds were separated and their peak areas semiquantitatively exploited. PMID:10519097

  18. Collimated GeV electrons from the ionization of a gas by a laser pulse in an intense magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kunwar Pal [Simutech, 3521 SW 31st Drive, Gainesville, Florida 32608 (United States); Malik, Hitendra K. [Plasma Waves and Particle Acceleration Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2008-07-28

    A scheme is proposed for the acceleration of electrons generated during ionization of the helium and nitrogen gases by a laser pulse in the presence of an intense magnetic field. The electrons generated from the low atomic number gases gain energy in GeV due to the resonance between the electrons and the electric field of the laser in the presence of magnetic field. It is shown that collimated GeV electrons with small energy spread can be obtained from the ionization of helium and nitrogen. Suitable parameters have also been found for the suggested scheme.

  19. Evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Franchina, Flavio A; Maimone, Mariarosa; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-10

    The present research is focused on the use and evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector, defined as barrier discharge ionization detector (BID), within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (FM GC×GC). The performance of the BID device was compared to that of a flame ionization detector (FID), under similar FM GC×GC conditions. Following development and optimization of the FM GC×GC method, the BID was subjected to fine tuning in relation to acquisition frequency and discharge flow. Moreover, the BID performance was measured and compared to that of the FID, in terms of extra-column band broadening, sensitivity and dynamic range. The comparative study was carried out by using standard compounds belonging to different chemical classes, along with a sample of diesel fuel. Advantages and disadvantages of the BID system, also within the context of FM GC×GC, are critically discussed. In general, the BID system was characterized by a more limited dynamic range and increased sensitivity, compared to the FID. Additionally, BID and FID contribution to band broadening was found to be similar under the operational conditions applied. Particular attention was devoted to the behaviour of the FM GC×GC-BID system toward saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, for a possible future use in the field of mineral-oil food contamination research. PMID:26032893

  20. Large volume cold on-column injection for gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of selected pesticides in air samples.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Renata; Belzer, Wayne

    2007-02-21

    A new gas chromatographic method is described for the analysis of fungicides captan, captafol, and folpet from organic extracts of air samples using large volume injection (LVI) via a cold on-column (COC) inlet coupled with gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). Although standard split/splitless injection due to high injection port temperatures (>225 degrees C) have been shown to degrade these thermally labile fungicides, COC injection minimizes degradation. Insecticides such as chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also examined to show added selectivity. By using a solvent vapor exit with the COC inlet, injection volumes of 10-100 microL can be made to lower detection levels. GC-NCI-MS was compared to GC-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry for each pesticide using LVI-COC injections and was found to be 2-80 times more sensitive, depending on the pesticide. Method detection limit (MDL) values with 100 microL injections were 2.5 microg L-1 for captan, folpet, and diazinon, 5.0 microg L-1 captafol, and 1.0 microg L-1 for chlorpyrifos, with the normal working range examined for sample analysis from MDL to 100 microg L-1. Detection of all pesticides except captafol, used only in the United States but not Canada, was demonstrated from air samples taken from Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada. PMID:17256963

  1. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  2. The effective ionization coefficients and electron drift velocities in gas mixtures of CF3I with N2 and CO2 obtained from Boltzmann equation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yun-Kun; Xiao, Deng-Ming

    2013-03-01

    The electron swarm parameters including the density-normalized effective ionization coefficients (?-?)/N and the electron drift velocities Ve are calculated for a gas mixture of CF3I with N2 and CO2 by solving the Boltzmann equation in the condition of a steady-state Townsend (SST) experiment. The overall density-reduced electric field strength is from 100 Td to 1000 Td (1 Td = 10-17 V·cm2), while the CF3I content k in the gas mixture can be varied over the range from 0% to 100%. From the variation of (?-?)/N with the CF3I mixture ratio k, the limiting field strength (E/N)lim for each CF3I concentration is derived. It is found that for the mixtures with 70% CF3I, the values of (E/N)lim are essentially the same as that for pure SF6. Additionally, the global warming potential (GWP) and the liquefaction temperature of the gas mixtures are also taken into account to evaluate the possibility of application in the gas insulation of power equipment.

  3. Application of specific response factors in the gas chromatographic analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids with flame ionization detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Ackman; J. C. Sipos

    1964-01-01

    The relative responses for flame ionization detectors in the analysis of the longer chain fatty acid methyl esters are shown\\u000a to correlate with the theoretical responses based on weight percent content of “active” carbon. While particularly affecting\\u000a estimation of the shorter chain length saturated fatty acids, these corrections have a less marked effect on the estimation\\u000a of unsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Artifact-free quantification of free 3-chlorotyrosine, 3-bromotyrosine, and 3-nitrotyrosine in human plasma by electron capture-negative chemical ionization gas chromatography mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gaut, Joseph P; Byun, Jaeman; Tran, Hung D; Heinecke, Jay W

    2002-01-15

    Halogenation and nitration of biomolecules have been proposed as key mechanisms of host defense against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Reactive oxidants also have the potential to damage host tissue, and they have been implicated in disease. In the current studies, we describe specific, sensitive, and quantitative methods for detecting three stable markers of oxidative damage: 3-chlorotyrosine, 3-bromotyrosine, and 3-nitrotyrosine. Our results indicate that electron capture-negative chemical ionization-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (EC-NCI GC/MS) is 100-fold more sensitive than liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for analyzing authentic 3-chlorotyrosine, 3-bromotyrosine, and 3-nitrotyrosine. Using an isotopomer of tyrosine to evaluate artifactual production of the analytes during sample preparation and analysis, we found that artifact generation was negligible with either technique. However, LC-MS/MS proved cumbersome for analyzing multiple samples because it required 1.5 h of run and equilibration time per analysis. In contrast, EC-NCI GC/MS required only 5 min of run time per analysis. Using EC-NCI GC/MS, we were able to detect and quantify attomole levels of free 3-chlorotyrosine, 3-bromotyrosine, and 3-nitrotyrosine in human plasma. Our results indicate that EC-NCI GC/MS is a sensitive and specific method for quantifying free 3-chlorotyrosine, 3-bromotyrosine, and 3-nitrotyrosine in biological fluids in a single, rapid analysis and that it avoids generating any of the analytes ex vivo. PMID:11779118

  5. Chemical Ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen H. Gross; Mass Spectrometry

    \\u000a Mass spectrometrists have ever been searching for ionization methods softer than EI, because molecular weight determination\\u000a is key for structure elucidation. Chemical ionization (CI) is the first of the so-called soft ionization methods we are going to discuss (cf. Fig. 1.2).

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DENSE NEUTRAL AND DIFFUSE IONIZED GAS IN THE THICK DISKS OF TWO EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rueff, Katherine M.; Howk, J. Christopher; Pitterle, Marissa; Hirschauer, Alec S. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Fox, Andrew J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Savage, Blair D., E-mail: krueff@nd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We present high-resolution, optical images (BVI + H{alpha}) of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) in the thick disks of the edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 4013 and NGC 4302. Our images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Large Binocular Telescope, and WIYN 3.5 m telescope reveal an extensive population of filamentary dust absorption seen to z {approx}2-2.5 kpc. Many of these dusty thick disk structures have characteristics reminiscent of molecular clouds found in the Milky Way disk. Our H{alpha} images show that the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in these galaxies is dominated by a smooth, diffuse component. The strongly filamentary morphologies of the dust absorption have no counterpart in the smoothly distributed H{alpha} emission. We argue that the thick disk DIG and dust-bearing filaments trace physically distinct phases of the thick disk ISM, the latter tracing a dense, warm or cold neutral medium. The dense, dusty matter in the thick disks of spiral galaxies is largely tracing matter ejected from the thin disk via energetic feedback from massive stars. The high densities of the gas may be a result of converging gas flows. This dense material fuels some thick disk star formation, as evidenced by the presence of thick disk H II regions.

  7. Magneto-ionization laser wakefield assisted acceleration of GeV range quasimonoenergetic electron beams in He with CO2 impurity gas target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazyrin, Igor; Karpeev, Artem; Kotova, Olga; Bychenkov, Valery; Fedosejevs, Robert; Rozmus, Wojciech

    2013-10-01

    Quasimonoenergetic electron beam with maximum energy of 1 GeV and several mrad divergence has been generated in He gas with CO2 impurity via wakefield acceleration with 80 TW, 30 fs laser pulse at the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS) installation. These measurements are supported by 3D3V PICNIC simulations with the model used for the tunnel ionization accounting. Numerical analysis has indicated the continuous injection and the acceleration of liberated electrons from different atom shells of all gases. Electrons from inner shells were ionized near the peak of the laser pulse and were injected into and trapped by the wake. This mechanism of electrons selection is weakly operating. CO2 impurity increases the stability of subsequent trapping of electrons. Through simulations it has found that laser-driven wakefield configurations oscillate periodically changing the number of bubbles with electron bunches from one to several (three on the average). It leads to transverse beams centroid motion which is likely head-tail instability. Focusing magnetic field for the case of CO2 impurity is assisted in stabilization of the instability.

  8. In-gas-cell laser ionization spectroscopy in the vicinity of 100Sn: Magnetic moments and mean-square charge radii of N=50-54 Ag

    E-print Network

    R. Ferrer; N. Bree; T. E. Cocolios; I. G. Darby; H. De Witte; W. Dexters; J. Diriken; J. Elseviers; S. Franchoo; M. Huyse; N. Kesteloot; Yu. Kudryavtsev; D. Pauwels; D. Radulov; T. Roger; H. Savajols; P. Van Duppen; M. Venhart

    2013-11-27

    In-gas-cell laser ionization spectroscopy studies on the neutron deficient 97-101Ag isotopes have been performed with the LISOL setup. Magnetic dipole moments and mean-square charge radii have been determined for the first time with the exception of 101Ag, which was found in good agreement with previous experimental values. The reported results allow tentatively assigning the spin of 97,99Ag to 9/2 and con?firming the presence of an isomeric state in these two isotopes, whose collapsed hyperfine structure suggests a spin of 1/2 . The effect of the N=50 shell closure is not only manifested in the magnetic moments but also in the evolution of the mean-square charge radii of the isotopes investigated, in accordance with the spherical droplet model predictions.

  9. Fast determination of multiple-reaction intermediates for long-chain dicarboxylic Acid biotransformation by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Han; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jung; Park, Kyungmoon; Lee, Do Yup; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2015-05-28

    For the analysis of multiple-reaction intermediates for long-chain dicarboxylic acid biotransformation, simple and reproducible methods of extraction and derivatization were developed on the basis of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) instead of mass spectrometry. In the derivatization step, change of the ratio of pyridine to MSTFA from 1:3 to 9:1 resulted in higher peak intensity (p = 0.021) and reproducibility (0.6%CV) when analyzing 32 g/l ricinoleic acid (RA). Extraction of RA and ?-hydroxyundec- 9-enoic acid with water containing 100 mM Tween 80 showed 90.4-99.9% relative extraction efficiency and 2-7%CV compared with those with hydrophobic ethyl acetate. In conclusion, reduction of the pyridine content and change of the extraction solvent to water with Tween 80 provided compatible derivatization and extraction methods to GC-FID-based analysis of longchain carboxylic acids. PMID:25737121

  10. Fluorohydrogenate Cluster Ions in the Gas Phase: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of the [1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium+][F(HF)2.3–] Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; James E. Delmore; Michael T. Benson; Tetsuya Tsuda; Rika Hagiwara

    2013-12-01

    Electrospray ionization of the fluorohydrogenate ionic liquid [1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium][F(HF)2.3] ionic liquid was conducted to understand the nature of the anionic species as they exist in the gas phase. Abundant fluorohydrogenate clusters were produced; however, the dominant anion in the clusters was [FHF-], and not the fluoride-bound HF dimers or trimers that are seen in solution. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that HF molecules are bound to the clusters by about 30 kcal/mol. The DFT-calculated structures of the [FHF-]-bearing clusters show that the favored interactions of the anions are with the methynic and acetylenic hydrogen atoms on the imidazolium cation, forming planar structures similar to those observed in the solid state. A second series of abundant negative ions was also formed that contained [SiF5-] together with the imidazolium cation and the fluorohydrogenate anions that originate from reaction of the spray solution with silicate surfaces.

  11. Miniature Gas Chromatograph (GC): Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES) Instrument for the Trace Analyses of Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    In situ exploration of the solar system to identify its early chemistry as preserved in icy bodies and to look for compelling evidence of astrobiology will require new technology for chemical analysis. Chemical measurements in space flight environments highlight the need for a high level of positive identification of chemical compounds, since re-measurement by alternative techniques for confirmation will not be feasible. It also may not be possible to anticipate all chemical species that are observed, and important species may be present only at trace levels where they can be masked by complex chemical backgrounds. Up to now, the only techniques providing independent sample identification of GC separated components across a wide range of chemical species have been Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS). We describe here the development of a versatile and robust miniature GC detector based on Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES), for use with miniature GC systems being developed for planetary missions. PIES identifies the sample molecule through spectra related to its ionization potential. The combination of miniature GC technology with the primary identification capabilities of PIES provides an analytical approach ideal for planetary analyses.

  12. Application of Hadamard transform to gas chromatography/nonresonant multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chao-Chiang; Chang, Hung-Wei; Uchimura, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Totaro; Kaneta, Takashi; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2010-03-01

    The technique of Hadamard transform was successfully coupled with GC/nonresonant multiphoton ionization/TOFMS, for the first time. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene and the fourth harmonic generation (266 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser were employed as a model sample and an ionization laser, respectively. A Hadamard-injector coupled with a capillary-based supersonic jet nozzle (capillary-injector) was also developed in this study. The Hadamard-injector was used to obtain the chromatogram, which was encoded by successive sample introduction based on Hadamard codes, and the capillary-injector was used for injection of GC-elutes into TOFMS. Compared with a conventional single injection method, the S/N ratios were substantially improved after inverse Hadamard transformation of the encoded chromatogram. Under optimized conditions, when Hadamard matrices of 103 and 255 were used, the S/N ratios of the signals for 1,4-dichlorobenzene (concentration level, 4 microg/1 mL ACN) were substantially improved to 4.1- and 6.6-fold, respectively, and those improvements are in good agreement with those obtained by theory (5.1- and 8.0-fold). PMID:20162631

  13. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  14. Determination of microbial fatty acid profiles at femtomolar levels in human urine and the initial marine microfouling community by capillary gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry with negative ion detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goran Odham; Anders Tunlid; Gunilla Westerdahl; Lennart Larsson; James B. Guckert; David C. White

    1985-01-01

    Summary Room temperature esterification with the electron capturing pentafluorobenzyl bromide in glass capillaries, with analysis by capillary gas-liquid chromatography coupled with chemical ionization mass spectrometry and negative ion detection in the selected ion mode, allowed detection and identification of fatty acids from micro- bial biofilms at the femtomolar level. This sensitivity was achieved without loss of specificity of the mass

  15. A study of the phenomenon of anomalous ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Eselevich; V. G. Fainshtein

    1986-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the anomalous ionization of a gas in a transverse magnetic field are presented. It is shown that the presence of a transverse magnetic field in the case where the relative plasma and gas velocity is less than the critical ionization velocity leads to anomalous gas ionization on a scale much larger than the electron

  16. Lipids and Fatty Acids in Algae: Extraction, Fractionation into Lipid Classes, and Analysis by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID).

    PubMed

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the number of biochemical studies exploring algal lipids and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and profiles, analytical methods used by phycologists for this purpose are often diverse and incompletely described. Potential confusion and potential variability of the results between studies can therefore occur due to change of protocols for lipid extraction and fractionation, as well as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) preparation before gas chromatography (GC) analyses. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure for the profiling of neutral and polar lipids using techniques such as solid-liquid extraction (SLE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). As an example, in this protocol chapter, analyses of neutral and polar lipids from the marine microalga Pavlova lutheri (an EPA/DHA-rich haptophyte) will be outlined to describe the distribution of fatty acid residues within its major lipid classes. This method has been proven to be a reliable technique to assess changes in lipid and fatty acid profiles in several other microalgal species and seaweeds. PMID:26108506

  17. Deep Narrow-Band Imaging of M87: a Close Look at the Disk of Ionized Gas Fueling a Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland

    1995-07-01

    M87 provides a unique example of a 100 pc scale disk of ionized gasfueling a massive black hole (Ford et al. 1994, Harms et al. 1994).The disk shows tantalizing evidence for spiral structure and a possibleconnection to large scale, wrapped filaments. Sparks, Ford, and Kinney(1993) used observations of dust absorption in the filaments andblueshifted velocities with respect to M87 to conclude that thefilaments are an outflow from the nucleus. If the wrapped filamentsare in fact an outflow, we are witnessing the solution to anoutstanding problem in astrophysics, that of removing angular momentumfrom a disk to allow the gas to flow onto the central massive black hole.We propose to use 6 orbits to take deep, half-pixel stepped,Halpha+[Nii] on-band images to study the morphology in the disk andfilaments. The images will be one magnitude deeper than previousimages and will reach the 0.06'' diffraction limit of the telescopeat Halpha. Our goals are to use the deep, high resolution images to:1) Investigate and understand the apparent connection between thefilaments and the disk.2) Delineate the apparent spiral structure in the disk.3) Confirm the presence of faint Halpha+[Nii] emission associated withthe jet, which could be gas which has been entrained by the jet.

  18. Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Hiroshi; Bamba, Takeshi; Naito, Hiroshige; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-11-01

    Metabolic fingerprinting using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to generate a practical metabolomics-based tool for quality evaluation of natural cheese. Hydrophilic low molecular weight components, relating to sensory characteristics, including amino acids, fatty acids, amines, organic acids, and saccharides, were extracted and derivatized prior to the analysis. Data on 12 cheeses, six Cheddar cheeses and six Gouda cheeses, were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Prediction models for two sensory attributes relating to maturation, "Rich flavor" and "Sour flavor", were constructed with 4199 data points from GC/FID, and excellent predictability was validated. Chromatograms from GC/FID and gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) were comparable when the same column was used. Although GC/FID alone cannot identify peaks, the mutually complementary relationship between GC/FID and GC/MS does allow peak identification. Compounds contributing significantly to the sensory predictive models included lactose, succinic acid, L-lactic acid, and aspartic acid for "Rich flavor", and lactose, L-lactic acid, and succinic acid for "Sour flavor". Since similar model precision was obtained using GC/FID and GC/TOF-MS, metabolic fingerprinting using GC/FID, which is a relatively inexpensive instrument compared with GC/MS, is easy to maintain and operate, and is a valid alternative when metabolomics (especially using GC/MS) is to be used in a practical setting as a novel quality evaluation tool for manufacturing processes or final products. PMID:22824260

  19. Kinetics and ionization of extended gas in active galaxies. II - A circumnuclear starburst in the type 1 Seyfert NGC 7469

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Wilson; J. A. Baldwin; Sze-Dung Sun; A. E. Wright

    1986-01-01

    Long-slit, high-dispersion mapping of the emission lines H-beta, forbidden O III 4959 A, 5007 A, H-alpha, and forbidden N II 6548 A, 6584 A in the circumnuclear regions of the type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 is reported. The spatially extended, emission line gas is found to be made up of two components. One is highly excited, shows velocities preferentially

  20. Kinetics and ionization of extended gas in active galaxies. II. A circumnuclear starburst in the type 1 Seyfert NGC 7469

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Wilson; J. A. Baldwin; Sze-Dung Sun; A. E. Wright

    1986-01-01

    Long-slit, high-dispersion mapping of the emission lines H-beta, forbidden O III 4959 A, 5007 A, H-alpha, and forbidden N II 6548 A, 6584 A in the circumnuclear regions of the type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 is reported. The spatially extended, emission line gas is found to be made up of two components. One is highly excited, shows velocities preferentially

  1. The influence of cisplatin on the gas-phase dissociation of oligonucleotides studied by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrien Nyakas; Michael Eymann; Stefan Schürch

    2009-01-01

    cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin, DDP) is a cornerstone of anticancer therapy and has become one of the most widely\\u000a used drugs for the treatment of various epithelial malignancies. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin is mainly based upon its affinity\\u000a to adjacent guanines in nucleic acids, resulting in the formation of 1,2-intrastrand adducts. In this study the gas-phase\\u000a dissociation of DNA- and RNA-cisplatin adducts

  2. Identification of chlorinated fatty acids in fish by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionization of pentafluorobenzyl esters.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wenshan; McKague, A Bruce; Reeve, Douglas W; Carey, John H

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a technique for identifying and confirming chlorinated fatty acids previously detected in fish by gas chromatography (GC) with halogen-specific detection (XSD). Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) including chlorinated FAMEs within fractions of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of transesterified fish extracts were derivatized to pentafluorobenzyl esters, which were subjected to GC/mass spectrometry (MS) with negative ion chemical ionization (NICI). Pentafluorobenzyl esters displayed reasonably good GC characteristics, a very high ionization efficiency and a low degree of fragmentation. Chloride ion chromatograms extracted at m/z 35 and 37 from full scans were utilized for locating traces of chlorinated unknowns in the GC elution profile so that their mass spectra could be readily displayed. Significant ions displayed in the mass spectrum scanned in a narrow range of retention time where a chlorinated unknown was located were evaluated using ion chromatograms extracted at the m/z of these ions. The chromatographic peaks of those ions derived from the analyte were expected to center at that specific retention time, whereas those originating from matrix compounds were not. The isotopic patterns of chlorinated ions were also examined against their theoretical relative abundances. Using this approach, three metabolism-related dichloro fatty acids previously identified by GC/XSD in filet extracts of white sucker sampled downstream from a bleached kraft pulp mill were confirmed: dichlorooctadecanoic, dichlorohexadecanoic and dichlorotetradecanoic acids. In addition, an isomer of dichlorotetradecanoic acid was found in a reference fish sample. As sample preparation is critical in this application, improved conditions for hydrolysis and pentafluorobenzyl esterification are also discussed. PMID:14760613

  3. Development of a gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system for on-site detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Takahiro; Kakegawa, Ken; Aida, Mari; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Seto, Yasuo; Okino, Akitoshi

    2015-06-01

    A gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system was developed to realize a mobile on-site analytical device for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In this system, the plasma source was directly connected to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The plasma can be generated with ambient air, which is drawn into the discharge region by negative pressure in the mass spectrometer. High-power density pulsed plasma of 100 kW could be generated by using a microhollow cathode and a laboratory-built high-intensity pulsed power supply (pulse width: 10-20 ?s; repetition frequency: 50 Hz). CWAs were desorbed and protonated in the enclosed space adjacent to the plasma source. Protonated sample molecules were introduced to the mass spectrometer by airflow through the discharge region. To evaluate the analytical performance of this device, helium and air plasma were directly irradiated to CWAs in the gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system and the protonated molecules were analyzed by using an ion-trap mass spectrometer. A blister agent (nitrogen mustard 3) and nerve gases [cyclohexylsarin (GF), tabun (GA), and O-ethyl S-2-N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX)] in solution in n-hexane were applied to the Teflon rod and used as test samples, after solvent evaporation. As a result, protonated molecules of CWAs were successfully observed as the characteristic ion peaks at m/z 204, 181, 163, and 268, respectively. In air plasma, the limits of detection were estimated to be 22, 20, 4.8, and 1.0 pmol, respectively, which were lower than those obtained with helium plasma. To achieve quantitative analysis, calibration curves were made by using CWA stimulant dipinacolyl methylphosphonate as an internal standard; straight correlation lines (R(2) = 0.9998) of the peak intensity ratios (target per internal standard) were obtained. Remarkably, GA and GF gave protonated dimer ions, and the ratios of the protonated dimer ions to the protonated monomers increased with the amount of GA and GF applied. PMID:25958918

  4. Theory of a critical ionization rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Galeev; R. Z. Sagdeev

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism for the anomalous ionization of a neutral gas by a plasma stream is analyzed. Electron heating due to a lower hybrid instability is analyzed in the theory of weak turbulence. A critical plasma velocity is required to sustain avalanche ionization. This critical velocity depends on the properties of the gas and of the plasma. In several cases it

  5. Forbidden transition properties in the ground-state configurations of singly ionized noble gas atoms for stellar and interstellar media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D. K.; Sahoo, B. K.

    2015-06-01

    High-accuracy calculations of the forbidden transition amplitudes for the np 2P1/2 ? np 2P3/2 transitions with the ground-state principal quantum number n in singly charged inert gas atoms, which are of astrophysical interest, have been carried out using sophisticated relativistic many-body methods. Using these amplitudes, the line strengths, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities of the above transitions and lifetimes of the np 2P1/2 states are estimated precisely. Most of these transition wavelengths lie in the infrared region, while the corresponding Rn II line is the optical one, and they can be observed in the stellar and interstellar media, where the abundances of these ions have already been identified. The above forbidden transitions can also be very useful for astrophysical plasma diagnostics and can guide experiments to measure the lifetimes of the above np 2P1/2 states.

