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Sample records for gas chromatography-electron ionization

  1. Identification and quantification of lignans in wheat bran by gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Cukelj, Nikolina; Jakasa, Ivone; Sarajlija, Hrvoje; Novotni, Dubravka; Curi?, Duška

    2011-03-15

    Whole grain cereals are an important source of bioavailable lignans, the group of compounds with potential anti-cancerogenic, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and antiangiogenic properties. The aim of this work was to develop a sensitive method for determination of wheat bran lignans. The analysis of lignans secoisolariciresinol, hydroxymatairesinol, lariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, syringaresinol is based on derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD), using styrene glycol as internal standard. To our knowledge, this is the first time that EC detection has been used for lignan analysis. The results show that the technique is reproducible and sensitive enough for detecting lignans in wheat at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels, except for hydroxymatairesinol. The method developed showed good recovery (85-105%) and precision (4-20%) for five types of lignans and thus represents a simpler and more affordable alternative to state-of-the-art wheat lignan liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. PMID:21315909

  2. Quantitative detection of trace explosive vapors by programmed temperature desorption gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher R; Lubrano, Adam; Woytowitz, Morgan; Giordano, Braden C; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    The direct liquid deposition of solution standards onto sorbent-filled thermal desorption tubes is used for the quantitative analysis of trace explosive vapor samples. The direct liquid deposition method yields a higher fidelity between the analysis of vapor samples and the analysis of solution standards than using separate injection methods for vapors and solutions, i.e., samples collected on vapor collection tubes and standards prepared in solution vials. Additionally, the method can account for instrumentation losses, which makes it ideal for minimizing variability and quantitative trace chemical detection. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector is an instrumentation configuration sensitive to nitro-energetics, such as TNT and RDX, due to their relatively high electron affinity. However, vapor quantitation of these compounds is difficult without viable vapor standards. Thus, we eliminate the requirement for vapor standards by combining the sensitivity of the instrumentation with a direct liquid deposition protocol to analyze trace explosive vapor samples. PMID:25145416

  3. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu

    PubMed Central

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P. R. Rao; Ramesh, B.; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    “Triphalaguggulu” is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of “Triphalaguggulu” preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  4. A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu.

    PubMed

    Muguli, Ganesh; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Ramesh, B; Gowda, Vishakante; Paramesh, Rangesh; Jadhav, Atul N; Babu, K Suresh

    2015-05-01

    "Triphalaguggulu" is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of "Triphalaguggulu" preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26109777

  5. Boosting the Detection Potential of Liquid Chromatography-Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using a Ceramic Coated Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Cappiello, Achille

    2015-09-01

    Detection of target and non-target substances and their characterization in complex samples is a challenging task. Here we demonstrate that coating the electron ionization (EI) ion source of an LC-MS system with a sol-gel ceramic film can drastically improve the detection of high-molecular weight and high-boiling analytes. A new ion source coated with a ceramic material was developed and tested with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with an increasing number of rings. Comparison of the results obtained with those for an uncoated stainless steel (SS) ion source shows a dramatic improvement in the MS signals, with a nearly 40-fold increase of the signal-to-noise ratio. We also demonstrate the ability of the new system to produce excellent chromatographic profiles for hard-to-detect hormones.

  6. Boosting the Detection Potential of Liquid Chromatography-Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using a Ceramic Coated Ion Source.

    PubMed

    Magrini, Laura; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Cappiello, Achille

    2016-01-01

    Detection of target and non-target substances and their characterization in complex samples is a challenging task. Here we demonstrate that coating the electron ionization (EI) ion source of an LC-MS system with a sol-gel ceramic film can drastically improve the detection of high-molecular weight and high-boiling analytes. A new ion source coated with a ceramic material was developed and tested with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with an increasing number of rings. Comparison of the results obtained with those for an uncoated stainless steel (SS) ion source shows a dramatic improvement in the MS signals, with a nearly 40-fold increase of the signal-to-noise ratio. We also demonstrate the ability of the new system to produce excellent chromatographic profiles for hard-to-detect hormones. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26350384

  7. Validated toxicological determination of 30 drugs of abuse as optimized derivatives in oral fluid by long column fast gas chromatography/electron impact mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Teemu; Ariniemi, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2005-06-01

    An analytical procedure was developed for the simultaneous sensitive identification, screening and quantitation of 30 drugs of abuse using 250 microl of human oral fluid. The method employs sequential mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (SPE), optimized derivative formation and long-column fast gas chromatography/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS). After sequential SPE elution, the most sensitive and stable derivatives were formed by taking careful account of the characteristics of the active functional groups and possible steric hindrances affecting derivatization chemistry. Amphetamine-type stimulant drugs were acylated with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, benzodiazepines and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol were silylated with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and benzoylecgonine, codeine, ethylmorphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, pholcodine, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. In addition, the following analytes were included: methadone, cocaine, alprazolam, midazolam, fentanyl and zolpidem. In GC separation, fast temperature ramping and high carrier gas flow-rate combined with long 30 m columns of i.d. 0.32 mm offered a reduction in analysis time and sharp peak shapes while still maintaining sufficient resolution and high sample capacity. Validated parameters including selectivity, linearity, accuracy, intra- and inter-day precision, extraction efficiency and limit of quantitation were all within required limits. In contrast to previously published methods, this single procedure is suitable for the simultaneous toxicological determination of the most common illicit drugs and benzodiazepines, and also zolpidem, in a small amount of oral fluid. PMID:15806585

  8. Optimization of nonequilibrium liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of nitrobenzenes in aqueous samples by gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rusong; Chu, Shaogang; Xu, Xiaobai

    2004-04-01

    In the present work, a novel method for the determination of nitrobenzenes in water has been described. It is based on nonequilibrium liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Extraction conditions such as solvent selection, organic solvent dropsize, stirring rate, content of NaCl and extraction time were found to have significant influence on extraction efficiency. The optimized conditions were 1.5 microl toluene and 20 min extraction time at 400 rpm stirring rate without NaCl addition. The linear range was 0.1 - 50 microg l(-1) for most nitrobenzenes. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 microg l(-1) (for 2.6-DNT) to 0.4 microg l(-1) (for NB); and relative standard deviations (RSD) for most of the nitrobenzenes at the 10 microg l(-1) level, except for 2,6-DNT in 3 microg l(-1), were below 10%. Natural samples collected from Miyun Reservoir and tap water samples from a laboratory were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, but none of the analytes were detected. The relative recoveries of spiked water samples (at the 10 microg l(-1) level except for 2,6-DNT in 3 microg l(-1)) were from 82.6 to 118.7%. PMID:15116965

  9. [Analysis of organochlorine pesticides and pyrethroid pesticides in vegetables by gas chromatography-electron capture detection coupled with solid-phase extraction using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Jia, Yanxia; Ding, Mingyu; Sun, Dajiang; Zhao, Mengbin

    2011-05-01

    A multi-residue analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed. The determination of 6 organochlorine pesticides and 7 pyrethroid pesticides in vegetables (including cucumber, cherry tomato, cabbage, lettuce, purple cabbage, leek, shallot and onion) was carried out by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The GC-ECD method used two columns (HP-50 and HP-1) and two ECD detectors. The HP-50 column was used for the analysis and the HP-1 column for validation. The clean-up conditions were optimized. The analytes were extracted by acetonitrile, and the extract was cleaned up by the MWCNTs SPE cartridge. The extract was re-dissolved by hexane, eluted with acetone-hexane (7:3, v/v) from the columns. The recoveries were over 70% for the 11 pesticides in the 13 pesticides. The results indicated that the MWCNTs SPE cartridge was efficient for 8 vegetable samples, because it reduced the contamination of the coloring materials to GC-ECD. The experimental results showed the MWCNTs SPE cartridge can adsorb the coloring materials and the eluant was nearly colorless. PMID:21847981

  10. Solid phase extraction with silicon dioxide microsphere adsorbents in combination with gas chromatography-electron capture detection for the determination of DDT and its metabolites in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Wu, Wei; Xie, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) microspheres without special modification to enrich dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its main metabolites, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-2,2-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDD) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in combination with gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. The experimental results indicated that an excellent linear relationship between the recoveries and the concentrations of DDT and its main metabolites was obtained in the range of 0.2-30 ng mL(-1) and the correlation coefficients were in the range of 99.96-99.99%. The detection limits based on the ratio of signal to the baseline noise (S/N = 3) were 2.2, 2.9, 3.8 and 4.1 ng L(-1) for p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE, respectively. The precisions of the proposed method were all below 10% (n = 6). Four real water samples were utilized for validation of the proposed method, and satisfactory spiked recoveries in the range of 72.4-112.9% were achieved. These results demonstrated that the developed method was a simple, sensitive, and robust analytical method for the monitoring of pollutants in the environment. PMID:23356340

  11. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  12. Ionization-based detectors for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F

    2015-11-20

    The gas phase ionization detectors are the most widely used detectors for gas chromatography. The column and makeup gases commonly used in gas chromatography are near perfect insulators. This facilitates the detection of a minute number of charge carriers facilitating the use of ionization mechanisms of low efficiency while providing high sensitivity. The main ionization mechanism discussed in this report are combustion in a hydrogen diffusion flame (flame ionization detector), surface ionization in a plasma (thermionic ionization detector), photon ionization (photoionization detector and pulsed discharge helium ionization detector), attachment of thermal electrons (electron-capture detector), and ionization by collision with metastable helium species (helium ionization detector). The design, response characteristics, response mechanism, and suitability for fast gas chromatography are the main features summarized in this report. Mass spectrometric detection and atomic emission detection, which could be considered as ionization detectors of a more sophisticated and complex design, are not discussed in this report. PMID:25757823

  13. Sample pretreatment optimization for the analysis of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soil with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Huang, Yumei; Han, Shuang; Feng, Yongbin; Jiang, Guo; Tang, Caiming; Ye, Zhixiang; Zhan, Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Sukun

    2013-01-25

    Accurately quantifying short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in soil samples with gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) is difficult because many other polychlorinated pollutants are present in the sample matrices. These pollutants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and toxaphene) can cause serious interferences during SCCPs analysis with GC-MS. Four main columns packed with different adsorbents, including silica gel, Florisil and alumina, were investigated in this study to determine their performance for separating interfering pollutants from SCCPs. These experimental results suggest that the optimum cleanup procedure uses a silica gel column and a multilayer silica gel-Florisil composite column. This procedure completely separated 22 PCB congeners, 23 OCPs and three toxaphene congeners from SCCPs. However, p,p'-DDD, cis-nonachlor and o,p'-DDD were not completely removed and only 53% of the total toxaphene was removed. This optimized method was successfully and effectively applied for removing interfering pollutants from real soil samples. SCCPs in 17 soil samples from different land use areas within a suburban region were analyzed with the established method. The concentrations of SCCPs in these samples were between 7 and 541 ng g(-1) (mean: 84 ng g(-1)). Similar homologue SCCPs patterns were observed between the soil samples collected from different land use areas. In addition, lower chlorinated (Cl(6/7)) C(10)- and C(11)- SCCPs were the dominant congeners. PMID:23287694

  14. Turbulence and the ionization of interstellar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alex S.

    2015-08-01

    Turbulence is widely observed in the ionized gas in the interstellar media of star-forming galaxies. Observations in the Milky Way indicate emission from that the warm ionized medium -- ionized gas far from massive stars, the most likely source of the ionization -- has a lognormal intensity distribution. This and other measurements indicate that the gas is well-described as a transonic turbulent fluid. Such a fluid can be produced by feedback from supernovae in the Galaxy. Understanding of this turbulence has also led to a natural explanation for a long-standing puzzle: how do ionizing photons travel through the largely-neutral interstellar medium and produce the ionization? In the turbulent gas, low-density pathways allow ionizing photons to propagate for kiloparsecs, with implications for radiative energy transport in star-forming galaxies.

  15. Ionization in nearby interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.; Fowler, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Due to dielectric recombination, neutral magnesium represents an important tracer for the warm low-density gas around the solar system. New Mg I 2852 absorption-line data from IUE are presented, including detections in a few stars within 40 pc of the sun. The absence of detectable Mg I in Alpha CMa and other stars sets limits on the combined size and electron density of the interstellar cloud which gives rise to the local interstellar wind. For a cloud radius greater than 1 pc and density of 0.1/cu cm, the local cloud has a low fractional ionization, n(e)/n(tot) less than 0.05, if magnesium is undepleted, equilibrium conditions prevail, the cloud temperature is 11,750 K, and 80 percent of the magnesium in the sightline is Mg II.

  16. Direct and simultaneous determination of trace-level carbon tetrachloride, peroxyacetyl nitrate, and peroxypropionyl nitrate using gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2012-11-30

    Gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) has been widely used for detecting atmospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN). However, to the best of our knowledge, only a few capillary columns have been adopted for separation to achieve the direct and simultaneous analysis of the two atmospheric pollutants. This paper demonstrates a novel method for directly and simultaneously measuring atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), PAN, and PPN using GC-ECD with a DB-1 separation column. The responses of the GC-ECD to PAN, PPN, and CCl(4) were individually calibrated by using gas mixtures prepared via volatilization of synthesized solutions of PAN and PPN or high-purity CCl(4) reagent in a Teflon Bag. The concentrations of PAN and PPN in the synthesized solutions were quantified by ion chromatography (IC). Further calibration of the GC-ECD for PAN was conducted by in situ photochemical formation of gaseous PAN which was quantified by a NO(x) analyzer. The two calibration methods agreed well with each other, and the overall uncertainties for measuring atmospheric PAN were estimated to be ± 13% and ± 15% based on the calibrations of IC and NO(x), respectively. The detection limits (three times the signal to noise ratio) for PAN, PPN, and CCl(4) were estimated to be 22, 36, and 5 pptv (parts per trillion by volume), respectively. The atmospheric concentrations of these compounds were measured for several days in August in Beijing, and the values obtained in this study were found to be in good agreement with the data reported in the literature for Beijing using other GC-ECD methods. PMID:23107119

  17. Use of solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-electron capture detection for the determination of energetic chemicals in marine samples.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2005-02-25

    Gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) is a highly explosive-sensitive analytical technique. However, its application to the analysis of sediment extracts is hampered by the presence of numerous endogenous interferences. In the present study, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used both as a purification technique for sediment extracts and as an extraction technique for water samples prior to analysis by GC-ECD. SPME/GC-ECD coupling was optimized and applied to the trace analysis of nine explosives including nitroaromatics and RDX in real seawater and marine sediment samples. Addition of a high concentration of salt (30%, w/v) in the aqueous medium and use of a carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) coating led to optimal extraction efficiencies. Method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.05 to 0.81 microg/L in water and from 1 to 9 microg/kg in dry sediment. Except for RDX, spike recoveries in seawater were satisfactory (89-147%) when samples were fortified at 2 microg/L of each analyte. Spike recoveries from dry sediment fortified at 10 microg/kg of each analyte gave lower recoveries but these could also be due to degradation in the matrix. With a smaller volume of aqueous sample required compared to solid-phase extraction (SPE), SPME is an attractive method for the analysis of limited volumes of sediment pore-water. Moreover, the use of SPME eliminated interferences present in sediment extracts thus allowing the detection of the target analytes that were otherwise difficult to detect by direct injection. PMID:15794569

  18. Quantification of multi-residue levels in peach juices, pulps and peels using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on floating organic droplet coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Matsadiq, Guzalnur; Hu, Hai-Li; Ren, Hai-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Wen; Liu, Lu; Cheng, Jing

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and pyrethroid pesticides in peach was investigated by comparing their residual level in peach juice, pulps and peels using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Extraction conditions such as the type of extractant, volume of extractant and dispersant, salt effect and extraction time were optimized. For juice samples, the linearity of the method was obtained in the range of 10-2000 ng L(-1),with determination coefficients>0.99. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method were ranged between 2.8 and 18.5 ng L(-1). For pulp and peel samples, the developed method is linear over the range assayed, 1-20 ?g kg(-1),with coefficients also >0.99. The relative recoveries of compounds analyzed from juice, pulp and peel samples were in the range of 73-106% with a relative standard deviation between 2.6 and 11.8%. The proposed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of residues in real peach juice, pulp and peel samples. As a result, there were no target analytes found in peach juices and pulps while 3.3 ?g kg(-1) cyhalothrin and 3.5 ?g kg(-1) fenvalerate were found in peels. The experiment results revealed that the pyrethroid residues just deposited on the peels of the fruits, but did not move into pulps and juices. PMID:21703950

  19. Hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction followed by solid-phase microextraction and in situ derivatization for the determination of chlorophenols by gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

    2015-10-30

    A method based on the combination of hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection was developed for the determination of chlorophenols in water and wastewater samples. Silica microstructures fabricated on the surface of a stainless steel wire were coated by an organic solvent and used as a SPME fiber. The analytes were extracted through a hollow fiber membrane containing n-decane from sample solution to an alkaline aqueous acceptor phase. They were then extracted and in situ derivatized on the SPME fiber using acetic anhydride. Experimental parameters such as the type of extraction solvent, acceptor phase NaOH concentration, donor phase HCl concentration, the amount of derivatizing reagent, salt concentration, stirring rate and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The precision of the method for the analytes at 0.02-30?gL(-1) concentration level ranged from 7.1 to 10.2% (as intra-day relative standard deviation) and 6.4 to 9.8% (as inter-day relative standard deviation). The linear dynamic ranges were in the interval of 5-500?gL(-1), 0.05-5?gL(-1), 0.02-1?gL(-1) and 0.001-0.5?gL(-1) for 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, respectively. The enrichment factors were between 432 and 785. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.0004-1.2?gL(-1). Tap water, well water and wastewater samples were also analyzed to evaluate the method capability for real sample analysis. PMID:26411480

  20. Miniaturized gas ionization sensors using carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, Ashish; Koratkar, Nikhil; Lass, Eric; Wei, Bingqing; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2003-07-01

    Gas sensors operate by a variety of fundamentally different mechanisms. Ionization sensors work by fingerprinting the ionization characteristics of distinct gases, but they are limited by their huge, bulky architecture, high power consumption and risky high-voltage operation. Here we report the fabrication and successful testing of ionization microsensors featuring the electrical breakdown of a range of gases and gas mixtures at carbon nanotube tips. The sharp tips of nanotubes generate very high electric fields at relatively low voltages, lowering breakdown voltages several-fold in comparison to traditional electrodes, and thereby enabling compact, battery-powered and safe operation of such sensors. The sensors show good sensitivity and selectivity, and are unaffected by extraneous factors such as temperature, humidity, and gas flow. As such, the devices offer several practical advantages over previously reported nanotube sensor systems. The simple, low-cost, sensors described here could be deployed for a variety of applications, such as environmental monitoring, sensing in chemical processing plants, and gas detection for counter-terrorism.

  1. The Ionization of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halo of NGC 891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Richard; Benjamin, Robert; Wood, Kenneth

    2005-06-01

    The ionization of Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) layers in galaxies remains a critical but unsolved problem for our understanding of galaxy energetics. Work using optical emission lines has indicated that photo-ionization by massive stars in the disk dominates the energy input, but no pure photo-ionization model can reproduce all the observed line ratios, leading to the possibility that non-ionizing heat sources and/or secondary ionization sources may be important for the energetics. However, the optical diagnostics present three main problems: sensitivity to extinction, gas temperature, and (for some crucial lines) weak emission. The MIR diagnostic ratio [Ne III]/[Ne II] provides a measurable, extinction-free diagnostic of the hardness of the ionizing spectrum with little temperature sensitivity. Thus this ratio will provide an excellent test of whether photo-ionization alone can maintain the DIG, or whether a second source of ionization is required. We therefore propose to use the SH module on the Spitzer IRS to observe two fields in the lower halo (z=1 kpc) and one field in the disk of the well studied edge-on NGC 891 to determine how this ratio changes with distance from the thin disk of ionizing sources. We will compare our results with predictions from our own 2-d and 3-d simulations of the ionization structure, where such inputs as the ionizing spectrum, spectral hardening by propagation through intervening gas, and additional heat sources can be modeled.

  2. The Diffuse Ionized Gas in the large telescopes era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.

    2005-12-01

    In this workshop we summarize the ``state of the art'' of the Diffuse Ionized Gas. We present all the possible situations which can produce ionization outside an H II region, as well as some of the observations that can be performed with the GTC instrumentation and how relevant they can be in the undestanding of the ionization mechanisms of the DIG.

  3. The Nature of Ionized Gas in Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Paul Goudfrooij

    1998-09-04

    I review the current understanding of the origin and nature of ``warm'' ionized gas in giant elliptical galaxies in the light of results of recent imaging and spectroscopic surveys. CCD imaging surveys have revealed that emission-line disks or filaments are (as a rule) associated with dust absorption, even in the X-ray brightest systems. This strongly suggests that the origin of this ionized gas is generally not through ``cooling flows''; galaxy interactions are favored instead. Using data from a new spectrophotometric survey of ``normal'' elliptical galaxies covering the whole optical range, the extended ionized gas in giant ellipticals is found to be --without exception-- of the LINER class, and most probably NOT powered by star formation activity. I discuss two independent pieces of evidence which suggest that the extended gas in giant ellipticals is ionized by means of a distributed source of ionization: (i) A significant correlation exists between the H-alpha+[NII]luminosity and the optical luminosity within the region occupied by the ionized gas, and (ii) the ionization parameter of the gas does not change significantly with galactocentric radius. Two potential sources of ionization are evaluated: Photoionization by old hot stars (of post-AGB and/or AGB-Manque' type) and mechanical energy flux from electron conduction in hot, X-ray-emitting gas.

  4. Helium Ionization in the Diffuse Ionized Gas surrounding Ultra-compact HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anish Roshi, D.; Churchwell, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    We observed radio recombination lines (RRLs) from regions surrounding three Ultra-compact HII (UCHII) regions at frequencies near 5 GHz. The observations were made with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). From existing observations we know that helium in the diffuse ionized gas (DIR), located far from the ionizing source, is not fully ionized. The objectives of our observations are to determine (a) the distance from the ionizing stars where helium is under ionized for a variety of physical conditions and (b) whether the helium ionization depends on the age of the ionizing star. With these objectives, we observed RRLs towards 16 positions in the envelops of UCHII regions G10.15-0.34, G23.46-0.20 and G29.96-0.02. Helium lines were detected toward 10 of the observed positions and hydrogen RRLs were detected toward all the observed positions. The observed ratio of ionized helium to ionized hydrogen (He^+/H^+) at the positions where helium lines are detected range between 0.03 and 0.09. At positions where helium lines are not detected the upper limit on the ratio is ~ 0.05. We discuss the dependence of He^+/H^+ ratio on the distance from and age of the ionizing star clusters in the observed sources.