  6. Total OH reactivity measurements using a new fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Sinha, V.; Bockisch, S.; Klüpfel, T.; Williams, J.

    2012-12-01

    The primary and most important oxidant in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH). Currently OH sinks, particularly gas phase reactions, are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. To date, direct measurements of total OH reactivity have been either performed using a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system ("pump-and-probe" or "flow reactor") or the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). Both techniques require large, complex and expensive detection systems. This study presents a feasibility assessment for CRM total OH reactivity measurements using a new detector, a Gas Chromatographic Photoionization Detector (GC-PID). Such a system is smaller, more portable, less power consuming and less expensive than other total OH reactivity measurement techniques. Total OH reactivity is measured by the CRM using a competitive reaction between a reagent (here pyrrole) with OH alone and in the presence of atmospheric reactive molecules. The new CRM method for total OH reactivity has been tested with parallel measurements of the GC-PID and the previously validated PTR-MS as detector for the reagent pyrrole during laboratory experiments, plant chamber and boreal field studies. Excellent agreement of both detectors was found when the GC-PID was operated under optimum conditions. Time resolution (60-70 s), sensitivity (LOD 3-6 s-1) and overall uncertainty (25% in optimum conditions) for total OH reactivity were similar to PTR-MS based total OH reactivity measurements. One drawback of the GC-PID system was the steady loss of sensitivity and accuracy during intensive measurements lasting several weeks, and a possible toluene interference. Generally, the GC-PID system has been shown to produce closely comparable results to the PTR-MS and thus in suitable environments (e.g. forests) it presents a viably economical alternative for groups interested in total OH reactivity observations.

  7. Ultra-trace level analysis of morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and diethylaminoethanol in steam condensate by gas chromatography with multi-mode inlet, and flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Luong, J; Shellie, R A; Cortes, H; Gras, R; Hayward, T

    2012-03-16

    Steam condensate water treatment is a vital and integral part of the overall cooling water treatment process. Steam condensate often contains varying levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen which acts as an oxidizer. Carbon dioxide forms corrosive carbonic acid when dissolved in condensed steam. To neutralize the harmful effect of the carbonic acid, volatile amine compounds such as morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and diethylaminoethanol are often employed as part of a strategy to control corrosion in the water treatment process. Due to the high stability of these compounds in a water matrix, the indirect addition of such chemicals into the process via steam condensate often results in their presence throughout the process and even into the final product. It is therefore important to understand the impact of these chemicals and their fate within a chemical plant. The ability to analyze such compounds by gas chromatography has historically been difficult due to the lack of chromatographic system inertness at the trace level concentrations especially in an aqueous matrix. Here a highly sensitive, practical, and reliable gas chromatographic approach is described for the determination of morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and diethylaminoethanol in steam condensate at the part-per-billion (ppb) levels. The approach does not require any sample enrichment or derivatization. The technique employs a multi-mode inlet operating in pulsed splitless mode with programmed inlet temperature for sample introduction, an inert base-deactivated capillary column for solute separation and flame ionization detection. Chromatographic performance was further enhanced by the incorporation of 2-propanol as a co-solvent. Detection limits for morpholine, cyclohexylamine, diethylaminoethanol were established to be 100 ppb (v/v), with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 6% at the 95% confidence level (n=20) and a percent recovery of 96% or higher for the solutes of interest over a range of 0.1-100 ppm (v/v). A complete analysis can be conducted in less than 10 min. PMID:22325017

  8. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Laura B; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J

    2007-07-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 microl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/microl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/microl for alpha, gamma, beta and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/microl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. PMID:17240024

  9. A novel ultrasound-assisted back extraction reverse micelles method coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection for determination of aldehydes in heated edibles oils.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Zahra; Mirzajani, Roya; Kardani, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-assisted back extraction reverse micelles coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection has been developed for the extraction and determination of some short chain aldehydes in different heated edible oil samples. After the homogenization of the oil samples with Triton X-100, 200?L of methanol was added to facilitate the phase separation. The aqueous micelle phase has been separated by centrifugation, then it was treated with a mixture of H2O: CHCl3 and ultrasonic vibration, were used to effectively back-extraction of the analytes into the chloroform phase. The sedimented organic phase was obtained after centrifugation, withdrawn into the microsyringe and directly injected into the GC-FID system. The calibration graphs were linear in the range 0.05-20mgL(-1). The limits of detection were in the range of 0.02-0.15mgL(-1). This procedure was successfully applied for determination of propanal, butanal, hexanal and heptanal in real heated oil samples. PMID:26041160

  10. Determination of three antidepressants in urine using simultaneous derivatization and temperature-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Nabil, Ali Akbar; Nouri, Nina; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a fast and simple method for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of fluvoxamine, nortriptyline and maprotiline in urine using simultaneous derivatization and temperature-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TA-DLLME) followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). An appropriate mixture of dimethylformamide (disperser solvent), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent) and acetic anhydride (derivatization agent) was rapidly injected into the heated sample. Then the solution was cooled to room temperature and cloudy solution formed was centrifuged. Finally a portion of the sedimented phase was injected into the GC-FID. The effect of several factors affecting the performance of the method, including the selection of suitable extraction and disperser solvents and their volumes, volume of derivatization agent, temperature, salt addition, pH and centrifugation time and speed were investigated and optimized. Figures of merit of the proposed method, such as linearity (r(2) ?>?0.993), enrichment factors (820-1070), limits of detection (2-4?ng?mL(-1) ) and quantification (8-12?ng?mL(-1) ), and relative standard deviations (3-6%) for both intraday and interday precisions (concentration?=?50?ng?mL(-1) ) were satisfactory for determination of the selected antidepressants. Finally the method was successfully applied to determine the target pharmaceuticals in urine. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25516238

  11. Environmental PAH analysis by gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure laser ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC-APLI-MS).

    PubMed

    Stader, Christian; Beer, Fokko Tjark; Achten, Christine

    2013-09-01

    The application of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis by gas chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure laser ionization and mass spectrometry (GC-APLI-MS) to environmental samples was investigated in the study. The limit of detection for 40 PAH in a standard mixture was 5-100 fg, demonstrating GC-APLI-MS to be a highly sensitive technique and more sensitive by a factor of 100-3,500 compared to GC-MS. Acenaphthylene and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene were not detectable <2,500 fg per injection. To make use of this very high PAH sensitivity, the technique was applied to samples of environmental interest with limited available sample amounts such as particulate matter (PM), soot and a sample from a bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus. First, special sample preparation was necessary and ultrasonic extraction proved to be suitable, if a thorough clean-up was performed and plastic materials avoided. By GC-APLI-MS and GC-MS, 224 and 28 single PAH compounds were detected in PM, about 1,000 and 15 in birch soot, and 9 and 2 in worm tissue, respectively, revealing the enormous potential of the method. The selectivity of GC-APLI-MS was shown for a crude oil where >2,200 PAH were detected without any sample preparation. PMID:23852149

  12. Silica-based ionogels: nanoconfined ionic liquid-rich fibers for headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-barrier discharge ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Marcinkowski, Lukasz; Kloskowski, Adam; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    In this work, hybrid silica-based materials with immobilized ionic liquids (ILs) were prepared by sol-gel technology and evaluated as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coatings. High loadings of the IL 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C4MIM][TFSI]) were confined within the hybrid network. Coatings composition and morphology were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The obtained ionogel SPME fibers exhibited high extractability for aromatic volatile compounds, yielding good sensitivity and precision when combined with a gas chromatograph with barrier ionization discharge (GC-BID) detection. A central composite design was used for assessing the effect of experimental parameters on the extraction process. Under optimized conditions, the proposed ionogel SPME fiber coatings enabled the achievement of excellent enrichment factors (up to 7400). The limits of detection (LODs) were found in the range 0.03-1.27 ?g L(-1), whereas the repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were 5.6% and 12.0% on average, respectively. Water samples were analyzed by the proposed methodology, showing recovery values in the range of 88.7-113.9%. The results obtained in this work suggest that ionogels can be promising coating materials for future applications of SPME and related sample preparation techniques. PMID:25371321

  13. [Determination of anilines in environmental water samples by simultaneous derivatization and ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detectors].

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Xun; Dai, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Guo-Dong; Weng, Huan-Xin

    2015-02-01

    This research demonstrated a new method, simultaneous derivatization and ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (SD-USAEME-GC-FID), for the determination of anilines in environmental water samples. In this study, several factors, such as the volume of butylchloroformate (as derivatization agent/ extraction solvent), ultrasonication time, solution pH, salt addition, and centrifuging time and speed, were optimized in order to obtain good method performance. As a result, under the optimal conditions, the method showed good linearity in the concentration range of 6-60 000 ?g x L(-1) with correlation coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.999 7 to 0.999 9 for the five target anilines. The limit of detection ( LOD) , based on signal to noise ratio of 3 , ranged from 1.1-4.1 ?g x L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) varied from 2.4% to 5.7% (n = 6) and the enrichment factors (EF) ranged from 317 to 846. The proposed method was also successfully applied to analyze seven environmental water samples, with the relative recoveries (RR) ranging from 86.8% to 105.5%. In a conclusion, this method was convenient, highly sensitive, inexpensive and environment-friendly, and therefore, the present method can be used as a preferred method for the determination of anilines in environmental water samples. PMID:26031106

  14. Determination of amantadine in biological fluids using simultaneous derivatization and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Nouri, Nina; Alizadeh Nabil, Ali Akbar

    2013-12-01

    A one-step derivatization and microextraction technique for the determination of amantadine in the human plasma and urine samples is presented. An appropriate mixture of methanol (disperser solvent), 1,2-dibromoethane (extraction solvent), and butylchloroformate (derivatization agent) is rapidly injected into samples. After centrifuging, the sedimented phase is analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The kind of extraction and disperser solvents and their volumes, amount of derivatization agent and reaction/extraction time which are effective in derivatization/dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure are optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factor (EF) of the target analyte was obtained to be 408 and 420, and limit of detection (LOD) 4.2 and 2.7ngmL(-1), in plasma and urine respectively. The linear range is 14-5000 and 8.7-5000ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively (squared correlation coefficient?0.990). The relative recoveries obtained for the spiked plasma and urine samples are between 72% and 93%. Moreover, the inter- and intra-day precisions are acceptable at all spiked concentrations (relative standard deviation <7%). Finally the method was successfully applied to determine amantadine in biological samples. PMID:24157523

  15. Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection for the profiling of fatty acids in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Siang, Gan Hui; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin; Lim, Boey Peng

    2010-12-24

    The development of a two phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction technique, followed by gas-chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the profiling of the fatty acids (FAs) (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic) in vegetable oils is described. Heptadecanoic acid methyl ester was used as the internal standard. The FAs were transesterified to their corresponding methyl esters prior to the extraction. Extraction parameters such as type of extracting solvent, temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt addition were studied and optimized. Recommended conditions were extraction solvent, n-tridecane; extraction time, 35 min; extraction temperature, ambient; without addition of salt. Enrichment factors varying from 37 to 115 were achieved. Calibration curves for the nine FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.994) within the range of 10-5000 ?g L(-1). The limit of detection (signal:noise, 3) was 4.73-13.21 ng L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the profiling of the FAs in palm oils (crude, olein, kernel, and carotino cooking oil) and other vegetable oils (soybean, olive, coconut, rice bran and pumpkin). The encouraging enrichments achieved offer an interesting option for the profiling of the minor and major FAs in palm and other vegetable oils. PMID:21081239

  16. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

    2010-04-08

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  17. Gridded electron reversal ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

  18. A Chemical Ionization High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer Coupled to a Micro Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI-HRToF-CIMS) for Analysis of Gas and Particle-Phase Organic Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reddy L. N. Yatavelli; Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker; Julia D. Wargo; Joel R. Kimmel; Michael J. Cubison; Timothy H. Bertram; Jose L. Jimenez; Marc Gonin; Douglas R. Worsnop; Joel A. Thornton

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new instrument, chemical ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a micro-orifice volatilization impactor (MOVI-HRToF-CIMS). The MOVI-HRToF-CIMS instrument is unique in that, within a compact field-deployable package, it provides (1) quantifiable molecular-level information for both gas and particle phase organic species on timescales ranging from ?1 second for gases and 10 - 60 minutes for particle-phase compounds

  19. Development and validation of a gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicham Kharbouche; Frank Sporkert; Stéphanie Troxler; Marc Augsburger; Patrice Mangin; Christian Staub

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC–NCI-MS\\/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30mg

  20. Determination of 5?-androst-16-en-3?-ol in truffle fermentation broth by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography–flame ionization detector\\/electron impact mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guan Wang; Yuan-Yuan Li; Dong-Sheng Li; Ya-Jie Tang

    2008-01-01

    A novel method using solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (FID)\\/electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS) was developed for the determination of 5?-androst-16-en-3?-ol (androstenol), a steroidal compound belonging to the group of musk odorous 16-androstenes, in truffle fermentation broth. Comparison studies between FID and EIMS indicated two detectors gave similar quantitative results. The highest androstenol concentration of

  1. Ambient gas/particle partitioning. 3. Estimating partition coefficients of apolar, polar, and ionizable organic compounds by their molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Gosses, Kai-Uwe

    2009-03-15

    Equilibrium gas/particle partitioning coefficients of terrestrial aerosols, Kip, are dependent on various intermolecular interactions that can be quantified by experimentally determined compound-specific descriptors. For many compounds of environmental interest, such as emerging contaminants and atmospheric phototransformation products, these compound-specific descriptors are unknown or immeasurable. Often, only the molecular structure is known. Here we present the ability of two computer programs to predict equilibrium partitioning to terrestrial aerosols solely on the basis of molecular structure: COSMOtherm and SPARC. The greatest hurdle with designing such an approach is to identify suitable molecular surrogates to represent the dominating sorbing phases, which for ambient terrestrial aerosols are the water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) phase and the mixed-aqueous phase. For the WI0M phase, hypothetical urban secondary organic aerosol structural units from Kalberer et al. Science 2004, 303, 1659-1662 were investigated as input surrogates, and for the mixed-aqueous phase mildly acidic water was used as a surrogate. Using a validation data set of more than 1400 experimentally determined Kip values for polar, apolar, and ionic compounds ranging over 9 orders of magnitude (including semivolatile compounds such as PCDD/Fs, pesticides, and PBDEs), SPARC and COSMOtherm were generally able to predict Kip values well within an order of magnitude over an ambient range of temperature and relative humidity. This is remarkable as these two models were not fitted or calibrated to any experimental data. As these models can be used for potentially any organic molecule, they are particularly recommended for environmental screening purposes and for use when experimental compound descriptor data are not available. PMID:19368193

  2. The Relationship between the Dense Neutral and Diffuse Ionized Gas in the Thick Disks of Two Edge-on Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueff, Katherine M.; Howk, J. Christopher; Pitterle, Marissa; Hirschauer, Alec S.; Fox, Andrew J.; Savage, Blair D.

    2013-03-01

    We present high-resolution, optical images (BVI + H?) of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) in the thick disks of the edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 4013 and NGC 4302. Our images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Large Binocular Telescope, and WIYN 3.5 m telescope reveal an extensive population of filamentary dust absorption seen to z ~2-2.5 kpc. Many of these dusty thick disk structures have characteristics reminiscent of molecular clouds found in the Milky Way disk. Our H? images show that the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in these galaxies is dominated by a smooth, diffuse component. The strongly filamentary morphologies of the dust absorption have no counterpart in the smoothly distributed H? emission. We argue that the thick disk DIG and dust-bearing filaments trace physically distinct phases of the thick disk ISM, the latter tracing a dense, warm or cold neutral medium. The dense, dusty matter in the thick disks of spiral galaxies is largely tracing matter ejected from the thin disk via energetic feedback from massive stars. The high densities of the gas may be a result of converging gas flows. This dense material fuels some thick disk star formation, as evidenced by the presence of thick disk H II regions. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope operated at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also, based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the US, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona, on behalf of the Arizona University System; Instituto Nazionale do Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia. Also, based on observations obtained by the WIYN Observatory which is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Yale University, Indiana University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

  3. Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas. VI. The Spitzer-IRS view. Basic data set analysis and empirical spectral classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Panuzzo; R. Rampazzo; A. Bressan; O. Vega; F. Annibali; L. M. Buson; M. S. Clemens; W. W. Zeilinger

    2011-01-01

    Context. A large fraction of early-type galaxies (ETGs) shows emission lines in their optical spectra, mostly with LINER characteristics. Despite the number of studies, the nature of the ionization mechanisms is still debated. Many ETGs also show several signs of rejuvenation episodes. Aims: We aim to investigate the ionization mechanisms and the physical processes of a sample of ETGs using

  4. Large Picture of the Galactic Center Studied by H_3^+: High Ionization Rate, Prevailing Warm and Diffuse Gas, and Non-Rotating Expanding Molecular Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi; Geballe, Thomas R.; Indriolo, Nick

    2013-06-01

    Following our initial studies of the diffuse interstellar medium in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of the Galactic center (GC) toward two remarkable sightlines--one 140 pc to the West of Sgr A* near Sgr E, and the other 85 pc to the East of Sgr A* near Sgr B --we are in the process of using newly identified bright stars with smooth continua suitable for H_3^+ spectroscopy to both fill the gap between these sightlines and expand coverage to wider regions of the CMZ. So far we have identified 43 qualified stars, of which 24 have been at least partially observed (i.e., in at least one spectral setting). The high ionization rate (on the order of ?˜3×10^{-15} s^{-1}) and the existence of warm (T˜250 K) and diffuse (n?100 cm^{-3}) gas previously reported in the GC have also been observed in some of the new sightlines, indicating these conditions fill a large portion of the CMZ. The velocity profiles observed in the diffuse clouds, some of which show absorption extending ˜ 140 km s^{-1}, allow us to draw a velocity-longitude diagram. The high-velocity fronts of such a diagram reveal the existence of an expanding molecular ring (EMR) with radius of ˜ 140 pc and velocity of ˜ 140 km s^{-1}. This ring is similar to those previously reported but is qualitatively different in that it is not rotating, suggesting an expulsion rather than the gravitational potential as causing the EMR. Possible relations between our observations and other high energy events will be discussed. T. R. Geballe and T. Oka, ApJ, 709, L70 (2010). T. Oka, T. R. Geballe, M. Goto, T. Usuda, and B. J. McCall ApJ, 632, 882 (2005). N. Kaifu, T. Kato, and T. Iguchi, Nature, 238, 105 (1972). N. Z. Scoville, ApJ, 175, L127 (1972). Y. Sofue, PASJ, 47, 551 (1995).

  5. Methane standards made in whole and synthetic air compared by cavity ring down spectroscopy and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection for atmospheric monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Flores, Edgar; Rhoderick, George C; Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Choteau, Tiphaine; Gameson, Lyn; Guenther, Franklin R; Wielgosz, Robert Ian

    2015-03-17

    There is evidence that the use of whole air versus synthetic air can bias measurement results when analyzing atmospheric samples for methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and wavelength scanned-cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) were used to compare CH4 standards produced with whole air or synthetic air as the matrix over the mole fraction range of 1600-2100 nmol mol(-1). GC-FID measurements were performed by including ratios to a stable control cylinder, obtaining a typical relative standard measurement uncertainty of 0.025%. CRDS measurements were performed using the same protocol and also with no interruption for a limited time period without use of a control cylinder, obtaining relative standard uncertainties of 0.031% and 0.015%, respectively. This measurement procedure was subsequently used for an international comparison, in which three pairs of whole air standards were compared with five pairs of synthetic air standards (two each from eight different laboratories). The variation from the reference value for the whole air standards was determined to be 2.07 nmol mol(-1) (average standard deviation) and that of synthetic air standards was 1.37 nmol mol(-1) (average standard deviation). All but one standard agreed with the reference value within the stated uncertainty. No significant difference in performance was observed between standards made from synthetic air or whole air, and the accuracy of both types of standards was limited only by the ability to measure trace CH4 levels in the matrix gases used to produce the standards. PMID:25679264

  6. Measurement of the incorporation and repair of exogenous 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine in human cells in culture using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Daniel K; Darwanto, Agus; Herring, Jason L; Rogstad, Katherine Noyes; Burdzy, Artur; Hadley, Scott R; Neidigh, Jonathan W; Sowers, Lawrence C

    2007-12-01

    The DNA of all organisms is constantly damaged by oxidation. Among the array of damage products is 5-hydroxymethyluracil, derived from oxidation of the thymine methyl group. Previous studies have established that HmU can be a sensitive and valuable marker of DNA damage. More recently, the corresponding deoxynucleoside, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HmdU), has proven to be valuable for the introduction of controlled amounts of a single type of damage lesion into the DNA of replicating cells, which is subsequently repaired by the base excision repair pathway. Complicating the study of HmU formation and repair, however, is the known chemical reactivity of the hydroxymethyl group of HmU under conditions used to hydrolyze DNA. In the work reported here, this chemical property has been exploited by creating conditions that convert HmU to the corresponding methoxymethyluracil (MmU) derivative that can be further derivatized to the 3,5-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl analogue. This derivatized compound can be detected by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) with good sensitivity. Using isotopically enriched exogenous HmdU and human osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) in culture, we demonstrate that this method allows for the measurement of HmU in DNA formed from the incorporation of exogenous HmdU. We further demonstrate that the addition of isotopically enriched uridine to the culture medium allows for the simultaneous measurement of DNA replication and repair kinetics. This sensitive and facile method should prove valuable for studies on DNA oxidation damage and repair in living cells. PMID:17914883

  7. Analytical method validation for the determination of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene in air samples using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Mawn, Michael P; Kurtz, Kristine; Stahl, Deborah; Chalfant, Richard L; Koban, Mary E; Dawson, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    A new low global warming refrigerant, 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro propene, or HFO-1234yf, has been successfully evaluated for automotive air conditioning, and is also being evaluated for stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Due to the advantageous environmental properties of HFO-1234yf versus HFC-134a, coupled with its similar physical properties and system performance, HFO-1234yf is also being evaluated to replace HFC-134a in refrigeration applications where neat HFC-134a is currently used. This study reports on the development and validation of a sampling and analytical method for the determination of HFO-1234yf in air. Different collection media were screened for desorption and simulated sampling efficiency with three-section (350/350/350 mg) Anasorb CSC showing the best results. Therefore, air samples were collected using two 3-section Anasorb CSC sorbent tubes in series at 0.02 L/min for up to 8 hr for sample volumes of up to 9.6 L. The sorbent tubes were extracted in methylene chloride, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The method was validated from 0.1× to 20× the target level of 0.5 ppm (2.3 mg/m(3)) for a 9.6 L air volume. Desorption efficiencies for HFO-1234yf were 88 to 109% for all replicates over the validation range with a mean overall recovery of 93%. Simulated sampling efficiencies ranged from 87 to 104% with a mean of 94%. No migration or breakthrough to the back tube was observed under the sampling conditions evaluated. HFO-1234yf samples showed acceptable storage stability on Anasorb CSC sorbent up to a period of 30 days when stored under ambient, refrigerated, or frozen temperature conditions. PMID:24116663

  8. Kinetic-Hydrodynamic Models of the Solar Wind Interaction with the Partially Ionized Supersonic Flow of the Local Interstellar Gas: Predictions and Interpretations of the Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Vladimir B.

    2009-02-01

    At present there is no doubt that the local interstellar medium (LISM) is mainly partially ionized hydrogen gas moving with a supersonic flow relative to the solar system. The bulk velocity of this flow is approximately equal ˜26 km/s. Although the interaction of the solar wind with the charged component (below plasma component) of the LISM can be described in the framework of hydrodynamic approach, the interaction of H atoms with the plasma component can be correctly described only in the framework of kinetic theory because the mean free path of H atoms in the main process of the resonance charge exchange is comparable with a characteristic length of the problem considered. Results of self-consistent, kinetic-hydrodynamic models are considered in this review paper. First, such the model was constructed by Baranov and Malama (J. Geophys. Res. 98(A9):15,157-15,163, 1993). Up to now it is mainly developed by Moscow group taking into account new experimental data obtained onboard spacecraft studying outer regions of the solar system (Voyager 1 and 2, Pioneer 10 and 11, Hubble Space Telescope, Ulysses, SOHO and so on). Predictions and interpretations of experimental data obtained on the basis of these models are presented. Kinetic models for describing H atom motion were later suggested by Fahr et al. (Astron. Astrophys 298:587-600, 1995) and Lipatov et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 103(A9):20,631-20,642, 1998). However they were not self-consistent and did not incorporate sources to the plasma component. A self-consistent kinetic-hydrodynamic model suggested by Heerikhuisen et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 111:A06110, 2006, Astrophys. J. 655:L53-L56, 2007) was not tested on the results by Baranov and Malama (J. Geophys. Res. 111:A06110, 1993) although it was suggested much later. Besides authors did not describe in details their Monte Carlo method for a solution of the H atom Boltzmann equation and did not inform about an accuracy of this method. Therefore the results of Heerikhuisen et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 111:A06110, 2006) are in open to question and will not be considered in this review paper. That is why below we will mainly consider a progress of the Moscow group on heliospheric modelling endeavours in the kinetic-hydrodynamic approach. Criticism of the models that treat interstellar hydrogen in the heliosphere as several fluids is given. It is shown that the multi-fluid models give rise to unreal results especially for distributions of neutral component parameters. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of the solar wind interaction with the LISM gas is also reviewed.