  5. WHAM observations of ionized gas in the inner Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alex S.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Benjamin, Robert A.; Gostisha, Martin; Barger, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    We present Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) observations of ionized gas in the southern Milky Way. We include spectroscopic maps of H-Alpha, [S II], and [N II]. The data includes the Scutum-Centaurus Arm, for which we measure an exponential scale height about 20% less than that in the Perseus Arm in the outer Galaxy. The H-alpha scale height suggests a lower electron scale height in both arms than is measured locally from pulsar dispersion. The [N II] and [S II] data provide information about the temperature and ionization state of the gas: gas in the warm ionized medium is generally warmer (?8000 K) and in lower ionization states than gas in classical H II regions. WHAM research and operations are supported through NSF Award AST-1108911.

  6. The Propagation of Photons in the Dilute Ionized Gas

    E-print Network

    Yijia Zheng

    2013-05-02

    The dilute ionized gas is very popular in the Universe. Usually only the Compton interactions, the "Sunyaev-Zel'dovich" effect, were considered while photons propagated in this medium. In this paper the "soft-photon process" is considered. Due to the soft photons emitted during the propagation of a photon in the dilute ionized gas, the main photon (propagating in the original direction) will be redshifted. The formula to calculate this redshift is derived.

  7. The Survey for Ionization in Neutral-Gas Galaxies: III. Diffuse, Warm Ionized Medium and Escape of Ionizing Radiation

    E-print Network

    M. S. Oey; G. R. Meurer; S. Yelda; E. J. Furst; S. M. Caballero-Nieves; D. J. Hanish; E. M. Levesque; D. A. Thilker; G. L. Walth; the SINGG Team

    2007-03-01

    We use the first data release from the SINGG H-alpha survey of HI-selected galaxies to study the quantitative behavior of the diffuse, warm ionized medium (WIM) across the range of properties represented by these 109 galaxies. The mean fraction f_WIM of diffuse ionized gas in this sample is 0.59+/- 0.19, slightly higher than found in previous samples. Since lower surface-brightness galaxies tend to have higher f_WIM, we believe that most of this difference is due to selection effects favoring large, optically-bright, nearby galaxies with high star-formation rates. As found in previous studies, there is no appreciable correlation with Hubble type or total star-formation rate. However, we find that starburst galaxies, defined here by an H-alpha surface brightness > 2.5x 10^39 erg s^-1 kpc^-2 within the H-alpha half-light radius, do show much lower fractions of diffuse H-alpha emission. The cause apparently is not dominated by a lower fraction of field OB stars. However, it is qualitatively consistent with an expected escape of ionizing radiation above a threshold star-formation rate, predicted from our model in which the ISM is shredded by pressure-driven supernova feedback. The HI gas fractions in the starburst galaxies are also lower, suggesting that the starbursts are consuming and ionizing all the gas, and thus promoting regions of density-bounded ionization. If true, these effects imply that some amount of Lyman continuum radiation is escaping from most starburst galaxies, and that WIM properties and outflows from mechanical feedback are likely to be pressure-driven. However, in view of previous studies showing that the escape fraction of ionizing radiation is generally low, it is likely that other factors also drive the low fractions of diffuse ionized gas in starbursts.

  8. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Richard J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals.

  9. The distribution of ionized gas in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, L. M.; Sadler, E. M.; Zeilinger, W. W.; Bertin, G.; Bertola, F.; Danzinger, J.; Dejonghe, H.; Saglia, R. P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    1993-12-01

    We present and discuss H-alpha+(N II) imaging observations of fifteen nearby elliptical and SO galaxies with extended optical emission lines. The morphology of the emitting regions suggests that the ionized gas usually lies in a disk which is often geometrically decoupled from the stellar body, as expected in a triaxial galaxy. The presence of a gaseous disk makes these galaxies suitable for testing their gravitational field in a straightforward way. The presence of dust in many of the disks, together with the observed morphological properties, suggests that the ionized gas in most of these galaxies is more closely associated with the cold Interstellar Medium (ISM) than with the hot X-ray component. The mass of ionized gas in the galaxies studied here is typically 10-100 times that in a 'normal' early-type galaxy of similar optical luminosity. These appear to be galaxies where an unusually high fraction of the cold gas has been ionized, rather than unusually gas-rich systems in an overall sense. The extra ionizing source may be related to an active nucleus, since the continuum radio emission from these galaxies is typically 10-15 times more powerful than in 'normal' ellipticals of the smae optical luminosity.

  10. Herschel Galactic plane survey of ionized gas traced by [NII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Umut; Goldsmith, Paul; Pineda, Jorge; Langer, William

    2015-01-01

    Far infrared and sub-/millimeter atomic & ionic fine structure and molecular rotational lines are powerful tracers of star formation on both Galactic and extragalactic scales. Although CO lines trace cool to moderately warm molecular gas, ionized carbon [CII] produces the strongest lines, which arise from almost all reasonably warm (T>50 K) parts of the ISM. However, [CII] alone cannot distinguish highly ionized gas from weakly ionized gas. [NII] plays a significant role in star formation as it is produced only in ionized regions; in [HII] regions as well as diffuse ionized gas. The ionization potential of nitrogen (14.5 eV) is greater than that of hydrogen (13.6 eV), therefore the ionized nitrogen [NII] lines reflect the effects of massive stars, with possible enhancement from X-ray and shock heating from the surroundings. Two far-infrared 122 um and 205 um [NII] fine structure spectral lines are targeted via Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) onboard Herschel Space Observatory. The sample consists of 149 line-of-sight (LOS) positions in the Galactic plane. These positions overlap with the [CII] 158 um observations obtained with the GOT C+ survey. With a reasonable assumption that the emission from both 122 um and 205 um lines originate in the same gas; [NII] 122/205 um line ratio indicates the a good measure of the electron density of each of the LOS positions. [NII] detections are mainly toward the Galactic center direction and the [NII] electron densities are found between 7-50 cm^-3, which is enhanced WIM (Warm Ionized Medium). WIM densities are expected to be much lower (~1 cm-3), therefore non-detections toward the opposite side of the Galactic Center shows abundant of this gas. The pixel to pixel variation of the emission within a single Herschel pointing is relatively small, which is interpreted as the [NII] emission comes from an extended gas. It is important to quantify what fraction of [CII] emission arises in the ionized gas. Thus, with the present work of [NII] observations, it will be possible to resolve the different parts of the ISM leading to determine the total mass of the ISM.

  11. The kinematics of the diffuse ionized gas in NGC 4666

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigtländer, P.; Kamphuis, P.; Marcelin, M.; Bomans, D. J.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The global properties of the interstellar medium with processes such as infall and outflow of gas and a large scale circulation of matter and its consequences for star formation and chemical enrichment are important for the understanding of galaxy evolution. Aims: In this paper we studied the kinematics and morphology of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the disk and in the halo of the star forming spiral galaxy NGC 4666 to derive information about its kinematical properties. Especially, we searched for infalling and outflowing ionized gas. Methods: We determined surface brightness, radial velocity, and velocity dispersion of the warm ionized gas via high spectral resolution (R ? 9000) Fabry-Pérot interferometry. This allows the determination of the global velocity field and the detection of local deviations from this velocity field. We calculated models of the DIG distribution and its kinematics for comparison with the measured data. In this way we determined fundamental parameters such as the inclination and the scale height of NGC 4666, and established the need for an additional gas component to fit our observed data. Results: We found individual areas, especially along the minor axis, with gas components reaching into the halo which we interpret as an outflowing component of the DIG. As the main result of our study, we were able to determine that the vertical structure of the DIG distribution in NGC 4666 is best modeled with two components of ionized gas, a thick and a thin disk with 0.8 kpc and 0.2 kpc scale height, respectively. Therefore, the enhanced star formation in NGC 4666 drives an outflow and also maintains a thick ionized gas layer reminiscent of the Reynold's layer in the Milky Way.

  12. Ionized gas at the edge of the central molecular zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.; Velusamy, T.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The edge of the central molecular zone (CMZ) is the location where massive dense molecular clouds with large internal velocity dispersions transition to the surrounding more quiescent and lower CO emissivity region of the Galaxy. Little is known about the ionized gas surrounding the molecular clouds and in the transition region. Aims: We determine the properties of the ionized gas at the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E using observations of N+ and C+. Methods: We observed a small portion of the edge of the CMZ near Sgr E with spectrally resolved [C ii] 158 ?m and [N ii] 205 ?m fine structure lines at six positions with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA and in [C ii] using Herschel HIFI on-the-fly strip maps. We use the [N ii] spectra along with a radiative transfer model to calculate the electron density of the gas and the [C ii] maps to illuminate the morphology of the ionized gas and model the column density of CO-dark H2. Results: We detect two [C ii] and [N ii] velocity components, one along the line of sight to a CO molecular cloud at - 207 km s-1 associated with Sgr E and the other at -174 km s-1 outside the edge of another CO cloud. From the [N ii] emission we find that the average electron density is in the range of ~5 to 21 cm-3 for these features. This electron density is much higher than that of the disk's warm ionized medium, but is consistent with densities determined for bright diffuse H ii nebula. The column density of the CO-dark H2 layer in the -207 km s-1 cloud is ~1-2 × 1021 cm-2 in agreement with theoretical models. The CMZ extends further out in Galactic radius by ~7 to 14 pc in ionized gas than it does in molecular gas traced by CO. Conclusions: The edge of the CMZ likely contains dense hot ionized gas surrounding the neutral molecular material. The high fractional abundance of N+ and high electron density require an intense EUV field with a photon flux of order 106 to 107 photons cm-2 s-1, and/or efficient proton charge exchange with nitrogen, at temperatures of order 104 K, and/or a large flux of X-rays. Sgr E is a region of massive star formation as indicated by the presence of numerous compact H ii regions. The massive stars are potential sources of the EUV radiation that ionizes and heat the gas. In addition, X-ray sources and the diffuse X-ray emission in the CMZ are candidates for ionizing nitrogen.

  13. The ionization sources of the diffuse ionized gas in nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voges, Erica Susan

    Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) has been shown to be an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM), with its large filling factor (>= 20%) and a mass that makes it the most massive component of the Galactic ionized ISM. Given that it has been found to be ubiquitous in both the Galaxy and external disk galaxies, the energy source to create and maintain the DIG must necessarily be large. Massive OB stars are the only known sources with enough energy to power the DIG, and DIG is also linked morphologically to OB stars as it is brightest near bright star forming regions. However, the details of the location and spectral types of the ionizing stars, as well as the relevance of other ionizing mechanisms, are still not clear. I present the results of three different studies aimed at exploring the ionization sources of the DIG. Optical spectroscopy of DIG in M33 and NGC 891 using the Gemini-North telescope has been obtained to compare diagnostic emission line ratios with photoionization models. The first detection of (O I] l6300 was made in the DIG of M33. In M33, models in which ionizing photons leaking from H II regions are responsible for the ionization of the DIG best fit our observed line ratios. In NGC 891, we found evidence that shock ionization may need to be included along with photoionization in order to explain our observed emission line ratios. The diffuse Ha fraction in eight nearby galaxies was studied as a function of radius and star formation rate per unit area. We found no correlation with radius, but we did find that regions with higher star formation rates have lower diffuse fractions. Neither of these results had any dependence on galaxy type. These results have implications regarding the circumstances under which H II regions may be leaking ionizing photons and thus ionizing DIG. We also compared observed and predicted ionizing photon emission rates for 39 H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our results indicate that five of the H II regions are reliably density bounded, with the remaining regions consistent with being either radiation or density bounded. All three of these studies suggest that OB stars, both in H II regions and in the field, play a major role in creating and maintaining the DIG, and that other mechanisms, such as shocks, may also contribute to the ionization of the DIG.

  14. Fabrication of a miniaturized ionization gas sensor with polyimide spacer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walewyns, T.; Scheen, G.; Tooten, E.; El Fissi, L.; Dupuis, P.; Francis, L. A.

    2011-06-01

    Gas sensing can be achieved by fingerprinting the ionization characteristics of distinct species. In this study, the fabrication of a miniaturized gas ionization sensor using polyimide as sacrificial layer is reported. The sensor consists of two planar metallic electrodes with a gap spacing obtained by the polyimide under-etching. This known sacrificial layer has the advantage besides a high planarization factor, to be CMOS compatible. Furthermore, its chemical resistance up to high temperatures, high resistance to radiation from both electrons and neutrons, and low outgassing are of primary importance to avoid interferences with the ionization gas sensing. A suspended micro-bridge with dimensions 20 ?m width and 220 ?m length has been developed and released by using etching holes in the membrane. The ionization characteristics of air at controlled temperature, humidity and pressure (21°C, 40% humidity and 1 atm) have been obtained during non-destructive electrical characterizations, with a breakdown voltage of 350 V for a 6 ?m gap. The growth of metallic nanowires templated in ion track-etched polyimide on the electrode is envisioned in order to enhance the ionization field and to reduce the required measurement power of the sensor.

  15. Suitability of magnetic particle immunoassay for the analysis of PBDEs in Hawaiian freshwater fish and crabs in comparison with gas chromatography/electron capture detection-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A gas chromatograph/electron capture detector-ion trap mass spectrometer (GC/ECD-ITMS) was used for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in freshwater fish and crabs. The samples were also analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GC/ECD-ITMS results showed...

  16. Viscosity Coefficient Curve Fits for Ionized Gas Species Grant Palmer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viscosity coefficient curve fits for neutral gas species are available from many sources. Many do a good job of reproducing experimental and computational chemistry data. The curve fits are usually expressed as a function of temperature only. This is consistent with the governing equations used to derive an expression for the neutral species viscosity coefficient. Ionized species pose a more complicated problem. They are subject to electrostatic as well as intermolecular forces. The electrostatic forces are affected by a shielding phenomenon where electrons shield the electrostatic forces of positively charged ions beyond a certain distance. The viscosity coefficient for an ionized gas species is a function of both temperature and local electron number density. Currently available curve fits for ionized gas species, such as those presented by Gupta/Yos, are a function of temperature only. What they did was to assume an electron number density. The problem is that the electron number density they assumed was unrealistically high. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, the proper expression for determining the viscosity coefficient of an ionized species as a function of both temperature and electron number density will be presented. Then curve fit coefficients will be developed using the more realistic assumption of an equilibrium electron number density. The results will be compared against previous curve fits and against highly accurate computational chemistry data.

  17. Pulsed extraction of ionization from helium buffer gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, D. J.; Bollen, G.; Facina, M.; Schwarz, S.

    2008-11-01

    The migration of intense ionization created in helium buffer gas under the influence of applied electric fields is considered. First the chemical evolution of the ionization created by fast heavy-ion beams is described. Straight forward estimates of the lifetimes for charge exchange indicate a clear suppression of charge exchange during ion migration in low pressure helium. Then self-consistent calculations of the migration of the ions in the electric field of a gas-filled cell at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) using a particle-in-cell computer code are presented. The results of the calculations are compared to measurements of the extracted ion current caused by beam pulses injected into the NSCL gas cell.

  18. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, R.J.; Kulkarni, S.R.; Hester, J.J. Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-03-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals. 19 refs.

  19. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed.

  20. TIMEDEPENDENT IONIZATION IN RADIATIVELY COOLING GAS Orly Gnat 1,2

    E-print Network

    TIME­DEPENDENT IONIZATION IN RADIATIVELY COOLING GAS Orly Gnat 1,2 and Amiel Sternberg 1 Received and nonequilibrium cooling efficiencies and ionization states for low­density radiatively cooling gas containing cooling we solve the coupled time­dependent ionization and energy loss equations for a radiating gas

  1. TIME-DEPENDENT IONIZATION IN RADIATIVELY COOLING GAS Orly Gnat1,2

    E-print Network

    TIME-DEPENDENT IONIZATION IN RADIATIVELY COOLING GAS Orly Gnat1,2 and Amiel Sternberg1 Received and nonequilibrium cooling efficiencies and ionization states for low-density radiatively cooling gas containing cooling we solve the coupled time-dependent ionization and energy loss equations for a radiating gas

  2. Time-Dependent Ionization in Radiatively Cooling Gas

    E-print Network

    Orly Gnat; Amiel Sternberg

    2006-08-08

    We present new computations of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium cooling efficiencies and ionization states for low-density radiatively cooling gas containing cosmic abundances of the elements H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. We present results for gas temperatures between 1e4 and 1e8 K, assuming dust-free and optically thin conditions, and no external radiation. For non-equilibrium cooling we solve the coupled time-dependent ionization and energy loss equations for a radiating gas cooling from an initially hot, >5e6K equilibrium state, down to 1e4K. We present results for heavy element compositions ranging from 1e-3 to 2 times the elemental abundances in the Sun. We consider gas cooling at constant density (isochoric) and at constant pressure (isobaric). We calculate the critical column densities and temperatures at which radiatively cooling clouds make the dynamical transition from isobaric to isochoric evolution. We construct ion ratio diagnostics for the temperature and metallicity in radiatively cooling gas. We provide numerical estimates for the maximal cloud column densities for which the gas remains optically thin to the cooling radiation. We present our computational results in convenient on-line figures and tables (see http://wise-obs.tau.ac.il/~orlyg/cooling/).

  3. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: counting noble-gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    New work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions) is reported. When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. It is shown that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective.

  4. Ionized gas, molecules and dust in Sh2-132

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, J.; Cappa, C. E.; Pineault, S.; Duronea, N. U.

    2010-07-01

    We analyse the various interstellar components of the HII region Sh2-132. The main stellar source is the double binary system that includes the Wolf-Rayet star WR153ab. We use radio continuum images at 408 and 1420 MHz, and HI 21-cm line data taken from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey, molecular observations of the 12CO(1-0) line at 115GHz from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, and available mid- and far-infrared observations obtained with the MSX and IRAS satellites, respectively. Sh2-132 is composed of two shells showing radio continuum counterparts at both frequencies. The emission is thermal in nature. The estimated rms electron density and ionized mass of the nebula are ne ~= 20cm-3 and . The distribution of the CO emission shows molecular gas bordering the ionized nebula and interacting with it. The velocities of the molecular gas is in the range -38 to -53kms-1, similar to the velocity of the ionized gas. The emission at 8.3?m reveals a ring-like feature of about 15arcmin that encircles the bright optical regions. This emission is due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and marks the location of photodissociation regions. The gas distribution in the environs of Sh2-132 can be explained in a scenario where the massive stars in the region photodissociated, ionized and swept up the dense molecular material from the parental cloud through their strong stellar winds and intense ultraviolet (UV) photon flux.

  5. Backward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas A. A. Balakin,1

    E-print Network

    for homogeneous fully ionized plasma, a number of important effects enter when the plasma is not fully ionized for this likely resides in the imper- fect target plasma, which was not the homogeneous fully ionized plasmaBackward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas A. A. Balakin,1 G. M. Fraiman,1 N. J. Fisch

  6. CNT-based MEMS/NEMS gas ionizers for portable mass spectrometry applications

    E-print Network

    Velasquez-Heller, Luis Fernand

    We report the fabrication and experimental characterization of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based MEMS/NEMS electron impact gas ionizer with an integrated extractor gate for portable mass spectrometry. The ionizer achieves ...

  7. Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Disk of Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Alexander; Howley, K.; Guhathakurta, P.; Dorman, C.; SPLASH Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the flattened rotating diffuse ionized gas (DIG) disk of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). For this we use spectra from 25 multislit masks obtained by the SPLASH collaboration using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck-II 10-meter telescope. Each mask contains 200 slits covering the region around M32 (S of the center of M31), the major axis of M31, and the SE minor axis. DIG emission was serendipitously detected in the background sky of these slits. By creating a normalized "sky spectrum” to remove various other sources of emission (such as night sky lines) in the background of these slits, we have examined the rotation of the DIG disk using individual line-of-sight velocity measurements of H?, [NII] and [SII] emission. his emission is probably the result of newly formed stars ionizing the gas in the disk. The measured IG rotation will be compared to the rotation of M31's stellar disk and HI gas disk, as well as models of an infinitely thin rotating disk, to better understand the relationship between the components of the galactic disk and its differential rotation. We wish to acknowledge the NSF for funding on this project.

  8. Diffuse Ionized Gas in the Dwarf Galaxy DDO 53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.

    We study the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the M81 group dwarf irregular galaxy DDO 53. We use long-slit spectroscopy in order to determine the most interesting line ratios. We compare these ratios with classical and leaking photoionization, shocks and turbulent layer models. As other dwarf irregular galaxies, the spectral characteristics are very diferent to those of the DIG in spiral galaxies: the excitation is higher and the [SII/H?] much lower. A combination of leakage photoionization models plus shocks will be able to explain these characteristics.

  9. Diffuse Ionized Gas inside the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.; Peimbert, A.

    2007-05-01

    We have studied the differences between the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) and the H II regions along a slit position in the local dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. The slit position passes through the two most prominent H II regions: Hubble V and Hubble X. Important differences have been found in the excitation, ionization, and [N II] ?6584/H? and [S II] ?6717/H? line ratios between the DIG and the H II locations. Moreover, the values of all the line ratios are not similar to those in the DIG locations of spiral galaxies but are very similar to the values in other irregular galaxies, such as IC 10. We also determined the rate of recombination using the He I ?5875 line. Finally, we obtained a picture of the ionization sources of the DIG. We consider that the leakage of photons from the H II regions might explain most of the line ratios, except [N II]/H?, which might be explained by turbulence. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, proposal 69.C-0203(A).

  10. 3D Photoionization Models of Diffuse Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, K.

    2005-06-01

    We present 3D photoionization simulations of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Milky Way to examine the possibility of using [N II]/H? line ratios to probe the 3D structure of the DIG. Compared to data from the Perseus arm, smooth density models produce [N II]/H? values that are lower than observed at small distances above the midplane. This is because N is mostly N2+ close to the midplane ionizing sources, so [N II]/H? is small. As we make our density grid more porous, a smaller luminosity is required to ionize the grid. At small distances from the sources N changes from being being mostly N2+ for the smooth model to mostly N+ in a model with a very small DIG filling factor. We find that simulations with a DIG volume filling factor of around 20% give the best match to observations. This filling factor is remarkably close to that derived from traditional analyses of emission and dispersion measures in the DIG. Clearly, there is no limit to the parameter space that could be investigated using 3D photoionization codes. We comment on future directions for using 3D radiation transfer techniques to critically test 3D dynamical models of the ISM.

  11. Photoionized Mixing Layer Models of the Diffuse Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, Luc; Flores-Fajardo, Nahiely; Raga, Alejandro C.; Drissen, Laurent; Morisset, Christophe

    2009-04-01

    It is generally believed that O stars, confined near the galactic midplane, are somehow able to photoionize a significant fraction of what is termed the "diffuse ionized gas" (DIG) of spiral galaxies, which can extend up to 1-2 kpc above the galactic midplane. The heating of the DIG remains poorly understood, however, as simple photoionization models do not reproduce the observed line ratio correlations well or the DIG temperature. We present turbulent mixing layer (TML) models in which warm photoionized condensations are immersed in a hot supersonic wind. Turbulent dissipation and mixing generate an intermediate region where the gas is accelerated, heated, and mixed. The emission spectrum of such layers is compared with observations of Rand of the DIG in the edge-on spiral NGC 891. We generate two sequence of models that fit the line ratio correlations between [S II]/H?, [O I]/H?, [N II]/[S II], and [O III]/H? reasonably well. In one sequence of models, the hot wind velocity increases, while in the other, the ionization parameter and layer opacity increase. Despite the success of the mixing layer models, the overall efficiency in reprocessing the stellar UV is much too low, much less than 1%, which compels us to reject the TML model in its present form.

  12. Time-Dependent Ionization in Radiatively Cooling Gas Orly Gnat1,2

    E-print Network

    Time-Dependent Ionization in Radiatively Cooling Gas Orly Gnat1,2 and Amiel Sternberg1 1 School of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium cooling efficiencies and ionization states for low-density radiatively cooling, and no external radiation. For non-equilibrium cooling we solve the coupled time-dependent ionization and energy

  13. Spontaneous Avalanche Ionization of a Strongly Blockaded Rydberg Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Hofmann, C. S.; Schempp, H.; Günter, G.; Whitlock, S.; Weidemüller, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the sudden and spontaneous evolution of an initially correlated gas of repulsively interacting Rydberg atoms to an ultracold plasma. Under continuous laser coupling we create a Rydberg ensemble in the strong blockade regime, which at longer times undergoes an ionization avalanche. By combining optical imaging and ion detection, we access the full information on the dynamical evolution of the system, including the rapid increase in the number of ions and a sudden depletion of the Rydberg and ground state densities. Rydberg-Rydberg interactions are observed to strongly affect the dynamics of plasma formation. Using a coupled rate-equation model to describe our data, we extract the average energy of electrons trapped in the plasma, and an effective cross section for ionizing collisions between Rydberg atoms and atoms in low-lying states. Our results suggest that the initial correlations of the Rydberg ensemble should persist through the avalanche. This would provide the means to overcome disorder-induced heating, and offer a route to enter new strongly coupled regimes.

  14. The Impact of Diffuse Ionized Gas on Emission-line Ratios and Gas Metallicity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of galaxies observed by MaNGA, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impact the measurements of emission line ratios, hence the gas-phase metallicity measurements and the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams. We demonstrate that emission line surface brightness (SB) is a reasonably good proxy to separate HII regions from regions dominated by diffuse ionized gas. For spatially-adjacent regions or regions at the same radius, many line ratios change systematically with emission line surface brightness, reflecting a gradual increase of dominance by DIG towards low SB. DIG could significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradient. Because DIG tend to have a higher temperature than HII regions, at fixed metallicity DIG displays lower [NII]/[OII] ratios. DIG also show lower [OIII]/[OII] ratios than HII regions, due to extended partially-ionized regions that enhance all low-ionization lines ([NII], [SII], [OII], [OI]). The contamination by DIG is responsible for a substantial portion of the scatter in metallicity measurements. At different surface brightness, line ratios and line ratio gradients can differ systematically. As DIG fraction could change with radius, it can affect the metallicity gradient measurements in systematic ways. The three commonly used strong-line metallicity indicators, R23, [NII]/[OII], O3N2, are all affected in different ways. To make robust metallicity gradient measurements, one has to properly isolate HII regions and correct for DIG contamination. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves HII regions towards composite or LINER-like regions.

  15. Backward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas

    SciTech Connect

    Balakin, A.A.; Fraiman, G.M.; Fisch, N.J.; Suckewer, S.

    2005-09-01

    Compressing laser pulses to extremely high intensities through backward Raman amplification might be accomplished in a plasma medium. While the theory is relatively straightforward for homogeneous fully ionized plasma, a number of important effects enter when the plasma is not fully ionized. In particular, when a mixture of gases is employed to accomplish the coupling, there can be several thresholds for incremental ionization. The refraction of both the pump and the seed is then strongly affected by the plasma ionization. Moreover, in the case of Raman backscattering in partially ionized plasma, the degree of plasma ionization is particularly sensitive to the counterpropagating geometry. This idea is examined in light of data for a recent experiment on a Raman amplifier.

  16. Backward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas.

    PubMed

    Balakin, A A; Fraiman, G M; Fisch, N J; Suckewer, S

    2005-09-01

    Compressing laser pulses to extremely high intensities through backward Raman amplification might be accomplished in a plasma medium. While the theory is relatively straightforward for homogeneous fully ionized plasma, a number of important effects enter when the plasma is not fully ionized. In particular, when a mixture of gases is employed to accomplish the coupling, there can be several thresholds for incremental ionization. The refraction of both the pump and the seed is then strongly affected by the plasma ionization. Moreover, in the case of Raman backscattering in partially ionized plasma, the degree of plasma ionization is particularly sensitive to the counterpropagating geometry. This idea is examined in light of data for a recent experiment on a Raman amplifier. PMID:16241573

  17. Analysis of the diffuse ionized gas database: DIGEDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Morisset, C.; Binette, L.

    2009-10-01

    Studies of the Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) have progressed without providing so far any strict criterion to distinguish DIGs from H II regions. In this work, we compile the emission line measurements of 29 galaxies that are available in the scientific literature, thereby setting up the first DIG database (DIGEDA). Making use of this database, we proceed to analyze the global properties of the DIG using the [NII]?6583/H?, [O I]?6300/H?, [O III]?5007/H? and [SII]?6716/H? lines ratios, including the H ? emission measure. This analysis leads us to conclude that the [N II]/H? ratio provides an objective criterion for distinguishing whether an emission region is a DIG or an H II region, while the EM(H?) is a useful quantity only when the galaxies are considered individually. Finally, we find that the emission regions of Irr galaxies classified as DIG in the literature appear in fact to be much more similar to H II regions than to the DIGs of spiral galaxies.

  18. Screening of a charged particle field in rarefied ionized gas

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2010-06-15

    A self-consistent field of a charged micron-size particle placed in a rarefied ionized gas is created by both free ions moving along infinite trajectories and trapped ions moving in closed orbits. The character of screening of the particle field is analyzed under dynamic conditions in a nonequilibrium plasma where the temperature (or the mean energy) of electrons greatly exceeds the ion temperature. Under these conditions, trapped ions are generated in a restricted region of the particle field where the transitions between closed ion orbits resulting from resonant charge exchange dominate. This leads to a higher number density of trapped ions compared to that of free ions. The parameters of the self-consistent field of the particle and ions are found when free or trapped ions determine the screening of the particle field, and a similarity law is established for a simultaneous variation of the number density of plasma particles and the particle size. In dusty plasmas of the Solar System, which result from the interaction of the solar wind with dust, formation of trapped ions increases the plasma number density compared to that in the solar wind.

  19. Partially Ionized Gas in the Local Interstellar Medium and Its Galactic Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.

    2011-09-01

    The most thoroughly observed region of the interstellar medium (ISM) is that which immediately surrounds the heliosphere. Evidence that this gas is partially ionized (about 20% for H, 40% for He) comes from a variety of sources including absorption lines toward nearby stars, and in situ detection of interstellar neutral atoms and pickup ions in the solar system. The ionization in the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC) is dominated by photoionization and requires more ionizing flux than is available stellar sources. Diffuse radiation from nearby hot gas can provide the necessary hard yet low intensity interstellar radiation field. To put the local ISM in a Galactic context, one can compare it to the warm ionized medium (WIM), but the H ionization level of the LIC is apparently substantially lower than that in the WIM. We discuss the nature and source of ionization of the LIC and compare it with evidence on more distant regions of the warm, diffuse ISM.

  20. Evaluation of Gas-filled Ionization Chamber Method for Radon Measurement at Two Reference Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Miyahara, Nobuyuki

    2008-08-07

    For quality assurance, gas-filled ionization chamber method was tested at two reference facilities for radon calibration: EML (USA) and PTB (Germany). Consequently, the radon concentrations estimated by the ionization chamber method were in good agreement with the reference radon concentrations provided by EML as well as PTB.

  1. Optical Spectroscopy and Ionization Models of the Diffuse Ionized Gas in M33, M51/NGC 5195, and M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopes, Charles G.; Walterbos, René A. M.

    2003-04-01

    We report the results of a spectroscopic investigation of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in M33, M81, and M51. All three galaxies have enhanced [S II]/H? and [N II]/H? ratios in the DIG compared to H II regions, in agreement with the predictions of photoionization models. The DIG in all three galaxies also has [O III]/H? ratios equal to or greater than that in neighboring H II regions. The [S II]/[N II] ratio does not vary with H? surface brightness and is similar in both H II regions and DIG. We have tentatively detected the He I ?5876 line in the bright DIG near NGC 604, indicating a contribution from O7 and hotter stars to the ionizing spectrum in the DIG at that location. The DIG in M33 has lower [N II]/H? ratios than M51 or the Galaxy, most likely because of low N abundance in M33. We used CLOUDY models to test the feasibility of two photoionization sources for the DIG: (1) the diluted ionizing continua of massive stars (``standard'' models) and (2) the transmitted ionizing continua of density-bounded H II regions (``leaky H II region'' models). The leaky H II region models produce higher [S II]/H?, [N II]/H?, and [O III]/H? ratios than standard DIG models for the same stellar temperatures. This alleviates somewhat the problem of producing high [O III]/H? ratios in the DIG. However, no single model can simultaneously reproduce all three line ratios. We conclude that either a combination of models is necessary or other ionization or heating mechanisms play a role in powering the DIG. Finally, we report on the spectrum of ionized gas associated with the companion to M51, NGC 5195. The gas in and around NGC 5195 has very high forbidden-line ratios and broad line widths (~ 500 km s-1 FWHM), indicative of shock-ionized gas. At some locations the emission lines split into two velocity components, suggesting an expanding structure or outflow. The line ratios, morphology, and kinematics show that the interstellar medium in NGC 5195 is very disturbed. Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  2. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS-THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J.; Jachowicz, N.

    2013-07-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon Measurements § 1065.267 Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. (a) Application. You may...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon Measurements § 1065.267 Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. (a) Application. You may...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon Measurements § 1065.267 Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. (a) Application. You may...

  6. Device measures conductivity and velocity of ionized gas streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, G. R.; Posch, R. E.; Rossow, V. J.; Vendell, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    Coaxial arrangement of primary coil and two sensing secondary coils contained inside slender quartz tube inserted into ionized stream permits simultaneous determination of conductivity and linear velocity. System results agree favorably with theory.

  7. Ionization Sources and Physical Conditions in the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halos of Four Edge-On Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Joseph A. Collins; Richard J. Rand

    2000-12-01

    Deep long-slit spectra of the diffuse ionized gas halos of the edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 4302 and UGC 10288 are presented. These data, along with previously presented data for NGC 5775 and NGC 891, are used to address the issue of how DIG halos are energized. Composite photo-ionization/shock models are generally better at explaining runs of line ratios in these galaxies than photo-ionization models alone. Models of line ratios in NGC 5775 require a greater contribution from shocks for filamentary regions than for non-filamentary regions to explain the run of [OIII]/Halpha. In either case, the [SII]/[NII] ratio is not well fit by the models. Composite models for UGC 10288 are successful at reproducing the run of [SII]/[NII] for all but the the highest values of [NII]/Halpha; however, the run of [OIII]/Halpha vs. [NII]/Halpha does not show any discernible trend, making it difficult to determine whether or not shocks make a contribution. We also examine whether the data can be explained simply by an increase in temperature with z in a pure photo-ionization model. Runs of [SII]/Halpha, [NII]/Halpha, and [SII]/[NII] in each of the four galaxies are consistent with such an increase. However, the runs of [OIII]/Halpha vs. z in NGC 5775 and UGC 10288 require unusually high ionization fractions of O^{++} that can not be explained without invoking a secondary ionization source or at the very least a much higher temperature for the [OIII]-emitting component than for the [SII]- and [NII]-emitting component. An increase in temperature with z is generally more successful at explaining the [OIII]/Halpha run in NGC 891.

  8. Shock Structure Analysis and Aerodynamics in a Weakly Ionized Gas Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saeks, R.; Popovic, S.; Chow, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is analyzed using an electrofluid dynamics model composed of classical conservation laws and Gauss Law. A viscosity model is included to correctly model the spatial scale of the shock structure, and quasi-neutrality is not assumed. A detailed analysis of the structure of a shock wave propagating in a weakly ionized gas is presented, together with a discussion of the physics underlying the key features of the shock structure. A model for the flow behind a shock wave propagating through a weakly ionized gas is developed and used to analyze the effect of the ionization on the aerodynamics and performance of a two-dimensional hypersonic lifting body.

  9. Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles

    E-print Network

    NEXT Collaboration; V. Álvarez; F. I. G. M. Borges; S. Cárcel; S. Cebrián; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; J. Díaz; M. Egorov; R. Esteve; P. Evtoukhovitch; L. M. P. Fernandes; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Gil; A. Goldschmidt; H. Gómez; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; D. González-Díaz; R. M. Gutiérrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; I. G. Irastorza; M. A. Jinete; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; J. A. M. Lopes; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzón; A. Marí; J. Martín-Albo; T. Miller; A. Moiseenko; F. Monrabal; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muñoz Vidal; H. Natal da Luz; G. Navarro; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; R. Palma; J. Pérez; J. L. Pérez Aparicio; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; A. Rodríguez; J. Rodríguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Segui; L. Serra; D. Shuman; A. Simón; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; A. Tomás; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; D. Vázquez; J. F. C. A. Veloso; R. Webb; J. T White; N. Yahlali

    2013-05-21

    High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

  10. Cosmic ray studies with a gas Cherenkov counter in association with an ionization spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Arens, J. F.; Siohan, F.; Yodh, G. B.; Simon, M.; Spiegelhauer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a balloon-borne gas Cherenkov counter (threshold 16.5 GeV/nucleon) and an ionization spectrometer are presented. The gas Cherenkov counter provides an absolute energy distribution for the response of the calorimeter for 5 or = Z 26 nuclei of cosmic rays. The contribution of scintillation to the gas Cherenkov pulse height was obtained by independently selecting particles below the gas Cherenkov threshold using the ionization spectrometer. Energy spectra were derived by minimizing the chi squared between Monte Carlo simulted data and flight data. Best fit power laws, dN/dE = AE-gamma, were determined for C, N, O, Ne, Mg, and Si. The power laws, all consistent with E (-2.7) are not good fits to the data. A better fit is obtained using the spectrum derived from the spectrometer. The data from the ionization calorimeter and the gas Cherenkov are thus completely self-consistent.

  11. The ionization conditions in the Milky Way halo - Infalling gas toward the North Galactic Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, Laura

    1992-01-01

    Observations of gas in the Milky Way halo are studied with an eye toward the theoretical predictions of the Galactic Fountain model for the production of halo gas. Data are shown that indicate significant variations in the ionization conditions in infalling halo gas in the northern galactic hemisphere. Understanding the nature of Milky Way halo gas plays a critical role in interpreting QSO absorption lines in the investigation of galaxies at high redshift.

  12. Prediction of Shock Wave Structure in Weakly Ionized Gas Flow by Solving MGD Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Z. T.; Oviedo-Rojas, Ruben; Chow, Alan; Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the recent research results of shockwave structure predictions using a new developed code. The modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations across a standing normal shock wave are discussed and adopted to obtain jump conditions. Coupling a electrostatic body force to the Burnett equations, the weakly ionized flow field across the shock wave was solved. Results indicated that the Modified Rankine-Hugoniot equations for shock wave are valid for a wide range of ionization fraction. However, this model breaks down with small free stream Mach number and with large ionization fraction. The jump conditions also depend on the value of free stream pressure, temperature and density. The computed shock wave structure with ionization provides results, which indicated that shock wave strength may be reduced by existence of weakly ionized gas.

  13. The kinematics of Milky Way halo gas. I - Observations of low-ionization species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, Laura

    1989-01-01

    Ultraviolet interstellar line day observed with the IUE toward 70 halo stars and four extragalactic sight lines are analyzed in a study of the large-scale kinematic properties of the Milky Way halo gas. The motions of the low-ionization gas is focused on. Large systematic velocities are found, and a pronounced asymmetry in the absorption characteristics of halo gas toward the Galactic poles is indicated. In the north, substantial amounts of material are falling toward the disk at velocities up to about 120 km/s in the most extreme case. Toward the south, low-ionization material shows no extreme or systematic motions.

  14. Gas-phase chemiluminescence and chemi-ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fontijn, A.

    1985-01-01

    The phenomena of chemiluminescence (or more broadly chemi-excitation) and chemi-ionization have major similarities from a fundamental kinetic and dynamic point of view. However, since the former has primarily been investigated using optical spectroscopic techniques and the latter largely by mass spectroscopic (and other gaseous electronic) methods, the two phenomena have apparently never, explicitly been discussed together in one volume. In addition to a number of review articles on each individual subject, several meetings and books have had chemiluminescence and bioluminescence as their theme and those have been dominated by condensed phase work. On the other hand, chemi-ionization is often discussed in the contest of gaseous electronics, plasma chemistry and combustion. It is the goal of this book to present a more unified understanding of the two phenomena.

  15. The Massive Stellar Population in the Diffuse Ionized Gas of M33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoopes, Charles G.; Walterbos, Rene A. M.

    1995-01-01

    We compare Far-UV, H alpha, and optical broadband images of the nearby spiral galaxy M33, to investigate the massive stars associated with the diffuse ionized gas. The H-alpha/FUV ratio is higher in HII regions than in the DIG, possibly indicating that an older population ionizes the DIG. The broad-band colors support this conclusion. The HII region population is consistent with a young burst, while the DIG colors resemble an older population with constant star formation. Our results indicate that there may be enough massive field stars to ionize the DIG, without the need for photon leakage from HII regions.

  16. Investigating the Diffuse Ionized Gas in the Magellanic Stream with Mapped WHAM Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen; Hernandez, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We present early stages of an H? survey of the Magellanic Stream using the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM). While the neutral component of the Stream may extend 200° across the sky (Nidever et al. 2010), its ionized gas has not yet been studied in detail. Fox et al. 2014 find that the tidal debris in the Magellanic System contains twice as much ionized gas as neutral and may extend 30° away from the H I emission. However, such absorption-line studies are not sensitive to the overall morphology of the ionized gas. Using targeted H? emission observations of the Magellanic Stream, Barger et al. 2015 find that although the warm ionized gas tracks the neutral gas, it often spans a few degrees away from the H I emission at slightly offset velocities. Using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to diffuse emission (~ 10s of mR) and its velocity resolution (12 km/s) to isolate Stream emission, we are now conducting the first full H? survey of its ionized component. Here we present early results, including spatial and kinematic comparisons to the well-established neutral profile of the Stream. WHAM research and operations are supported through NSF Award AST-1108911.

  17. Publications involving W. P. Blair (through March 2011) 2011 "Large-scale shock-ionized and photo-ionized gas in M83: the impact of star formation,"

    E-print Network

    Blair, William P.

    Publications involving W. P. Blair (through March 2011) 2011 "Large-scale shock-ionized and photo-ionized gas in M83: the impact of star formation," Hong, S., Calzetti, D., Dopita, M. A., Blair, W. P., Raymond, J. C., Long, K. S., Blair, W. P., Sankrit, R., Smith, R. C., Points, S.,Winkler, P. F

  18. Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles

    E-print Network

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cebrián, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Dafni, T; Díaz, J; Egorov, M; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Fernandes, L M P; Ferrario, P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Gil, A; Goldschmidt, A; Gómez, H; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Díaz, D; Gutiérrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Irastorza, I G; Jinete, M A; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; Lopes, J A M; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzón, G; Marí, A; Martín-Albo, J; Miller, T; Moiseenko, A; Monrabal, F; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Muñoz; da Luz, H Natal; Navarro, G; Nebot, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; Palma, R; Pérez, J; Aparicio, J L Pérez; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Segui, L; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simón, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Tomás, A; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Vázquez, D; Veloso, J F C A; Webb, R; White, J T; Yahlali, N

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the transport properties of ionization electrons, and the mechanism of electron-ion recombination, in xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. Our electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion results are similar to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon, favoring low-diffusion models. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields were performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similarly to what has already bee...

  19. Observational model of the ionized gas in Seyfert and radio-galaxy nuclei*

    PubMed Central

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1978-01-01

    Equivalent widths of the total emission-line H? in Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies, expressed in terms of the featureless continuum, all have approximately the same frequency distribution. This suggests that the energy-input mechanism to both the narrow-line, low-density gas and the broad-line, high-density gas is photoionization by the featureless continuum. The reason for the weakness of the narrow emission lines in extreme Seyfert 1 galaxies is then the absorption of most of the ionizing photons in the dense gas near the central source. The statistics of line widths can be fitted by a model in which the dense gas has typical rotational velocity 5000 km/sec and typical turbulent velocity 2000 km/sec. A model is proposed in which the dense gas forms a rotating, turbulent disk with dimension ?0.1 pc and height/diameter ?2/5. Seyfert 2 galaxies are objects with little dense gas, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies are objects in which the dense gas is optically thin to ionizing radiation at least along the poles. Most radio galaxies have strong narrow emission lines, suggesting that escape of radio plasma can only occur where some ionizing photons can also escape from the dense gas. Other predictions, implications, and tests of this model are discussed. Images PMID:16592488

  20. Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Gas Ionization by Short Intense Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Dimitre; Bruhwiler, David; Leemans, Wim; Esarey, Eric; Catravas, Palma; Toth, Csaba; Shadwick, Brad; Cary, John; Giacone, Rodolfo; Verboncoeur, John; Mardahl, Peter

    2001-10-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) can generate accelerating gradients orders of magnitude larger than those obtained in conventional metal structures. In many LWFA experiments, the leading edge of the short, intense laser pulse completely ionizes a background neutral gas. An important question is the effect of laser ionization on the evolution of the laser pulse. Dispersive effects can modify the length and shape of the pulse as it propagates through the gas/plasma. Pulse steepening or break-up can affect the growth of the plasma wake. We will present particle-in-cell simulations using the ADK [M.V. Ammosov et al., Sov. Phys. JETP 64, p. 1191 (1986)] tunneling ionization model in the XOOPIC [J.P. Verboncoeur et al., J. Comp. Phys. 104, p. 321 (1993)] code. These simulations will be compared with experimental LWFA results from the l'OASIS laboratory of LBNL [W.P. Leemans et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, p. 2510 (2001)].