  9. Associative ionization in mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Folan, L.M.; Sheverev, V.A. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Physics

    1996-12-31

    Ionization in binary collisions of 6{sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2} excited mercury atoms are of particular importance for the charge particle balance in low temperature mercury-rare gas plasmas, which have found wide and successful application in fluorescent lamps. The principal weak point of existing theoretical models of lighting plasmas is the choice of processes assumed to lead to ionization in collisions of 6{sup 3}P atoms of mercury, and hence to large uncertainties in the cross-section and rate constant data. In fact, the cross-section values used in discharge models differ by more than a factor of ten. Binary 6{sup 3}P{sub 0} collisions, usually neglected, are expected to be of great importance. The authors preset numerical results from the GLOMAC model, showing the variation in fluorescent lamp operating characteristics as the rate constants for ionization in collisions of 6{sup 3}P atoms are varied through the range allowed by existing experimental results. The notable dependencies observed illustrate the need for more accurate experimental data. A novel experimental approach to the measurement of absolute collisional ionization cross-sections, based on a radio frequency ion trap, is proposed.

  10. Ionization detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    An ionization detecting fire alarm device is disclosed which comprises a double chamber structure, a source disposed in at least one of the chambers, and a vernier adjusting screw electrode protruding into one chamber. The chamber containing the adjustable electrode is more open to the atmosphere than the other chamber. Porting is provided between chambers and detection occurs by sensing

  11. Miniature Oxidizer Ionizer for a Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank

    2006-01-01

    A proposed miniature device for ionizing the oxygen (or other oxidizing gas) in a fuel cell would consist mostly of a membrane ionizer using the same principles as those of the device described in the earlier article, Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster (NPO-21057). The oxidizing gas would be completely ionized upon passage through the holes in the membrane ionizer. The resulting positively charged atoms or molecules of oxidizing gas could then, under the influence of the fringe fields of the ionizer, move toward the fuel-cell cathode that would be part of a membrane/electrode assembly comprising the cathode, a solid-electrolyte membrane, and an anode. The electro-oxidized state of the oxidizer atoms and molecules would enhance transfer of them through the cathode, thereby reducing the partial pressure of the oxidizer gas between the ionizer and the fuel-cell cathode, thereby, in turn, causing further inflow of oxidizer gas through the holes in the membrane ionizer. Optionally the ionizer could be maintained at a positive electric potential with respect to the cathode, in which case the resulting electric field would accelerate the ions toward the cathode.

  12. Determination of chlorophenols in soil samples by microwave-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–electron-capture detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Chi Wei; Jen-Fon Jen

    2003-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction was studied and applied for one-step in-situ sample preparation prior to analysis of chlorophenols (CPs) in soil samples. The CPs in soil sample were extracted into the aqueous solution and then directly onto the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber in headspace under the aid of microwave irradiation. After being desorbed from SPME fiber in

  13. Determination of naltrexone and 6-beta-naltrexol in plasma by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Moody, D E; Foltz, R L; Walsh, S L

    1997-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a one-step derivatization are combined with gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to simplify a previously reported method for the determination of naltrexone and its metabolite, 6-beta-naltrexol, in human plasma. Deuterated isotopomers of naltrexone and 6-beta-naltrexol are used as internal standards. After SPE, the extracts are derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride at room temperature to form predominantly the bispentafluoropropionyl derivative of naltrexone and the trispentafluoropropionyl derivative of 6-beta-naltrexol. The derivatized extracts are analyzed by monitoring ion currents at m/z 633 (naltrexone), m/z 636 (naltrexone-2H3), m/z 633 6-beta-naltrexol), and m/z 640 (6-beta-naltrexol-2H7). Control plasma samples containing 0.3, 3, or 30 ng/nl of each analyte were analyzed for precision and accuracy with the following results: intra-assay, the percentage of target concentrations were 107-113% for naltrexone and 107-120% for 6-beta-naltrexol, and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were 3.1-6.3% for naltrexone and 3.1-5.7% for 6-beta-naltrexol; interassay, the percentage of target concentrations were 103-110% for naltrexone and 110-113% for 6-beta-naltrexol, and the CVs were 6.1-9.1% for naltrexone and 5.9-9.1% for 6-beta-naltrexol. At the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.1 ng/ml, both analytes quantified within 20% of the target concentration with CVs less than 17%. The extraction recoveries determined at 0.3 and 30 ng/ml were 79 and 80% for naltrexone and 76 and 75% for 6-beta-naltrexol. Bench-top stability tested with concentrations of 0.3 and 3.0 ng/ml did not decrease more than 10% from the zero-hour controls at 3, 6 and 24 h. Selectively was determined using plasma from six donors and none showed interfering peaks greater than 22% of the LOQ for naltrexone and 53% of the LOQ for 6-beta-naltrexol. Using this method, naltrexone and 6-beta-naltrexol were readily detected in plasma specimens collected 5.5 h after oral doses of 25 or 100 mg naltrexone. Following discontinuation of treatment, naltrexone was detected 30 h after the 100-mg dose, whereas 6-beta-naltrexol was detected 125 h after both the 25- and 100-mg doses. PMID:9248940

  14. Critical ionization velocity effects in astrophysical plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Raadu

    1979-01-01

    Critical ionization velocity effects are relevant to astrophysical situations where neutral gas moves through a magnetised plasma. The underlying mechanism depends on the combined effects of electron impact ionization and electron energization by collective plasma interactions. For low density plasmas a theory based on a circular process involving electron heating through a modified two stream instability is developed. Several applications

  15. Initial results of positron ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, D. L.; Hulett, L. D., Jr.; Mcluckey, S. A.; Glish, G. L.; Eckenrode, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of monoenergetic positrons for the ionization of organic molecules in the gas phase is described. The ionic products are analyzed with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and detected to produce a mass spectrum. The ionization mechanisms which can be studied in this way include positron impact at energies above the ionization limit of the target molecules, positronium formation in the Ore gap energy range, and positron attachment at energies less than 1eV. The technique of positron ionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) may have analytical utility in that chemical selectivity is observed for one or more of these processes.

  16. Real-time gas and particle-phase organic acids measurement at a forest site using chemical ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry during BEACHON-RoMBAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatavelli, L. R.; Stark, H.; Kimmel, J.; Cubison, M.; Day, D. A.; Jayne, J.; Thornton, J. A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    We present measurement of organic acids in gas and aerosol particles conducted in a ponderosa pine forest during July and August 2011 as part of the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS; http://tinyurl.com/BEACHON-RoMBAS). The measurement technique is based on chemical ionization, high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and utilizes a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor [MOVI-CI-HR-ToFMS; Yatavelli et al., AS&T, 2010] to collect sub-micron aerosol particles while simultaneously measuring the gas-phase composition. The collected particles are subsequently analyzed by temperature-programmed thermal desorption. The reagent ion chosen for this campaign is the acetate anion (CH3C(O)O-, m/z 59), which reacts selectively via proton transfer with compounds that are stronger gas-phase acids than acetic acid [Veres et al., IJMS, 2008]. Preliminary results show substantial particle-phase concentrations of biogenic oxidation products such as hydroxy-glutaric acid, pinic acid, pinonic acid, and hydroxy-pinonic acid along with numerous lower and higher molecular weight organic acids. Correlations of the organic acid concentrations with meteorological, gas and aerosol parameters measured by other instrumentation are investigated in order to understand the formation, transformation, and partitioning of gas and particle-phase organic acids in a forested environment dominated by terpenes.

  17. Cross sections for ionization of rare gas excimers by electron impact and atomic and molecular processes in excimer lasers. Final report 1 Apr 78-30 Sep 79

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, M.R.; McCann, K.J.

    1980-03-01

    Theoretical cross sections for ionization of metastable excimers - helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon - and of metastable mercury are presented. Systematic trends in inelastic form factors and Born cross sections for collisional transitions between excited neighboring levels of atoms are discovered and discussed. Key cycles of atomic and molecular collision processes in excimer lasers are delineated and discussed.

  18. Cross sections for ionization of rare gas excimers by electron impact and atomic and molecular processes in excimer lasers. Final report 1 Apr 78-30 Sep 79

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Flannery; K. J. McCann

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical cross sections for ionization of metastable excimers - helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon - and of metastable mercury are presented. Systematic trends in inelastic form factors and Born cross sections for collisional transitions between excited neighboring levels of atoms are discovered and discussed. Key cycles of atomic and molecular collision processes in excimer lasers are delineated and discussed.

  19. Photoelectron resonance capture ionization (PERCI): A novel technique for the soft-ionization of organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian W. LaFranchi; Giuseppe A. Petrucci

    2004-01-01

    Photoelectron resonance capture ionization (PERCI) is demonstrated as a sensitive ionization technique involving minimal fragmentation\\u000a of organic molecules. PERCI has been used successfully to softly and efficiently ionize both strongly UV absorbing and non-absorbing\\u000a molecules. Tunable low energy (<1 eV) electrons are generated by focusing a pulsed UV laser on an aluminum photocathode in\\u000a the presence of gas phase analyte.

  20. High intensity ionization-electrostatic precipitation system for particle removal

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.M.

    1981-02-17

    In the removal of particles from a gas stream by high intensity ionization and then collection by electrostatic precipitation, flow of the electrostatically charged gas entering the precipitation is restricted in a non-uniform manner.

  1. Mechanism for the formation of gas-phase protonated alcohol-ether adducts by VUV laser ionization and density-functional calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Selay; Shi, Y.J.; Mosey, N.J.; Woo, T.K.; Lipson, R.H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2004-11-22

    The neutral vapors above liquid alcohol/ether mixtures (diethyl ether/methanol, diethyl ether/ethanol, tetrahydrofuran/methanol, and tetrahydrofuran/ethanol) were co-expanded with He in a supersonic jet, ionized with a 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet laser, and detected in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. In each case, features attributed to protonated alcohol-ether dimers and protonated ether monomers were observed, as well as those ions obtained by ionizing neat alcohol or ether samples alone. Theoretical calculations, carried out to establish the energetics of the various possible reactions leading to the formation of the observed binary adducts, indicate that the most thermodynamically favorable pathway corresponds to the addition of a protonated alcohol monomer to neutral ether.

  2. Simulation study of the ionizing front in the critical ionization velocity phenomenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Machida; C. K. Goertz; G. Lu

    1988-01-01

    The simulation of the critical ionization velocity for a neutral gas cloud moving across the static magnetic field is presented. A low-beta plasma is studied, using a two and a half-dimensional electrostatic code linked with the Plasma and Neutral Interaction Code (Goertz and Machida, 1987). The physics of the ionizing front and the instabilities which occur there are discussed. Results

  3. Review of impact experiments on the critical ionization velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Brenning

    1982-01-01

    Experiments in which a highly ionized plasma impacts on a neutral gas cloud are reviewed. Critical ionization velocity interaction is observed only when the magnetic field, and the neutral gas density, are above certain limits. The values of these limits, however, differ between the experiments. The extrapolation of the laboratory results to space applications is discussed.

  4. Momentum coupling in ionospheric critical ionization velocity experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Brenning; O. Bolin

    1993-01-01

    The critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect is a process that can rapidly ionize a neutral gas which moves through a magnetized plasma. In ionospheric injection experiments, the neutral gas component is released at high velocity with respect to the ionosphere from a rocket or a satellite. Efficient momentum coupling between the injected cloud and the ambient ionosphere is achieved by

  5. Development of a multi-residue method for the determination of organic micropollutants in water, sediment and mussels using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Avila, Juan; Fernandez-Sanjuan, María; Vicente, Joana; Lacorte, Silvia

    2011-09-23

    This study describes the development of a multiresidue method based on gas chromatography-electron ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) for the detection of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), five phthalate esters (PEs), seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), six alkylphenols (APs), three organochlorined pesticides and their isomers or degradation products (OCPs) and bisphenol A in seawater, river water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, sediments and mussels. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used for the extraction of target analytes in aqueous samples, and ultrasound assisted extraction for solid samples. GC-EI-MS/MS acquisition conditions in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) using two transitions per compound were optimized. In this way, quantification and unequivocal identification of organic micropollutants were performed in compliance with the Decision 2002/657/EC. Good linearity responses with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99 were obtained. Methodological detection limits (MDLs) in seawater ranged from 0.1 to 6 ng L(-1); in river water from 0.1 to 4.8 ng L(-1); in WWTP effluents from 1 to 75 ng L(-1); in sediments from 1 to 150 ng g(-1) and in mussels from 1 to 125 ng g(-1). MDLs and recovery yields were compared with other published methods and similarities or even improvements were achieved. The optimized method was applied to analyze five samples from each matrix collected in coastal areas, showing its potential use for marine pollution monitoring. PMID:21824622

  6. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22?g sarin (GB), 100?g soman (GD), 210?g tabun (GA), 55?g cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8?g sulfur mustard, 390?g nitrogen mustard 1, 140?g of nitrogen mustard 2, 130?g nitrogen mustard 3, 120?g of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990?g of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  7. Ionization potentials of seaborgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Johnson; V. Pershina; B. Fricke

    1999-01-01

    Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic

  8. Comparative investigation of disposition of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methamphetamine (MDMA) in the rat and the mouse by a capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay based on perfluorotributylamine-enhanced ammonia positive ion chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Lim, H K; Zeng, S; Chei, D M; Foltz, R L

    1992-09-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay based on perfluorotributylamine-enhanced ammonia positive ion chemical ionization has been developed for MDMA and three of its primary metabolites in biological specimens; the assay is linear from 2 to 1000 ng ml-1. Quantitatively, more of an administered dose of 10 mg kg-1 MDMA was excreted by the mouse (72%) than by the rat (35%); most in both species was excreted in urine and within 24 h. The difference in per cent excretion is entirely due to proportionally greater excretion of the parent drug by the mouse. 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMM) is the major urinary metabolite in both species. HMM and another primary metabolite, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA), were excreted mainly as glucuronide and sulphate conjugates (> 85%). PMID:1363061

  9. Synthesis and hydrolysis of gas-phase lanthanide and actinide oxide nitrate complexes: a correspondence to trivalent metal ion redox potentials and ionization energies.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Ana F; Lourenço, Célia; Michelini, Maria C; Rutkowski, Philip X; Carretas, José M; Zorz, Nicole; Berthon, Laurence; Dias, Ana; Conceição Oliveira, M; Gibson, John K; Marçalo, Joaquim

    2015-04-21

    Several lanthanide and actinide tetranitrate ions, M(III)(NO3)4(-), were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to collision induced dissociation in quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers. The nature of the MO(NO3)3(-) products that result from NO2 elimination was evaluated by measuring the relative hydrolysis rates under thermalized conditions. Based on the experimental results it is inferred that the hydrolysis rates relate to the intrinsic stability of the M(IV) oxidation states, which correlate with both the solution IV/III reduction potentials and the fourth ionization energies. Density functional theory computations of the energetics of hydrolysis and atoms-in-molecules bonding analysis of representative oxide and hydroxide nitrates substantiate the interpretations. The results allow differentiation between those MO(NO3)3(-) that comprise an O(2-) ligand with oxidation to M(IV) and those that comprise a radical O(-) ligand with retention of the M(III) oxidation state. In the particular cases of MO(NO3)3(-) for M = Pr, Nd and Tb it is proposed that the oxidation states are intermediate between M(III) and M(IV). PMID:25783464

  10. The role of the critical ionization velocity phenomena in the production of inner coma cometary plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Formisano; A. A. Galeev; R. Z. Sagdeev

    1981-01-01

    The critical velocity required to trigger the anomalous ionization of a neutral gas by plasma flow is theoretically calculated for a model based on lower hybrid instability. It depends strongly on the plasma and gas parameters, defining the instability development of the ionized atoms beam in the counter-streaming plasma. In particular, the possible role of a critical ionization mechanism for

  11. The role of the critical ionization velocity phenomena in the production of inner coma cometary plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Formisano; A. A. Galeev; R. Z. Sagdeev

    1982-01-01

    A model based on the lower hybrid instability is used in calculations of the critical velocity of plasma flow-triggered anomalous ionization of a neutral gas, where a strong dependence on plasma and gas parameters defines the instability development of the ionized beam in the counter-streaming plasma. The possible role which may be played by the critical ionization mechanism in the

  12. Real-time air monitoring of mustard gas and Lewisite 1 by detecting their in-line reaction products by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow ion introduction.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2015-01-20

    A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds. In-line chemical reactions, ionization reactions, and ion fragmentations of these agents were investigated. Mustard gas is oxygenated in small quantity by reactive oxygen species generated in the corona discharge. With increasing air humidity, the MS(2) signal intensity of protonated molecules of mono-oxygenated HD decreases but exceeds that of dominantly existing intact HD. This result can be explained in view of proton affinity. Lewisite 1 is hydrolyzed and oxidized. As the humidity increases from zero, the signal of the final product, namely, didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, and mono-oxygenated L1, quickly increases and reaches a plateau, giving the highest MS(2) and MS(3) signals among those of L1 and its reaction products. The addition of minimal moisture gives the highest signal intensity, even under low humidity. The method was demonstrated to provide sufficient analytical performance to meet the requirements concerning hygienic management and counter-terrorism. It will be the first practical method, in view of sensitivity and specificity, for real-time air monitoring of HD and L1 without sample pretreatment. PMID:25553788

  13. Matrix Assisted Ionization Vacuum (MAIV), a New Ionization Method for Biological Materials Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Inutan, Ellen D.; Trimpin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for the mass spectrometric analysis of peptides and proteins had a dramatic impact on biological science. We now report that a wide variety of compounds, including peptides, proteins, and protein complexes, are transported directly from a solid-state small molecule matrix to gas-phase ions when placed into the vacuum of a mass spectrometer without the use of high voltage, a laser, or added heat. This ionization process produces ions having charge states similar to ESI, making the method applicable for high performance mass spectrometers designed for atmospheric pressure ionization. We demonstrate highly sensitive ionization using intermediate pressure MALDI and modified ESI sources. This matrix and vacuum assisted soft ionization method is suitable for the direct surface analysis of biological materials, including tissue, via mass spectrometry. PMID:23242551

  14. Field ionizing elements and applications thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A field ionizing element formed of a membrane that houses electrodes therein that are located closer to one another than the mean free path of the gas being ionized. The membrane includes a supporting portion, and a non supporting portion where the ions are formed. The membrane may be used as the front end for a number of different applications including a mass spectrometer, a thruster, an ion mobility element, or an electrochemical device such as a fuel cell.

  15. Probing angular correlations in sequential double ionization.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, A; Wörner, H J; Arissian, L; Liu, L R; Meckel, M; Rippert, A; Dörner, R; Villeneuve, D M; Corkum, P B; Staudte, A

    2011-09-01

    We study electron correlation in sequential double ionization of noble gas atoms and HCl in intense, femtosecond laser pulses. We measure the photoelectron angular distributions of Ne+ relative to the first electron in a pump-probe experiment with 8 fs, 800 nm, circularly polarized laser pulses at a peak intensity of a few 10(15)??W/cm2. Using a linear-linear pump-probe setup, we further study He, Ar, and HCl. We find a clear angular correlation between the two ionization steps in the sequential double ionization intensity regime. PMID:22026661

  16. Probing Angular Correlations in Sequential Double Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Woerner, H. J. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Arissian, L. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Liu, L. R. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); University of Toronto, 40 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2E4 (Canada); Meckel, M.; Rippert, A.; Doerner, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe Universitaet, Max-von-Laue Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Staudte, A. [Joint Attosecond Science Laboratory, National Research Council and University of Ottawa, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2011-09-09

    We study electron correlation in sequential double ionization of noble gas atoms and HCl in intense, femtosecond laser pulses. We measure the photoelectron angular distributions of Ne{sup +} relative to the first electron in a pump-probe experiment with 8 fs, 800 nm, circularly polarized laser pulses at a peak intensity of a few 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Using a linear-linear pump-probe setup, we further study He, Ar, and HCl. We find a clear angular correlation between the two ionization steps in the sequential double ionization intensity regime.

  17. Identification of alkylated phosphates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric investigations with different ionization principles of a thermally aged commercial lithium ion battery electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Weber, Waldemar; Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Wagner, Ralf; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-05-15

    The thermal aging process of a commercial LiPF6 based lithium ion battery electrolyte has been investigated in view of the formation of volatile phosphorus-containing degradation products. Aging products were analyzed by GC-MS. Structure determination of the products was performed by support of chemical ionization MS in positive and negative modes. A fraction of the discovered compounds belongs to the group of fluorophosphates (phosphorofluoridates) which are in suspect of potential toxicity. This is well known for relative derivatives, e.g. diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Another fraction of the identified compounds belongs to the group of trialkyl phosphates. These compounds may provide a positive impact on the thermal and electrochemical performance of Li-based batteries as repeatedly described in the literature. PMID:25846260

  18. Dicarboxylic degradation products of nonylphenol polyethoxylates: synthesis and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using electron and chemical ionization modes.

    PubMed

    Hoai, Pham Manh; Tsunoi, Shinji; Ike, Michihiko; Inui, Naoko; Tanaka, Minoru; Fujita, Masanori

    2004-12-17

    The synthesis, mass spectra and detectability of four selected dicarboxylic degradation products (CAPECs) of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are reported. The selected isomers have an alpha,alpha-dimethyl configuration (expressed as "dm" in their abbreviation), five to eight C atoms and a carboxyl group in the alkyl chain, and a carboxymethoxy acid group (dm-CA5-8P1ECs). The synthesis was successfully accomplished via a reaction sequence that started from anisole. After trimethylsilylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide or methylation with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane, the derivatives of the dm-CA5-8P1ECs were subjected to a GC-electron ionization (EI)-MS and GC-isobutane chemical ionization (CI)-MS. In EI-MS, ion peaks at m/z = 265 and 207, corresponding to the alpha,alpha-dimethyl structures via the benzyl cleavage of carboxyalkyl chain, were the most significant ions of the trimethylsilyl and methyl derivatives, respectively. In CI-MS, the main ion peaks of dm-CA5-, dm-CA6-, dm-CA7-, and dm-CA8P1EC after methylation were at m/z= 129, 143, 157, and 171, respectively, corresponding to the loss of methyl phenoxyacetate from [M+ H]+; meanwhile significant peaks were detected at 321, 335, 349, and 363, corresponding to the loss of the trimethylsilanol after trimethylsilylation. The potential for the identification and quantification of individual branched carboxyalkyl isomeric mixtures of CA5-, CA6-, CA7-, and CA8P1EC metabolites based on corresponding dm-CA5-8P1ECs revealed the advantage of the GC-CI-MS although the detection limits in CI were clearly higher than those in EI. PMID:15633752

  19. Gas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and pain in the belly—especially after a big meal. Foods that can cause gas Some people naturally produce ... your stomach or throw up . Your breasts are big and sore . The area around your nipples gets darker. You crave certain foods. Or you really dislike certain foods. You feel ...

  20. Kinetic simulation of neutral/ionized gas and electrically charged dust in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    SciTech Connect

    Tenishev, Valeriy; Rubin, Martin; Combi, Michael R. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-05-20

    The cometary coma is a unique phenomenon in the solar system being a planetary atmosphere influenced by little or no gravity. As a comet approaches the sun, the water vapor with some fraction of other gases sublimate, generating a cloud of gas, ice and other refractory materials (rocky and organic dust) ejected from the surface of the nucleus. Sublimating gas molecules undergo frequent collisions and photochemical processes in the near-nucleus region. Owing to its negligible gravity, comets produce a large and highly variable extensive dusty coma with a size much larger than the characteristic size of the cometary nucleus.The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. Both, interpretation of measurements and safety consideration of the spacecraft require modeling of the comet's dusty gas environment.In this work we present results of a numerical study of multispecies gaseous and electrically charged dust environment of comet Chyuryumov-Gerasimenko. Both, gas and dust phases of the coma are simulated kinetically. Photolytic reactions are taken into account. Parameters of the ambient plasma as well as the distribution of electric/magnetic fields are obtained from an MHD simulation of the coma connected to the solar wind. Trajectories of ions and electrically charged dust grains are simulated by accounting for the Lorentz force and the nucleus gravity.