  1. Cosmic ray studies with a gas Cerenkov counter in association with an ionization spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Arens, J. F.; Siohan, F.; Simon, M.; Spiegelhauer, H.; Yodh, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a balloon-borne gas Cerenkov counter (threshold 16.5 GeV/nuc) and an ionization spectrometer are presented. The gas Cerenkov counter provides an absolute energy calibration for the response of the calorimeter for the Z range of 5-26 nuclei of cosmic rays. The contribution of scintillation to the gas Cerenkov pulse height has been obtained by independently selecting particles below the gas Cerenkov threshold using the ionization spectrometer. Energy spectra were derived by minimizing the chi-squared between a Monte Carlo simulated data and flight data. Best fit power laws were determined for C, N, O, Ne, Mg, and Si. The power laws, all consistent with E exp-2.7, are not good fits to the data. A better fit is obtained using the spectrum derived from the spectrometer.

  2. Field ionization kinetic and electron impact studies of gas phase transition states - The cyclic bromonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. M.; Giguere, R. J.; Falick, A. M.; Aberth, W.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Cis- and trans-isomers of 4-t-butylcyclohexyl bromide were studied to determine the mechanism of cyclic bromonium ion formation. The field ionization kinetic and electron impact data indicate that the formation of the cyclic structure occurs simultaneously with loss of the neutral fragment. The data also show that little or no gas-phase cis-trans isomerization occurs.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. 1065.267 Section 1065.267 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. 1065.267 Section 1065.267 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.267 - Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. 1065.267 Section 1065.267 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon...

  6. Sparsepak Observations of Diffuse Ionized Gas Halo Kinematics in NGC891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George H.; Rand, Richard J.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    We present WIYN SparsePak observations of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) hallo of NGC891. Preliminary results of an analysis of the halo velocity field reveal a clear gradient of the azimuthal velocity with z which agrees with results for the neutral gas. The magnitude of the gradient has been determined, using two independent methods, to be approximately 15 km s-1 kpc-1.

  7. Ionized gas outflows and global kinematics of low-z luminous star forming galaxies

    E-print Network

    Arribas, Santiago; Bellocchi, Enrica; Maiolino, Roberto; Villar-Martin, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    We study the kinematic properties of the ambient ionized ISM and ionized gas outflows in a large and representative sample of local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) (58 systems, 75 galaxies), on the basis of integral field spectroscopy (IFS)-based high S/N integrated spectra at galactic and sub-galactic, i.e. star forming (SF) clumps, scales. Ambient ionized gas. The velocity dispersion of the ionized ISM in U/LIRGs ( ~ 70 kms-1) is larger than in lower luminosity local star forming galaxies ( ~ 25 kms-1). While for isolated disc LIRGs star formation appears to sustain turbulence, gravitational energy release associated to interactions and mergers plays an important role driving sigma in the U/LIRG range. We also find that the impact of an AGN in ULIRGs is strong, increasing sigma by a factor 1.5 on average. The observed weak dependency of sigma on SFR surface density for local U/LIRGs is in very good agreement with that measured in some high-z sources. Ionized outflows. The presence of ...

  8. Neutral Gas and Low-Redshift Starbursts: From Infall to Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, M. S.; Salzer, J. J.; Van Sistine, A.; Haynes, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay of gas inflows, star formation, and feedback drives galaxy evolution, and starburst galaxies provide important laboratories for probing these processes at their most extreme. With two samples of low-redshift starburst galaxies, we examine the conversion of neutral gas into stars and the subsequent effects of stellar feedback on the neutral interstellar medium (ISM). The ALFALFA H? survey represents a complete, volume-limited sample of HI-selected galaxies with 21 cm spectra and H? and R-band imaging. By contrasting the starburst galaxies with the rest of the gas-rich galaxy population, we investigate the roles of galaxy morphology, HI kinematics, and the atomic gas supply in triggering extreme levels of star formation. Both an elevated HI gas supply and an external disturbance are necessary to drive the starbursts. While neutral gas may fuel a starburst, it may also increase starbursts' optical depths and hinder the transport of ionizing radiation. In contrast to the expectations for high-redshift star-forming galaxies, neutral gas appears to effectively bar the escape of ionizing radiation in most low-redshift starbursts. To evaluate the impact of radiative feedback in extreme starbursts, we analyze optical spectra of the Green Pea galaxies, a low-redshift sample selected by their intense [O III] ?5007 emission and compact sizes. We use nebular photoionization and stellar population models to constrain the Peas' burst ages, ionizing sources, and optical depths and find that the Peas are likely optically thin to Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation. These young starbursts still generate substantial ionizing radiation, while recent supernovae may have carved holes in the ISM that enhance LyC photon escape into the intergalactic medium. While the ALFALFA survey demonstrates the role of external processes in triggering starbursts, the Green Peas show that starbursts' radiation can escape to affect their external environment.

  9. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  10. Ionized Gas in the First 10 kpc of the Interstellar Galactic Halo: Metal Ion Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Consiglio, S. Michelle

    2012-11-01

    We present direct measures of the ionization fractions of several sulfur ions in the Galactic warm ionized medium (WIM). We obtained high-resolution ultraviolet absorption-line spectroscopy of post-asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters Messier 3 [(l, b) = (42fdg2, +78fdg7), d = 10.2 kpc, and z = 10.0 kpc] and Messier 5 [(l, b) = (3fdg9, +46fdg8), d = 7.5 kpc, and z = +5.3 kpc] with the Hubble Space Telescope and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to measure, or place limits on, the column densities of S I, S II, S III, S IV, S VI, and H I. These clusters also house millisecond pulsars, whose dispersion measures give an electron column density from which we infer the H II column in these directions. We find fractions of S+2 in the WIM for the M 3 and M 5 sight lines x(S+2) ? N(S+2)/N(S) = 0.33 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.09, respectively, with variations perhaps related to location. With negligible quantities of the higher ionization states, we conclude that S+ and S+2 account for all of the S in the WIM. We extend the methodology to study the ion fractions in the warm and hot ionized gas of the Milky Way, including the high ions Si+3, C+3, N+4, and O+5. The vast majority of the Galactic ionized gas is warm (T ~ 104 K) and photoionized (the WIM) or very hot (T > 4 × 105 K) and collisionally ionized. The common tracer of ionized gas beyond the Milky Way, O+5, traces <1% of the total ionized gas mass of the Milky Way. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA Contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO9150 and GO9410. Also based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. FUSE was operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA Contract NAS5-32985.

  11. Dissociation and ionization of molecular gas in the spiral arms of M51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lees, J. F.; Lo, K. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers derive the star formation rate and efficiency in the arm and interarm regions of M51 from observations of the molecular (Lo et al. 1987) and ionized (van der Hulst et al. 1988) phases of the interstellar medium, and show that the HI observations of Tilanus and Allen (1989) are consistent with dissociation of molecular gas by these young, massive stars if n sub H greater than or equal to 200 cm (-2). However, these stars are not able to dissociate or ionize all the gas, and at least 60 percent must remain molecular in the interarm regions. The efficiency of star formation in M51 seems to be similar to that in the Galaxy, and does not appear to be enhanced in the spiral arms. Therefore, the effect of the strong density wave may be only to concentrate the gas, and hence the young stars, to the arm regions.

  12. Abundance differences between the neutral and the ionized gas of the dwarf galaxy IZw 36

    E-print Network

    V. Lebouteiller; D. Kunth; J. Lequeux; A. Lecavelier des Etangs; J. -M. Désert; G. Hébrard; A. Vidal-Madjar

    2003-10-21

    We present a FUSE spectroscopic study of the nearby gas--rich, metal--deficient blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy IZw 36. Atomic hydrogen and many metal lines are observed in absorption against the stellar continuum of young, massive stars embedded in the ionized region. Profile fitting of absorption lines allowed us to determine abundances and investigate the chemical composition of the neutral gas. This study present strong evidences that nitrogen is 16 (+7 -8) times less abundant in the neutral gas with respect to the ionized gas (all uncertainties are 2 sigma. Similarly, the oxygen abundance estimated using phosphorus as a tracer is lower in the neutral gas by a factor 8 (+17 -5). We also find that argon is underabundant by a factor 32 (+8 -7) and that log (ArI/OI) < -3.0 which is inconsistent with the solar value -2.1 (+0.1 -0.1) (Lodders2003), implying that argon is likely ionized into ArII in the neutral medium.

  13. Ionization dynamics in the laser plasma in a low pressure gas target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, R. A.; Kalmykov, S. G.; Mozharov, A. M.; Petrenko, M. V.; Sasin, M. E.

    2012-11-01

    In Xe-laser-plasma short-wave-radiation sources, the laser-energy-to-EUV conversion efficiency (CE) turns out to be substantially lower than theoretical expectations. An estimation made in the present work is evidence of what a long period of the primary ionization, lasting up to a moment when high- Z ions appear to emit short-wave photons, can be considered as a main cause for the low CE values. During that period the plasma remains low-ionized and absorbs weakly the laser energy. Data deduced from laser light absorption measurements confirm the estimation above. A preionization of the gas target with the UV excimer laser pulse is proposed as a method to accelerate the ionization process.

  14. Velocity dispersion of ionized gas and multiple supernova explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, E. O.; Moiseev, A. V.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    We use 3D numerical simulations to study the evolution of the H? intensity and velocity dispersion for single and multiple supernova (SN) explosions. We find that the I H? -- ? diagram obtained for simulated gas flows is similar in shape to that observed in dwarf galaxies. We conclude that colliding SN shells with significant difference in age are responsible for high velocity dispersion that reaches up to ˜gt 100 km s-1. Such a high velocity dispersion could be hardly obtained for a single SN remnant. Peaks of velocity dispersion in the I H? -- ? diagram may correspond to several isolated or merged SN remnants with moderately different ages. Degrading the spatial resolution in the H? intensity and velocity dispersion maps makes the simulated I H? -- ? diagrams close to those observed in dwarf galaxies not only in shape, but also quantitatively.

  15. Ionized gas velocity dispersion and multiple supernova explosions

    E-print Network

    Vasiliev, Evgenii O; Shchekinov, Yuri A

    2014-01-01

    Using 3D numerical simulations we study the evolution of the H$\\alpha$ intensity and velocity dispersion for single and multiple supenova (SN) explosions. We find that the $I_{\\rm H\\alpha}-\\sigma$ diagram obtained for simulated gas flows is similar in shape to that observed in dwarf galaxies. We conclude that colliding SN shells with significant difference in age are resposible for high velocity dispersion that reaches values high as $\\simgt 100$kms$^{-1}$. Such a high velocity dispersion could be hardly got for a single SN remnant. Peaks of velocity dispersion on the $I_{\\rm H\\alpha}-\\sigma$ diagram may correspond to several stand-alone or merged SN remnants with moderately different ages. The procedure of the spatial resolution degrading in the H$\\alpha$ intensity and velocity dispersion maps makes the simulated $I_{\\rm H\\alpha}-\\sigma$ diagrams close to those observed in dwarf galaxies not only in shape, but also quantitatively.

  16. Ultralow-voltage field-ionization discharge on whiskered silicon nanowires for gas-sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Banan Sadeghian, Ramin; Islam, M Saif; Saif Islam, M

    2011-02-01

    Several hundred million volts per centimetre of electric-field strength are required to field-ionize gas species. Such fields are produced on sharp metallic tips under a bias of a few kilovolts. Here, we show that field ionization is possible at dramatically lower fields on semiconductor nanomaterials containing surface states, particularly with metal-catalysed whiskers grown on silicon nanowires. The low-voltage field-ionization phenomena observed here cannot be explained solely on the basis of the large field-amplification effect of suspended gold nanoparticles present on the whisker tips. We postulate that field penetration causes upward band-bending at the surface of exposed silicon containing surface states in the vicinity of the catalyst. Band-bending enables the valence electron to tunnel into the surface states at reduced fields. This work provides a basis for development of low-voltage ionization sensors. Although demonstrated on silicon, low-voltage field ionization can be detected on any sharp semiconductor tip containing proper surface states. PMID:21240290

  17. Interstellar abundances in the neutral and ionized gas of NGC604

    E-print Network

    V. Lebouteiller; D. Kunth; J. Lequeux; A. Aloisi; J. -M. Desert; G. Hebrard; A. Lecavelier des Etangs; A. Vidal-Madjar

    2006-08-21

    We present FUSE spectra of the giant HII region NGC604 in the spiral galaxy M33. Chemical abundances are derived from far-UV absorption lines and are compared to those derived from optical emission lines. We derived the column densities of HI, NI, OI, SiII, PII, ArI, and FeII, fitting the line profiles with either a single component or several components. Our net results, assuming a single component, show that N, O, Si, and Ar are apparently underabundant in the neutral phase by a factor of 10 or more with respect to the ionized phase, while Fe is the same. However, we discuss the possibility that the absorption lines are made of individual unresolved components, and find that only PII, ArI, and FeII lines should not be affected by the presence of hidden saturated components, while NI, OI, and SiII might be much more affected. If N, O, and Si are actually underabundant in the neutral gas of NGC604 with respect to the ionized gas, this would confirm earlier results obtained for the blue compact dwarfs. However, a deeper analysis focused on P, Ar, and Fe mitigates the above conclusion and indicates that the neutral gas and ionized gas could have similar abundances.

  18. The Distribution and Origin of Ionized Gas Throughout The Cartwheel Ring Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, J. L.; Lord, S. D.; Cecil, G.

    1996-12-01

    The Cartwheel is the archetype ring galaxy due to its large angular size, its 30 kpc diameter starburst outer ring, and its rich morphology. Because of this, it has been the subject of numerous observational and theoretical studies. One notable area of disagreement between models and observations has been the global distribution of star formation. Recent simulations have predicted robust star formation in inner ring and ``spokes'', despite the failure of spectroscopy and H-alpha imaging to find ionized gas apart from the outer ring. This restriction has been attributed to low gas densities throughout the ring galaxy's interior. We present new data showing that ionized gas is not in fact confined to the Cartwheel's outer ring, but exists throughout the inner ring, disk, and ``spokes'', though at low levels. Long-slit optical spectroscopy is used to constrain the nature of these faint line emitting regions. We consider the possibility that they are the result of (i) ongoing massive star formation, (ii) the infall of aging outer ring HII complexes, and (iii) shock ionization of gas raining down upon the disk from the tidal stream joining the Cartwheel and the fleeing Intruder galaxy.

  19. Chemical Abundances and Properties of the Ionized Gas in NGC 1705

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annibali, F.; Tosi, M.; Pasquali, A.; Aloisi, A.; Mignoli, M.; Romano, D.

    2015-11-01

    We obtained [O iii] narrow-band imaging and multi-slit MXU spectroscopy of the blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 1705 with FORS2@VLT to derive chemical abundances of planetary nebulae and H ii regions and, more in general, to characterize the properties of the ionized gas. The auroral [O iii]? 4363 line was detected in all but 1 of the 11 analyzed regions, allowing for a direct estimate of their electron temperature. The only object for which the [O iii]? 4363 line was not detected is a possible low-ionization PN, the only one detected in our data. For all the other regions, we derived the abundances of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon out to ?1 kpc from the galaxy center. We detect for the first time in NGC 1705 a negative radial gradient in the oxygen metallicity of -0.24+/- 0.08 dex kpc?1. The element abundances are all consistent with values reported in the literature for other samples of dwarf irregular and BCD galaxies. However, the average (central) oxygen abundance, 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.96+/- 0.04, is ?0.26 dex lower than previous literature estimates for NGC 1705 based on the [O iii]? 4363 line. From classical emission line diagnostic diagrams, we exclude a major contribution from shock excitation. On the other hand, the radial behavior of the emission line ratios is consistent with the progressive dilution of radiation with increasing distance from the center of NGC 1705. This suggests that the strongest starburst located within the central ?150 pc is responsible for the ionization of the gas out to at least ?1 kpc. The gradual dilution of the radiation with increasing distance from the center reflects the gradual and continuous transition from the highly ionized H ii regions in the proximity of the major starburst into the diffuse ionized gas.

  20. Synthesis of refractory organic matter in the ionized gas phase of the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Kuga, Maïa; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Tissandier, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    In the nascent solar system, primitive organic matter was a major contributor of volatile elements to planetary bodies, and could have played a key role in the development of the biosphere. However, the origin of primitive organics is poorly understood. Most scenarios advocate cold synthesis in the interstellar medium or in the outer solar system. Here, we report the synthesis of solid organics under ionizing conditions in a plasma setup from gas mixtures (H2(O)-CO-N2-noble gases) reminiscent of the protosolar nebula composition. Ionization of the gas phase was achieved at temperatures up to 1,000 K. Synthesized solid compounds share chemical and structural features with chondritic organics, and noble gases trapped during the experiments reproduce the elemental and isotopic fractionations observed in primitive organics. These results strongly suggest that both the formation of chondritic refractory organics and the trapping of noble gases took place simultaneously in the ionized areas of the protoplanetary disk, via photon- and/or electron-driven reactions and processing. Thus, synthesis of primitive organics might not have required a cold environment and could have occurred anywhere the disk is ionized, including in its warm regions. This scenario also supports N2 photodissociation as the cause of the large nitrogen isotopic range in the solar system. PMID:26039983

  1. Synthesis of refractory organic matter in the ionized gas phase of the solar nebula

    PubMed Central

    Kuga, Maïa; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Tissandier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In the nascent solar system, primitive organic matter was a major contributor of volatile elements to planetary bodies, and could have played a key role in the development of the biosphere. However, the origin of primitive organics is poorly understood. Most scenarios advocate cold synthesis in the interstellar medium or in the outer solar system. Here, we report the synthesis of solid organics under ionizing conditions in a plasma setup from gas mixtures (H2(O)?CO?N2?noble gases) reminiscent of the protosolar nebula composition. Ionization of the gas phase was achieved at temperatures up to 1,000 K. Synthesized solid compounds share chemical and structural features with chondritic organics, and noble gases trapped during the experiments reproduce the elemental and isotopic fractionations observed in primitive organics. These results strongly suggest that both the formation of chondritic refractory organics and the trapping of noble gases took place simultaneously in the ionized areas of the protoplanetary disk, via photon- and/or electron-driven reactions and processing. Thus, synthesis of primitive organics might not have required a cold environment and could have occurred anywhere the disk is ionized, including in its warm regions. This scenario also supports N2 photodissociation as the cause of the large nitrogen isotopic range in the solar system. PMID:26039983

  2. IONIZATION OF RARE-GAS TARGETS BY COLLISIONS OF FAST HIGHLY CHARGED PROJECTILES

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Berkner, K.H.; Graham, W.G.; Pyle, R.V.; Schneider, P.J.; Stadler, K.R.; tearns, J.W.; Tanis, J.A.; Olson, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    We have determined the net ionization cross section for total slow-ion or slow-electron charge production in rare-gas targets by passage of a fast projectile both experimentally and theoretically. We have experimentally studied ionization in these targets by C, Fe, Nb, and Pb projectiles with energies ranging from 310 keV/amu to 4.8 MeV/amu and for charge states in the range of +4 to +54. Theoretical calculations employing the classical-trajectory Monte-Carlo method are used to calculate ionization cross sections in the rare gases for projectiles at collision energies of 1 MeV/amu to 5 MeV/amu with charge states +5 to +80. Experiment and theory generally agree within a factor of 2 over this wide range of conditions. For a given rare-gas target, the cross sections for net ionization reduce to a common curve when plotted as cross section divided by charge state versus energy per nucleon divided by charge state.

  3. Quantification of dimethindene in plasma by gas chromatography-mass fragmentography using ammonia chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Kauert, G; Herrle, I; Wermeille, M

    1993-08-11

    A gas chromatographic-mass fragmentographic method using ammonia chemical ionization for the determination of dimethindene in human plasma is described. The drug was isolated from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with hexane-2-methylbutanol. Plasma components were separated on a capillary column coated with chemically bonded methyl silicone. For detection of dimethindene, its quasi-molecular ion (M + H+) was mass fragmentographically monitored after chemical ionization with ammonia as reagent gas. Dimethindene was quantified using methaqualone as the internal standard: the quantification limit in plasma was 0.2 ng/ml, the within-run precision was 8.0% and the inter-run precision 5.6%. The plasma concentration-time profile was established after a single dose of 4 mg of dimethindene with an average maximum concentration of 5.5 ng/ml, detectable up to 48 h post application. PMID:8408399

  4. Studies of Flow in Ionized Gas: Historical Perspective, Contemporary Experiments, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2007-04-23

    Since the first observations that a very small ionized fraction (order of 1 ppm) could strongly affect the gas flow, numerous experiments with partially or fully wall-free discharges have demonstrated the dispersion of shock waves, the enhancement of lateral forces in the flow, the prospects of levitation, and other aerodynamic effects with vast potential of application. A review of physical effects and observations are given along with current status of their interpretation. Special attention will be given to the physical problems of energy efficiency in generating wall-free discharges and the phenomenology of filamentary discharges. Comments and case examples are given on the current status of availability of necessary data for modelling and simulation of the aerodynamic phenomena in weakly ionized gas.

  5. 3D spectroscopy of the ionized gas kinematics in galactic rings

    E-print Network

    A. V. Moiseev

    2008-01-10

    The kinematics of galactic rings were studied with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer mounted in the multi-mode focal reducer SCORPIO (Afanasiev & Moiseev 2005) at the SAO RAS 6-m telescope. The analysis of the ionized gas velocity fields allows us to understand the nature of the ring formation in several galaxies. The different types of the rings in the presented objects (resonanced, collisional, polar) were caused by the various sorts of interactions: merging, head-on collisions.

  6. A VUV Photoionization and Ab Initio Determination of the Ionization Energy of a Gas-Phase Sugar (Deoxyribose)

    E-print Network

    Krylov, Anna I.

    A VUV Photoionization and Ab Initio Determination of the Ionization Energy of a Gas-Phase Sugar, Clusters, Excited States Sugars, together with phosphates, constitute the scaffold on which nucleic acids ionization energy for sugars such as deoxyribose stems from the difficulty to prepare intact molecules

  7. Investigating the Diffuse Ionized Gas throughout the Magellanic Cloud System with WHAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen; Madsen, Gregory J.; Hill, Alex S.

    2015-01-01

    We present early stages of an H-? survey of the Magellanic System using the Wisconsin H-? Mapper (WHAM). Our maps of the Small Magellanic Cloud, Large Magellanic Cloud, and Magellanic Bridge are the most sensitive kinematic maps of ionized gas throughout the System. With a velocity resolution of 12 km/s, WHAM observations can cleanly separate diffuse emission at Magellanic velocities from that of the Milky Way and terrestrial sources. These new maps of the SMC and LMC compliment observations of the Magellanic Bridge by Barger et al. (2013), who found H-alpha emission extending throughout and beyond the observed H I emission. Using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to the limit of atmospheric line confusion (~ 10s of mR), we find that ionized gas emission extends at least 5 degrees beyond the traditional boundary of the SMC when compared to recent deep-imaging surveys (e.g., MCELS; Smith et al. 2005). The diffuse ionized emission extent is similar to the neutral gas extent as traced by 21 cm. We present spectra comparing H I and H-alpha kinematic signatures throughout the emission region, which are dominated by galactic rotation. Multi-wavelength observations are also underway in [S II] and [N II] for the SMC and LMC. WHAM research and operations are supported through NSF Award AST-1108911.

  8. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14??m. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7??m gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  9. Integral-field Stellar and Ionized Gas Kinematics of Peculiar Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, Juan R.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Hardy, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion ?, and the ionized gas velocity (H? and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter ? R . An evaluation of the galaxies in the ? R ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact H? morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  10. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. E-mail: ehardy@nrao.cl

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion ?, and the ionized gas velocity (H? and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter ? {sub R}. An evaluation of the galaxies in the ? {sub R} ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact H? morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  11. A novel benzene quantitative analysis method using miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuxiang; Liu, Fuqi

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a novel benzene quantitative analysis method utilizing miniaturized metal ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic system was investigated. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was installed for electrical current-voltage data measurement. Measurement data was analyzed by non-linear bistable dynamics system. Results demonstrated that this method realized benzene concentration quantitative determination. This method is promising in laboratory safety management in benzene leak detection. PMID:26218927

  12. Ionization effects in the generation of wake-fields by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in argon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Makito, K.; Shin, J.-H.; Zhidkov, A.; Hosokai, T.; Masuda, S.; Kodama, R.

    2012-10-15

    Difference in mechanisms of wake-field generation and electron self-injection by high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in an initially neutral Argon gas and in pre-ionized plasma without ionization is studied via 2D particle-in-cell simulations including optical ionization of the media. For shorter laser pulses, 40 fs, ionization results only in an increase of the charge of accelerated electrons by factor of {approx}3 with qualitatively the same energy distribution. For longer pulses, 80 fs, a more stable wake field structure is observed in the neutral gas with the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons exceeding that in the fixed density plasma. In higher density Argon, an ionizing laser pulse converts itself to a complex system of solitons at a self-induced, critical density ramp.

  13. Diffuse Ionized Gas in Irregular Galaxies. I. GR 8 and ESO 245-G05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.

    2006-04-01

    We have studied the spectral characteristics of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in two irregular galaxies with low metallicities and intermediate star formation rates: ESO 245-G05 and GR 8. The [O III]/H? ratio in these galaxies is higher than in the DIG of spiral galaxies but not as high as in other irregular galaxies previously studied, such as IC 10 and NGC 6822. The [N II]/H? and [S II]/H? ratios have very small values, indicating the absence of shocks as the ionization source for this gas. This ionization can be explained in both galaxies with photon leakage from the H II regions as the only source. The percentage of photons that have escaped from the H II regions is small in ESO 245-G05, only 35%, but varies from 35% up to 60% in GR 8. We also investigated whether the differences found between spiral and irregular galaxies in the [O III]/H? and the [N II]/H? ratios are due to differences in the metal content between these types of galaxies. Although the number of galaxies studied is not very large, it can be concluded that the [O III]/H? ratio is not related to the oxygen content, while the situation is more ambiguous for the [N II]/H? ratio.

  14. WARM IONIZED GAS REVEALED IN THE MAGELLANIC BRIDGE TIDAL REMNANT: CONSTRAINING THE BARYON CONTENT AND THE ESCAPING IONIZING PHOTONS AROUND DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J. E-mail: haffner@astro.wisc.edu

    2013-07-10

    The Magellanic System includes some of the nearest examples of galaxies disturbed by galaxy interactions. These interactions have redistributed much of their gas into the halos of the Milky Way (MW) and the Magellanic Clouds. We present Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper kinematically resolved observations of the warm ionized gas in the Magellanic Bridge over the velocity range of +100 to +300 km s{sup -1} in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H{alpha} intensity map and the corresponding intensity-weighted mean velocity map of the Magellanic Bridge across (l, b) = (281 Degree-Sign .5, -30 Degree-Sign .0) to (302. Degree-Sign 5, -46. Degree-Sign 7). Using the H{alpha} emission from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-Tail and the Bridge, we estimate that the mass of the ionized material is between (0.7-1.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, compared to 3.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} for the neutral mass over the same region. The diffuse Bridge is significantly more ionized than the SMC-Tail, with an ionization fraction of 36%-52% compared to 5%-24% for the Tail. The H{alpha} emission has a complex multiple-component structure with a velocity distribution that could trace the sources of ionization or distinct ionized structures. We find that incident radiation from the extragalactic background and the MW alone are insufficient to produced the observed ionization in the Magellanic Bridge and present a model for the escape fraction of the ionizing photons from both the SMC and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). With this model, we place an upper limit of 4.0% for the average escape fraction of ionizing photons from the LMC and an upper limit of 5.5% for the SMC. These results, combined with the findings of a half a dozen other studies for dwarf galaxies in different environments, provide compelling evidence that only a small percentage of the ionizing photons escape from dwarf galaxies in the present epoch to influence their surroundings.

  15. Fabry-Perot observations of the ionized gas in NGC 3938

    E-print Network

    Jiménez-Vicente, J; Rozas, M; Castaneda, H O; Porcel, C

    1999-01-01

    The nearly face-on spiral galaxy NGC 3938 has been observed in the $H_\\alpha$ line with the TAURUS II Fabry-Perot interferometer at the William Herschel Telescope in order to study the kinematics of the ionized gas. We are able to construct intensity, velocity and velocity dispersion maps for this galaxy. The rotation curve of the galaxy is calculated up to 4.5 radial scale lengths from the galactic centre. The residual velocity field shows very small values with no systematic pattern. The mean velocity dispersion is approximately constant with radius at about 11 km/s as previously reported for the neutral and molecular gas. We have also studied the relation between intensity and velocity dispersion for the ionized gas. We have found that this distribution is compatible with a turbulent gas relaxing to a Kolmogorov type turbulence as the stationary regime. The average dispersion varies with intensity as $\\sigma which the dispersion is kept almost constant at a value of about 19 km/s.

  16. Ionized Plasma and Neutral Gas Coupling in the Sun's Chromosphere and Earth's Ionosphere/Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, J. E.; DeVore, C. R.; Thayer, J. P.; Burns, A. G.; Crowley, G.; Gilbert, H. R.; Huba, J. D.; Krall, J.; Linton, M. G.; Lukin, V. S.; Wang, W.

    2014-11-01

    We review physical processes of ionized plasma and neutral gas coupling in the weakly ionized, stratified, electromagnetically-permeated regions of the Sun's chromosphere and Earth's ionosphere/thermosphere. Using representative models for each environment we derive fundamental descriptions of the coupling of the constituent parts to each other and to the electric and magnetic fields, and we examine the variation in magnetization of the components. Using these descriptions we compare related phenomena in the two environments, and discuss electric currents, energy transfer and dissipation. We present examples of physical processes that occur in both atmospheres, the descriptions of which have previously been conducted in contrasting paradigms, that serve as examples of how the chromospheric and ionospheric communities can further collaborate. We also suggest future collaborative studies that will help improve our understanding of these two different atmospheres, which while sharing many similarities, also exhibit large disparities in key quantities.

  17. Ionized gas velocity dispersion in nearby dwarf galaxies: looking at supersonic turbulent motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexei V.; Lozinskaya, Tatiana A.

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of an ionized gas turbulent motions study in several nearby dwarf galaxies using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS). Combining the ‘intensity-velocity dispersion’ diagrams (?) with two-dimensional maps of radial velocity dispersion, we found a number of common patterns pointing to the relation between the value of chaotic ionized gas motions and processes of current star formation. In five out of the seven analysed galaxies, we identified expanding shells of ionized gas with diameters of 80-350 pc and kinematic ages of 1-4 Myr. We also demonstrate that the ? diagrams may be useful for the search of supernova remnants, other small expanding shells or unique stars in nearby galaxies. As an example, a candidate luminous blue variable (LBV) was found in UGC 8508. We propose some additions to the interpretation, previously used by Muñoz-Tuñón et al. to explain the ? diagrams for giant star formation regions. In the case of dwarf galaxies, a major part of the regions with high velocity dispersion belongs to the diffuse low surface brightness emission, surrounding the star-forming regions. We attribute this to the presence of perturbed low-density gas with high values of turbulent velocities around the giant H II regions. Based on observations obtained with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The observations were carried out with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation (contracts no. 16.518.11.7073 and 16.552.11.7028).

  18. A study of the ionized gas in Stephan's Quintet from integral field spectroscopy observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Baras, M.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Pasquali, A.

    2014-07-01

    Stephan's Quintet (SQ) is a famous interacting compact group of galaxies in an important stage of dynamical evolution, but surprisingly very few spectroscopic studies are found in the literature. We present optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) observations of the SQ from the PPAK IFS Nearby Galaxies Survey, that provide a powerful way of studying with spatial resolution the physical characteristics of the ionized gas within the group. The nature of the gas emission is analysed using 2D maps of continuum-subtracted, pure emission-line intensities, stacked spectra, diagnostic diagrams, and photoionization model predictions. In the case of NGC 7319, we study the galaxy-wide high-velocity outflow emission by comparing the emission properties with theoretical shock and AGN models. We conclude that the excitation mechanism of the gas in this galaxy is a mixture of AGN photoionization and shocks with a photoionizing precursor. The emission spectra from the large-scale shock front in the interacting pair NGC 7318A/B is analysed, confirming the presence of several kinematic components. Comparison with predictions from theoretical shock models suggests that the gas emission is consistent with shocks without a photoionizing precursor, low pre-shock density, and velocities in the range of ˜200-400 km s-1. The gas oxygen abundance for NGC 7318B is determined using an updated O3N2 calibration. Although NGC 7317 shows no significant gas emission, an ionizing cluster is found southwest of this galaxy, probably the result of tidal interaction. As a by-product, we analyse the gas emission of the foreground galaxy NGC 7320.

  19. Ionized gas outflow in the isolated S0 galaxy NGC 4460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Alexei; Karachentsev, Igor; Kaisin, Serafim

    2010-04-01

    We used integral-field and long-slit spectroscopy to study a bright extended nebulosity recently discovered in the isolated lenticular galaxy NGC 4460 during an H? survey of nearby galaxies. An analysis of archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, GALEX and Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that current star formation is entirely concentrated in the central kiloparsec of the galaxy disc. The observed ionized gas parameters (morphology, kinematics and ionization state) can be explained by a gas outflow above the plane of the galaxy, caused by star formation in the circumnuclear region. Galactic wind parameters in NGC 4460 (outflow velocity, total kinetic energy) are several times smaller, compared with the known galactic wind in NGC 253, which is explained by the substantially lower total star formation rate. We discuss the cause of the star formation processes in NGC 4460 and in two other known isolated lenticular (S0) and elliptical (E) galaxies of the Local Volume: NGC 404 and 855. We provide evidence suggesting that the feeding of isolated galaxies by intergalactic gas on a cosmological time-scale is a steady process without significant variations. Based on observations collected with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which is operated under the financial support of the Science Department of Russia (registration number 01-43). E-mail: moisav@gmail.com

  20. Can the Lyman Continuum Leaked Out of H II Regions Explain Diffuse Ionized Gas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Kwang-Il

    2009-09-01

    We present an attempt to explain the diffuse H? emission of a face-on galaxy M 51 with the "standard" photoionization model, in which the Lyman continuum (Lyc) escaping from H II regions propagates large distances into the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). The diffuse H? emission of M 51 is analyzed using thin slab models and exponential disk models in the context of the "on-the-spot" approximation. The scale height of the ionized gas needed to explain the diffuse H? emission with the scenario is found to be of the order of ~1-2 kpc, consistent with those of our Galaxy and edge-on galaxies. The model also provides a vertical profile, when the galaxy is viewed edge-on, consisting of two-exponential components. However, it is found that an incredibly low absorption coefficient of ?0 ? 0.4-0.8 kpc-1 at the galactic plane, or, equivalently, an effective cross section as low as ?eff ~ 10-5 of the photoionization cross section at 912 Å is required to allow the stellar Lyc photons to travel through the H I disk. Such a low absorption coefficient is out of accord with the properties of the ISM. Furthermore, we found that even the model that has the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) phase only and no H I gas phase shows highly concentrated H? emissions around H II regions, and can account for only lsim26% of the H? luminosity of the DIG. This result places a strong constraint on the ionizing source of the DIG. We also report that the H? intensity distribution functions not only of the DIG, but also of H II regions in M 51, appear to be lognormal.

  1. Spatially Resolved Thermodynamics of the Partially Ionized Exciton Gas in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieker, S.; Henn, T.; Kiessling, T.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the observation of macroscopic free exciton photoluminescence (PL) rings that appear in spatially resolved PL images obtained on a high purity GaAs sample. We demonstrate that a spatial temperature gradient in the photocarrier system, which is due to nonresonant optical excitation, locally modifies the population balance between free excitons and the uncorrelated electron-hole plasma described by the Saha equation and accounts for the experimentally observed nontrivial PL profiles. The exciton ring formation is a particularly instructive manifestation of the spatially dependent thermodynamics of a partially ionized exciton gas in a bulk semiconductor.

  2. Filling factors and scale heights of the diffuse ionized gas in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhuijsen, E. M.; Mitra, D.; Mueller, P.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of dispersion measures of pulsars, distances from the model of Cordes & Lazio (\\cite{cordes+lazio02}) and emission measures from the WHAM survey enabled a statistical study of electron densities and filling factors of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Milky Way. The emission measures were corrected for absorption and contributions from beyond the pulsar distance. For a sample of 157 pulsars at |b|>5° and 60° < ? < 360°, located in mainly interarm regions within about 3 kpc from the Sun, we find that: (1) The average volume filling factor along the line of sight /line{f}v and the mean density in ionized clouds /line{n}c are inversely correlated: /line{f}v(/line{n}c ) = (0.0184± 0.0011) /line{n}c{ -1.07± 0.03} for the ranges 0.03 < /line{n}c < 2 {cm-3 and 0.8 > /line{f}v > 0.01. This relationship is very tight. The inverse correlation of /line{f}v and /line{n}c causes the well-known constancy of the average electron density along the line of sight. As /line{f}v(z) increases with distance from the Galactic plane |z|, the average size of the ionized clouds increases with |z|. (2) For |z| < 0.9 kpc the local density in clouds nc (z) and local filling factor f(z) are inversely correlated because the local electron density ne (z) = f(z) nc (z) is constant. We suggest that f(z) reaches a maximum value of >0.3 near |z| = 0.9 kpc, whereas nc (z) continues to decrease to higher |z|, thus causing the observed flattening in the distribution of dispersion measures perpendicular to the Galactic plane above this height. (3) For |z| < 0.9 kpc the local distributions nc (z), f(z) and ne2(z) have the same scale height which is in the range 250 < h ? 500 pc. (4) The average degree of ionization of the warm atomic gas /line{I}w (z) increases towards higher |z| similarly to /line{f}v (z). Towards |z| = 1 kpc, /line{f}v (z) = 0.24± 0.05 and /line{I}w (z) = 0.24± 0.02. Near |z| = 1 kpc most of the warm, atomic hydrogen is ionized.

  3. Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei

    E-print Network

    T. Sonoda; M. Wada; H. Tomita; C. Sakamoto; T. Takatsuka; T. Furukawa; H. Iimura; Y. Ito; T. Kubo; Y. Matsuo; H. Mita; S. Naimi; S. Nakamura; T. Noto; P. Schury; T. Shinozuka; T. Wakui; H. Miyatake; S. Jeong; H. Ishiyama; Y. X. Watanabe; Y. Hirayama; K. Okada; A. Takamine

    2012-10-24

    A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa - 10^-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Jet-driven outflows of ionized gas in the nearby radio galaxy 3C 293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, E. K.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Morganti, R.; Tadhunter, C.; Bessiere, P.; Short, P.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fast outflows of gas, driven by the interaction between the radio jets and interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy, are being observed in an increasing number of galaxies. One such example is the nearby radio galaxy 3C 293. In this paper we present integral field unit observations taken with OASIS on the William Herschel Telescope, enabling us to map the spatial extent of the ionized gas outflows across the central regions of the galaxy. The jet-driven outflow in 3C 293 is detected along the inner radio lobes with a mass outflow rate ranging from ˜0.05 to 0.17 M? yr-1 (in ionized gas) and corresponding kinetic power of ˜0.5-3.5 × 1040 erg s-1. Investigating the kinematics of the gas surrounding the radio jets (i.e. not directly associated with the outflow), we find linewidths broader than 300 km s-1 up to 5 kpc in the radial direction from the nucleus (corresponding to 3.5 kpc in the direction perpendicular to the radio axis at maximum extent). Along the axis of the radio jet linewidths >400 km s-1 are detected out to 7 kpc from the nucleus and linewidths of >500 km s-1 at a distance of 12 kpc from the nucleus, indicating that the disturbed kinematics clearly extend well beyond the high surface brightness radio structures of the jets. This is suggestive of the cocoon structure seen in simulations of jet-ISM interaction and implies that the radio jets are capable of disturbing the gas throughout the central regions of the host galaxy in all directions.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, EXPLOSIVES DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, SRI INSTRUMENTS, MODEL 8610C, GAS CHROMATOGRAPH/THERMIONIC IONIZATION DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SRI Model 86 1 OC gas chromatograph (GC) is a transportable instrument that can provide on-site analysis of soils for explosives. Coupling this transportable gas chromatograph with a thermionic ionization detector (TID) allows for the determination of explosives in soil matri...

  6. Isothermal flow measurements in a gas turbine combustor using a fast flame ionization detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, R. W.; Hochgreb, S.

    2010-05-01

    A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) has been used to study isothermal gas transport and mixing inside a gas turbine combustion chamber. The large, highly linear dynamic range of the FFID coupled with a frequency response that extends up to approximately 200 Hz can reveal large-scale features of interest in turbulent flows. Experiments were performed in a ground-based test facility simulating high-altitude restart conditions. Pulses of propane were discharged into the core swirler of a fuel injector through a high-speed valve. The mole fraction of this tracer was monitored at various locations inside the combustion chamber. These measurements allowed the identification of recirculation timescales and flow instabilities at different points inside the combustion chamber, providing important insights into the altitude restart process.

  7. Collisions of highly stripped ions at MeV energies in gas targets: charge transfer and ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Cross sections have been measured for charge transfer and ionization in H/sub 2/ and rare-gas targets by fast, highly ionized carbon, iron, niobium, and lead ions in charge states +3 to +59, with energies in the range 0.1 to 4.8 MeV/amu. Experimental results are compared with classical-trajectory calculations; agreement is generally good. For a given target, the cross sections for net ionization reduce to a common curve when plotted as cross section divided by charge state versus energy per nucleon divided by charge state.

  8. Properties of a weakly ionized NO gas sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Yong; Pan, Zhigang; Yang, Shuang; Shi, Jinghui; Li, Shengtao; Min, Daomin; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Dingxin; Yang, Aijun

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide NO is one of the major targets for environmental monitoring, but the existing NO sensors are limited by their low sensitivity and narrow test range. Here, a NO gas sensor employing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was fabricated, and its properties in NO-N2 mixture were investigated from both emission and ionization. The current Ie passing through the nanotubes cathode was found to decrease with increasing NO concentration and increase linearly in different slopes with the extracting voltage Ue. It is shown that the Schottky barrier of the MWCNTs calculated by Ie increased with NO concentration due to the adsorption of NO gas, which restrained the electron emission and consequently weakened the ionization. The positive ion currents Ic passing through the collecting electrode at different voltages of Ue were found to monotonically decrease with increasing NO concentration, which was induced by both of the reduced electron emission and the consumption of the two excited metastable states N2(A3?u+) and N2(a'1?u-) by NO. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity at the low temperature of 30 °C. The calculated conductivity was found to be able to take place of Ic for NO detection in a wide voltage range of 80-150 V Ue.

  9. Collisions of fast multicharged ions in gas targets: charge transfer and ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1981-05-01

    Measurements of cross sections for charge transfer and ionization of H/sub 2/ and rare-gas targets have been made with fast, highly stripped projectiles in charge states as high as 59+. We have found an empirical scaling rule for electron-capture cross section in H/sub 2/ valid at energies above 275 keV/amu. Similar scaling might exist for other target gases. Cross sections are generally in good agreement with theory. We have found a scaling rule for electron loss from H in collisions with a fast highly stripped projectile, based on Olson's classical-trajectory Monte-Carlo calculations, and confirmed by measurements in an H/sub 2/ target. We have found a similar scaling rule for net ionization of rare-gas targets, based on Olson's CTMC calculations and the independent-electron model. Measurements are essentially consistent with the scaled cross sections. Calculations and measurements of recoil-ion charge-state spectra show large cross sections for the production of highly charged slow recoil ions.