  1. Near-UV Resonant Two-Photon Ionization Spectroscopy of Gas Phase Guanine: Evidence for the Observation of Three Rare Tautomers

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Structure and Interactions, Dept. of Chemistry,b Jackson State University, P.O. Box 17910, 1325 Lynch St) experiments on gas phase guanine, which is supported by quantum chemistry calculations. Whereas He droplet Molécules, CEA Saclay, Bât. 522, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France b Computational Centre for Molecular

  2. SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF JASMONIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID IN PLANTS BY VAPOR PHASE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-CHEMICAL IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid represent important signaling compounds in plant defensive responses against other organisms. Here, we present a new method for the easy, sensitive and reproducible quantification of both compounds by vapor phase extraction and gas chromatography-positive ion chemic...

  3. S1 certification of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate in a candidate certified reference material (organochlorine pesticides in tea) by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sin, Della Wai-Mei; Wong, Yee-Lok; Cheng, Eddie Chung-Chin; Lo, Man-Fung; Ho, Clare; Mok, Chuen-Shing; Wong, Siu-Kay

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the certification of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate in a candidate tea certified reference material (code: GLHK-11-03) according to the requirements of the ISO Guide 30 series. Certification of GLHK-11-03 was based on an analytical method purposely developed for the accurate measurement of the mass fraction of the target analytes in the material. An isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method involving determination by (i) gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) and (ii) gas chromatography-electron ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-EI-HRMS) techniques was employed. The performance of the described method was demonstrated through participation in the key comparison CCQM-K95 "Mid-Polarity Analytes in Food Matrix: Mid-Polarity Pesticides in Tea" organized by the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance-Metrology in Chemistry in 2012, where the study material was the same as the certified reference material (CRM). The values reported by using the developed method were in good agreement with the key comparison reference value (KCRV) assigned for beta-endosulfan (727?±?14 ?g kg(-1)) and endosulfan sulfate (505?±?11 ?g kg(-1)), where the degree of equivalence (DoE) values were 0.41 and 0.40, respectively. The certified values of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate in dry mass fraction in GLHK-11-03 were 350, 730, and 502 ?g kg(-1), respectively, and the respective expanded uncertainties, due to sample inhomogeneity, long-term and short-term stability, and variability in the characterization procedure, were 27 ?g kg(-1) (7.8 %), 48 ?g kg(-1) (6.6 %), and 33 ?g kg(-1) (6.6 %). PMID:25619984

  4. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. V. ALFVÉN IONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, C. R.; Helling, Ch.; Rimmer, P. B. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Diver, D. A., E-mail: craig.stark@st-andrews.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-10

    Observations of continuous radio and sporadic X-ray emission from low-mass objects suggest they harbor localized plasmas in their atmospheric environments. For low-mass objects, the degree of thermal ionization is insufficient to qualify the ionized component as a plasma, posing the question: what ionization processes can efficiently produce the required plasma that is the source of the radiation? We propose Alfvén ionization as a mechanism for producing localized pockets of ionized gas in the atmosphere, having sufficient degrees of ionization (?10{sup –7}) that they constitute plasmas. We outline the criteria required for Alfvén ionization and demonstrate its applicability in the atmospheres of low-mass objects such as giant gas planets, brown dwarfs, and M dwarfs with both solar and sub-solar metallicities. We find that Alfvén ionization is most efficient at mid to low atmospheric pressures where a seed plasma is easier to magnetize and the pressure gradients needed to drive the required neutral flows are the smallest. For the model atmospheres considered, our results show that degrees of ionization of 10{sup –6}-1 can be obtained as a result of Alfvén ionization. Observable consequences include continuum bremsstrahlung emission, superimposed with spectral lines from the plasma ion species (e.g., He, Mg, H{sub 2}, or CO lines). Forbidden lines are also expected from the metastable population. The presence of an atmospheric plasma opens the door to a multitude of plasma and chemical processes not yet considered in current atmospheric models. The occurrence of Alfvén ionization may also be applicable to other astrophysical environments such as protoplanetary disks.

  5. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. II. DUST-INDUCED COLLISIONAL IONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Helling, Ch.; Jardine, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Mokler, F., E-mail: ch80@st-andrews.ac.uk [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-08-10

    Observations have shown that continuous radio emission and also sporadic H{alpha} and X-ray emission are prominent in singular, low-mass objects later than spectral class M. These activity signatures are interpreted as being caused by coupling of an ionized atmosphere to the stellar magnetic field. What remains a puzzle, however, is the mechanism by which such a cool atmosphere can produce the necessary level of ionization. At these low temperatures, thermal gas processes are insufficient, but the formation of clouds sets in. Cloud particles can act as seeds for electron avalanches in streamers that ionize the ambient gas, and can lead to lightning and indirectly to magnetic field coupling, a combination of processes also expected for protoplanetary disks. However, the precondition is that the cloud particles are charged. We use results from DRIFT-PHOENIX model atmospheres to investigate collisional processes that can lead to the ionization of dust grains inside clouds. We show that ionization by turbulence-induced dust-dust collisions is the most efficient kinetic process. The efficiency is highest in the inner cloud where particles grow quickly and, hence, the dust-to-gas ratio is high. Dust-dust collisions alone are not sufficient to improve the magnetic coupling of the atmosphere inside the cloud layers, but the charges supplied either on grains or within the gas phase as separated electrons can trigger secondary nonlinear processes. Cosmic rays are likely to increase the global level of ionization, but their influence decreases if a strong, large-scale magnetic field is present as on brown dwarfs. We suggest that although thermal gas ionization declines in objects across the fully convective boundary, dust charging by collisional processes can play an important role in the lowest mass objects. The onset of atmospheric dust may therefore correlate with the anomalous X-ray and radio emission in atmospheres that are cool, but charged more than expected by pure thermal ionization.

  6. High resolution UV resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy with mass selection of biologically relevant molecules in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervenkov, S.; Wang, P. Q.; Karaminkov, R.; Chakraborty, T.; Braun, Juergen E.; Neusser, Hans J.

    2005-04-01

    The high resolution Doppler-free resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization (R2PI) spectroscopy with mass selection of jet-cooled (2-12 K) molecular species is a powerful experimental method providing comprehensive information on both isolated molecules and molecular clusters. We have demonstrated for the first time that this technique can be applied to large molecules and provides detailed information on their conformational structure. It allows rotationally resolved (FWHM = 70 MHz) spectra of the vibronic bands of the S1<--S0 electronic transition of the studied molecular systems to be measured. A specially designed computer-assisted fitting routine based on genetic algorithms is used to determine their rotational constants in the ground and excited electronic states, respectively, and the transition moment ratio. To interpret the experimental information and to discriminate and unambiguously assign the observed approach to the study of the neurotransmitter molecule, ephedrine. The results elucidate the role of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds stabilizing the respective conformations and affecting their intrinsic properties.

  7. The novel use of gas chromatography-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometry with secondary electrospray ionization for complex mixture analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina L. Crawford; Stephan Graf; Marc Gonin; Katrin Fuhrer; Xing Zhang; Herbert H. Hill Jr

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the dimensionality of an analysis enables more detailed and comprehensive investigations of complex mixtures. One\\u000a dimensional separation techniques like gas chromatography (GC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) provide limited chemical\\u000a information about complex mixtures. The combination of GC, ion mobility spectrometry, and time-of-flight mass spectrometry\\u000a (GC-IM-TOFMS) provides three-dimensional separation of complex mixtures. In this work, a hybrid GC-IM-TOFMS with

  8. Structural characterization by infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of protonated gas-phase ions obtained by electrospray ionization of cysteine and dopamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Steill; Jan Szczepanski; Jos Oomens; John R. Eyler; Anna Brajter-Toth

    2011-01-01

    Structural characterization of protonated gas-phase ions of cysteine and dopamine by infrared multiple photon dissociation\\u000a (IRMPD) spectroscopy using a free electron laser in combination with theory based on DFT calculations reveals the presence\\u000a of two types of protonated dimer ions in the electrospray mass spectra of the metabolites. In addition to the proton-bound\\u000a dimer of each species, the covalently bound

  9. Method for analysis of exhaled air by microwave energy desorption coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mueller, W; Schubert, J; Benzing, A; Geiger, K

    1998-09-25

    A method for chemical analysis of volatile constituents in exhaled air of mechanically ventilated patients is described. Exhaled substances are adsorbed and concentrated onto activated charcoal, desorbed by microwave energy and transferred into a gas chromatograph for separation without prior cryofocusing. Substances are identified by flame ionisation detection and mass spectrometry. This method yields reproducible results and is well suited for clinical studies. PMID:9824215

  10. Highly Ionized High Velocity Clouds

    E-print Network

    Kenneth R. Sembach; Blair D. Savage; Limin Lu; Edward M. Murphy

    1998-11-18

    We have recently used the Hubble Space Telescope to study a pair of high velocity clouds in the direction of Mrk 509 that have unusual ionization properties. They exhibit strong CIV absorption with little or no low ion absorption or HI 21cm emission. As the closest known analog to the outer diffuse halos of damped Ly-alpha absorbers and the low N(HI) metal line absorption systems seen in the spectra of high redshift quasars, these "CIV-HVCs" may shed new light on the origins of some HVCs, as well as present opportunities for comparing absorption due to intergalactic gas in the local universe with absorption in moderate-high redshift gas clouds. The CIV-HVCs have ionization properties consistent with photoionization by extragalactic background radiation and a location within the Local Group. The presence of weak HI-HVCs detected through 21cm emission within 2 degress of the sight line suggests that the CIV-HVCs trace extended, ionized, low density regions of the HI-HVCs. In this article we summarize the results of our study of the CIV-HVCs and suggest additional observations that would test the hypothesis of an intergalactic location for the clouds.

  11. Ionization potentials of seaborgium

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.; Pershina, V.; Fricke, B.

    1999-10-21

    Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic radii obtained will be used to predict some physiochemical properties of seaborgium and its compounds.

  12. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Zong Huang; Cheng-Hui Yuan; Sy-Chyi Cheng; Yi-Tzu Cho; Jentaie Shiea

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometric ionization methods that operate under ambient conditions and require minimal or no sample pretreatment have attracted much attention in such fields as biomedicine, food safety, antiterrorism, pharmaceuticals, and environmental pollution. These technologies usually involve separate ionization and sample-introduction events, allowing independent control over each set of conditions. Ionization is typically performed under ambient conditions through use of existing

  13. Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography Fast Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC×GC-qMS) for Urinary Steroid Profiling. Mass Spectral Characteristics with Chemical Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Tobias, Herbert J.; Auchus, Richard J.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive two dimensional GC (GC×GC), coupled to either a time of flight MS (TOF-MS) or a fast scanning quadrupole MS (qMS) has greatly increased the peak capacity and separation space compared to conventional GC-MS. However, commercial GC×GC-TOFMS systems are not equipped with chemical ionization (CI) and do not provide dominant molecular ions or enable single ion monitoring for maximal sensitivity. A GC×GC-qMS in mass scanning mode was investigated with EI and positive CI (PCI), using CH4 and NH3 as reagent gases. Compared to EI, PCI-NH3 produced more abundant molecular ions and high mass structure specific ions for steroid acetates. Chromatography in two dimensions was optimized with a mixture of 12 endogenous and 3 standard acetylated steroids (SM15-AC) relevant to doping control. Eleven endogenous target steroid acetates were identified in normal urine based on their two retention times, and EI and PCI-NH3 mass spectra; nine of these endogenous target steroid acetates were identified in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients. The difference between the urinary steroids profiles of normal individuals and from a CAH patient can easily be visually distinguished by their GC×GC-qMS chromatograms. We focus here on the comparison and interpretation of the various mass spectra of the targeted endogenous steroids. PCI-NH3 mass spectra were most useful for unambiguous molecular weight determination and for establishing the number of -OH by the losses of 1 or more acetate groups. We conclude that PCI-NH3 with GC×GC-qMS provides improved peak capacity and pseudomolecular ions with structural specificity. PMID:22147458

  14. First successful ionization of Lr (Z = 103) by a surface-ionization technique.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tetsuya K; Sato, Nozomi; Asai, Masato; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Sunao; Schädel, Matthias; Kaneya, Yusuke; Nagame, Yuichiro; Osa, Akihiko; Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Stora, Thierry; Kratz, Jens Volker

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a surface ionization ion-source as part of the JAEA-ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) setup, which is coupled to a He/CdI2 gas-jet transport system to determine the first ionization potential of the heaviest actinide lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103). The new ion-source is an improved version of the previous source that provided good ionization efficiencies for lanthanides. An additional filament was newly installed to give better control over its operation. We report, here, on the development of the new gas-jet coupled surface ion-source and on the first successful ionization and mass separation of 27-s (256)Lr produced in the (249)Cf + (11)B reaction. PMID:23464201

  15. Method and apparatus utilizing ionizing and microwave radiation for saturation determination of water, oil and a gas in a core sample

    DOEpatents

    Maerefat, Nicida L. (Sugar Land, TX); Parmeswar, Ravi (Marlton, NJ); Brinkmeyer, Alan D. (Tulsa, OK); Honarpour, Mehdi (Bartlesville, OK)

    1994-01-01

    A system for determining the relative permeabilities of gas, water and oil in a core sample has a microwave emitter/detector subsystem and an X-ray emitter/detector subsystem. A core holder positions the core sample between microwave absorbers which prevent diffracted microwaves from reaching a microwave detector where they would reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the microwave measurements. The microwave emitter/detector subsystem and the X-ray emitter/detector subsystem each have linear calibration characteristics, allowing one subsystem to be calibrated with respect to the other subsystem. The dynamic range of microwave measurements is extended through the use of adjustable attenuators. This also facilitates the use of core samples with wide diameters. The stratification characteristics of the fluids may be observed with a windowed cell separator at the outlet of the core sample. The condensation of heavy hydrocarbon gas and the dynamic characteristics of the fluids are observed with a sight glass at the outlet of the core sample.

  16. A necessary condition for the critical ionization velocity interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Brenning

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of critical ionization velocity (VC) interaction in a configuration consisting of a highly ionized plasma streaming into a region with neutral gas is discussed. The energy flow in the interaction was studied and a condition which can be used to determine whether VC interaction is energetically impossible, just possible or easily possible was derived. Parameters used are: the

  17. Numerical Simulation of the Critical Ionization Velocity Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodger J. Biasca

    1992-01-01

    The 'critical ionization velocity' (CIV) of a neutral gas is related to a form of anomalous ionization first proposed by Alfven. Although the CIV phenomenon has been verified in laboratory experiments, space-based experiments have provided only inconclusive or negative results as to the existence of CIV in the space environment. If the existence of CIV can be confirmed in space

  18. Spin polarized electrons produced by strong field ionization

    E-print Network

    Ingo Barth; Olga Smirnova

    2013-03-11

    We show that ionization of noble gas atoms by strong infrared circularly polarized laser field under standard exerimental conditions can yield electrons with up to 100% spin polarization in energy resolved measurements. Spin polarization arises due to the interplay of the electron-core entanglement and the sensitivity of ionization in circularly polarized fields to the sense of electron rotation in the initial state.

  19. Spin polarized electrons produced by strong field ionization

    E-print Network

    Barth, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    We show that ionization of noble gas atoms by strong infrared circularly polarized laser field under standard exerimental conditions can yield electrons with up to 100% spin polarization in energy resolved measurements. Spin polarization arises due to the interplay of the electron-core entanglement and the sensitivity of ionization in circularly polarized fields to the sense of electron rotation in the initial state.

  20. Ionization instability in a turbulent plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Crispin, Y. (Florida, University, Gainesville (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The problem of the onset of ionization waves in a turbulent plasma column is studied using linear stability theory. A mathematical model of the mutual interactions between the gas flow turbulence, Joule heating, ionization and ambipolar diffusion in the cylindrical plasma column is developed. Axially homogeneous stationary solutions of the turbulent plasma column are presented. These solutions are then perturbed and their stability to longitudinal disturbances is investigated. The growth rate of the disturbances is calculated for argon at a pressure of 50 torr, a range of currents between 0.2 and 2 A and Reynolds number values of 0, 6000 and 10,000. It is found that the gas turbulence delays the onset of ionization waves for a wide range of discharge currents. 20 refs.

  1. Are cosmic rays effective for ionization of the solar nebula?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolginov, A. Z.; Stepinski, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the effectiveness of cosmic rays to ionize the bulk of the nebular gas may be further impaired by the influence of the magnetic field on the propagation of cosmic rays. When cosmic rays enter the nebular disk they ionize the gas and make the dynamo generation of magnetic fields possible. However, once magnetic fields are embedded in the nebular gas, the upcoming cosmic rays can no longer penetrate directly into the nebular disk because they start to interact with the magnetic field and lose their energy before propagating significantly toward the midplane. That, in turn, undercuts the ionization source within the bulk of the gas stopping the dynamo action. Nebular dynamo models ignored this back reaction of magnetic fields on cosmic rays. We calculate this back reaction effect, but for the sake of mathematical simplicity, we ignore the effect of magnetic field weakening due to diminishing ionization by cosmic rays.

  2. Determination of 2-, 3-, 4-methylpentanoic and cyclohexanecarboxylic acids in wine: development of a selective method based on solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry and its application to different wines and alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Moreno, Elisa; Lopez, Ricardo; Ferreira, Vicente

    2015-02-13

    A method to analyse 2-methylpentanoic, 3-methylpentanoic and 4-methylpentanoic acids as well as cyclohexanecarboxylic acid has been developed and applied to wine and other alcoholic beverages. Selective isolation with solid phase extraction, derivatization with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl bromide at room temperature for 30 minutes, and further analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode provides detection limits between 0.4 and 2.4 ng/L. Good linearity up to 3.6 ?g/L, satisfactory reproducibility (RSD<10%) and signal recovery of around 100% represent a robust method of analysis. Concentration data of these analytes in wine and other alcoholic beverages are reported for the first time. The levels found ranged from the method detection limits to 2630 ng/L, 2040 ng/L and 3810 ng/L for 2-, 3- and 4-methylpentanoic acids, respectively, and to 1780 ng/L for cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. There are significant differences depending on the type of wine or beverage. Distilled beverages, beer and aged wines have higher contents in methylpentanoic and cyclohexanecarboxylic acids. PMID:25601317

  3. Theory for the critical ionization velocity phenomenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Abe

    1984-01-01

    The critical velocity for the explosive ionization of a neutral gas flowing in a magnetic field and a background plasma is formulated using a macroscopic theory, assuming an unstable velocity distribution for the newly formed ions (NFI) and electron heating by the resulting fluctuating electric field. The initial conditions under which the critical velocity can operate are defined, and the

  4. Relativistic soliton-like collisionless ionization wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, Alexey; McCormick, Matthew; Quevedo, Hernan; Bengtson, Roger; Ditmire, Todd

    2014-10-01

    It has been observed in recent experiments with laser-irradiated gas jets that a plasma filament produced by the laser and containing energetic electrons can launch a relativistic ionization wave into ambient gas. Here we present a self-consistent theory that explains how a collisionless ionization wave can propagate in a self-sustaining regime. A population of hot electrons necessarily generates a sheath electric field at the plasma boundary. This field penetrates the ambient gas, ionizing the gas atoms and thus causing the plasma boundary to expand. We show that the motion of the newly generated electrons can form a potential well adjacent to the plasma boundary. The outwards motion of the well causes a bunch of energetic electrons to become trapped, while allowing the newly generated electrons to escape into the plasma without retaining much energy. The resulting soliton-like ionizing field structure propagates outwards with a bunch of hot electrons that maintain a strong sheath field despite significant plasma expansion. We also present 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations that illustrate the described mechanism. The simulations were performed using HPC resources provided by the Texas Advanced Computing Center. This work was supported by NNSA Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512 and U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-FG02-04ER54742.

  5. Unraveling the mechanism of electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Konermann, Lars; Ahadi, Elias; Rodriguez, Antony D; Vahidi, Siavash

    2013-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) generates intact gas-phase ions from analytes in solution for mass spectrometric investigations. ESI can proceed via different mechanisms. Low molecular weight analytes follow the ion evaporation model (IEM), whereas the charged residue model (CRM) applies to large globular species. A chain ejection model (CEM) has been proposed for disordered polymers. PMID:23134552

  6. Solidphase extraction on sorbents of different retention mechanisms followed by determination by gas chromatography–mass spectrometric and gas chromatography–electron capture detection of pesticide residues in crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Balinova; Rositsa Mladenova; Deyana Shtereva

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of a mixed-mode solid-phase extraction is discussed as a promising approach for matrix clean-up in multiresidue\\/multimatrix methods. Sorbents characterized by different mechanisms of sorption such as reversed-phase (graphitized carbon), weak anion exchange (primary–secondary amine) and strong anion exchange (quaternary amine) were studied for their effectiveness in the removal of the matrix co-extractives in grains, fruits and vegetables for trace

  7. Earth’s Interaction Region: Plasma-Neutral Interactions in the Weakly Ionized gas of Earth’s High Latitude Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Vicki

    2015-04-01

    The high-latitude regions of Earth’s upper atmosphere are strongly influenced by plasma-neutral interactions. These interactions couple electrodynamic processes of the ionosphere with hydrodynamic processes of the more abundant thermosphere neutral gas, consequently connecting the high-latitude upper atmosphere to distant regions of the geoplasma environment. This produces a complex spatial and temporal interplay of competing processes that results in a myriad of physical and chemical responses and a rich array of neutral and plasma morphologies that constitute the high-latitude thermosphere and ionosphere. The altitude extent from the lower thermosphere to the upper ionosphere (90km – 1000km) can be considered Earth’s space-atmosphere interaction region - likened to the solar chromosphere’s interaction region where radiative processes and hydrodynamic waves from the dense lower atmosphere produce a cold lower boundary that quickly transitions over a few 100 kilometers to neutral and plasma temperatures that are five times hotter. A thousand or more kilometers further in altitude, Earth's upper atmosphere becomes a hot, collisionless, geomagnetically controlled protonosphere whose neutral and plasma population originates from the thermosphere and ionosphere. A grand challenge in the study of Earth’s interaction region is how the collision-dominated thermosphere/ionosphere system exchanges energy, mass and momentum with the collisionless magnetosphere. This talk will focus primarily on collision-dominated processes of the high-latitude ionosphere and the electromagnetic energy transfer processes that lead to frictional heating of ions and neutrals, and plasma instability phenomenon that leads to extreme electron heating. Observations of the ionosphere response to these processes will be illustrated using incoherent scatter radar measurements. Relevance to the solar chromosphere will be identified where appropriate and outstanding issues in Earth’s interaction region will be discussed.

  8. Analytical instruments, ionization sources, and ionization methods

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.; Mottishaw, Paul

    2006-04-11

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous vaporization and ionization of a sample in a spectrometer prior to introducing the sample into the drift tube of the analyzer are disclosed. The apparatus includes a vaporization/ionization source having an electrically conductive conduit configured to receive sample particulate which is conveyed to a discharge end of the conduit. Positioned proximate to the discharge end of the conduit is an electrically conductive reference device. The conduit and the reference device act as electrodes and have an electrical potential maintained between them sufficient to cause a corona effect, which will cause at least partial simultaneous ionization and vaporization of the sample particulate. The electrical potential can be maintained to establish a continuous corona, or can be held slightly below the breakdown potential such that arrival of particulate at the point of proximity of the electrodes disrupts the potential, causing arcing and the corona effect. The electrical potential can also be varied to cause periodic arcing between the electrodes such that particulate passing through the arc is simultaneously vaporized and ionized. The invention further includes a spectrometer containing the source. The invention is particularly useful for ion mobility spectrometers and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers.

  9. Viability of the critical ionization velocity concept in selected space situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Petelski

    1981-01-01

    Similarity transformations from the laboratory to typical space conditions are used to show that a critical velocity mechanism is viable in tenuous space plasmas. The mechanism is characterized as the rapid ionization and assimilation into common motion of a marginally-ionized neutral gas upon its penetration of a magetized plasma, if a critical relative velocity corresponding to the ionization energy of

  10. On the ionization of the intercloud medium by ultraviolet stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of a recently proposed model of the ionization of the intercloud medium by ultraviolet stars, deriving the gas parameters and the ionization structure in the steady-state approximation. A comparison of the theoretical results with satellite ultraviolet observations, if these latter are typical of the intercloud gas and the effect of stellar H II regions is negligible, suggests that the model is unsatisfactory. The main disagreement is in the predicted relative abundances of the higher ionization stages of the trace elements, and in the ratios of successive stages.