  10. Correlation between star formation activity and electron density of ionized gas at z = 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakawa, Rhythm; Kodama, Tadayuki; Steidel, Charles C.; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Ichi; Strom, Allison L.; Hayashi, Masao; Koyama, Yusei; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Yamamoto, Moegi

    2015-08-01

    In the redshift interval of 2 < z < 3, the physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in star-forming galaxies are likely to be different from those in the local Universe because of lower gaseous metallicities, higher gas fractions, and higher star formation activities. In fact, observations suggest that higher electron densities, higher ionization parameters, and harder UV radiation fields are common. In this paper, based on the spectra of H ?-selected star-forming galaxies at z = 2.5 taken with Multi-Object Spectrometer for InfraRed Exploration on Keck-1 telescope, we measure electron densities (ne) using the oxygen line ratio ([O II] ??3726,3729), and investigate the relationships between the electron density of ionized gas and other physical properties. As a result, we find that the specific star formation rate (sSFR) and the surface density of SFR (?SFR) are correlated with the electron density at z = 2.5 for the first time. The ?SFR-ne relation is likely to be linked to the star formation law in H II regions (where star formation activity is regulated by interstellar pressure). Moreover, we discuss the mode of star formation in those galaxies. The correlation between sSFR and ?SFR suggests that highly star-forming galaxies (with high sSFR) tend to be characterized by higher surface densities of star formation (?SFR) and thus higher ne values as well.

  11. High-ionization Gas in Active Galactic Nuclei: Line Profiles and Physical Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodíguez-Ardila, A.; Riffel, R.; Mazzalay, X.; Portilla, J. G.

    2012-08-01

    SOAR/Goodman spectroscopy is employed to detect the coronal lines [Fe VII] 3759, 5159, and 6087 Å, [Ne V] 3423 Å and [Fe X] 6083 Å, the former three suitable to determine the temperature and density of the high-ionization gas. The spectra allow us to fully characterize the profiles of the most conspicuous lines (asymmetries, shifts from the centroid position and line width). The combined results allow us to detect signatures of outflows in the coronal gas and thus set up constrains on the origin of the CLs in AGNs. In addition, AO GEMINI/NIFS IFU spectroscopy is used to study the coronal gas morphology at spatial scales of a few parsecs in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. We found that the gas distribution is rather inhomogeneous and asymmetric. From the comparison of the CL [Mg VIII] with the VLA 6 cm radio emission we found evidence that the CL gas kinematics and morphology is strongly related to the radio jet morphology. All above results allow us to confirm the role that coronal lines have to trace outflows at the inner tens of parsecs of AGNs.

  12. Determination of nitrogen monoxide in high purity nitrogen gas with an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, K.

    1985-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometric (API-MS) method was studied for the determination of residual NO in high purity N2 gas. The API-MS is very sensitive to NO, but the presence of O2 interferes with the NO measurement. Nitrogen gas in cylinders as sample gas was mixed with NO standard gas and/or O2 standard gas, and then introduced into the API-MS. The calibration curves of NO and O2 has linearity in the region of 0 - 2 ppm, but the slopes changed with every cylinder. The effect of O2 on NO+ peak was additive and proportional to O2 concentration in the range of 0 - 0.5 ppm. The increase in NO+ intensity due to O2 was (0.07 - 0.13)%/O2, 1 ppm. Determination of NO and O2 was carried out by the standard addition method to eliminate the influence of variation of slopes. The interference due to O2 was estimated from the product of the O2 concentration and the ratio of slope A to Slope B. Slope A is the change in the NO+ intensity with the O2 concentration. Slope B is the intensity with O2 concentration.

  13. Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei

    E-print Network

    Sonoda, T; Tomita, H; Sakamoto, C; Takatsuka, T; Furukawa, T; Iimura, H; Ito, Y; Kubo, T; Matsuo, Y; Mita, H; Naimi, S; Nakamura, S; Noto, T; Schury, P; Shinozuka, T; Wakui, T; Miyatake, H; Jeong, S; Ishiyama, H; Watanabe, Y X; Hirayama, Y; Okada, K; Takamine, A

    2012-01-01

    A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN's fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa - 10^-3 Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by ...

  14. Gas kinematics and ionization along the extended sight line to HD 116852

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.

    1994-01-01

    We present Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph intermediate observations of the interstellar medium toward HD 116852, a low halo star at a distance of 4.8 kpc (z = -1.3 kpc) in the direction l = 304. deg 9, b = 16.deg 1. The small science aperture observations have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 30 to 90 and resolutions of 11 to 18 km/s (FWHM). We confirm the optical MK classification of this star through an analysis of its ultraviolet photosperic and stellar wind profiles. We detect interstellar lines of Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V together with lines of C I, C I*, C I**, Si II, Ge II, P II, and Ni II. We convert the Mg II, P II, S II, Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V profiles into measure of apparent column density as a function of LSR velocity. Gas scale height, velocity dispersion, and differential Galactic rotation effects govern the profile shapes. A simple computer model of the expected sight line column density profiles for the low and high ion species indicates that the gas velocity dispersions and scale heights increase as the ionization level of the gas increases. We find scale heigts H greater than or = 1 kpc for the high ions, which are comparable to the z-distance of the star, whereas we find H approximatley = 0.6 to 0.7 kpc for A1 III and H approximatley 0.1 kpc for P II and Ge II. An enhancement in the Al II profile near -15 km/s accounts for approximately 25% of the A1 III column along the sight line and probably arises within gas located approximately 500 pc below the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm link. Portions of the broad underlying A1 III distribution are associated with the higher ionization lines, perhaps in conductive interfaces. The presence of N V and the column density ratios of Si IV, C IV, and N V favor the interpretation that much of the high ion absorption is produced by collisional ionization in gas with T = 1-3 x 10(exp 5) K. An enhancement near -35 km/s in both the Si IV and C IV profiles may be due to an outflow from the Norma spiral arm at a z-distance of about -1 kpc. The smooth decrease of the N(C IV)/N(Si IV) ratio at negative velocities may be due to an ISM ionization structure for hot gas that changes distance from the Galactic plane or to a two phase gas distribution in which the relative contribution from each phase changes with distance from the Galactic plane.

  15. Dust and ionized gas in elliptical galaxies: Signatures of merging collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Dejong, Teije

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally elliptical galaxies were thought to be essentially devoid of interstellar matter. However, recent advances in instrumental sensitivity have caused a renaissance of interest in dust and gas in - or associated with - elliptical galaxies. In particular, the technique of co-adding IRAS survey scans has led to the detection of more than half of all ellipticals with BT less than 11 mag. in the Revised Shapley-Ames catalog, indicating the presence of 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) solar mass of cold interstellar matter (Jura et al. 1987). In addition, CCD multi-color surface photometry shows dust patches in about 30 percent of the cases studied to date (e.g., Veron-Cetty & Veron 1988). Thorough study of the gas and dust in ellipticals is important to (1) determine its origin (mass-loss from late-type stars, merging collisions with other galaxies or accretion inflows from cooling X-ray gas), and (2) investigate the 3-D shape of ellipticals, as can be derived from the orientation of the dust lanes and the 2-D velocity field of the gas. An important result of our comprehensive CCD imaging program is that a relevant fraction (approximately 40 percent) of the sample objects exhibits dust patches within extended H-alpha+(NII) line-emitting filaments. This common occurrence can be easily accounted for if the dust and gas have an external origin, i.e., mergers or interactions with gas-rich galaxies. Evidence supporting this suggestion: (1) the ionized gas is usually dynamically decoupled from the stellar velocity field (see, e.g., Sharples et al. 1983, Bertola & Bettoni 1988); (2) it is shown in a companion paper (Goudfrooij et al. 1992) that internal stellar mass loss alone can not account for the dust content of elliptical galaxies.

  16. Observations of feedback from radio-quiet quasars - II. Kinematics of ionized gas nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Liu, Xin

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and energetics of quasar feedback is a major unresolved problem in galaxy formation theory. In this paper, we present Gemini Integral Field Unit observations of ionized gas around 11 luminous, obscured, radio-quiet quasars at z ˜ 0.5 out to ˜15 kpc from the quasar; specifically, we measure the kinematics and morphology of [O III] ?5007 Å emission. The round morphologies of the nebulae and the large line-of-sight velocity widths (with velocities containing 80 per cent of the emission as high as 103 km s-1) combined with relatively small velocity difference across them (from 90 to 520 km s-1) point towards wide-angle quasi-spherical outflows. We use the observed velocity widths to estimate a median outflow velocity of 760 km s-1, similar to or above the escape velocities from the host galaxies. The line-of-sight velocity dispersion declines slightly towards outer parts of the nebulae (by 3 per cent kpc-1 on average). The majority of nebulae show blueshifted excesses in their line profiles across most of their extents, signifying gas outflows. For the median outflow velocity, we find dot{E}_kin between 4 × 1044 and 3 × 1045 erg s-1 and dot{M} between 2 × 103 and 2 × 104 M? yr-1. These values are large enough for the observed quasar winds to have a significant impact on their host galaxies. The median rate of converting bolometric luminosity to kinetic energy of ionized gas clouds is ˜2 per cent. We report four new candidates for `superbubbles' - outflows that may have broken out of the denser regions of the host galaxy.

  17. Analysis of pesticide residues by fast gas chromatography in combination with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Húsková, Renáta; Matisová, Eva; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Svorc, Lubomír

    2009-08-28

    A combination of fast GC with narrow-bore column and bench top quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) detector in negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode (with methane as reagent gas) is set up and utilized for the ultratrace analysis of 25 selected pesticides. The observed pesticides, belonging to the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), were from different chemical classes. A comparative study with electron impact (EI) ionization was also carried out (both techniques in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode). The programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector in solvent vent mode and narrow-bore column (15mx0.15mm I.D.x0.15microm film of 5% diphenyl 95% dimethylsiloxane stationary phase) were used for effective and fast separation. Heptachlor (HPT) as internal standard (I.S.) was applied for the comparison of results obtained from absolute and normalized peak areas. Non-fatty food matrices were investigated. Fruit (apple - matrix-matched standards; orange, strawberry, plum - real samples) and vegetable (lettuce - real sample) extracts were prepared by a quick and effective QuEChERS sample preparation technique. Very good results were obtained for the characterization of fast GC-NCI-MS method analysing EDCs pesticides. Analyte response was linear from 0.01 to 150microgkg(-1) with the R(2) values in the range from 0.9936 to 1.0000 (calculated from absolute peak areas) and from 0.9956 to 1.0000 (calculated from peak areas normalized to HPT). Instrument limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were found at pgmL(-1) level and for the majority of analytes were up to three orders of magnitude lower for NCI compared to EI mode. In both ionization modes, repeatability of measurements expressed as relative standard deviation (RSDs) was less than 10% which is in very good agreement with the criterion of European Union. PMID:19643423

  18. Numerical models for the diffuse ionized gas in galaxies. I. Synthetic spectra of thermally excited gas with turbulent magnetic reconnection as energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Lieb, S.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Lesch, H.; Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Birk, G. T.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to verify whether turbulent magnetic reconnection can provide the additional energy input required to explain the up to now only poorly understood ionization mechanism of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in galaxies and its observed emission line spectra. Methods: We use a detailed non-LTE radiative transfer code that does not make use of the usual restrictive gaseous nebula approximations to compute synthetic spectra for gas at low densities. Excitation of the gas is via an additional heating term in the energy balance as well as by photoionization. Numerical values for this heating term are derived from three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic two-fluid plasma-neutral-gas simulations to compute energy dissipation rates for the DIG under typical conditions. Results: Our simulations show that magnetic reconnection can liberate enough energy to by itself fully or partially ionize the gas. However, synthetic spectra from purely thermally excited gas are incompatible with the observed spectra; a photoionization source must additionally be present to establish the correct (observed) ionization balance in the gas.

  19. Ionization heating in rare-gas clusters under intense XUV laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Arbeiter, Mathias; Fennel, Thomas

    2010-07-15

    The interaction of intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser pulses ({lambda}=32 nm, I=10{sup 11}-10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) with small rare-gas clusters (Ar{sub 147}) is studied by quasiclassical molecular dynamics simulations. Our analysis supports a very general picture of the charging and heating dynamics in finite samples under short-wavelength radiation that is of relevance for several applications of free-electron lasers. First, up to a certain photon flux, ionization proceeds as a series of direct photoemission events producing a jellium-like cluster potential and a characteristic plateau in the photoelectron spectrum as observed in Bostedt et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133401 (2008)]. Second, beyond the onset of photoelectron trapping, nanoplasma formation leads to evaporative electron emission with a characteristic thermal tail in the electron spectrum. A detailed analysis of this transition is presented. Third, in contrast to the behavior in the infrared or low vacuum ultraviolet range, the nanoplasma energy capture proceeds via ionization heating, i.e., inner photoionization of localized electrons, whereas collisional heating of conduction electrons is negligible up to high laser intensities. A direct consequence of the latter is a surprising evolution of the mean energy of emitted electrons as function of laser intensity.

  20. Interrelated structures of the transport shock and collisional relaxation layer in a multitemperature, multilevel ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinolo, A. R.; Clarke, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The gas dynamic structures of the transport shock and the downstream collisional relaxation layer are evaluated for partially ionized monatomic gases. Elastic and inelastic collisional nonequilibrium effects are taken into consideration. In the microscopic model of the atom, three electronic levels are accounted for. By using an asymptotic technique, the shock morphology is found on a continuum flow basis. This procedure gives two distinct layers in which the nonequilibrium effects to be considered are different. A transport shock appears as the inner solution to an outer collisional relaxation layer. The results show four main interesting points: (1) on structuring the transport shock, ionization and excitation rates must be included in the formulation, since the flow is not frozen with respect to the population of the different electronic levels; (2) an electron temperature precursor appears at the beginning of the transport shock; (3) the collisional layer is rationally reduced to quadrature for special initial conditions, which (4) are obtained from new Rankine-Hugoniot relations for the inner shock.

  1. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-07-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  2. Dispersion of seed vapor and gas ionization in an MHD second stage combustor and channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is introduced for the simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic system consisting of a second stage combustor, a convergent nozzle, and a channel. The simulation uses an Argonne integral combustion flow computer code and another Argonne channel computer code to predict flow, thermal and electric properties in the seed particle laden reacting flow in the system. The combustion code is a general hydrodynamics computer code for two-phase, two-dimensional, turbulent, and reacting flows, based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws for gaseous and condensed phases. The channel code is a multigrid three-dimensional computer code for compressible flow subject to magnetic and electric interactions. Results of this study suggests that (1) the processes of seed particle evaporation, seed vapor dispersion, and gas ionization in the reacting flow are critical to the evaluation of the downstream channel performance and (2) particle size, loading, and inlet profile have strong effects on wall deposition and plasma temperature development.

  3. The Effect of the Argon Carrier Gas in the Multiphoton Dissociation-Ionization of Tetracene

    PubMed Central

    Poveda, Juan Carlos; Román, Alejandro San; Guerrero, Alfonso; Álvarez, Ignacio; Cisneros, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    The multiphoton dissociation-ionization of tetracene at 355 nm using 6.5 nanosecond laser pulses, with and without argon as a carrier gas (CG), has been studied and compared. Ion fragments were analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). The results show that the dynamic of photodissociation at ?1010 W cm?2 intensities is strongly influenced by the CG. The suppression of fragmentation channels primarily those relating to the formation of the CHm+ (m = 2, 4), C2H4+ and C5H4+2 ions. CH5+ and CH6+ were observed which have not been reported before in photodissociation tetracene experiments. PMID:19325732

  4. Identifying Extraplanar Diffuse Ionized Gas in a Sample of MaNGA Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Ryan J.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency with which galaxies convert gas into stars is driven by the continuous cycle of accretion and feedback processes within the circumgalactic medium. Extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (eDIG) can provide insights into the tumultuous processes that govern the evolution of galactic disks because eDIG emission traces both inflowing and outflowing gas. With the help of state-of-the-art, spatially-resolved spectroscopy from MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), we developed a computational method to identify eDIG based on the strength of and spatial extent of optical emission lines for a diverse sample of 550 nearby galaxies. This sample includes roughly half of the MaNGA galaxies that will become publicly available in summer 2016 as part of the Thirteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identified signatures of eDIG in 8% of the galaxies in this sample, and we found that these signatures are particularly common among galaxies with active star formation and inclination angles >45 degrees. Our analysis of the morphology, incidence, and kinematics of eDIG has important implications for current models of accretion and feedback processes that regulate star formation in galaxies. We acknowledge support from the Astrophysics REU program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the National Astronomy Consortium, and The Grainger Foundation.

  5. CONSTRAINING STELLAR FEEDBACK: SHOCK-IONIZED GAS IN NEARBY STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela; Gallagher, John S. III; Martin, Crystal L.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Pellerin, Anne

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the properties of feedback-driven shocks in eight nearby starburst galaxies using narrow-band imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We identify the shock-ionized component via the line diagnostic diagram [O III] (?5007)/H? versus [S II] (??6716, 6731) (or [N II] (?6583))/H?, applied to resolved regions 3-15 pc in size. We divide our sample into three sub-samples: sub-solar, solar, and super-solar, for consistent shock measurements. For the sub-solar sub-sample, we derive three scaling relations: (1) L{sub shock}?SFR{sup 0.62}, (2) L{sub shock}??{sub SFR,{sub HL}} {sup 0.92}, and (3) L{sub shock}/L{sub tot}?(L{sub H} /L{sub ?,{sub H}}){sup –0.65}, where L{sub shock} is the H? luminosity from shock-ionized gas, ?{sub SFR,{sub HL}} the star formation rate (SFR) per unit half-light area, L{sub tot} the total H? luminosity, and L{sub H} /L{sub ?,{sub H}} the absolute H-band luminosity from the Two Micron All Sky Survey normalized to solar luminosity. The other two sub-samples do not have enough number statistics, but appear to follow the first scaling relation. The energy recovered indicates that the shocks from stellar feedback in our sample galaxies are fully radiative. If the scaling relations are applicable in general to stellar feedback, our results are similar to those by Hopkins et al. for galactic superwinds. This similarity should, however, be taken with caution at this point, as the underlying physics that enables the transition from radiative shocks to gas outflows in galaxies is still poorly understood.

  6. KINEMATICS OF IONIZED GAS AT 0.01 AU OF TW Hya

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, M.; Linz, H.; Henning, Th.; Carmona, A.; Stecklum, B.; Meeus, G.; Usuda, T.

    2012-03-20

    We report two-dimensional spectroastrometry of Br{gamma} emission of TW Hya to study the kinematics of the ionized gas in the star-disk interface region. The spectroastrometry with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope is sensitive to the positional offset of the line emission down to the physical scale of the stellar diameter ({approx}0.01 AU). The centroid of Br{gamma} emission is displaced to the north with respect to the central star at the blue side of the emission line, and to the south at the red side. The major axis of the centroid motion is P.A. = -20 Degree-Sign , which is nearly equal to the major axis of the protoplanetary disk projected on the sky, previously reported by CO submillimeter spectroscopy (P.A. = -27 Degree-Sign ). The line-of-sight motion of the Br{gamma} emission, in which the northern side of the disk is approaching toward us, is also consistent with the direction of the disk rotation known from the CO observation. The agreement implies that the kinematics of Br{gamma} emission is accounted for by the ionized gas in the inner edge of the disk. A simple modeling of the astrometry, however, indicates that the accretion inflow similarly well reproduces the centroid displacements of Br{gamma}, but only if the position angles of the centroid motion and the projected disk ellipse are a chance coincidence. No clear evidence of disk wind is found.

  7. A reservoir of ionized gas in the galactic halo to sustain star formation in the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J Christopher

    2011-11-18

    Without a source of new gas, our Galaxy would exhaust its supply of gas through the formation of stars. Ionized gas clouds observed at high velocity may be a reservoir of such gas, but their distances are key for placing them in the galactic halo and unraveling their role. We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to blindly search for ionized high-velocity clouds (iHVCs) in the foreground of galactic stars. We show that iHVCs with 90 ? |v(LSR)| ? 170 kilometers per second (where v(LSR) is the velocity in the local standard of rest frame) are within one galactic radius of the Sun and have enough mass to maintain star formation, whereas iHVCs with |v(LSR)| ? 170 kilometers per second are at larger distances. These may be the next wave of infalling material. PMID:21868626

  8. Collision of fast highly charged ions in gas targets: ionization, recoil-ion production, and charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Schalchter, A.S.; Berkner, K.H.; Beyer, H.F.

    1982-07-01

    Electron-capture, ionization, and recoil-ion-production cross sections are measured and calculated for fast highly charged projectiles in hydrogen and rare-gas targets. Recoil-ion-production cross sections are found to be large; the low energy and high charge states of the recoil ions make them useful for subsequent collision studies.

  9. Determination of BROMATE AT PARTS-PER-TRILLION LEVELS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ozonation of bromide-containing source waters produces bromate as a class 2B carcinogenic disinfection by-product. The present work describes the determination of bromate by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCIMS) following a bromate react...

  10. Ionized Phenol and Its Isomers in the Gas Phase Hung Thanh Le,, Robert Flammang, Pascal Gerbaux, Guy Bouchoux,| and

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    Ionized Phenol and Its Isomers in the Gas Phase Hung Thanh Le,, Robert Flammang,§ Pascal Gerbaux giving essentially phenol and anisole radical cations, respectively. Under similar conditions, protonated unsubstituted anisole is also readily demethylated generating the phenol ion but not cyclohexadienone ions

  11. Plasma ionization frequency, edge-to-axis density ratio, and density on axis of a cylindrical gas discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Palacio Mizrahi, J. H.

    2014-06-15

    A rigorous derivation of expressions, starting from the governing equations, for the ionization frequency, edge-to-axis ratio of plasma density, plasma density at the axis, and radially averaged plasma density in a cylindrical gas discharge has been obtained. The derived expressions are simple and involve the relevant parameters of the discharge: Cylinder radius, axial current, and neutral gas pressure. The found expressions account for ion inertia, ion temperature, and changes in plasma ion collisionality.