  11. The development of a positron ionization gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, F.; Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Wiess, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Turner, W.C. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The authors present a method by which gas pressure (density) can be measured by positrons. The process to monitor is the formation of positronium, Ps, via electron capture by the e{sup +} from the rest gas molecules. The Ps signal which is proportional to the gas density is obtained from the annihilation photons which are emitted when the Ps atom decays. By this method it is not necessary to have access to the vacuum system in question other than having the possibility of passing a positron beam through it. Also the present method is fully UHV compatible. In its simplest version pressures below 10{sup {minus}8} torr (at room temperature) can be measured within a reasonable time. Techniques are discussed which will significantly improve the sensitivity of the present ionization gauge. The specific reason for designing and using the positron ionization gauge is to be able to measure the pressure inside the Superconducting Super Collider beam tubing during simulated operation.

  12. Measurement of Organic Acids Produced By The Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Simple Olefins Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) as a Function of Temperature And Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, C. J.; Bacak, A.; Leather, K. E.; McGillen, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) form an important trace component of the atmosphere and are of particular environmental interest because of their deleterious effects on air quality, their numerous (and potentially counteractive) effects on Earth’s climate system and their sophisticated semiochemical roles in the world’s ecosystems. NMHCs are also important precursors to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g. Pandis et al., 1991; Kavouras et al., 1999). The ozonolysis reactions of olefins result in complex menageries of products, of which the acids are ubiquitous. Although the gas phase acid concentrations are small, they are thought to be key species in SOA formation as a result of their low volatility (e.g., Ma et al., 2009). Despite this, the factors that control acid formation are not well understood, especially with regards to humidity and temperature. Acid yields will be measured using the newly commissioned EXTreme RAnge (EXTRA) chamber (Leather et al., 2009). EXTRA is a 125 L stainless steel chamber, which can be temperature controlled using a commercial chest freezer unit (for T ? -20 °C) or a purpose built oven for T > 25 °C. The EXTRA chamber can be operated at pressures from 10-3800 Torr and at temperatures from 180-473 K. The stainless steel chamber walls have been coated with PFA to minimize wall loss of radicals. Fans, located at both ends of the cylinder, promote rapid mixing of reactants. Six sample ports are located at either end of the chamber for connection to ADS-GC-ECD, CIMS and commercial sensors such as a Thermo Electron Corporation 49i Ozone Analyzer, an Edinburgh Instruments Gascard CO2 sensor and a Trace Analytical inc. RGA3 CO analyzer. Experiments will be performed as a function of atmospherically relevant temperatures (T= 180-300 K). The field CIMS has sub ppt(v) L.O.D.s with a sub 1 Hz time response so will enable products to be quantified at very low concentrations in real time. Acid products will be detected using both the acetate ion (Verez et al., 2008) and silicon pentafluoride ion (Huey et al., 1998) reaction schemes, both of which have been used previously in atmospheric measurements, with little interference from water vapour. References Kavouras, I.G., Mihalopoulos N., Stephanou, E.G., 1999, Environ. Sci. Technol. 33: 1028-1037. Huey, L. G., E. J. Dunlea, E. R. Lovejoy, D. R. Hanson, R.B. Norton, F.C. Fehsenfeld and C. J. Howard, 1998, J. Geophys. Res, 103(D3), 3355-3360. Leather, K.E., Mcgillen, M.R. and Percival, C.J., 2009, Submitted to PCCP. Ma, Y., Porter, R.A., Chappell, D., Russell, A.T., Marston, G., 2009,. PCCP, 21, 4184-4197. Pandis, S. N., Paulson, S.E., Seinfeld, J.H., Flagan, R.C. 1991, Atmos. Environ. A, 1991, 25, 997-1008. Veres, P., Roberts, J.M., Warneke, C., Welsh-Bon, D., Zahniser, M., Herndon, S., Fall,R., de Gouw, J., 2008, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 274, 48-55.

  13. Modeling of Ionization Physics with the PIC Code OSIRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S.; Tsung, F.; Lee, S.; Lu, W.; Mori, W.B.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; O'Connell, C.; Dodd, E.; Decker, F.J.; Huang, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Hemker, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Joshi, C.; Ren, C.; Raimondi, P.; Wang, S.; Walz, D.; /Southern California U. /UCLA /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    When considering intense particle or laser beams propagating in dense plasma or gas, ionization plays an important role. Impact ionization and tunnel ionization may create new plasma electrons, altering the physics of wakefield accelerators, causing blue shifts in laser spectra, creating and modifying instabilities, etc. Here we describe the addition of an impact ionization package into the 3-D, object-oriented, fully parallel PIC code OSIRIS. We apply the simulation tool to simulate the parameters of the upcoming E164 Plasma Wakefield Accelerator experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We find that impact ionization is dominated by the plasma electrons moving in the wake rather than the 30 GeV drive beam electrons. Impact ionization leads to a significant number of trapped electrons accelerated from rest in the wake.

  14. Strong Ionizing Shock Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Gross

    1965-01-01

    The physical effects created by strong shock waves propagating in hydrogen are reviewed and theoretically studied for speeds up to relativistic conditions. In the progression from weak to relativistic shock speeds, various physical phenomena affect the shock wave. Dissociation, ionization, and the presence of an upstream electric field cause several important effects for slow (sub-Alfvénic speed) normal ionizing shock waves.

  15. Effects of Ionization in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    McGuffey, C.; Schumaker, W.; Matsuoka, T.; Dollar, F. J.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Yanovsky, V.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kneip, S. [Imperial College London, SW 7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bychenkov, V. Yu. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninskij prospekt, 53, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glazyrin, I. V.; Karpeev, A. V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre All-Russian Institute of Technical Physics, 456770, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-04

    Experimental results are presented from studies of the ionization injection process in laser wakefield acceleration using the Hercules laser with laser power up to 100 TW. Gas jet targets consisting of gas mixtures reduced the density threshold required for electron injection and increased the maximum beam charge. Gas mixture targets produced smooth beams even at densities which would produce severe beam breakup in pure He targets and the divergence was found to increase with gas mixture pressure.

  16. Effects of Ionization in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuffey, C.; Schumaker, W.; Kneip, S.; Matsuoka, T.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Glazyrin, I. V.; Karpeev, A. V.; Dollar, F. J.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Yanovsky, V.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K.

    2010-11-01

    Experimental results are presented from studies of the ionization injection process in laser wakefield acceleration using the Hercules laser with laser power up to 100 TW. Gas jet targets consisting of gas mixtures reduced the density threshold required for electron injection and increased the maximum beam charge. Gas mixture targets produced smooth beams even at densities which would produce severe beam breakup in pure He targets and the divergence was found to increase with gas mixture pressure.

  17. PULSED POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION CHEMICAL IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRIC APPLICATONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The simultaneous acquisition of both positive ion and negative ion data under chemical ionization mass spectrometric conditions can aid in the confirmation of assignments made by electron impact gas chromatography mass spectrometry or electron capture gas chromatography. Pulsed p...

  18. Matrix Assisted Ionization in Vacuum, a Sensitive and Widely Applicable Ionization Method for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D.

    2013-05-01

    An astonishingly simple new method to produce gas-phase ions of small molecules as well as proteins from the solid state under cold vacuum conditions is described. This matrix assisted ionization vacuum (MAIV) mass spectrometry (MS) method produces multiply charged ions similar to those that typify electrospray ionization (ESI) and uses sample preparation methods that are nearly identical to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Unlike these established methods, MAIV does not require a laser or voltage for ionization, and unlike the recently introduced matrix assisted ionization inlet method, does not require added heat. MAIV-MS requires only introduction of a crystalline mixture of the analyte incorporated with a suitable small molecule matrix compound such as 3-nitrobenzonitrile directly to the vacuum of the mass spectrometer. Vacuum intermediate pressure MALDI sources and modified ESI sources successfully produce ions for analysis by MS with this method. As in ESI-MS, ion formation is continuous and, without a laser, little chemical background is observed. MAIV, operating from a surface offers the possibility of significantly improved sensitivity relative to atmospheric pressure ionization because ions are produced in the vacuum region of the mass spectrometer eliminating losses associated with ion transfer from atmospheric pressure to vacuum. Mechanistic aspects and potential applications for this new ionization method are discussed.

  19. Unresolved issues in the analysis of F2-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, isofurans, neurofurans, and F2-dihomo-isoprostanes in body fluids and tissue using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yen, H-C; Wei, H-J; Lin, C-L

    2015-07-01

    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) generated from arachidonic acid (AA) have been recognized as the most reliable marker of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in vivo. F2-IsoPs are initially produced in esterified form on phospholipids, and then released into body fluids in free form. The same mechanism can lead to generation of F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) and F2-dihomo-IsoPs from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and adrenic acid, respectively. In addition, isofurans (IsoFs) and neurofurans (NFs) may be preferentially produced from AA and DHA, respectively, under high oxygen tension. The detection of F2-IsoPs using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) has been widely employed, which is important for human body fluids containing low quantity of free-form F2-IsoPs. F4-NPs have also been detected using GC/NICI-MS, but multiple peaks need to be quantified. In this paper, we summarize the basic workflow of the GC/NICI-MS method for analyzing F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs, and various formats of assays conducted by different groups. We then discuss the feasibility of simultaneous analysis of IsoFs, NFs, and F2-dihomo-IsoPs with F2-IsoPs or F4-NPs. Representative GC chromatograms for analyzing these markers in human body fluids and rat brain tissue are demonstrated. Furthermore, we discuss several factors that may affect the performance of the analysis, such as those related to the sample processing steps, interference from specimens, types of GC liners used, and the addition of electron multiplier voltage in the method setting for the MS detector. Finally, we question the appropriateness of measuring total (free plus esterified) levels of these markers in body fluids. PMID:25812589

  20. Magnetized silane-coupling agent KH-570 based solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection to determine venlafaxine in human hair and aqueous environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Ebrahimitalab, Abdolhossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Mohammadinejad, Arash

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a novel adsorbent, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized by silane-coupling agent KH-570, was successfully synthesized. The prepared MNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was applied as functionalized magnetic nano-adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of trace levels of venlafaxine using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. This method was developed and optimized for use in analysis of venlafaxine in human hair and aqueous environmental samples. The main factors influencing the extraction efficiency including pH of sample, amount of the MNPs, adsorption time, volume of sample, and desorption conditions such as volume of solvent and desorption time were studied and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 1-1,000 µg L(-1) for aqueous environmental samples with correlation coefficients (R (2)) 0.996. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.5 ?g L(-1), respectively. Good reproducibility with the relative standard deviations (n = 5) 3.21 % was obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction of venlafaxine from spiked human hair, river water, and surface water samples and the relative recoveries of 89.36, 93.43, and 94.99 % were obtained, respectively. The results indicated that Fe3O4/KH-570 MNPs have a satisfying extraction efficiency and can be served as a sensitive, inexpensive, and reliable method for analysis of antidepressant drugs such as venlafaxine in biological and aqueous environmental samples. PMID:25367213

  1. A novel reusable ionic liquid chemically bonded fused-silica fiber for headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of methyl tert-butyl ether in a gasoline sample.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ramin; Rouhollahi, Ahmad; Adibi, Mina; Mehdinia, Ali

    2011-01-01

    A novel ionic liquid (IL) bonded fused-sil-ica fiber for headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a gasoline sample was prepared and used. The new proposed chemically bonded fiber has better thermal stability and durability than its corresponding physically coated fiber. Another advantage is that no spacer was used for the purpose of bonding the IL to the surface of the fused-silica. The latter advantage makes the preparation of these fibers easier with lower cost than those prepared using sol-gel method. The ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl) imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide was synthesized and cross linked to the surface of the fused-silica fiber. Then, the chemically IL-modified fibers were applied to the headspace extraction of MTBE. The chemically IL-modified fibers showed improved thermal stability at temperatures up to 220 °C relative to the physically IL-modified fibers (180 °C). The chemically bonded IL film on the surface of the fused-silica fiber was durable over 16 headspace extractions without any significant loss of the IL film. The calibration graph was linear in a concentration range of 2-240 ?g L?¹ (R²=0.996) with the detection limit of 0.1 ?g L?¹ level. The reproducibility (RSD %, n=6) of the new IL bonded fused-silica fiber (8.9%) was better than the physically coated fiber (12%) suggesting that the proposed chemically IL-modified fiber is more robust than the physically IL-modified fiber. The optimum extraction conditions were the followings: 40 °C extraction temperature, 12 min extraction time, 30s desorption time and sample agitation at 200 rpm. PMID:21130999

  2. Graphene oxide-based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for separation and preconcentration of nicotine from biological and environmental water samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has showed great potential to use as an adsorbent in sample preparation procedures. In this research, GO was used as an effective adsorbent in a simple GO-based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (GO-D-µ-SPE) method for isolation and preconcentration of nicotine prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The prepared GO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy techniques. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction recovery, including the amount of GO, extraction time, pH of the sample solution, salt concentration, and desorption conditions were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response was obtained in the concentration range of 5-2000 ng mL(-1) with a determination coefficient of 0.9987. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method at a signal to noise ratio of 3 was 1.5 ng mL(-1). The linearity was in the concentration range of 5-2000 ng mL(-1) with a determination coefficient of 0.9987. Intraday and inter-day precisions were obtained equal to 2.7% and 5.2%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the nicotine analysis in biological and water samples with the recoveries in the range of 88.7-109.7%. PMID:25159381

  3. Use of a capillary tube for collecting an extraction solvent lighter than water after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and its application in the determination of parabens in different samples by gas chromatography--flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, M A; Djozan, Dj; Bakhtiyari, R Fazeli

    2010-06-15

    In this study a new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method is presented on the basis of a safe organic solvent, octanol, which is lighter than water. The proposed method is used for the extraction and pre-concentration of some preservatives including methyl paraben (Mep), ethyl paraben (Etp) and propyl paraben (Prp) from different matrices. The extracted compounds are monitored by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). A mixture of suitable extraction and dispersive solvents including 20microL octanol and 0.5mL acetone is quickly injected into the aqueous sample. The mixture is centrifuged for 10min at 6000rpm, so a small drop of extraction solvent collects on the water surface. A portion of the collected solvent is removed by a capillary tube through simple dipping the tube into organic solvent drop. 0.4microL of extract into the tube is removed by a microsyringe and injected into GC. Some effective parameters such as kinds and volumes of extraction and dispersive solvents as well as extraction time have to be investigated. Under optimum conditions, enrichment factors and recoveries of the studied compounds were obtained in the range of 100-276 and 25-72%, respectively. Linear ranges of the calibration curves were between 0.05 and 30 for methyl- and 0.02 and 30microgmL(-1) for ethyl- and propyl parabens, respectively. Limit of detection for methyl paraben was 0.015microgmL(-1) and those of ethyl- and propyl parabens were 0.005microgmL(-1). Relative standard deviations (RSDs %) for six repeated measurements (C=2microgmL(-1)) were 2% for methyl-, and ethyl parabens and 3% for propyl parabens, respectively. PMID:20441908

  4. Does the schock wave in a highly ionized non-isothermal plasma really exist ?

    E-print Network

    Rukhadze, A A; Samkharadze, T

    2015-01-01

    Here we study the structure of a highly ionizing shock wave in a gas of high atmospheric pressure. We take into account the gas ionization when the gas temperature reaches few orders of an ionization potential. It is shown that after gasdynamic temperature-raising shock and formation of a highly-ionized nonisothermal plasma $T_e>>T_i$ only the solitary ion-sound wave (soliton) can propagate in this plasma. In such a wave the charge separation occurs: electrons and ions form the double electric layer with the electric field. The shock wave form, its amplitude and front width are obtained.

  5. CRC handbook of laser science and technology. Volume 3. Gas lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes the fundamentals of gas lasers. It provides information and data on neutral gas lasers, ionized gas lasers, and molecular gas lasers. Concluding this volume is an extensive table of all gas laser wavelengths.

  6. Observation of a small oligonucleotide duplex by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Light-Wahl; D. L. Springer; B. E. Winger; C. G. Edmonds; B. D. Thrall; R. D. Smith; D. G. II Camp

    1993-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) has been demonstrated to be a soft ionization technique, allowing accurate molecular weight determination for biopolymers due to gas-phase multiple charging. Recent results have demonstrated that noncovalent associations can be preserved upon transfer into the gas phase with ESI, providing a new approach to the determination of both structurally-specific and nonspecific noncovalent associations in solution. The mass

  7. On the role of the ionization frequency to gyrofrequency ratio in the critical ionization velocity interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Brenning

    1986-01-01

    The role of the parameter vi sup omega sup ci for critical ionization velocity (CIV) interaction is discussed. This parameter, which can be seen as a combined condition on the neutral gas density and the magnetic field strength, is important from two different aspects. The value vi sup omega sup ci = 1 marks the limit between the regions of

  8. Ionization of EPA contaminants in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

    PubMed

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-seven EPA priority environmental pollutants were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with an optimized atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and an atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) interface with and without dopants. The analyzed compounds included e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro compounds, halogenated compounds, aromatic compounds with phenolic, acidic, alcohol, and amino groups, phthalate and adipatic esters, and aliphatic ethers. Toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene, and acetone were tested as dopants. The widest range of analytes was ionized using direct APPI (66/77 compounds). The introduction of dopants decreased the amount of compounds ionized in APPI (e.g., 54/77 with toluene), but in many cases the ionization efficiency increased. While in direct APPI the formation of molecular ions via photoionization was the main ionization reaction, dopant-assisted (DA) APPI promoted ionization reactions, such as charge exchange and proton transfer. Direct APLI ionized a much smaller amount of compounds than APPI (41/77 compounds), showing selectivity towards compounds with low ionization energies (IEs) and long-lived resonantly excited intermediate states. DA-APLI, however, was able to ionize a higher amount of compounds (e.g. 51/77 with toluene), as the ionization took place entirely through dopant-assisted ion/molecule reactions similar to those in DA-APPI. Best ionization efficiency in APPI and APLI (both direct and DA) was obtained for PAHs and aromatics with O- and N-functionalities, whereas nitro compounds and aliphatic ethers were the most difficult to ionize. Halogenated aromatics and esters were (mainly) ionized in APPI, but not in APLI. PMID:25828352

  9. Ionization of EPA Contaminants in Direct and Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization and Atmospheric Pressure Laser Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Tiina J.; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-seven EPA priority environmental pollutants were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with an optimized atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and an atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) interface with and without dopants. The analyzed compounds included e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro compounds, halogenated compounds, aromatic compounds with phenolic, acidic, alcohol, and amino groups, phthalate and adipatic esters, and aliphatic ethers. Toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene, and acetone were tested as dopants. The widest range of analytes was ionized using direct APPI (66/77 compounds). The introduction of dopants decreased the amount of compounds ionized in APPI (e.g., 54/77 with toluene), but in many cases the ionization efficiency increased. While in direct APPI the formation of molecular ions via photoionization was the main ionization reaction, dopant-assisted (DA) APPI promoted ionization reactions, such as charge exchange and proton transfer. Direct APLI ionized a much smaller amount of compounds than APPI (41/77 compounds), showing selectivity towards compounds with low ionization energies (IEs) and long-lived resonantly excited intermediate states. DA-APLI, however, was able to ionize a higher amount of compounds (e.g. 51/77 with toluene), as the ionization took place entirely through dopant-assisted ion/molecule reactions similar to those in DA-APPI. Best ionization efficiency in APPI and APLI (both direct and DA) was obtained for PAHs and aromatics with O- and N-functionalities, whereas nitro compounds and aliphatic ethers were the most difficult to ionize. Halogenated aromatics and esters were (mainly) ionized in APPI, but not in APLI.

  10. Review of laboratory experiments on Alfven's critical ionization velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Piel

    1990-01-01

    The progress of laboratory experiments on Alfven's Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) of gas plasma interaction is reviewed. Since the first review by Danielsson (1973), in which the occurrence of the CIV phenomenon in crossed field discharges and in plasma-gas impact experiments was proved, most of the investigations have been directed towards clarifying the microscopic mechanism of the CIV by means

  11. Variable pressure ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, Michelle V. (Knoxville, TN); Wise, Marcus B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for differentiating organic compounds based on their electron affinity. An electron capture detector cell (ECD) is operated at pressures ranging from atmospheric to less than 1 torr. Through variation of the pressure within the ECD cell, the organic compounds are induced to either capture or emit electrons. Differentiation of isomeric compounds can be obtianed when, at a given pressure, one isomer is in the emission mode and the other is in the capture mode. Output of the ECD is recorded by chromatogram. The invention also includes a method for obtaining the zero-crossing pressure of a compound, defined as the pressure at which the competing emission and capture reactions are balanced and which may be correlated to the electron affinity of a compound.

  12. A surface ionization source 

    E-print Network

    Buzatu, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

  13. Endpoint contribution to the instantaneous ionization rate for tunneling ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Nam, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyung Taec

    2015-06-01

    We examine the instantaneous ionization amplitudes and instantaneous ionization rates for the process of tunneling ionization. We show that the endpoint contribution usually neglected in the asymptotic evaluation of the amplitudes, may be significant. For weak fields the instantaneous ionization rate is largely defined by this contribution. For higher field strengths of the order of 0.1 a.u., the account of this contribution allows one to reproduce numerically computed instantaneous ionization rates with higher accuracy.

  14. Multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of four groups of pesticides in ground and drinking waters, using solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography with electron-capture and thermionic specific detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Gonçalves; M. F Alpendurada

    2002-01-01

    A common sample preparation procedure capable of efficiently concentrating various groups of pesticides, taking advantage of universal detectors like the mass spectrometer or combined techniques of group selective detectors like gas chromatography–electron capture detection (ECD)\\/thermionic specific detection (TSD), is desirable in environmental analysis. Six solid-phase microextraction fibres available for analysis of semi-volatiles (7, 30 and 100 ?m poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), 85

  15. A new photoionization detector for gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ostoji?; Z. Šternberg

    1974-01-01

    A new photoionization detector for gas chromatography is discribed. The source of vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) radiation is separated from the ionization chamber by a window and thus the ionization chamber may be run at atmospheric pressure using an intense source of ionizing radiation. The operation consequently is improved and considerably simplified. Except for a ten times reduction in linearity, the

  16. Determination of toluenediamine isomers by capillary gas chromatography and chemical ionization mass spectrometry with special reference to the biological monitoring of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Skarping, G; Dalene, M; Lind, P

    1994-03-11

    The determination of 2,3-, 3,4-, 2,6-, 2,4- and 2,5-toluenediamine (TDA) in hydrolysed human urine and blood plasma was studied by GC-MS. The TDA isomers as their perfluoro-fatty acid anhydride derivatives were investigated. Chemical ionization with ammonia and isobutane as reagent gas and monitoring both positive and negative ions are studied. Negative ion monitoring using ammonia and the TDA pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatives were chosen owing to the low detection limits and good separations of the isomers studied. The ions monitored were m/z 394 and 374 corresponding to the (M-20)- and (M-40)- ions and the m/z = 397 and 377 ions of the tri-deuterium-labelled TDA used as an internal standard. The performance of 2,4-, 2,5- and 2,6-TDA-PFPA in the ion source was studied by varying the ammonia pressure, temperature and electron energy. A 1-ml volume of human urine was added to 1.5 ml of 6 M HCl containing 0.5 micrograms/l of each of the trideuterated 2,6- and 2,4-TDA and the solution was hydrolysed at 100 degrees C overnight. TDA was extracted into 2 ml of toluene by the addition of 5 ml of saturated NaOH solution. Derivatization was performed in toluene by the addition of 10 microliters of PFPA. The excesses of the reagent and acid formed were removed by extraction with 1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.5). Analyses of 2,6-, 2,4- and 2,5-TDA-spiked human urine (0.2-2.5 micrograms/l) were performed. The correlation coefficients were 0.999 (n = 6). The precision (R.S.D.) for human urine spiked at 1 micrograms/l was 1.6% for 2.6-TDA, 3,5% for 2,4-TDA and 3.2% for 2,5-TDA (n = 10). The detection limit, defined as twice the signal-to-noise ratio, was 1-5 fg injected, corresponding to less than 0.05 micrograms/l of TDA in human urine or plasma. PMID:8173666

  17. Miniaturization of Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy D. Wood; Marie A. Moy; Anthony R. Dolan; Paul M. Bigwarfe Jr; Thomas P. White; Douglas R. Smith; Daniel J. Higbee

    2003-01-01

    The development of electrospray ionization (ESI) has proved an enormous breakthrough in structural biology because it provides a means for transferring large biological molecules into the gas-phase as intact charged ions. In the post-genomics era, increased attention has been focused on mass spectrometry techniques capable of providing structural information for biological molecules—especially proteins—with minimal sample consumption. Miniaturized ESI, known as

  18. Isotope effect in tunnelling ionization of neutral hydrogen molecules

    E-print Network

    Wang, X; Atia-Tul-Noor, A; Hu, B T; Kielpinski, D; Sang, R T; Litvinyuk, I V

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently predicted theoretically that due to nuclear motion light and heavy hydrogen molecules exposed to strong electric field should exhibit substantially different tunneling ionization rates (O.I. Tolstikhin, H.J. Worner and T. Morishita, Phys. Rev. A 87, 041401(R) (2013) [1]). We studied that isotope effect experimentally by measuring relative ionization yields for each species in a mixed H2/D2 gas jet interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses. In a reaction microscope apparatus we detected ionic fragments from all contributing channels (single ionization, dissociation, and sequential double ionization) and determined the ratio of total single ionization yields for H2 and D2. The measured ratio agrees quantitatively with the prediction of the generalized weak-field asymptotic theory in an apparent failure of the frozen-nuclei approximation.

  19. Multiple-ionization of xenon atoms by positron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Georg; Quermann, Andreas; Raith, Wilhelm; Sinapius, Guenther

    1990-01-01

    Previously the cross sections were measured for positronium formation and single ionization by positron impact for He and H2. With the same apparatus, slightly modified, the single and multiple ionization of xenon is now investigated. The principle of the method is the detection of ion and positron in time correlation which allows the discrimination of positronium formation (whereby the positron vanishes) and the destinction of single, double and triple impact ionization (which lead to different ion flight times from the gas target to the ion detector). By using secondary electrons from the positron moderator, similar measurements were performed on electron impact ionization. By comparing with literature values for electron multiple ionization cross sections, the detection-probability ratios were determined for the differently charged ions.

  20. Ionization efficiency studies for xenon ions with thesuperconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Lyneis, Claude M.; Todd, DamonS.; Tarvainen,Olli

    2007-06-05

    Ionization efficiency studies for high charge state xenon ions using a calibrated gas leak are presented. A 75% enriched {sup 129}Xe gas leak with a gas flow equivalent to 5.11p{mu}A was used in all the measurements. The experiments were performed at the VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for Nuclear Science) ion source for 18 GHz, 28 GHz and double frequency operation. Overall, total ionization efficiencies close to 100% and ionization efficiencies into a single charge state up to 22% were measured. The influence of the biased disk on the ionization efficiency was studied and the results were somewhat surprising. When the biased disk was removed from the plasma chamber, the ionization efficiency was dramatically reduced for single frequency operation. However, using double frequency heating the ionization efficiencies achieved without the biased disk almost matched the ionization efficiencies achieved with the biased probe. In addition, we have studied the influence of the support gas on the charge state distribution of the xenon ions. Either pure oxygen or a mixture of oxygen and helium were used as support gases. The addition of a small amount of helium can increase the ionization efficiency into a single charge state by narrowing the charge state distribution. Furthermore by varying the helium flow the most efficient charge state can be shifted over a wide range without compromising the ionization efficiency. This is not possible using only oxygen as support gas. Results from these studies are presented and discussed.

  1. Surface ionization of terpene hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zandberg, E.Y.; Nezdyurov, A.L.; Paleev, V.I.; Ponomarev, D.A.

    1986-09-01

    By means of a surface ionization indicator for traces of materials in the atmosphere it has been established that many natural materials containing terpenes and their derivatives are ionized on the surface of heated molybdenum oxide at atmospheric air pressure. A mass-spectrometer method has been used to explain the mechanism of ionization of individual terpene hydrocarbons and to establish its principles. The ionization of ..cap alpha..-pinene, alloocimene, camphene, and also adamantane on oxidized tungsten under vacuum conditions has been investigated. The ..cap alpha..-pinene and alloocimene are ionized by surface ionization but camphene and adamantane are not ionized under vacuum conditions. The surface ionization mass spectra of ..cap alpha..-pinene and alloocimene are of low line brightness in comparison with electron ionization mass spectra and differ between themselves. The temperature relations for currents of the same compositions of ions during ionization of ..cap alpha..-pinene and alloocimene are also different, which leads to the possibility of surface ionization analysis of mixtures of terpenes being ionized. The ionization coefficients of alloocimene and ..cap alpha..-pinene on oxidized tungsten under temperatures optimum for ionization and the ionization potentials of alloocimene molecules and of radicals (M-H) of both compounds have been evaluated.

  2. Oxygen ionization rates at Mars and Venus - Relative contributions of impact ionization and charge exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. H. G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Nagy, A. F.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1993-02-01

    Oxygen ion production rates above the ionopauses of Venus and Mars are calculated for photoionization, charge exchange, and solar wind electron impact ionization processes. The latter two require the use of the Spreiter and Stahara (1980) gas dynamic model to estimate magnetosheath velocities, densities, and temperatures. The results indicate that impact ionization is the dominant mechanism for the production of O(+) ions at both Venus and Mars. This finding might explain both the high ion escape rates measured by Phobos 2 and the greater mass loading rate inferred for Venus from the bow shock positions.

  3. Simulation study of the ionizing front in the critical ionization velocity phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machida, S.; Goertz, C. K.; Lu, G.

    1988-01-01

    The simulation of the critical ionization velocity for a neutral gas cloud moving across the static magnetic field is presented. A low-beta plasma is studied, using a two and a half-dimensional electrostatic code linked with the Plasma and Neutral Interaction Code (Goertz and Machida, 1987). The physics of the ionizing front and the instabilities which occur there are discussed. Results are presented from four numerical runs designed so that the effects of the charge separation field can be distinguished from the wave heating.

  4. Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.

  5. Impact-ionization cooling in laser-induced plasma filaments.

    PubMed

    Filin, A; Compton, R; Romanov, D A; Levis, R J

    2009-04-17

    The ionization rates and subsequent electron dynamics for laser-induced plasma channels are measured for the noble gas series He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe at 1.0 atm. The cw fluorescence emission increases superlinearly in the series from He to Xe in agreement with Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunnel ionization calculations. The electron temperature after laser-induced plasma formation, measured by four-wave mixing, evolves from >20 eV to <1 eV kinetic energies with time constants ranging from 1 ns for He to 100 ps for Xe in agreement with an impact-ionization cooling model. PMID:19518642

  6. Impact-Ionization Cooling in Laser-Induced Plasma Filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Filin, A.; Romanov, D. A. [Center for Advanced Photonics Research, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Compton, R.; Levis, R. J. [Center for Advanced Photonics Research, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

    2009-04-17

    The ionization rates and subsequent electron dynamics for laser-induced plasma channels are measured for the noble gas series He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe at 1.0 atm. The cw fluorescence emission increases superlinearly in the series from He to Xe in agreement with Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunnel ionization calculations. The electron temperature after laser-induced plasma formation, measured by four-wave mixing, evolves from >20 eV to <1 eV kinetic energies with time constants ranging from 1 ns for He to 100 ps for Xe in agreement with an impact-ionization cooling model.

  7. On the origin of the ionization in the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, Dmitry; Tatischeff, Vincent; Terrier, Regis; Dogiel, V. A.; Cheng, K. S.

    We investigate the anomalously high ionization rate of the molecular gas in the Galactic center (GC) and the diffuse neutral iron line emission from the central region of the Galaxy. There are two alternative sources of the ionization of hydrogen and iron in the GC: they are either sub-relativistic particles or hard X-Ray photons. It is generally accepted that X-Ray photons emitted in the past by Sgr A* are the most probable candidate for excitation of the iron line in the GC molecular clouds. We showed that the same flare may be responsible for the diffuse iron line emission. According to experimental data on the ionization of diffuse molecular hydrogen charged particles contribution to the ionization of neutral iron is very low. On the other hand, the X-Ray photons from SGR A* are unable to reproduce the almost uniform spatial distribution of the ionization rate within the 100 pc radius of the GC. We showed that the most probable candidates for hydrogen ionizations there are subrelativistic cosmic ray protons. We also estimated the expected iron line flux from the molecular clouds from the particles responsible for ionization of the diffuse gas. It turns out that the corresponding flux is low and can be detected in the future only under some special conditions.

  8. Ionized outflows in SDSS type 2 quasars at z~0.3-0.6

    E-print Network

    Villar-Martin, M; Delgado, R Gonzalez; Colina, L; Arribas, S

    2011-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatially integrated kinematic properties of the ionized gas within the inner r~2). While the quiescent gas shows small or null velocity shifts relative to the systemic velocity, the highly perturbed gas trends to show larger shifts which, moreover, are blueshifts in general. Within a given object, the most perturbed gas trends to have the largest blueshift as well. All together support that the perturbed gas, which is responsible for the blue asymmetries of the line profiles, is outflowing. Although some bias affects the sample, we argue that ionized gas outflows are a common phenomenon in optically selected type 2 quasars at 0.3< z < 0.6.

  9. Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Augst, S.; Strickland, D.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Chin, S.L.; Eberly, J.H. (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (US))

    1989-11-13

    Studies of multiphoton ionization of noble gases have been carried out using 1-{mu}m, 1-ps laser pulses with intensities up to the mid- 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}. To our knowledge, this work represents the first study of the production of highly ionized noble-gas ions done exclusively in the tunneling regime. It is found in this regime that the ionization at a given intensity depends on both the ionization potential and the charge state of the species. The onset of ionization occurs when the sum of the Coulomb and laser electric potentials causes the electron to be unbound.

  10. Relativistic runaway ionization fronts.

    PubMed

    Luque, A

    2014-01-31

    We investigate the first example of self-consistent impact ionization fronts propagating at relativistic speeds and involving interacting, high-energy electrons. These fronts, which we name relativistic runaway ionization fronts, show remarkable features such as a bulk speed within less than one percent of the speed of light and the stochastic selection of high-energy electrons for further acceleration, which leads to a power-law distribution of particle energies. A simplified model explains this selection in terms of the overrun of Coulomb-scattered electrons. Appearing as the electromagnetic interaction between electrons saturates the exponential growth of a relativistic runaway electron avalanche, relativistic runaway ionization fronts may occur in conjunction with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and thus explain recent observations of long, power-law tails in the terrestrial gamma-ray flash energy spectrum. PMID:24580462

  11. Relativistic Runaway Ionization Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the first example of self-consistent impact ionization fronts propagating at relativistic speeds and involving interacting, high-energy electrons. These fronts, which we name relativistic runaway ionization fronts, show remarkable features such as a bulk speed within less than one percent of the speed of light and the stochastic selection of high-energy electrons for further acceleration, which leads to a power-law distribution of particle energies. A simplified model explains this selection in terms of the overrun of Coulomb-scattered electrons. Appearing as the electromagnetic interaction between electrons saturates the exponential growth of a relativistic runaway electron avalanche, relativistic runaway ionization fronts may occur in conjunction with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and thus explain recent observations of long, power-law tails in the terrestrial gamma-ray flash energy spectrum.

  12. Self-consistent Mean Field theory in weakly ionized media

    E-print Network

    Nicolas Leprovost; Eun-Jin Kim

    2007-10-10

    We present a self-consistent mean field theory of the dynamo in 3D and turbulent diffusion in 2D in weakly ionized gas. We find that in 3D, the backreaction does not alter the beta effect while it suppresses the alpha effect when the strength of a mean magnetic field exceeds a critical value. These results suggest that a mean field dynamo operates much more efficiently in weakly ionized gas compared to the fully ionized gas. Furthermore, we show that in 2D, the turbulent diffusion is suppressed by back reaction when a mean magnetic field reaches the same critical strength, with the upper bound on turbulent diffusion given by its kinematic value. Astrophysical implications are discussed.

  13. Primary ionization cluster counting with low-pressure multistep detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Malamud, G.; Sauvage, D.

    1989-02-01

    The authors describe a new method of Primary ionization Cluster Counting (PCC), using a low-pressure multistep counter coupled to a conversion volume. Due to the small density of the primary clusters in the low-pressure gas, and to the high gain of the multistep amplification structure, the clusters are efficiently counted. Taking advantage of the enhanced relativistic rise at low gas pressures, and the reduced interference from delta-electrons, the PCC can be efficiently applied to dE/dx relativistic charged particle identification. The authors present here preliminary results obtained with relativistic electrons and a UV laser. For minimum ionizing electrons we counted about 2 primary clusters/cm, at 20 Torr of isobutane. The distribution is poissonian. The PCC is shown to be an efficient tool for the study of the primary ionization process in gas media.

  14. Fossil Ionized Bubbles Around Dead Quasars During Reionization

    E-print Network

    Steven Furlanetto; Zoltan Haiman; S. Peng Oh

    2008-03-24

    One of the most dramatic signatures of the reionization era may be the enormous ionized bubbles around luminous quasars (with radii reaching ~40 comoving Mpc), which may survive as "fossil'' ionized regions long after their source shuts off. Here we study how the inhomogeneous intergalactic medium (IGM) evolves inside such fossils. The average recombination rate declines rapidly with time, and the brief quasar episode significantly increases the mean free path inside the fossil bubbles. As a result, even a weak ionizing background generated by galaxies inside the fossil can maintain it in a relatively highly and uniformly ionized state. For example, galaxies that would ionize 20-30% of hydrogen in a random patch of the IGM can maintain 80-90% ionization inside the fossil, for a duration much longer than the average recombination time in the IGM. Quasar fossils at zfossils, at z>10 have a weaker galaxy-generated ionizing background and a higher gas density, so they can attain a swiss-cheese topology similar to the rest of the IGM, but with a smaller contrast between the ionized bubbles and the partially neutral regions separating them. Analogous HeIII-fossils should exist around the epoch of HeII/HeIII reionization at z~3, although rapid recombinations inside the HeIII-fossils will be more common. Our model of inhomogeneous recombination also applies to "double reionization'' models and shows that a non-monotonic reionization history is even more unlikely than previously thought.

  15. Impact ionization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The impact ionization phenomenon which was observed on certain spacecraft was studied. The phenomenon occurs when a neutral atom, molecule, or ion strikes a surface with sufficient kinetic energy that either the incident neutral or atoms on the surface are ionized, with subsequent escape of ions and/or electrons. The released ions and electrons can interfere with measurements on the spacecraft by confusing interpretation of the data. On the other hand, there is the possibility that the effect could be developed into a diagnostic tool for investigating neutral atmospheric species or for studying physical processes on spacecraft surfaces.

  16. Photolytic clean-up of biological samples for gas chromatographic analysis of chlorinated paraffins.

    PubMed

    Fridén, Ulrika; Jansson, Bo; Parlar, Harun

    2004-02-01

    A method based on gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) for the analysis of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in biological samples has been investigated. The method includes photolytic destruction of halogenated aromatic compounds, such as PCBs, to eliminate some of the interferences in the analysis of CPs in environmental samples. Gel permeation chromatography was used to isolate CPs from the interfering components of Toxaphene and chlordane after the photolysis. GC-ECD gave a detection limit of 20 ng CPs/g fresh muscle tissue. The recovery of CPs from a spiked moose liver sample was estimated to 94%. PMID:14664836

  17. Dust in the Ionized Medium of the Galaxy: GHRS Measurements of Al III and S III

    E-print Network

    J. Christopher Howk; Blair D. Savage

    1998-10-27

    We present interstellar absorption line measurements of the ions S III and Al III towards six stars using archival Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph data. The ions Al III and S III trace heavily depleted and non-depleted elements, respectively, in ionized gas. We use the photoionization code CLOUDY to derive the ionization correction relating N(Al III)/N(S III) to the gas-phase abundance [Al/S]_i in the ionized gas. For spectral types considered here, the corrections are small and independent of the assumed ionization parameter. Using the results of these photoionization models, we find [Al/S]_i = -1.0 in the ionized gas towards three disk stars. These values of [Al/S]_i (=[Al/H]_i) imply that Al-bearing grains are present in the ionized nebulae around these stars. If the WIM of the Galaxy is photoionized by OB stars, our data for two halo stars imply [Al/S]_i = -0.4 to -0.5 in the WIM and thus the presence of dust grains containing Al in this important phase of the ISM. While photoionization appears to be the most likely origin of the ionization for Al III and S III, we cannot rule out confusion from the presence of hot, collisionally ionized gas along two sightlines. We find that [Al/S]_i in the ionized gas along the six sightlines is anti-correlated with the electron density and average sightline neutral density. The degree of grain destruction in the ionized medium of the Galaxy is not much higher than in the warm neutral medium. The existence of grains in the ionized regions studied here has important implications for the thermal balance of these regions. (Abstract Abridged)

  18. Radiation pressure confinement - III. The origin of the broad ionization distribution in AGN outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Jonathan; Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Baskin, Alexei; Holczer, Tomer

    2014-12-01

    The winds of ionized gas driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be studied through absorption lines in their X-ray spectra. A recurring feature of these outflows is their broad ionization distribution, including essentially all ionization levels (e.g., Fe0+ to Fe25+). This characteristic feature can be quantified with the absorption measure distribution (AMD), defined as the distribution of column density with ionization parameter |dN/d log ?|. Observed AMDs extend over 0.1 ? ? ? 104 (cgs), and are remarkably similar in different objects. Power-law fits (|dN/d log ?| ? N1?a) yield N1 = 3 × 1021 cm- 2 ± 0.4 dex and a = 0-0.4. What is the source of this broad ionization distribution, and what sets the small range of observed N1 and a? A common interpretation is a multiphase outflow, with a wide range of gas densities in a uniform gas pressure medium. However, the incident radiation pressure leads to a gas pressure gradient in the photoionized gas, and therefore to a broad range of ionization states within a single slab. We show that this compression of the gas by the radiation pressure leads to an AMD with |dN/d log ?| = 8 × 1021 ?0.03 cm-2, remarkably similar to that observed. The calculated values of N1 and a depend weakly on the gas metallicity, the ionizing spectral slope, the distance from the nucleus, the ambient density, and the total absorber column. Thus, radiation pressure compression (RPC) of the photoionized gas provides a natural explanation for the observed AMD. RPC predicts that the gas pressure increases with decreasing ionization, which can be used to test the validity of RPC in ionized AGN outflows.

  19. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. PMID:21774684

  20. IONIZING RADIATION OF EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of eggs and egg products by Salmonella is associated with a significant number of illnesses in the U.S. each year. Ionizing radiation can inactivate Salmonella on the egg surface, in the egg white, and in the yolk of shell eggs, and has been approved by the U.S. FDA at doses up to 3.0...

  1. Stagnation-point heat transfer correlation for ionized gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bade, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Based on previous laminar boundary-layer solutions for argon, xenon, nitrogen, and air, it is shown that the effect of gas ionization on stagnation-point heat transfer can be correlated with the variation of the frozen Prandtl number across the boundary layer. A formula is obtained for stagnation-point heat transfer in a noble gas and is shown to be valid from the low-temperature range to the region of strong ionization. It is concluded that the considered effect can be well correlated by the 0.7 power of the Prandtl-number ratio across the boundary layer.

  2. ChemTeacher: Ionization Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Ionization Energy page includes resources for teaching students about trends in ionization energy.

  3. Atmospheric-pressure Penning ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kenzo; Fujimaki, Susumu; Kambara, Shizuka; Furuya, Hiroko; Okazaki, Shigemitsu

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary study on the atmospheric-pressure Penning ionization (APP(e)I) of gaseous organic compounds with Ar* has been made. The metastable argon atoms (Ar*: 11.55 eV for (3)P(2) and 11.72 eV for (3)P(0)) were generated by the negative-mode corona discharge of atmospheric-pressure argon gas. By applying a high positive voltage (+500 to +1000 V) to the stainless steel capillary for the sample introduction (0.1 mm i.d., 0.3 mm o.d.), strong ion signals could be obtained. The ions formed were sampled through an orifice into the vacuum and mass-analyzed by an orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The major ions formed by APP(e)I are found to be molecular-related ions for alkanes, aromatics, and oxygen-containing compounds. Because only the molecules with ionization energies less than the internal energy of Ar* are ionized, the present method will be a selective and highly sensitive interface for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PMID:15384154

  4. Exploring the fatty acids of vernix caseosa in form of their methyl esters by off-line coupling of non-aqueous reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2010-12-24

    Vernix caseosa is a greasy biofilm formed on the skin of the human fetus in the last period of pregnancy. This matrix is known to contain a range of uncommon branched chain fatty acids. In this study, we studied the fatty acid composition of vernix caseosa by non-aqueous reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) fractionation followed by gas chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) of the fractions. For this purpose the fatty acids from vernix caseosa were converted into the corresponding methyl esters. These were fractionated by non-aqueous RP-HPLC using three serially connected C(18)-columns and pure methanol as the eluent. Aliquots of the HPLC fractions were directly analyzed by GC/EI-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode. Data analysis and visualization were performed by the creation of a two dimensional (2D) contour plot, in which GC retention times were plotted against the HPLC fractions. Inspection of the plot resulted in the detection of 133 different fatty acids but only 16 of them contributed more than 1% to the total fatty acids detected. Identification was based on HPLC and GC retention data, GC/MS-SIM and full scan data, as well as plotting the logarithmic retention times against the longest straight carbon chain. In selected cases, aliquots of the HPLC fractions were hydrogenated or studied by means of the picolinyl esters. Using these techniques, the number of double bonds could be unequivocally assigned to all fatty acids. Moreover, the number of methyl branches, and in many cases the positions of methyl branches could be determined. The enantioselective analysis of chiral anteiso-fatty acids resulted in the dominance of the S-enantiomers. However, high proportions of R-a13:0, R-a15:0, and R-a17:1 were also detected while a17:0 was virtually S-enantiopure. PMID:21087771

  5. The Ionization Source and Distance to the Magellanic Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Kathleen; Madsen, Gregory J.; Fox, Andrew; Wakker, Bart P.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Nidever, David L.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Lehner, Nicolas; Hill, Alex S.

    2015-01-01

    We present multiline observations of the ionized gas along the Magellanic Stream towards 39 sight lines. Using the Wisconsin H? Mapper telescope, we detect H? emission brighter than 30-50 mR in 29/39 sight lines. This H? emission extends more than 2° off the HI emission. We further find that the ionization fraction of the Stream increases as the HI column density deceases. Based on comparisons of the [O I] and H? emission, regions with HI column densities between 1019.5 and 1020.0 cm-2 are 15 - 65%. These ionization fractions closely agree with those found in absorption-line studies, implying that there is very little ionization change on the < 1° scale. The sight lines positioned off or on the edge of HI gas of the Stream tend to have higher H? intensities than those that align with the high HI column density gas. The spectral profiles of these offset sight lines are typically kinematically displaced from the HI emission by as much as 30 km s-1. We conclude that these low H I column density sight lines are less shielded from the surrounding coronal gas and ionizing radiation field and are likely evaporating into the Galactic halo. The H? detections, from this and previous studies, towards high H I column density sight lines follow the strength of the incident photoionizing radiation field from the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), the Milky Way (MW), and the extragalactic background (EGB). This compatibility places the distance to the Magellanic Stream at 100° from the Magellanic Clouds between 50 - 75 kpc away from the Sun. This agreement suggests that the combined ionized and neutral gas mass of the Stream is ~2 × 109 M?, based on the work of Fox et al. 2014 for this distance. Additionally, this agreement implies that an ionizing photon escape fraction of ~5% for the Galactic disk, ~4% for the Large Magellanic Cloud, and ~6% for the Small Magellanic Clouds. However, if the trailing gas lies further away, then other sources must also contribute to the ionization. The ionizing contribution from these sources will decreases if the Stream is located further away with a ~50% at 100 kpc and ~15% at very large distances (> 200 kpc).

  6. The ionization rate under a general magnetic field for microwave breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huihui, E-mail: whhnjznl@163.com; Meng, Lin; Liu, Dagang; Liu, Laqun [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-07-15

    The ionization rate under an extra magnetic field is studied by theory and particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo Collision simulations. The result shows that a magnetic field always decreases the ionization rate if ?(3)??ionization rate if ?(3)??>??{sub m}. The effect of the magnetic field on the ionization rate fades away when the angle between the magnetic field and the electric filed approaches to zero. Furthermore, the peak ionization rate among different magnetic fields is almost independent of ?. This peak ionization rate is in direct proportion to the gas pressure in the low pressure region, while it is about in inverse proportion to the gas pressure in the high pressure region.