  12. Quasars as Cosmological Probes: The Ionizing Continuum, Gas Metallicity and the EW-L Relation

    E-print Network

    Kirk Korista; Jack Baldwin; Gary Ferland

    1998-05-27

    Using a realistic model for line emission from the broad emission line regions of quasars, we are able to reproduce the previously observed correlations of emission-line ratios with the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED). In agreement with previous studies, we find that the primary driving force behind the Baldwin Effect (EW ~ L^beta, beta < 0) is a global change in the SED with quasar luminosity, in that more luminous quasars must have characteristically softer ionizing continua. This is completely consistent with observations that show correlations between L_uv, alpha_ox, alpha_uvx, line ratios and EWs. However, to explain the complete lack of a correlation in the EW(NV)--L_uv diagram we propose that the more luminous quasars have characteristically larger gas metallicities (Z). As a secondary element, nitrogen's rapidly increasing abundance with increasing Z compensates for the losses in EW(NV) emitted by gas illuminated by softer continua in higher luminosity quasars. A characteristic relationship between Z and L has an impact on the EW--L_uv relations for other lines as well. For a fixed SED, an increasing gas metallicity reduces the EW of the stronger metal lines (the gas cools) and that of Ly_alpha and especially HeII (because of the increasing metal opacity), while the weaker lines (e.g., CIII] 1909) generally respond positively. The interplay between the effects of a changing SED and Z with L results in the observed luminosity dependent spectral variations. All of the resulting dependences on L_uv are within the range of the observed slopes.

  13. IZI: INFERRING THE GAS PHASE METALLICITY (Z) AND IONIZATION PARAMETER (q) OF IONIZED NEBULAE USING BAYESIAN STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, Guillermo A.; Kewley, Lisa; Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.

    2015-01-10

    We present a new method for inferring the metallicity (Z) and ionization parameter (q) of H II regions and star-forming galaxies using strong nebular emission lines (SELs). We use Bayesian inference to derive the joint and marginalized posterior probability density functions for Z and q given a set of observed line fluxes and an input photoionization model. Our approach allows the use of arbitrary sets of SELs and the inclusion of flux upper limits. The method provides a self-consistent way of determining the physical conditions of ionized nebulae that is not tied to the arbitrary choice of a particular SEL diagnostic and uses all the available information. Unlike theoretically calibrated SEL diagnostics, the method is flexible and not tied to a particular photoionization model. We describe our algorithm, validate it against other methods, and present a tool that implements it called IZI. Using a sample of nearby extragalactic H II regions, we assess the performance of commonly used SEL abundance diagnostics. We also use a sample of 22 local H II regions having both direct and recombination line (RL) oxygen abundance measurements in the literature to study discrepancies in the abundance scale between different methods. We find that oxygen abundances derived through Bayesian inference using currently available photoionization models in the literature can be in good (?30%) agreement with RL abundances, although some models perform significantly better than others. We also confirm that abundances measured using the direct method are typically ?0.2 dex lower than both RL and photoionization-model-based abundances.

  14. Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halos of NGC 891 and NGC 5775

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, G. H.; Rand, R. J.; Benjamin, R. A.; Bershady, M. A.; Collins, J. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2005-12-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to characterize the nature of the disk-halo interaction in spiral galaxies, we present an investigation into the kinematics of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) halos of two edge-on spirals, NGC 891 and NGC 5775. Observations of optical emission lines were obtained at high spectral resolution with the SparsePak fiber array at WIYN, and the TAURUS-II Fabry-Perot interferometer at the AAT, respectively. Detailed three-dimensional models of the galaxies were created and compared with the data, revealing the presence of a vertical gradient in rotational velocity in each case. The sense of the gradient corresponds to decreasing rotation speed with increasing height above the disk; the magnitude is approximately 15 km s-1 kpc-1 in NGC 891, and 8 km s-1 kpc-1 in NGC 5775. Qualitatively, this behavior is predicted by models of the disk-halo interaction which consider gas being lifted out of the disk, but quantitative agreement has not yet been achieved. We describe the results of our observations, present a comparison with a purely ballistic model of disk-halo flow, and discuss prospects for a better understanding of this critical process in the evolution of galaxies. This material is based on work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST 99-86113.

  15. Dust trap formation in a non-self-sustained discharge with external gas ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A. V.; Babichev, V. N.; Pal', A. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Cherkovets, V. E.; Rerikh, V. K.; Taran, M. D.

    2015-11-01

    Results from numerical studies of a non-self-sustained gas discharge containing micrometer dust grains are presented. The non-self-sustained discharge (NSSD) was controlled by a stationary fast electron beam. The numerical model of an NSSD is based on the diffusion drift approximation for electrons and ions and self-consistently takes into account the influence of the dust component on the electron and ion densities. The dust component is described by the balance equation for the number of dust grains and the equation of motion for dust grains with allowance for the Stokes force, gravity force, and electric force in the cathode sheath. The interaction between dust grains is described in the self-consistent field approximation. The height of dust grain levitation over the cathode is determined and compared with experimental results. It is established that, at a given gas ionization rate and given applied voltage, there is a critical dust grain size above which the levitation condition in the cathode sheath cannot be satisfied. Simulations performed for the dust component consisting of dust grains of two different sizes shows that such grains levitate at different heights, i.e., size separation of dust drains levitating in the cathode sheath of an NSSD takes place.

  16. The Properties and the Evolution of the Highly Ionized Gas in MR 2251-178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, hagai; Chelouche, Doron; George, Ian M.; Nandra, Kirpal; Turner, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first XMM-Newton observations of the radio-quiet quasar MR 2251-178 obtained in 2000 and 2002. The EPIC-pn spectra show a power-law continuum with a slope of Gamma = 1.6 at high energies absorbed by at least two warm absorbers (WAs) intrinsic to the source. The underlying continuum in the earlier observation shows a soft excess at low X-ray energies which can be modeled as an additional power-law with Gamma = 2.9. The spectra also show a weak narrow iron K alpha emission line. The high-resolution grating spectrum obtained in 2002 shows emission lines from N VI, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, and Ne X, as well as absorption lines from the low-ionization ions of O III, O IV, and O V, and other confirmed and suspected weaker absorption lines. The O III - O V lines are consistent with the properties of the emission line gas observed as extended optical (O III) emission in this source. The signal-to-noise of the 2000 grating data is too low to detect any lines. We suggest a model for the high-resolution spectrum which consist of two or three warm-absorber (WA) components. The two-components model has a high-ionization WA with a column density of 10(exp 21.5)-10 (exp 21.8) sq cm and a low-ionization absorber with a column density of 10(exp 20.3) sq cm. In the three-components model we add a lower ionization component that produces the observed iron M-shell absorption lines. We investigate the spectral variations in MR 2251-178 over a period of 8.5 years using data from ASCA, BeppoSAX, and XMM-Newton. All X-ray observations can be fitted with the above two power laws and the two absorbers. The observed luminosity variations seems to correlate with variations in the soft X-ray continuum. The 8.5 year history of the source suggests a changing X-ray absorber due to material that enters and disappears from the line-of-sight on timescales of several months. We also present, for the first time, the entire FUSE spectrum of MR 2251-178. We detect emission from N III, C III, and O VI and at least 4 absorption systems in C III, H I, and O VI, one at -580 km/s and at least 3 others which are blended together and form a wide trough covering the velocity range of 0 to -500 km/s. The general characteristics of the UV and X-ray absorbers are consistent with an origin in the same gas.

  17. Densities and filling factors of the diffuse ionized gas in the Solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhuijsen, E. M.; Müller, P.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: We analyse electron densities and filling factors of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in the Solar neighbourhood. Methods: We have combined dispersion measures and emission measures towards 38 pulsars at distances known to better than 50%, from which we derived the mean density in clouds, N_c, and their volume filling factor, F_v, averaged along the line of sight. The emission measures were corrected for absorption by dust and contributions from beyond the pulsar distance. Results: The scale height of the electron layer for our sample is 0.93± 0.13 kpc and the midplane electron density is 0.023± 0.004 cm-3, in agreement with earlier results. The average density along the line of sight is < n_e> = 0.018± 0.002 cm-3 and is nearly constant. Since < n_e> = F_vN_c, an inverse relationship between Fv and Nc is expected. We find F_v(N_c) = (0.011± 0.003) N_c-1.20± 0.13, which holds for the ranges N_c= 0.05-1 cm-3 and F_v= 0.4-0.01. Near the Galactic plane the dependence of Fv on Nc is significantly stronger than away from the plane. Fv does not systematically change along or perpendicular to the Galactic plane, but the spread about the mean value of 0.08± 0.02 is considerable. The total pathlength through the ionized regions increases linearly to about 80 pc towards |z| = 1 kpc. Conclusions: Our study of Fv and Nc of the DIG is the first one based on a sample of pulsars with known distances. We confirm the existence of a tight, nearly inverse correlation between Fv and Nc in the DIG. The exact form of this relation depends on the regions in the Galaxy probed by the pulsar sample. The inverse F_v-Nc relation is consistent with a hierarchical, fractal density distribution in the DIG caused by turbulence. The observed near constancy of < n_e> then is a signature of fractal structure in the ionized medium, which is most pronounced outside the thin disk.

  18. Numerical models of steady-state and pulsating flows of self-ionizing gas in plasma accelerator channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brushlinskii, K. V.; Kozlov, A. N.; Konovalov, V. S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper continues the series of numerical investigations of self-ionizing gas flows in plasma accelerator channels with an azimuthal magnetic field. The mathematical model is based on the equations of dynamics of a three-component continuous medium consisting of atoms, ions, and electrons; the model is supplemented with the equation of ionization and recombination kinetics within the diffusion approximation with account for photoionization and photorecombination. It also takes into account heat exchange, which in this case is caused by radiative heat conductance. Upon a short history of the issue, the proposed model, numerical methods, and results for steady-state and pulsating flows are described.

  19. Very metal-poor galaxies: ionized gas kinematics in nine objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. V.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2010-07-01

    The study of ionized gas morphology and kinematics in nine extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxies with the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer on the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) 6-m telescope is presented. Some of these very rare objects (with currently known range of O/H of 7.12 < 12 + log(O/H) < 7.65, or ) are believed to be the best proxies of `young' low-mass galaxies in the high-redshift Universe. One of the main goals of this study is to look for possible evidence of star formation (SF) activity induced by external perturbations. Recent results from HI mapping of a small subsample of XMD star-forming galaxies provided confident evidence for the important role of interaction-induced SF. Our observations provide complementary or new information that the great majority of the studied XMD dwarfs have strongly disturbed gas morphology and kinematics or the presence of detached components. We approximate the observed velocity fields by simple models of a rotating tilted thin disc, which allows us the robust detection of non-circular gas motions. These data, in turn, indicate the important role of current/recent interactions and mergers in the observed enhanced SF. As a by-product of our observations, we obtained data for two Low Surface Brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies: Anon J012544+075957 that is a companion of the merger system UGC 993, and SAO 0822+3545 which shows off-centre, asymmetric, low star formation rate star-forming regions, likely induced by the interaction with the companion XMD dwarf HS 0822+3542. Based on observations obtained with the Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS 6-m telescope. E-mail: moisav@gmail.com (AVM); sap@sao.ru (SAP); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK)

  20. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, IONIZED GAS, AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Megan; Mark Voit, G.; Hoffer, Aaron; De Messieres, Genevieve E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; McNamara, Brian R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J. E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu

    2011-05-01

    We present measurements of 5-25 {mu}m emission features of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with strong optical emission lines in a sample of nine cool-core clusters of galaxies observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. These systems provide a view of dusty molecular gas and star formation, surrounded by dense, X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. Past work has shown that BCGs in cool-core clusters may host powerful radio sources, luminous optical emission-line systems, and excess UV, while BCGs in other clusters never show this activity. In this sample, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), extremely luminous, rotationally excited molecular hydrogen line emission, forbidden line emission from ionized gas ([Ne II] and [Ne III]), and infrared continuum emission from warm dust and cool stars. We show here that these BCGs exhibit more luminous forbidden neon and H{sub 2} rotational line emission than star-forming galaxies with similar total infrared luminosities, as well as somewhat higher ratios of 70 {mu}m/24 {mu}m luminosities. Our analysis suggests that while star formation processes dominate the heating of the dust and PAHs, a heating process consistent with suprathermal electron heating from the hot gas, distinct from star formation, is heating the molecular gas and contributing to the heating of the ionized gas in the galaxies. The survival of PAHs and dust suggests that dusty gas is somehow shielded from significant interaction with the X-ray gas.

  1. Observations of columnal recombination in the ionization tracks of energetic heavy nuclei in an argon-methane gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of ionization signals resulting from the passage of energetic heavy nuclei through a gas mixture consisting of 95 mol percent Ar plus 5 mol percent CH4, at an absolute pressure of 3 atm are presented. The measurements take place under a uniform electric field perpendicular to the ionization track. The signals were compared to the calculated energy losses, with an assumption of proportionality between energy loss rate and ionization rate. Significant deviations from proportionality are found for energy loss rate grater than about 3000 MeV sq cm/g, while fractional deviations are found to be proportional to the energy loss rate (dE/dx) exp m, where m is equal to about two. These results are attributed to the columnal recombination.

  2. WFPC2 Imaging of the Multiphase Halos of Two Spiral Galaxies: Dust and Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueff, Katherine; Pitterle, M.; Hirschauer, A.; Lehner, N.; Howk, C.

    2006-12-01

    We present high-resolution optical images of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the thick disks of the spiral galaxies NGC 4013 and NGC 4302. Our broadband (BVI) images acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope’s WFPC2 show extensive extraplanar dust clouds seen in absorption against the background stellar light, while our narrow-band H-alpha images taken with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope show the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in these galaxies. The dusty, thick disk clouds visible in our WFPC2 images, which can be found to heights approaching 2 kpc from the midplanes of these galaxies, trace a phase of the ISM that shows significant structure on quite small scales. In general this material is seen to be highly filamentary. By contrast, the thick disk DIG in these galaxies has significantly smoother distribution. We note several unresolved knots of H-alpha emission which may represent thick disk H II regions. We discuss the relationship of the dust-bearing clouds and the DIG in these galaxies.

  3. Ionization heating in rare-gas clusters under intense XUV laser pulses

    E-print Network

    Arbeiter, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of intense extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser pulses ($\\lambda=32\\rm\\,nm$, $I=10^{11-14}$\\,W/cm$^2$) with small rare-gas clusters (Ar$_{147}$) is studied by quasi-classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our analysis supports a very general picture of the charging and heating dynamics in finite samples under short-wavelength radiation that is of relevance for several applications of free-electron lasers. First, up to a certain photon flux, ionization proceeds as a series of direct photoemission events producing a jellium-like cluster potential and a characteristic plateau in the photoelectron spectrum as observed in [Bostedt {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 100}, 013401 (2008)]. Second, beyond the onset of photoelectron trapping, nanoplasma formation leads to evaporative electron emission with a characteristic thermal tail in the electron spectrum. A detailed analysis of this transition is presented. Third, in contrast to the behavior in the infrared or low vacuum ultraviolet range, the nanop...

  4. Do Radio Jets Contribute to Driving Ionized Gas Outflows in Moderate Luminosity Type 2 AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Julia; Sajina, Anna; Lacy, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This poster examines the role of AGN-driven feedback in low to intermediate power radio galaxies. We begin with [OIII] measurements of ionized gas outflows in 29 moderate AGN-luminosity z~0.3-0.7 dust-obscured Type 2 AGN. We aim to examine the relative role of the AGN itself, of star-formation and of nascent radio jets in driving these outflows. The strength of the AGN and star formation are based on the [OIII] luminosities, and the far-IR luminosities respectively. For the radio jets, we present multi-frequency radio (X, S, and L-bands) JVLA imaging of our sample, which allows us both to constrain the overall radio power, but also look for signatures of young radio sources, including Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) sources, as well as small-scale jets. While radio jet-driven outflows are well known for powerful radio-loud galaxies, this study allows us to constrain the degree to which this mechanism is significant at more modest radio luminosities of L5GHz~10^22-25 W/Hz.

  5. Gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Taiki; Uchimura, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Totaro

    2011-05-23

    A sample mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured by gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/MPI/TOF-MS) using four types of laser sources. When a fourth harmonic emission (266 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) was utilized, highly chlorinated PCBs larger than hepta-CBs were not observed. A fifth harmonic emission (213 nm) of the picosecond Nd:YAG laser allowed the measurement of PCBs from di-CBs to octa-CBs, and the limit of detection (LOD) was several pg for each component of PCBs. The LOD for the total amount of PCBs, which was calculated using the protocol provided by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, was 1000 pg. The signal intensity of the congeners with chlorine atoms at the ortho positions (non-coplanar PCBs) was enhanced by using the fifth harmonic emission. When the fourth harmonic emission remaining after fifth harmonic generation was simultaneously used, the LOD for total PCBs was improved to 667 pg. The PCB sample was also measured using a third harmonic emission (267 nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm), providing an LOD of 677 pg. Thus, the two-color beam (266/213 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser had a comparable, or even slightly superior, performance to the more expensive femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. PMID:21565310

  6. Improved gas chromatography-flame ionization detector analytical method for the analysis of epoxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mubiru, Edward; Shrestha, Kshitij; Papastergiadis, Antonios; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2013-11-29

    In this study an improved method for analysis of epoxy fatty acids is reported. Data obtained from analysis of polar fatty acids has previously been presented, but due to the high number of compounds that co-elute in the polar fraction, the resultant chromatograms are complex which may lead to compromising the accuracy of the data. A three steps separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a silica gel column to remove hydroxy fatty acid interferences was proposed. This approach is opposed to a two step separation procedure that has been often used to prevent analytical interferences caused by non-altered fatty acids. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) equipped with a polar CP-Sil 88™ column was used. Quantification was based on the use of methyl nonadecanoate (C19:0), as an internal standard. Individual mono epoxy fatty acids were well separated without co-eluting compounds. The optimized method was finally applied to screen epoxy fatty acids in 37 fresh oil samples. Results obtained for the total epoxy fatty acids were in the range 0.03-2mgg(-1) of oil with repeatability coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 2.8 to 9.9% for duplicate analysis showing that the results obtained are repeatable. PMID:24161147

  7. [Determination of difenoconazole residue in foods by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Shen, Weijian; Yang, Wenquan; Shen, Chongyu; Zhao, Zengyun; Xu, Jinzhong; Ding, Tao

    2007-05-01

    A method is presented for the determination of difenoconazole residue in all kinds of foods by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS/NCI). Difenoconazole residue was extracted with ethyl acetate from different samples, such as perilla leaves, carrots, spinach powder, rice, gram, jasmine flower tea, oolong tea, strawberries, sauce, bee honey, beef, chicken and eels, etc. The extracts were cleaned-up by active carbon SPE column connected to alumina neutral SPE column or Florisil SPE column only. Analytical screening was determined by the technique of GC-MS/NCI on selected ion monitoring mode. The recoveries of difenoconazole in most samples were in the range from 70% to 120% at three spiked levels, 0.01 mg/kg, 0.04 mg/kg and 0.10 mg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 9.5%. The linearity of the method is good from 0.02 to 1.00 mg/L, and limit of detection (LOD) was 0.000 5 or 0.001 mg/kg for different type samples. The method is selective without interference and is suitable for determination and conformation of difenoconazole residue in all kinds of foods. PMID:17679443

  8. LARGE-SCALE SHOCK-IONIZED AND PHOTOIONIZED GAS IN M83: THE IMPACT OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, Daniela; Dopita, Michael A.; Blair, William P.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard E.; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I.; Trauger, John T.; Walker, Alistair R.

    2011-04-10

    We investigate the ionization structure of the nebular gas in M83 using the line diagnostic diagram, [O III](5007 A)/H{beta} versus [S II](6716 A+6731 A)/H{alpha}, with the newly available narrowband images from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We produce the diagnostic diagram on a pixel-by-pixel (0.''2 x 0.''2) basis and compare it with several photo- and shock-ionization models. We select four regions from the center to the outer spiral arm and compare them in the diagnostic diagram. For the photoionized gas, we observe a gradual increase of the log ([O III]/H{beta}) ratios from the center to the spiral arm, consistent with the metallicity gradient, as the H II regions go from super-solar abundance to roughly solar abundance from the center out. Using the diagnostic diagram, we separate the photoionized from the shock-ionized component of the gas. We find that the shock-ionized H{alpha} emission ranges from {approx}2% to about 15%-33% of the total, depending on the separation criteria used. An interesting feature in the diagnostic diagram is a horizontal distribution around log ([O III]/H{beta}) {approx} 0. This feature is well fit by a shock-ionization model with 2.0 Z{sub sun} metallicity and shock velocities in the range of 250-350 km s{sup -1}. A low-velocity shock component, <200 km s{sup -1}, is also detected and is spatially located at the boundary between the outer ring and the spiral arm. The low-velocity shock component can be due to (1) supernova remnants located nearby, (2) dynamical interaction between the outer ring and the spiral arm, and (3) abnormal line ratios from extreme local dust extinction. The current data do not enable us to distinguish among those three possible interpretations. Our main conclusion is that, even at the HST resolution, the shocked gas represents a small fraction of the total ionized gas emission at less than 33% of the total. However, it accounts for virtually all of the mechanical energy produced by the central starburst in M83.

  9. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    PubMed

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-01

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS. PMID:26388363

  10. Double ionization of rare-gas dimers: NeKr+e. -->. NeKr/sup 2 +/

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, K.; Maerk, T.D.; Helm, H.

    1982-11-01

    The existence of the doubly charged dimer ion NeKr/sup 2 +/ is substantiated by electron-impact ionization of the mixed van der Waals dimer NeKr. The stability of this doubly charged molecule is discussed with the use of semiquantative potential energy curves. The electron-impact-ionization appearance potential confirms the prediction from the potential-energy curves.

  11. Ionized gas kinematics at high resolution. IV. Star formation and a rotating core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

    2014-05-20

    NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features. We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0.''18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 ?m [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution ?4 km s{sup –1}: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

  12. Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution. IV. Star Formation and a Rotating Core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Neff, Susan Gale; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

    2014-01-01

    NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features.We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0".18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 micron [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution approx. 4 km/s: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

  13. Identification of Guest-Host Inclusion Complexes in the Gas Phase by Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, De´bora C.; Ramamurthy, Vaidhyanathan; Da Silva, Jose´ P.

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students follow a step-by-step procedure to prepare and study guest-host complexes in the gas phase using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Model systems are the complexes of hosts cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) with the guest 4-styrylpyridine (SP). Aqueous solutions of CB7 or CB8…

  14. Ionized Benzonitrile and Its Distonic Isomers in the Gas Phase Robert Flammang,* Monique Barbieux-Flammang, Emmanuel Gualano, and Pascal Gerbaux

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    Ionized Benzonitrile and Its Distonic Isomers in the Gas Phase Robert Flammang,* Monique Barbieux-c, isomers of benzonitrile radical cation d, were prepared by collisional dehalogenation of protonated and its isomers as well as their proton affinities and ionization energies were also evaluated. N

  15. Reduction of plasma electron density in a gas ionized by an electron beam - Use of a gaseous dielectric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.