  7. Critical ionization velocity in plasma-neutral collisions on the Caltech spheromak experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Moser; P. M. Bellan

    2008-01-01

    Alfv'en predicted [1] that when a neutral gas impacts a magnetized plasma it will be ionized and entrained if its velocity across magnetic field lines exceeds the critical ionization velocity, v=&surd;2 E\\/m, where E is the ionization energy of a neutral atom with mass m. In experiments using the coplanar spheromak gun at Caltech, a magnetized plasma jet collides with

  8. Are cosmic rays effective for ionization of protoplanetary disks?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolginov, Arkady Z.; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1994-01-01

    The principal uncertainty in studying the magnetic properties of protoplanetary disks concerns the ionization levels of the disk's gas. The low gas temperature precludes thermal ionization, leaving cosmic rays as the dominant source of ionization. It has been shown that the resulting electrical conductivity is just high enough for a MHD dynamo to produce contemporaneously a magnetic field in most of the extended parts of a turbulent protoplanetary disk. Here we argue that the effectiveness of cosmic rays to ionize the bulk of the gas is impaired by the influence of the generated magnetic field on the propagation of cosmic rays within a disk. Cosmic rays scatter on magnetic inhomogeneities, and, as a result, their penetration depth decreases to only a fraction of the disk half-thickness, resulting in a severe depletion of free charge from the midplane regions of a disk. That, in turn, undercuts the dynamo mechanism, so extended parts of the disk are free from a dynamically significant magnetic field. We also point out that any additional, even small, in situ source of ionization, such as radioactive Al-26, may again make a dynamo a viable regeneration process capable of producing a dynamically important magnetic field.

  9. Tevatron ionization profile monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, A.; Bowie, K.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Kwarciany, R.; Lundberg, C.; Slimmer, D.; Valerio, L.; Zagel, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Ionization Profile monitors have been used in almost all machines at Fermilab. However, the Tevatron presents some particular challenges with its two counter-rotating, small beams, and stringent vacuum requirements. In order to obtain adequate beam size accuracy with the small signals available, custom made electronics from particle physics experiments was employed. This provides a fast (single bunch) and dead-timeless charge integration with a sensitivity in the femto-Coulomb range, bringing the system close to the single ionization electron detection threshold. The detector itself is based on a previous Main Injector prototype, albeit with many modifications and improvements. The first detector was installed at the end of 2005, and the second detector during the spring shutdown. The ultimate goal is to continuously monitor beam size oscillations at injection, as well as the beam size evolution during ramp and squeeze. Initial results are very encouraging.

  10. Multiphoton ionization of H2+ in xuv laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaoxu; Secor, Ethan B.; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the ionization of the hydrogen molecular ion after one-, two-, and three-photon absorption over a large range of photon energies between 9 and 40 eV in the fixed-nuclei approximation. The temporal development of the system is obtained in a fully ab initio time-dependent grid-based approach in prolate spheroidal coordinates. The alignment dependence of the one-photon ionization amplitude is highlighted in the framework of time-dependent perturbation theory. For one-photon ionization as a function of the nuclear separation, the calculations reveal a significant minimum in the ionization probability. The suppressed ionization is attributed to a Cooper-type minimum, which is similar, but not identical, to the cancellation effect observed in photoionization cross sections of some noble-gas atoms. The effect of the nonspherical two-center Coulomb potential is analyzed. For two- and three-photon ionization, the angle-integrated cross sections clearly map out intermediate-state resonances, and the predictions of the current computations agree very well with those from time-independent calculations. The dominant emission modes for two-photon ionization are found to be very similar in both resonance and off-resonance regions.

  11. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-Disc Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Long, Knox

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to exploit the unique capabilities of FUSE to monitor variations in the wind- formed spectral lines of the luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables(CV) -- RW Sex. (The original proposal contained two additional objects but these were not approved.) These observations were intended to allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we proposed to track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. We planned to use a new Monte Carlo code to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through the CV wind. The analysis therefore was intended to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time.

  12. Charge Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; Westphall, Michael S.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a new mechanism to account for analyte ion signal enhancement in ultraviolet-laser desorption mass spectrometry of droplets in the presence of corona ions. Our new insights are based on timing control of corona ion production, laser desorption, and peptide ion extraction achieved by a novel pulsed corona apparatus. We demonstrate that droplet charging rather than gas-phase ion-neutral reactions is the major contributor to analyte ion generation from an electrically isolated droplet. Implications of the new mechanism, termed charge assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI), are discussed and contrasted to those of the laser desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization method (LD-APCI). It is also demonstrated that analyte ion generation in CALDI occurs with external electric fields about one order of magnitude lower than those needed for atmospheric pressure matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization or electrospray ionization of droplets. PMID:18387311

  13. Untangling compact and diffuse ionized emission toward galactic hii regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, Logan A.

    HII regions are clouds of ionized hydrogen gas surrounding B0- and O-type stars. The ionized hydrogen in these regions emits both radio recombination line (RRL) and also thermal radio continuum. Diffuse ionized hydrogen, known as the 'Warm Ionized Medium' (WIM) also exists in the Galaxy. The WIM also emits RRLs and thermal radio continuum. Previous observation of compact hii regions found two RRL components for many sources, one from the hii region and the others from the WIM. By observing off-target positions sampling only the diffuse emission, we discerned the correct source velocities for 93 out of 116 HII regions that have multiple RRL components. We assigned kinematic distances to these sources by analyzing hydrogen absorption spectra taken toward the sources. We found that 64% of our sources lie beyond the tangent point distance.

  14. Hysteresis of ionization waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinklage, A.; Bruhn, B.; Testrich, H.; Wilke, C.

    2008-06-01

    A quasi-logistic, nonlinear model for ionization wave modes is introduced. Modes are due to finite size of the discharge and current feedback. The model consists of competing coupled modes and it incorporates spatial wave amplitude saturation. The hysteresis of wave mode transitions under current variation is reproduced. Sidebands are predicted by the model and found in experimental data. The ad hoc model is equivalent to a general—so-called universal—approach from bifurcation theory.

  15. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-02-20

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

  16. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); McCorkle, Dennis L. (Knoxville, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches.

  17. Ionization of Molecular Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianming; Shemansky, Donald E.

    2004-10-01

    A general model, based on a theoretically calculated ionization oscillator strength and an experimentally determined excitation shape function, has been obtained for calculating the molecular hydrogen electron-impact ionization cross section of a transition between any discrete vibrational levels of the neutral X1?+g state and ionic X2?+g state. Specifically, the excitation shape function and ionization oscillator strength for transitions from the vi=0 level of the X1?+g neutral state to the discrete levels of the X2?+g ionic state are derived from analyzing several experimental measurements. The derived oscillator strength is found to be consistent with the 1994 photoabsorption measurements of Samson & Haddad and the 1977 theoretical cross sections of Flannery and coworkers. The derived excitation function, along with the oscillator strengths for transitions involving the vi>0 level calculated from the data of Flannery and coworkers, permits an accurate calculation of the nondissociative cross sections of H2 between any discrete vibrational levels over a wide energy range.

  18. Observation of the critical ionization velocity effect in the interstellar medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Peratt; G. L. Verschuur

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. The concept of a critical ionization velocity (CIV) was first introduced by Alfven (1942) as a necessary ingredient of his theory of the formation of the Solar System. As a neutral gas moves through a magnetized plasma, a strong interaction and a rapid ionization of the neutrals takes place if the relative velocity exceeds a certain

  19. Dissociative ionization of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Winifred

    2004-09-01

    Dissociative ionization (DI) by electron impact plays a role in many different applications, including low-temperature plasma processing, the study of space and astrophysical plasmas, and the study of biological damages by high-energy radiation. In the present study, our goal is to understand the health hazard to humans from exposure to radiation during an extended space flight. DI by secondary electrons can damage the DNA, either directly by causing a DNA lesion, or indirectly by producing radicals and cations that attack the DNA. The theoretical model employed makes use of the fact that electronic motion is much faster than nuclear motion, allowing DI to be treated as a two-step process. The first step is electron-impact ionization resulting in a dissociative state of the molecular ion with the same geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step the ion relaxes from the initial geometry and undergoes unimolecular dissociation. Thus the DI cross section is given by the product of the ionization cross section and the dissociation probability. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. For unimolecular dissociation, we use the multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) method to determine the minimum energy pathways to possible product channels. This model has been applied to study the DI of H_2O, NH_3, and CH_4, and the results are in good agreement with experiment. The DI from the low-lying channels of benzene has also been studied and the dissociation products are compared with photoionization measurements. The DI of the DNA bases guanine and cytosine are then discussed. Of the four DNA bases, guanine has the largest ionization cross section and cytosine has the smallest. The guanine radical cation is considered to be one of the precursors to the primary, direct-type lesions formed in DNA when it is irradiated. Comparison of DI products of guanine and cytosine will be made to understand the differences in their behavior upon irradiation.

  20. Effect of internal and external conditions on ionization processes in the FAPA ambient desorption/ionization source.

    PubMed

    Orejas, Jaime; Pfeuffer, Kevin P; Ray, Steven J; Pisonero, Jorge; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Hieftje, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    Ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) offer outstanding analytical features: direct analysis of real samples without sample pretreatment, combined with the selectivity and sensitivity of MS. Since ADI sources typically work in the open atmosphere, ambient conditions can affect the desorption and ionization processes. Here, the effects of internal source parameters and ambient humidity on the ionization processes of the flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source are investigated. The interaction of reagent ions with a range of analytes is studied in terms of sensitivity and based upon the processes that occur in the ionization reactions. The results show that internal parameters which lead to higher gas temperatures afforded higher sensitivities, although fragmentation is also affected. In the case of humidity, only extremely dry conditions led to higher sensitivities, while fragmentation remained unaffected. PMID:25178932

  1. Quasi-Phase-Matching of High Harmonic EUV Generation at Very High Ionization Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, E. A.; Paul, A.; Wagner, N. L.; Tobey, R.; Gagnon, E.; Gaudiosi, D.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.; Christov, I. P.

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced conversion efficiency for high harmonic generation in fully ionized gas using quasi-phase-matching. We report the first observation of high harmonic generation in Argon up to 180eV.

  2. Double-gated isolated vertically aligned carbon nanofiber field emission and field ionization arrays

    E-print Network

    Chen, Liang-Yu, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Electron impact ionization (ElI) is used extensively in mass spectrometry for gas-phase analytes. Due to the significant amount of fragmentation generated by ElI, the spectrum is usually very noisy. In addition, the ...

  3. Amplification of critical velocity ionization by a pulsed neutral beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu T. Lai; William J. McNeil

    1990-01-01

    Numerical results of computer simulations on critical ionization velocity (CIV) discharges in pulsed neutral beams are presented. In a typical CIV scenario, neutral molecules as well as newly created ions are traveling across the ambient magnetic field. The ions slow down as they transfer kinetic energy to the electrons via plasma waves. For a single pulse of neutral gas, there

  4. Review of the critical ionization velocity effect in space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick T. Newell

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown under a variety of conditions that when a neutral gas passes through a magnetized plasma with a relative velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field that is greater than a critical velocity, anomalously high ionization of the neutrals occurs. The conditions under which the same effect is to be expected in space plasmas is still unclear. The

  5. Microwave Interferometry in High-Temperature Partially Ionized Dense Gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Boschi; N. Merzagora; A. Tamburrano

    1972-01-01

    The present study emphasizes the applicability of microwave interferometry to partially ionized dense gases, such as the gas mixtures used in MHD energy-conversion experiments. Furthermore, a transmission system is described, which allows coherent microwave transmission through refractory chambers or channels, under extreme conditions of temperature (1000–2000 °K) and pressure (near atmospheric), overcoming the difficulties in the accessibility. The system has

  6. Development of high resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis of 93mNb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsuka, Takaaki; Tomita, Hideki; Sonoda, Tetsu; Sonnenschein, Volker; Sakamoto, Chika; Mita, Hiroki; Noto, Takuma; Ito, Chikara; Maeda, Shigetaka; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Michiharu; Wendt, Klaus; Moore, Iain

    2013-04-01

    93Nb(n, n')93mNb reaction allows retrospective estimation of integrated fast neutron dose in nuclear reactor. We proposed isomer-selective trace analysis of 93mNb by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) combined with a gas-jet atomic source and an injection locked Ti:Sapphire laser system operated at several kHz. Resonant ionization spectroscopy of Nb in gas-jet using Ti:Sapphire laser was demonstrated.

  7. Femtosecond growth dynamics of an underdense ionization front measured by spectral blueshifting

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.M.; Siders, C.W.; Downer, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    A comprehensive report of time-resolved spectral blue shifts of 100-femtosecond laser pulses caused by ionization of atmospheric density N{sub 2} and noble gases subjected to high (10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} - 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}) light intensities is presented. Included are data for two experiments: (1) self-shifting of the ionizing laser pulses for varying peak intensities, pressures (1-5 atm.), and gas species; and (2) time-resolved blueshifts of a weak copropagating probe pulse for the same range of ionization conditions. The self-shift data reveal a universal, reproducible pattern in the shape of the blueshifted spectra: as laser intensity, gas pressure, or atomic number increase, the self-blueshifted spectra develop from a near replica of the incident pulse spectrum into a complex structure consisting of two spectral peaks. The time-resolved data reveal different temporal dependence for each of these two features. A quantitative model for a simplified cylindrical focal geometry is presented which explains the presence of the two spectral features in terms of two distinct ionization mechanisms: collisionless tunneling ionization, which dominates early in the ionizing pulse profile, and electron impact ionization, which dominates during the intense maximum of the ionizing pulse. Transient resonant enhancements may also contribute to ionization near the peak of the pulse.

  8. Femtosecond growth dynamics of an underdense ionization front measured by spectral blueshifting

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.M.; Siders, C.W.; Downer, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive report of time-resolved spectral blue shifts of 100-femtosecond laser pulses caused by ionization of atmospheric density N[sub 2] and noble gases subjected to high (10[sup 14] W/cm[sup 2] - 10[sup 16] W/cm[sup 2]) light intensities is presented. Included are data for two experiments: (1) self-shifting of the ionizing laser pulses for varying peak intensities, pressures (1-5 atm.), and gas species; and (2) time-resolved blueshifts of a weak copropagating probe pulse for the same range of ionization conditions. The self-shift data reveal a universal, reproducible pattern in the shape of the blueshifted spectra: as laser intensity, gas pressure, or atomic number increase, the self-blueshifted spectra develop from a near replica of the incident pulse spectrum into a complex structure consisting of two spectral peaks. The time-resolved data reveal different temporal dependence for each of these two features. A quantitative model for a simplified cylindrical focal geometry is presented which explains the presence of the two spectral features in terms of two distinct ionization mechanisms: collisionless tunneling ionization, which dominates early in the ionizing pulse profile, and electron impact ionization, which dominates during the intense maximum of the ionizing pulse. Transient resonant enhancements may also contribute to ionization near the peak of the pulse.

  9. COSMIC RAY HEATING OF THE WARM IONIZED MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, Joshua; Peng Oh, S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen G. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)] [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    Observations of line ratios in the Milky Way's warm ionized medium suggest that photoionization is not the only heating mechanism present. For the additional heating to explain the discrepancy, it would have to have a weaker dependence on the gas density than the cooling rate, {Lambda}n{sub e}{sup 2}. Reynolds et al. suggested turbulent dissipation or magnetic field reconnection as possible heating sources. We investigate here the viability of MHD-wave mediated cosmic ray heating as a supplemental heating source. This heating rate depends on the gas density only through its linear dependence on the Alfven speed, which goes as n{sub e}{sup -1/2}. We show that, scaled to appropriate values of cosmic ray energy density, cosmic ray heating can be significant. Furthermore, this heating is stable to perturbations. These results should also apply to warm ionized gas in other galaxies.

  10. Shock velocity in weakly ionized nitrogen, air, and argon

    SciTech Connect

    Siefert, Nicholas S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The goal of this research was to determine the principal mechanism(s) for the shock velocity increase in weakly ionized gases. This paper reports experimental data on the propagation of spark-generated shock waves (1ionized nitrogen, air, and argon glow discharges (1 gas via elastic collisions with electrons, the weakly ionized discharge was pulsed on/off. Laser deflection methods determined the shock velocity, and the electron number density was collected using a microwave hairpin resonator. In the afterglow of nitrogen, air, and argon discharges, the shock velocity first decreased, not at the characteristic time for electrons to diffuse to the walls, but rather at the characteristic time for the centerline gas temperature to equilibrate with the wall temperature. These data support the conclusion that the principal mechanism for the increase in shock velocity in weakly ionized gases is thermal heating of the neutral gas species via elastic collisions with electrons.

  11. Review of the critical ionization velocity effect in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown under a variety of conditions that when a neutral gas passes through a magnetized plasma with a relative velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field that is greater than a critical velocity, anomalously high ionization of the neutrals occurs. The conditions under which the same effect is to be expected in space plasmas is still unclear. The experimental evidence for the occurrence of the critical ionization velocity effect in space is summarized, and various areas in which it has been proposed that the effect should be significant are discussed.

  12. Quantum statistical mechanics of dense partially ionized hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, H. E.; Rogers, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of dense hydrogen plasmas beginning with the two component quantum grand partition function is reviewed. It is shown that ionization equilibrium and molecular dissociation equilibrium can be treated in the same manner with proper consideration of all two-body states. A quantum perturbation expansion is used to give an accurate calculation of the equation of state of the gas for any degree of dissociation and ionization. The statistical mechanical calculation of the plasma equation of state is intended for stellar interiors. The general approach is extended to the calculation of the equation of state of the outer layers of large planets.

  13. Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases.

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, N; Zhang, X-C

    2009-03-01

    We study tunnel ionized electron wave packet dynamics during the initial transition from a gas to a plasma by detecting the terahertz radiation emitted in the process. Experimental and theoretical results show that much of the observed radiation is due to coherent buildup of bremsstrahlung released during the first electron-atom collision. Coherent control of the tunnel ionization process combined with ab initio modeling provides a real-time view of the initial stages of the formation of a laser-induced plasma and allows us to fully understand this important source of terahertz radiation. PMID:19392516

  14. A simple way to model nebulae with distributed ionizing stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, L.; Morisset, C.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: This work is a follow-up of a recent article by Ercolano et al. that shows that, in some cases, the spatial dispersion of the ionizing stars in a given nebula may significantly affect its emission spectrum. The authors found that the dispersion of the ionizing stars is accompanied by a decrease in the ionization parameter, which at least partly explains the variations in the nebular spectrum. However, they did not research how other effects associated to the dispersion of the stars may contribute to those variations. Furthermore, they made use of a unique and simplified set of stellar populations. The scope of the present article is to assess whether the variation in the ionization parameter is the dominant effect in the dependence of the nebular spectrum on the distribution of its ionizing stars. We examined this possibility for various regimes of metallicity and age. We also investigated a way to model the distribution of the ionizing sources so as to bypass expensive calculations. Methods: We wrote a code able to generate random stellar populations and to compute the emission spectra of their associated nebulae through the widespread photoionization code cloudy. This code can process two kinds of spatial distributions of the stars: one where all the stars are concentrated at one point, and one where their separation is such that their Strömgren spheres do not overlap. Results: We found that, in most regimes of stellar population ages and gas metallicities, the dependence of the ionization parameter on the distribution of the stars is the dominant factor in the variation of the main nebular diagnostics with this distribution. We derived a method to mimic those effects with a single calculation that makes use of the common assumptions of a central source and a spherical nebula, in the case of constant density objects. This represents a computation time saving by a factor of at least several dozen in the case of H ii regions ionized by massive clusters.

  15. Electron-impact ionization and dissociative ionization of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Winifred

    2006-05-01

    Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation are the source of radiation-induced damages to human health. It is recognized that secondary electrons play a role in the damage process, particularly important is the damage of DNA by electrons, potentially leading to mutagenesis. The damage can be direct, by creating a DNA lesion, or indirect, by producing radicals that attack the DNA. Molecular-level study of electron interaction with DNA provides information on the damage pathways and dominant mechanisms. This investigation focuses on ionization and dissociative ionization (DI) of DNA fragments by electron-impact. For ionization we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model [W.M. Huo, Phys. Rev. A64, 042719-1 (2001)]. For DI it is assumed that electron motion is much faster than nuclear motion, allowing DI to be treated as a two-step process and the DI cross section given by the product of the ionization cross section and dissociation probability. The ionization study covers DNA bases, sugar phosphate backbone, and nucleotides. An additivity principle is observed. For example, the sum of the ionization cross sections of the separate deoxyribose and phosphate fragments is in close agreement with the C3'- and C5'-deoxyribose-phospate cross sections, differing by less than 5%. The result implies that certain properties of the DNA, like the total ionization cross section, are localized properties and an additivity principle may apply. This allows us to obtain properties of a larger molecular system built up from the results of smaller subsystem fragments. The DI of guanine and cytosine has been studied. For guanine, a proton is produced from the channel where the ionized electron originates from a molecular orbital with significant charge density along the N(1)-H bond. The interaction of the proton with cytosine was also studied.

  16. Pure ionization cross section of helium and ionization mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. M.; Lu, Y. X.; Gao, Z. M.; Cui, Y.; Liu, Y. W.; Du, J.

    2007-09-01

    Pure target ionization was investigated for 0.4-6.4 MeV C q+ ( q = 1-4) + He and O q+ ( q = 1-4) + He collisions. The double-to-single target ionization ratios R21 were measured using coincidence techniques. We compare our results with existing experimental results and find they are in good agreement. The ratio R21 is nearly independent of projectile charge state. The relation of R21 ˜ V is analyzed using the over barrier model (OBM) and ionization probability, which is described in our extended over barrier model. Our calculation agrees well with the experimental results.

  17. Hydrogen-gas-laser method and apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Brandt; C. Ottinger

    1979-01-01

    The specification describes a method for pumping molecular hydrogen in a hydrogen laser. The pumping is carried out via noble gas atoms which are in a metastable state of excitation and preferably ionized. A hydrogen laser operating in accordance with this method comprises a gas filling including molecular hydrogen as a laser medium and at least one noble gas, preferably

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Striations in rare gas plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir I. Kolobov

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the recent progress in understanding the nature of striations in rare gas plasmas. Striations are ionization waves with unique properties determined by transport phenomena, ionization processes and electron kinetics in current-carrying plasmas. Recent progress in understanding the physics of striations is mainly associated with the advances of non-local electron kinetics in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas and the development

  19. Comparison of the limulus amebocyte lysate test and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) in airborne dust from poultry-processing industries.

    PubMed Central

    Sonesson, A; Larsson, L; Schütz, A; Hagmar, L; Hallberg, T

    1990-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) content in airborne dust samples from three different poultry slaughterhouses was determined with both the chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of lipopolysaccharide-derived 3-hydroxy fatty acids. Gram-negative cell walls were also measured by using two-dimensional gas chromatography/electron-capture analysis of diaminopimelic acid originating from the peptidoglycan. The correlation between the results of the Limulus assay and those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of the lipopolysaccharide content in the dust samples was poor, whereas a good correlation was obtained between lipopolysaccharide and diaminopimelic acid concentrations with the gas chromatographic methods. The results suggest that it is predominantly cell-wall-dissociated lipopolysaccharides that are measured with the Limulus assay, whereas the gas chromatographic methods allow determination of total concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, including Limulus-inactive lipopolysaccharide, gram-negative cells, and cellular debris. PMID:2187411

  20. High Pressure (>1 atm) Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2011-03-01

    High pressure electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been performed by pressurizing a custom made ion source chamber with compressed air to a pressure higher than the atmospheric pressure. The ion source was coupled to a commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer using a nozzle-skimmer arrangement. The onset voltage for the electrospray of aqueous solution was found to be independent on the operating pressure. The onset voltage for the corona discharge, however, increased with the rise of pressure following the Paschen's law. Thus, besides having more working gas for the desolvation process, gaseous breakdown could also be avoided by pressurizing the ESI ion source with air to an appropriate level. Stable electrospray ionization has been achieved for the sample solution with high surface tension such as pure water in both positive and negative ion modes. Fragmentation of labile compounds during the ionization process could also be reduced by optimizing the operating pressure of the ion source.

  1. Ionization mechanisms of the intercloud medium. [in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1974-01-01

    A generalized treatment of the ionization equilibrium of the intercloud medium is developed, which is model-independent in the steady-state approximation, and which is suited to an interpretation of ultraviolet absorption data. It is found that the most satisfactory models require the presence of density inhomogeneities along the line of sight. In all models considered for lambda Sco, 2-MeV cosmic rays and X rays are found to lead to large disagreements with the observations, and data on upsilon Sco, alpha Leo, and other stars seem to support this conclusion. Therefore, it would seem that these cannot be the physical agents responsible for the bulk of the ionization of the gas. An alternative model is developed, in which the ionization below 24.58 eV is provided by ultraviolet photons. This model appears to satisfy theoretical requirements, and leads to good agreement with the data.

  2. Note: Discharging fused silica test masses with ionized nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolini, D.; Funk, Q.; Amen, T.

    2011-04-01

    We have developed a technique for discharging fused silica test masses in a gravitational-wave interferometer with nitrogen ionized by an electron beam. The electrons are produced from a heated filament by thermionic emission in a low-pressure region to avoid contamination and burnout. Some electrons then pass through a small aperture and ionize nitrogen in a higher-pressure region, and this ionized gas is pumped across the test mass surface, neutralizing both polarities of charge. The discharge rate varies exponentially with charge density and filament current, quadratically with filament potential, and has an optimal working pressure of ˜8 mT. Adapting the technique to larger test mass chambers is also discussed.

  3. Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Luckey, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism.

  4. Surface scanning analysis of planar arrays of analytes with desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2007-08-01

    The analysis of analytes deposited on, separated on, or otherwise distributed about a planar surface using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in a surface scanning sampling mode was investigated. The physical regions of the surface-impacting solvent/gas jet desorption/ionization plume were described. Under the conditions typical for desorption electrospray ionization used here, the impact plume formed an elliptical desorption/ionization region on the surface. Most effective desorption/ionization was obtained from a smaller elliptical area within the larger impact region that was centered on a point on-axis from the sprayer tip to the surface. Maximum signal from a given amount of material on a surface was observed with proper plume and sample alignment when the diameter of the sample spot was less than the diameter of the central high-efficiency desorption/ionization region of the impact plume. Solvent and gas flow out of this high-efficiency desorption/ionization region was found to limit analyte accessibility to this region via a "washing effect" when analytes were on smooth surfaces or on surfaces for which the analyte had little affinity. As such, the direction of surface scanning and scan speed during an analysis was found to be important for maximizing signal levels and signal reproducibility on particular surface types. Overall, the results presented illustrate means to improve analysis of sample spots on various types of surfaces using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in a surface scanning mode. PMID:17605468

  5. Microwave reflectometer ionization sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seals, Joseph; Fordham, Jeffrey A.; Pauley, Robert G.; Simonutti, Mario D.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) Instrument for use on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft is described. The instrument contract was terminated, due to cancellation of the AFE program, subsequent to testing of an engineering development model. The MRIS, a four-frequency reflectometer, was designed for the detection and location of critical electron density levels in spacecraft reentry plasmas. The instrument would sample the relative magnitude and phase of reflected signals at discrete frequency steps across 4 GHz bandwidths centered at four frequencies: 20, 44, 95, and 140 GHz. The sampled data would be stored for later processing to calculate the distance from the spacecraft surface to the critical electron densities versus time. Four stepped PM CW transmitter receivers were located behind the thermal protection system of the spacecraft with horn antennas radiating and receiving through an insulating tile. Techniques were developed to deal with interference, including multiple reflections and resonance effects, resulting from the antenna configuration and operating environment.

  6. MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Carbonell, Marc, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es, E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es, E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es [Departament de Matemàtiques i Informàtica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma ?, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.

  7. Comments on GUT monopole energy loss and ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrom, R.

    1982-01-01

    A few comments about the likely behavior of the electromagnetic energy loss and ionization rates of super-slowly moving magnetic monopoles are presented. The questions of energy loss rates and ionization rates for super-low monopoles passing through matter are considered, concentrating on aspects of these issues which affect practical detection techniques. It is worthwhile here to emphasize that there is a potentially great distinction between energy loss rates and ionization rates and that the magnitude of this distinction is really the great issue which must be settled in order to understand the significance of experimental results from present and proposed investigations of the slow monopole question. Energy loss here means the total dE/dX of the projectile due to interactions with the electrons of the slowing medium. To the extent that nuclear collisions can be neglected, this so-called electronic energy loss is the relevant quantity in questions about whether monopoles stop within the earth's crust, whether they are slowed by interstellar plasmas, or the signal in a truly calorimetric measurement (measuring temperature rises along the trajectory), etc. Most of our successful detection techniques depend upon the promotion of ground state electrons into states which lie above some energy gap in the material of the detector: electrons must be knocked completely free from the gas atoms in a proportional chamber gas, electrons must be promoted to a higher band in solid scintillator plastics. These processes are generically identified as ionization. (WHK)

  8. Non-Equilibrium Photodissociation Regions: Ionization-Dissociation Fronts

    E-print Network

    Frank Bertoldi; B. T. Draine

    1995-08-16

    We discuss the theory of coupled ionization--dissociation fronts produced when molecular clouds are exposed to $\\lambda < 1110$\\AA\\ radiation from hot stars. A steady, composite structure is developed, which generally includes an ionized outflow away from the cloud, an ionization front, a layer of photodissociated gas, a photodissociation front, and a shock wave preceding the photodissociation front. We show that the properties of the structure are determined by two dimensionless parameters, $\\psi$ and $\\delta$, and by the Alfv\\'en speed in the preshock gas. For a broad range of parameters of interest, the ionization front and the hydrogen photodissociation front do not separate, the H$_2$ photodissociation and photoionization take place together, and a classical hydrogen ``photodissociation region'' (PDR) does not exist. We also show that even when a distinct photodissociation region exists, in many cases the dissociation front propagates too rapidly for the usual stationary models of PDRs to be applicable. We discuss several famous PDRs, e.g., in M17 and Orion and conclude that they cannot be described by equilibrium PDR models.

  9. Observation of Spin Exchange Between the Singly Ionized Xe+ Ground State and the Metastable State of Neutral Xenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Hadeishi; Chung-Heng Liu

    1966-01-01

    We have observed spin-exchange collisions between the singly ionized 2P32 ground state of Xe and the 3P2 metastable state of neutral Xe, both formed and aligned by electronic-impact excitation under space-charge neutralization. Extension to the rf spectroscopy of the ionized ground state of other noble-gas atoms seems promising.

  10. Numerical Analysis on Non-Equilibrium Mechanism of Laser-Supported Detonation Wave Using Multiply-Charged Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Daido Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2006-05-02

    Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), one type of Laser-Supported Plasma (LSP), is considered as the most important phenomena because it can generate high pressure and high temperature for laser absorption. In this study, I have numerically simulated the 1-D LSD waves propagating through a helium gas, in which Multiply-charged ionization model is considered for describing an accurate ionization process.

  11. Choosing between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and electrospray ionization interfaces for the HPLC/MS analysis of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Ferrer, I.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of over 75 pesticides by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) clearly shows that different classes of pesticides are more sensitive using either atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electrospray ionization (ESI). For example, neutral and basic pesticides (phenylureas, triazines) are more sensitive using APCI (especially positive ion). While cationic and anionic herbicides (bipyridylium ions, sulfonic acids) are more sensitive using ESI (especially negative ion). These data are expressed graphically in a figure called an ionization-continuum diagram, which shows that protonation in the gas phase (proton affinity) and polarity in solution, expressed as proton addition or subtraction (pKa), is useful in selecting APCI or ESI. Furthermore, sodium adduct formation commonly occurs using positive ion ESI but not using positive ion APCI, which reflects the different mechanisms of ionization and strengthens the usefulness of the ionization-continuum diagram. The data also show that the concept of "wrong-way around" ESI (the sensitivity of acidic pesticides in an acidic mobile phase) is a useful modification of simple pKa theory for mobile-phase selection. Finally, this finding is used to enhance the chromatographic separation of oxanilic and sulfonic acid herbicides while maintaining good sensitivity in LC/MS using ESI negative.

  12. Multichannel coherence in strong-field ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Rohringer, Nina [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Santra, Robin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Atomic and molecular ions generated by a strong optical laser pulse are not in general in the electronic ground state. The density matrix for such ions is characterized by the electronic quantum-state populations and by the coherences among the electronic quantum states. Nonvanishing coherences signal the presence of coherent electronic wave-packet dynamics in the laser-generated ions. For noble-gas atoms heavier than helium, the most important channels populated via strong-field ionization are the outer-valence single-hole states with a total angular momentum of j=3/2 or j=1/2. For this case, we develop a time-dependent multichannel theory of strong-field ionization. We derive the ion density matrix and express the hole density in terms of the elements of the ion density matrix. Our wave-packet calculations demonstrate that neon ions generated in a strong optical field (800 nm) are almost perfectly coherent. In strong-field-generated xenon ions, however, the coherence is substantially suppressed.

  13. Collisional and wave-particle interactions in critical velocity ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. McNeil; Shu T. Lai; Edmond Murad

    1990-01-01

    Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) process involves collective and collisional interactions of a magnetoplasma streaming through a neutral gas. Numerical simulations of CIV using particle-in-cell plasma codes including various collisional interactions are given. Fast electron heating is observed. The interplay between collisional and collective interactions renders the hot electron tail shorter than in non-CIV situations with collisionless wave-particle interactions without

  14. Ionization coefficients in helium, neon and helium-neon mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Dutton; M H Hughes; B C Tan

    1969-01-01

    The spatial growth of pre-breakdown ionization currents at values of E\\/N (E is the electric field and N the gas number density) within the range from 2·24 × 10-16 to 11·2 × 10-16 v cm2 was measured for helium, for neon and for eight different helium-neon mixtures with fractional concentrations of neon ranging from 0·05 to 0·95. For neon and

  15. High resolution room temperature ionization chamber xenon gamma radiation detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Tepper; Jon Losee

    1995-01-01

    A unique thin walled dual-type gridded ionization chamber gamma radiation detector using ultra pure Xe gas as the detection medium is described. The detector was operated at room temperature and the energy spectra of 60Co, 137Cs, 22Na and 133Ba were obtained. An energy resolution of (16 keV) 2.4% FWHM was determined for the 662 keV 137Cs gamma peak which is

  16. Effect of a finite ionization rate on the radiative heating of outer planet atmospheric entry probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of finite rate ionization in the inviscid gas just behind the stagnation shock wave on the radiation heating of probes entering the hydrogen helium atmospere of the major planets was investigated. At the present time, there is disagreement as to whether the radiative flux increases or decreases relative to its equilibrium value when finite rate ionization is considered. Leibowitz and Kuo content that the finite rate ionization in the hydrogen gas just behind the shock wave reduces the radiative flux to the probe, whereas Tiwari and Szema predict that it increases the radiative flux. The radiation modeling used in the calculations of both pairs of these investigators was reviewed. It is concluded that finite rate ionization in the inviscid region of the shock layer should reduce the cold wall radiative heating below the values predicted by equilibrium chemistry assumptions.

  17. Predissociation and ionization of excited KrXe observed using resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization-photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, S. T.; Dehmer, P. M.; Dehmer, J. L.

    1985-05-01

    The heteronuclear rare gas dimer KrXe was examined using resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization-photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition to photoelectron peaks due to direct photoionization of the KrXe resonant intermediate state, the spectrum shows a number of peaks due to predissociation of the resonant intermediate state followed by photoionization of the excited atomic fragment. The process should be distinguished from the phenomena of hybrid resonances described in ref. [7].

  18. Toward a Self-Consistent Model of the Ionized Absorber in NGC 3783

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Krongold; F. Nicastro; N. S. Brickhouse; M. Elvis; D. A. Liedahl; S. Mathur

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed model for the ionized absorbing gas evident in the 900 ks Chandra HETGS spectrum of NGC 3783. The analysis was carried out with PHASE, a new tool designed to model X-ray and UV absorption features in ionized plasmas. The 0.5-10 keV intrinsic continuum of the source is well represented by a single power law (Gamma=1.53) and

  19. Ionization and density along the beams of Herbig-Haro jets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Bacciotti; Jochen Eislöffel

    1999-01-01

    Physical properties of several well-known Herbig-Haro jets are investigated using an improved version of the spectroscopic diagnostic technique originally developed by Bacciotti et al. ( te{bco95}). The procedure allows one to derive in a model-independent way the hydrogen ionization fraction in regions of low excitation. The ionization fraction, the electron and gas density, and the average excitation temperature are derived

  20. Effect of a finite ionization rate on the radiative heating of outer planet atmospheric entry probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of finite rate ionization in the inviscid gas just behind the stagnation shock wave on the radiative heating of probes entering the hydrogen-helium atmosphere of the major plants was investigated. Two opposing conclusions were reached as to how the ionization rate assumption affects the radiative transfer. Hydrogen-helium shock waves with a cold nonblowing wall boundary condition at the probe heat shield are emphasized. The study is limited to the stagnation shock layer.

  1. Self-focusing and guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Esarey; Phillip Sprangle; Jonathan Krall; Antonio Ting

    1997-01-01

    Several features of intense, short-pulse (≲1 ps) laser propagation in gases undergoing ionization and in plasmas are reviewed, discussed, and analyzed. The wave equations for laser pulse propagation in a gas undergoing ionization and in a plasma are derived. The source-dependent expansion method is discussed, which is a general method for solving the paraxial wave equation with nonlinear source terms.

  2. Optimization of the mass spectrometric analysis of triacylglycerols using negative-ion chemical ionization with ammonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Päivi Laakso; Heikki Kallio

    1996-01-01

    Conditions for the mass spectrometric analysis of triacylglycerols,via direct exposure probe, with ammonia negative-ion chemical ionization were optimized. Triacylglycerols were most favorably\\u000a ionized, using the reactant gas pressure of approximately 8500 mtorr at the ion source temperature of 200°C with the instrumentation\\u000a used. Abundant [M-H]? ions were produced under these conditions without the formation of [M+35]? cluster ions, which would

  3. Electron impact ionization of silver clusters Ag n , n≦36

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jackschath; I. Rabin; W. Schulze

    1992-01-01

    Electron impact ionization of gas phase silver clusters Ag n , n≦36 has been achieved in the threshold region. The vertical ionization potentials in this region clearly demonstrate the evidence of shell effects as well as a distinct even-odd oscillation up to n~=20. Their general size dependence is somewhat different from that of the alkali metal clusters due to the

  4. Low-molecular weight organic composition of acid water from coconut oil soapstock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arunthathi Sivasothy; Peter J. Reilly

    1996-01-01

    Soapstock from alkaline refining of coconut oil was acidified, and the resulting acid water after neutralization was subjected\\u000a to gas chromatography, electron-ionization and chemical-ionization mass spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography.\\u000a The chief low-molecular weight organic components were C4?C18 fatty acids, hydroxylated acids, and sugar alcohols. The prevalence of acids and total absence of phosphate compounds make\\u000a coconut acid water different

  5. Ionization of atoms by the spatial gradient of the pondermotive potential in a focused laser beam.

    PubMed

    Wells, E; Ben-Itzhak, I; Jones, R R

    2004-07-01

    Ionization of atoms by the spatial gradient of the pondermotive potential in a focused laser beam is investigated. Rydberg ions, formed during the interaction of noble gas atoms with an intense laser pulse, are used to probe the gradient field. Rydberg ion species with higher ionization potentials are produced at locations where the gradient field is largest. The measured Rydberg ion yields differ dramatically from estimates that ignore gradient-field ionization, but are in good agreement with predictions that include the effect. PMID:15323908

  6. Design and Prototyping of an Ionization Profile Monitor for the SNS Accumulator Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bartkoski, Dirk A [ORNL; Deibele, Craig E [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL

    2014-12-01

    An ionization profile monitor (IPM) has been designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. Utilizing ionized electrons produced by beam-gas ionization, the SNS IPM uses a 120 kV bias potential to overcome beam space charge and accelerate electrons towards a movable particle detector. A 300 G magnetic field is used to confine the transverse electron motion, resulting in profile errors at the estimated 7% level. With a system bandwidth of 17.5 MHz. The SNS IPM is capable of measuring turn-by-turn beam profiles for a fully accumulated beam. This paper presents a description of the system and design.

  7. Pure ionization cross section of helium and ionization mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. M. Chen; Y. X. Lu; Z. M. Gao; Y. Cui; Y. W. Liu; J. Du

    2007-01-01

    Pure target ionization was investigated for 0.4–6.4MeV Cq+(q=1–4)+He and Oq+(q=1–4)+He collisions. The double-to-single target ionization ratios R21 were measured using coincidence techniques. We compare our results with existing experimental results and find they are in good agreement. The ratio R21 is nearly independent of projectile charge state. The relation of R21?V is analyzed using the over barrier model (OBM) and

  8. Ionization and pulse lethargy effects in inverse Cherenkov accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Hubbard, R.F., [Beam Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Hafizi, B., [Icarus Research, Inc., P.O. Box 30780, Bethesda, Maryland 20824-0780 (United States)] [Icarus Research, Inc., P.O. Box 30780, Bethesda, Maryland 20824-0780 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Ionization processes limit the accelerating gradient and place an upper limit on the pulse duration of the electromagnetic driver in the inverse Cherenkov accelerator (ICA). Group velocity slippage, i.e., pulse lethargy, on the other hand, imposes a lower limit on the pulse duration. These limits are obtained for two ICA configurations in which the electromagnetic driver (e.g., laser or millimeter wave source) is propagated in a waveguide that is (i) lined with a dielectric material or (ii) filled with a neutral gas. In either configuration the electromagnetic driving field is guided and has an axial electric field with phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum, c. The intensity of the driver in the ICA, and therefore the acceleration gradient, is limited by tunneling and collisional ionization effects. Partial ionization of the dielectric liner or gas can lead to significant modification of the dispersive properties of the waveguide, altering the phase velocity of the accelerating field and causing particle slippage, thus disrupting the acceleration process. An additional limitation on the pulse duration is imposed since the group velocity of the driving pulse is less than c and the pulse slips behind the accelerated electrons. Hence for sufficiently short pulses the electrons outrun the pulse, terminating the acceleration. Limitations on the driver pulse duration and accelerating gradient, due to ionization and pulse lethargy, are estimated for the two ICA configurations. Maximum accelerating gradients and pulse durations are presented for a 10 {mu}m, 1 mm, and 1 cm wavelength electromagnetic driver. The combination of ionization and pulse lethargy effects impose severe limitations on the maximum energy gain in inverse Cherenkov accelerators. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: a tutorial.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2011-09-19

    Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques. PMID:21819855

  10. Differentiating organically and conventionally grown oregano using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (headspace-GC-FID), and flow injection mass spectrum (FIMS) fingerprints combined with multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Qin, Fang; Ding, Tingting; Chen, Yineng; Lu, Weiying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-08-13

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS), and headspace gas chromatography (headspace-GC) combined with multivariate data analysis techniques were examined and compared in differentiating organically grown oregano from that grown conventionally. It is the first time that headspace-GC fingerprinting technology is reported in differentiating organically and conventionally grown spice samples. The results also indicated that UPLC-MS, FIMS, and headspace-GC-FID fingerprints with OPLS-DA were able to effectively distinguish oreganos under different growing conditions, whereas with PCA, only FIMS fingerprint could differentiate the organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. UPLC fingerprinting provided detailed information about the chemical composition of oregano with a longer analysis time, whereas FIMS finished a sample analysis within 1 min. On the other hand, headspace GC-FID fingerprinting required no sample pretreatment, suggesting its potential as a high-throughput method in distinguishing organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. In addition, chemical components in oregano were identified by their molecular weight using QTOF-MS and headspace-GC-MS. PMID:25050447

  11. Monte Carlo calculation of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, Chen; Shuming, Peng; Dan, Meng; Yuehong, He; Heyi, Wang

    2014-10-01

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements has been theoretically studied using Monte Carlo code MCNP 5. The influence of many factors, including carrier gas, chamber size, wall materials and gas pressure, has been evaluated in the simulations. It is found that ? rays emitted by tritium deposit much more energy into chambers flowing through with argon than with deuterium in them, as much as 2.7 times higher at pressure 100 Pa. As chamber size gets smaller, energy deposition decreases sharply. For an ionization chamber of 1 mL, ? rays deposit less than 1% of their energy at pressure 100 Pa and only 84% even if gas pressure is as high as 100 kPa. It also indicates that gold plated ionization chamber results in the highest deposition ratio while aluminum one leads to the lowest. In addition, simulations were validated by comparison with experimental data. Results show that simulations agree well with experimental data.

  12. Resonance impact ionization in superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, K. K.; Hess, K.

    1982-06-01

    We propose an enhancement of the electron or hole impact ionization coefficients (? or ?) by introducing resonant impact ionization states into the (conduction or valence) band by using suitable lattice matched multilayer heterojunctions (superlattices). Model calculations for the AlAs:GaAs superlattice indicate resonance enhancements can occur over a wide range of energy gaps (1.54-1.9 eV). The gap can be varied by choosing the appropriate ratio of the alternating layer thickness. This effect should be useful for improving the signal/noise ratio of avalanche photodiodes significantly.

  13. Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Doran M; Iddins, Carol J; Sugarman, Stephen L

    2014-02-01

    Although the spectrum of information related to diagnosis and management of radiation injuries and illnesses is vast and as radiation contamination incidents are rare, most emergency practitioners have had little to no practical experience with such cases. Exposures to ionizing radiation and internal contamination with radioactive materials can cause significant tissue damage and conditions. Emergency practitioners unaware of ionizing radiation as the cause of a condition may miss the diagnosis of radiation-induced injury or illness. This article reviews the pertinent terms, physics, radiobiology, and medical management of radiation injuries and illnesses that may confront the emergency practitioner. PMID:24275177

  14. Electron-impact ionization and dissociative ionization of biomolecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winifred Huo

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation are the source of radiation-induced damages to human health. It is recognized that secondary electrons play a role in the damage process, particularly important is the damage of DNA by electrons, potentially leading to mutagenesis. The damage can be direct, by creating a DNA lesion, or indirect, by producing radicals that attack the DNA. Molecular-level

  15. Neutral gas dynamics in fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [University of Innsbruck, Department for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-06-01

    Fireballs are local discharge phenomena on positively biased electrodes in partially ionized plasmas. Electrons, energized at a double layer, heat neutral gas which expands. The gas pressure exceeds the plasma pressure, hence becomes important to the stability and transport in fireballs. The flow of gas moves the electrode and sensors similar to a mica pendulum. Flow speed and directions are measured. A fireball gun has been developed to partially collimate the flow of hot gas and heat objects in its path. New applications of fireballs are suggested.

  16. Electrical discharge apparatus and a gas laser pumped by an electrical discharge through the gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rickwood, K.R.

    1983-06-07

    In electrical discharge apparatus, such as a gas laser, in which a glow discharge is to be produced in a gas between two electrodes, at least one pre-ionizing member is placed near the discharge space and extending between the electrodes so that current flows in the member which is made of intermediate resistivity material such as crystalline semiconductor material. As a result, the discharge space is pre-ionized which assists initiation of the main discharge. The pre-ionization may be due to the formation of numerous small arcs between the electrodes and the member and the resulting production of ultra-violet light.

  17. Electron Impact Ionization of Molecules for Plasma Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Plasma processing is successfully used in plasma etching, thin film deposition, surface cleaning and surface treatment. One fundamental process in low temperature plasmas is the electron impact ionization of molecules and atoms. This report deals with the methods and results of measurements of the partial and total ionization cross sections of precursor molecules used in plasma etching (halocarbons, fluorine-bearing compounds: CF_4, C_2F_6, NF_3) and thin film deposition (silicon-bearing compounds SiH_4, Si(CH_3)_4, Si(OC_2H_5)_4, Si_2O(CH_3)6 and metal-containing compounds TiCl_4, (C_5H_5)Pt(CH_3)_3, (CH_3C_5H_4)_2Fe, (CH_3C_5H_4)_2Ru). The measurement of partial ionization cross sections requires the application of mass spectrometry (or some other means of mass selection). Here results received with a double focussing E-B mass spectrometer and with a time-of-flight instrument are presented. The influence of kinetic excess energies of the fragment ions and of pyrolytic decomposition of the target gas on the cross section measurements are discussed. A short review of cross section measurements of free radicals with the fast-beam-technique is given. The results are compared with calculations of the total ionization cross section using additivity rules, semi-classical and semi-empirical formulae, and the BEB method. note

  18. High power gas laser amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Leland, W.T.; Stratton, T.F.

    1981-04-28

    A high power output CO/sub 2/ gas laser amplifier is described that has a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  19. High power gas laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Leland, Wallace T. (Los Alamos, NM); Stratton, Thomas F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  20. Ionization of CF3I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, C. Q.; Garscadden, A.; Ganguly, B.; Dejoseph, C. A., Jr.

    2000-10-01

    Using Fourier-transform mass spectrometry we have studied the ionization of trifluoroiodomethane (CF_3I) by electron impact and by ion-molecule reactions. Electron impact ionization on CF_3I produces molecular ion CF_3I^+ and fragment ions including I^+, CF_3^+, CF_2I^+, CF^+, CF_2^+ and CI^+, with a total cross-section of 9.0±0.9x10-16 cm^2 at 70 eV. The parent molecular ion dominates the ion population within the energy range studied (from the threshold to 70 eV). At low electron energies (less than 20 eV) the most important dissociative ionization channel is the production of CF_3^+ and I. In contrast ionization of CF_3I by charge-transfer reaction with Ar^+ produces CF_2I^+ as the major product ion, with a rate coefficient of 14x10-10 cm^3s-1. The CF_3I reaction with CF^+ or CF_3^+ produces CF_2I^+ mainly also, with the rate coefficients 5.8 or 1.9 x10-10 cm^3s-1, respectively, while the reaction with CF_2^+ or I^+ produces primarily CF_3I^+, with the rate coefficients of 13 or 8.2 x10-10 cm^3s-1, respectively.