    1993-01-01

    Propagation of an electron beam through a gas creates a secondary electron/ion plasma which can have subsequent deleterious effects on the propagation of the beam. In the case of pulsed electron beams with short micropulse durations, these effects can be greatly reduced through the use of a small doping fraction of an electron attachment gas. We present a model which allows the calculation of the reduction in unbound plasma electron density attainable with a gaseous dielectric dopant. Potential problems with a dopant, including increased ionization, increased scattering, altered refractive index, and dopant saturation and fragmentation, are discussed.

  16. Integral Field Unit Observations of NGC 891: Kinematics of the Diffuse Ionized Gas Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, George H.; Rand, Richard J.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2006-08-01

    We present high and moderate spectral resolution spectroscopy of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) emission in the halo of NGC 891. The data were obtained with the SparsePak integral field unit at the WIYN Observatory. The wavelength coverage includes the [N II] ??6548, 6583, H?, and [S II] ??6716, 6731 emission lines. Position-velocity (PV) diagrams, constructed using spectra extracted from four SparsePak pointings in the halo, are used to examine the kinematics of the DIG. Using two independent methods, a vertical gradient in azimuthal velocity is found to be present in the northeast quadrant of the halo, with magnitude approximately 15-18 km s-1 kpc-1, in agreement with results from H I observations. The kinematics of the DIG suggests that this gradient begins at approximately 1 kpc above the midplane. In another part of the halo, the southeast quadrant, the kinematics is markedly different and suggest rotation at about 175 km s-1, much slower than the disk but with no vertical gradient. We use an entirely ballistic model of disk-halo flow in an attempt to reproduce the kinematics observed in the northeast quadrant. Analysis shows that the velocity gradient predicted by the ballistic model is far too shallow. Based on intensity cuts made parallel to the major axis in the ballistic model and an H? image of NGC 891 from the literature, we conclude that the DIG halo is much more centrally concentrated than the model, suggesting that hydrodynamics dominate over ballistic motion in shaping the density structure of the halo. Velocity dispersion measurements along the minor axis of NGC 891 seem to indicate a lack of radial motions in the halo, but the uncertainties do not allow us to set firm limits.

  17. SIGGMA: A SURVEY OF IONIZED GAS IN THE GALAXY, MADE WITH THE ARECIBO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; McIntyre, T.; Terzian, Y.; Minchin, R.; Anderson, L.; Churchwell, E.; Lebron, M.; Roshi, D. Anish

    2013-10-01

    A Survey of Ionized Gas in the Galaxy, made with the Arecibo telescope (SIGGMA), uses the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) to fully sample the Galactic plane (30 Degree-Sign {<=} l {<=} 75 Degree-Sign and -2 Degree-Sign {<=} b {<=} 2 Degree-Sign ; 175 Degree-Sign {<=} l {<=} 207 Degree-Sign and -2 Degree-Sign {<=} b {<=} 1 Degree-Sign ) observable with the telescope in radio recombination lines (RRLs). Processed data sets are being produced in the form of data cubes of 2 Degree-Sign (along l) Multiplication-Sign 4 Degree-Sign (along b) Multiplication-Sign 151 (number of channels), archived and made public. The 151 channels cover a velocity range of 600 km s{sup -1} and the velocity resolution of the survey changes from 4.2 km s{sup -1} to 5.1 km s{sup -1} from the lowest frequency channel to the highest frequency channel. RRL maps with 3.'4 resolution and a line flux density sensitivity of {approx}0.5 mJy will enable us to identify new H II regions, measure their electron temperatures, study the physics of photodissociation regions with carbon RRLs, and investigate the origin of the extended low-density medium. Twelve Hn{alpha} lines fall within the 300 MHz bandpass of ALFA; they are resampled to a common velocity resolution to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) by a factor of three or more and preserve the line width. SIGGMA will produce the most sensitive fully sampled RRL survey to date. Here, we discuss the observing and data reduction techniques in detail. A test observation toward the H II region complex S255/S257 has detected Hn{alpha} and Cn{alpha} lines with S/N > 10.

  18. Tracing kinematic (mis)alignments in CALIFA merging galaxies. Stellar and ionized gas kinematic orientations at every merger stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Wild, V.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Ziegler, B.; del Olmo, A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Mast, D.; Kehrig, C.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Marino, R. A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Walcher, C. J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Bomans, D. J.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; McIntosh, D. H.; Bekerait?, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present spatially resolved stellar and/or ionized gas kinematic properties for a sample of 103 interacting galaxies, tracing all merger stages: close companions, pairs with morphological signatures of interaction, and coalesced merger remnants. In order to distinguish kinematic properties caused by a merger event from those driven by internal processes, we compare our galaxies with a control sample of 80 non-interacting galaxies. We measure for both the stellar and the ionized gas components the major (projected) kinematic position angles (PAkin, approaching and receding) directly from the velocity distributions with no assumptions on the internal motions. This method also allow us to derive the deviations of the kinematic PAs from a straight line (?PAkin). We find that around half of the interacting objects show morpho-kinematic PA misalignments that cannot be found in the control sample. In particular, we observe those misalignments in galaxies with morphological signatures of interaction. On the other hand, thelevel of alignment between the approaching and receding sides for both samples is similar, with most of the galaxies displaying small misalignments. Radial deviations of the kinematic PA orientation from a straight line in the stellar component measured by ?PAkin are large for both samples. However, for a large fraction of interacting galaxies the ionized gas ?PAkin is larger than the typical values derived from isolated galaxies (48%), indicating that this parameter is a good indicator to trace the impact of interaction and mergers in the internal motions of galaxies. By comparing the stellar and ionized gas kinematic PA, we find that 42% (28/66) of the interacting galaxies have misalignments larger than 16°, compared to 10% from the control sample. Our results show the impact of interactions in the motion of stellar and ionized gas as well as the wide the variety of their spatially resolved kinematic distributions. This study also provides a local Universe benchmark for kinematic studies in merging galaxies at high redshift. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

    2008-06-13

    In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600°F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 – 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

  20. CNT-based gas ionizers with integrated MEMS gate for portable mass spectrometry applications

    E-print Network

    Velasquez-Garcia, Luis Fernando

    We report the fabrication and experimental characterization of a novel low-cost carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electron impact ionizer (EII) with integrated gate for portable mass spectrometry applications. The device achieves ...

  1. Ionization of the diffuse gas in galaxies: Hot low-mass evolved stars at work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Fajardo, N.; Morisset, C.; Stasinska, G.; Binette, L.

    2011-10-01

    The Diffuse Ionized Medium (DIG) is visible through its faint optical line emission outside classical HII regions (Reynolds 1971) and turns out to be a major component of the interstellar medium in galaxies. OB stars in galaxies likely represent the main source of ionizing photons for the DIG. However, an additional source is needed to explain the increase of [NII]/H?, [SII]/H? with galactic height.

  2. Highly ionized gas absorption in the disk and halo toward HD 167756 at 3.5 kilometers per second resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of interstellar Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption lines along the 4 kpc path to the inner Galaxy star HD 167756 at z = -0.85 kpc are presented. The spectra were obtained with the echelle mode of Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 23 to 38. The high resolution of the measurements full width at half maximum (FWHM = 3.5 km/s) results in fully resolved line profiles for the highly ionized gas absorption. The measurements provide information on the column density per unit velocity, N(v), as a function of velocity for Si IV, C IV, and N V. The C IV and N V profiles extend from -70 to +70 km/s, while the Si IV profiles extend from -40 to +70 km/s. The integrated logarithmic column densities are long N(Si IV) = 13.09 +/- 0.02, log N(C IV) = 13.83 +/- 0.02, and log N(N V) = 13.56 +/- 0.03. The N V profile is broad, asymmetric, and featureless, while the Si IV profile contains narrow absorption components near V(sub LSR) = -19, 0, +20, and +52 km/s with Doppler spread parameters, b about = 10-12 km/s. The C IV profile contains both broad and narrow structure. The high ion feature near +52 km/s is also detected in the low-ionization lines of Ca II, O I, Si II, and Fe II. The other narrow Si IV and C IV components occur within several km/s of components seen in low-ionization species. The sight line contains at least two types of highly ionized gas. One type gives rise to a broad N V profile, and the other results in the more structured Si IV profile. The C IV profile contains contributions from both types of highly ionized gas. The broad but asymmetric N V profile is well represented by a large Galactic scale height gas which is participating in Galactic rotation and has a combination of thermal and turbulent broadening with b(sub tot) about = 42 km/s. The C IV to N V abundance ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.3 for the gas implies T about 1.6 x 10(exp 5) K or about 8 x 10(exp 5) K if the gas is in collisional ionization equilibrium and has a solar carbon to nitrogen abundance ratio. This absorption may be associated with cooling hot gas situated in Galactic shells and supershells along the sight line. The gas producing the narrow Si IV and C IV absorption components has line widths that are compatible with origins in conductive interfaces between the warm and hot interstellar medium. Kinematic flows associated with the photoionized edges of clouds might also produce Si IV and C IV lines with Doppler spread parameters similar to those observed, but the C IV to Si IV ratio in this gas is 3.5, which leads us to favor the conductive interface interpretation.

  3. Detection and Mapping of Decoupled Stellar and Ionized Gas Structures in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 12112+0305.

    PubMed

    Colina; Arribas; Borne; Monreal

    2000-04-10

    Integral field optical spectroscopy with the INTEGRAL fiber-fed system and Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging are used to map the complex stellar and warm ionized gas structure in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 12112+0305. Images reconstructed from wavelength-delimited extractions of the integral field spectra reveal that the observed ionized gas distribution is decoupled from the stellar main body of the galaxy, with the dominant continuum and emission-line regions separated by projected distances of up to 7.5 kpc. The two optical nuclei are detected as apparently faint emission-line regions, and their optical properties are consistent with being dust-enshrouded weak [O i] LINERs. The brightest emission-line region is associated with a faint (mI=20.4), giant H ii region of 600 pc diameter, in which a young ( approximately 5 Myr) massive cluster of about 2x107 M middle dot in circle dominates the ionization. Internal reddening toward the line-emitting regions and the optical nuclei ranges from 1 to 8 mag in the visual. Taking the reddening into account, the overall star formation in IRAS 12112+0305 is dominated by starbursts associated with the two nuclei and corresponds to a star formation rate of 80 M middle dot in circle yr-1. PMID:10727379

  4. An Ultra-Trace Analysis Technique for SF6 Using Gas Chromatography with Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jong, Edmund C; Macek, Paul V; Perera, Inoka E; Luxbacher, Kray D; McNair, Harold M

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely used as a tracer gas because of its detectability at low concentrations. This attribute of SF6 allows the quantification of both small-scale flows, such as leakage, and large-scale flows, such as atmospheric currents. SF6's high detection sensitivity also facilitates greater usage efficiency and lower operating cost for tracer deployments by reducing quantity requirements. The detectability of SF6 is produced by its high molecular electronegativity. This property provides a high potential for negative ion formation through electron capture thus naturally translating to selective detection using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NCI-MS). This paper investigates the potential of using gas chromatography (GC) with NCI-MS for the detection of SF6. The experimental parameters for an ultra-trace SF6 detection method utilizing minimal customizations of the analytical instrument are detailed. A method for the detection of parts per trillion (ppt) level concentrations of SF6 for the purpose of underground ventilation tracer gas analysis was successfully developed in this study. The method utilized a Shimadzu gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry system equipped with an Agilent J&W HP-porous layer open tubular column coated with an alumina oxide (Al2O3) S column. The method detection limit (MDL) analysis as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency of the tracer data showed the method MDL to be 5.2 ppt. PMID:25452581

  5. H110 alpha observations of Sagittarius A West: Ionized gas at peculiar velocities at the galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Goss, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    We present Very Large Array measurements of H110 alpha radio recombination line emission from Sgr A West with a resolution of 11 x 20 arcsec. These observations detected a number of new kinematic components showing a dramatically different velocity field than expected from circular motion of ionized gas in Sgr A West about the dynamical center of the Galaxy. Recent high-resolution molecular observations show a cloud of absorbing gas at -180 km/s within 30 arcsec of the Galactic center. We find evidence of an ionized counterpart to this highly blueshifted molecular gas. This result places this highly blueshifted neutral gas in a hot UV dominated environment of the Galactic center. We suggest that the blueshifted clouds are photoionized externally by the intense UV radiation field at the Galactic center. We also detect H110 alpha emission from large-scale linear features known as the 'streamers', which run primarily perpendicular to the Galactic plane and lie exterior to the 'three-arm' spiral structure of Sgr A West and the circumstellar disk. These observations support an earlier suggestion that the streamers are thermal features whose kniematics deviate from circular motion.

  6. HII region G46.5-0.2: the interplay between ionizing radiation, molecular gas and star formation

    E-print Network

    Paron, S; Dubner, G; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A; Giacani, E; Li, Jin Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2015-01-01

    HII regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing towards the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas, where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic HII region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target to perform this kind of studies. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J=1-0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J=3-2, HCO+ and HCN J=4-3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment and the young stellar objects placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge...

  7. Fuel cell with ionization membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A fuel cell is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas passing therethrough, and a cathode for receiving the ions generated by the ionization membrane. The ionization membrane may include one or more openings in the membrane with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of molecules within the gas to be ionized. Methods of manufacture are also provided.

  8. PRESENT-DAY GALACTIC EVOLUTION: LOW-METALLICITY, WARM, IONIZED GAS INFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD COMPLEX A

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Wakker, B. P.; Hill, Alex S.; Madsen, G. J.; Duncan, A. K. E-mail: haffner@astro.wisc.edu E-mail: wakker@astro.wisc.edu

    2012-12-20

    The high-velocity cloud Complex A is a probe of the physical conditions in the Galactic halo. The kinematics, morphology, distance, and metallicity of Complex A indicate that it represents new material that is accreting onto the Galaxy. We present Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper kinematically resolved observations of Complex A over the velocity range of -250 to -50 km s{sup -1} in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H{alpha} intensity map of Complex A across (l, b) = (124 Degree-Sign , 18 Degree-Sign ) to (171 Degree-Sign , 53 Degree-Sign ) and deep targeted observations in H{alpha}, [S II] {lambda}6716, [N II] {lambda}6584, and [O I] {lambda}6300 toward regions with high H I column densities, background quasars, and stars. The H{alpha} data imply that the masses of neutral and ionized material in the cloud are similar, both being greater than 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We find that the Bland-Hawthorn and Maloney model for the intensity of the ionizing radiation near the Milky Way is consistent with the known distance of the high-latitude part of Complex A and an assumed cloud geometry that puts the lower-latitude parts of the cloud at a distance of 7-8 kpc. This compatibility implies a 5% ionizing photon escape fraction from the Galactic disk. We also provide the nitrogen and sulfur upper abundance solutions for a series of temperatures, metallicities, and cloud configurations for purely photoionized gas; these solutions are consistent with the sub-solar abundances found by previous studies, especially for temperatures above 10{sup 4} K or for gas with a high fraction of singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur.

  9. Warm and Diffuse Gas and High Ionization Rate Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Morong, C. P.; Geballe, T. R.; Indriolo, N.; McCall, B. J.; Goto, M.; Usuda, T.

    2011-06-01

    Using 12 newly found bright dust-embedded stars distributed from 140 pc West to 120 pc East of Sgr A*, we have observed spectra of H_3^+ and CO in the Central Molecular Zone of the Galactic center. Sightlines toward the 12 stars have been observed at the Gemini South Observatory on Cerro Pachon, Chile, and those for 2 of the stars at the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea Hawaii. This has extended our previous longitudinal coverage by a factor of 7. Although complete coverage of various transitions have yet to be made for some stars, almost all sightlines showed high total column densities of H_3^+ and highly populated (J, K) = (3, 3) metastable level, demonstrating the prevalence of the warm and diffuse gas previously observed from the center to 30 pc East and high ionization rate in the environment. A few sightlines did not show strong H_3^+ absorptions. It remains to be seen whether this is due to the radial and transverse location of the stars or lack of H_3^+. While the velocity profiles of H_3^+ toward stars from the center to 30 pc East are similar apart from subtle variations, the velocity profiles of the wider regions vary greatly ^a. A remarkable similarity has been noted between the velocity profile of H_3^+ toward a star nicknamed Iota and those of H_2O^+ and 13CH^+ observed toward Sgr B2 by the HIFI instrument of the Herschel Space Observatory. Although all these ions exist in diffuse environment, this is surprising since H_3^+ favors environments with high H_2 fraction f(H_2) while H_2O^+ and CH^+ favors low f(H_2). Also the peak of Sgr B2 and Iota are separated by 17 pc. Possible interpretations of this will be discussed. T. R. Geballe and T. Oka, ApJ, 709, L70 (2010). M. Goto, T. Usuda, T. R. Geballe, N. Indriolo, B. J. McCall, Th. Henning, and T. Oka, PASJ (2011) in press. P. Schilke, et al., A&A, 521, L11 (2010). E. Falgarone, private communication

  10. P-MaNGA Galaxies: emission-lines properties - gas ionization and chemical abundances from prototype observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, F.; Maiolino, R.; Bundy, K.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Wilkinson, D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Bershady, M.; Blanc, G. A.; Bothwell, M.; Cales, S. L.; Coccato, L.; Drory, N.; Emsellem, E.; Fu, H.; Gelfand, J.; Law, D.; Masters, K.; Parejko, J.; Tremonti, C.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Yan, R.; Xiao, T.; Zhang, K.; Zheng, T.; Bizyaev, D.; Kinemuchi, K.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.

    2015-05-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a 6-yr Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) survey that will obtain spatially resolved spectroscopy from 3600 to 10 300 Å for a representative sample of over 10 000 nearby galaxies. In this paper, we present the analysis of nebular emission-line properties using observations of 14 galaxies obtained with P-MaNGA, a prototype of the MaNGA instrument. By using spatially resolved diagnostic diagrams, we find extended star formation in galaxies that are centrally dominated by Seyfert/LINER-like emission, which illustrates that galaxy characterizations based on single fibre spectra are necessarily incomplete. We observe extended low ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINER)-like emission (up to 1Re) in the central regions of three galaxies. We make use of the H? equivalent width [EW(H?)] to argue that the observed emission is consistent with ionization from hot evolved stars. We derive stellar population indices and demonstrate a clear correlation between Dn(4000) and EW(H?A) and the position in the ionization diagnostic diagram: resolved galactic regions which are ionized by a Seyfert/LINER-like radiation field are also devoid of recent star formation and host older and/or more metal-rich stellar populations. We also detect extraplanar LINER-like emission in two highly inclined galaxies, and identify it with diffuse ionized gas. We investigate spatially resolved metallicities and find a positive correlation between metallicity and star formation rate surface density. We further study the relation between N/O versus O/H on resolved scales. We find that, at given N/O, regions within individual galaxies are spread towards lower metallicities, deviating from the sequence defined by galactic central regions as traced by Sloan 3-arcsec fibre spectra. We suggest that the observed dispersion can be a tracer for gas flows in galaxies: infalls of pristine gas and/or the effect of a galactic fountain.

  11. Restoration of RI-beams from a projectile fragment separator by Laser Ionization gas Catcher-PALIS-

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, T.; Takamine, A.; Schury, P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Wada, M.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, A.; Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Furukawa, T.; Wakui, T.; Shinozuka, T.; Iimura, H.; Katayama, I.; Ohtani, S.; Wollnik, H.; Schuessler, H. A.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.; Huyse, M.

    2009-03-17

    A fragment separator at heavy ion accelerator facilities is a versatile instrument to provide wide variety of radioactive isotope (RI) beams. However, more than 99.99% of precious RI-ions are simply dumped in the slits or elsewhere in the fragment separator. A novel concept to restore such RI-ions for parasitic slow RI-beams is proposed. Installation of a laser ionization gas catcher in the vicinity of the first or second focal point of the fragment separator enables to collect dead isotopes in the slits. The design concept and expected performance are discussed.

  12. Far-IR spectroscopy of the galactic center: Neutral and ionized gas in the central 10 pc of the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. J.; Watson, D. M.; Townes, C. H.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Hollenbach, D.; Lester, D. F.; Werner, M.; Storey, J. W. V.

    1983-01-01

    The 3P1 - 3P2 fine structure line emission from neutral atomic oxygen at 63 microns in the vicinity of the galactic center was mapped. The emission is extended over more than 4' (12 pc) along the galactic plane, centered on the position of Sgr A West. The line center velocities show that the O I gas is rotating around the galactic center with an axis close to that of the general galactic rotation, but there appear also to be noncircular motions. The rotational velocity at R is approximately 1 pc corresponds to a mass within the central pc of about 3 x 10(6) solar mass. Between 1 and 6 pc from the center the mass is approximately proportional to radius. The (O I) line probability arises in a predominantly neutral, atomic region immediately outside of the ionized central parsec of out galaxy. Hydrogen densities in the (O I) emitting region are 10(3) to 10(6) cm(-3) and gas temperatures are or = 100 K. The total integrated luminosity radiated in the line is about 10(5) solar luminosity, and is a substantial contribution to the cooling of the gas. Photoelectric heating or heating by ultraviolet excitation of H2 at high densities (10(5) cm(-3)) are promising mechanisms for heating of the gas, but heating due to dissipation of noncircular motions of the gas may be an alternative possibility. The 3P1 - 3P0 fine structure line of (O III) at 88 microns toward Sgr A West was also detected. The (O III) emission comes from high density ionized gas (n 10(4) cm(-3)), and there is no evidence for a medium density region (n 10(3) cm(-3)), such as the ionized halo in Sgr A West deduced from radio observations. This radio halo may be nonthermal, or may consist of many compact, dense clumps of filaments on the inner edges of neutral condensations at R or = 2 pc.

  13. Effective ionization coefficients, electron drift velocities, and limiting breakdown fields for gas mixtures of possible interest to particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G. . Dept. of Physics); Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G. )

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the gas-density, N, normalized effective ionization coefficient, {bar a}/N, and the electron drift velocity, w, as a function of the density-reduced electric field, E/N, and obtained the limiting, (E/N){sub lim}, value of E/N for the unitary gases Ar, CO{sub 2}, and CF{sub 4}, the binary gas mixtures CO{sub 2}:Ar (20: 80), CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} (20:80), and CF{sub 4}:Ar (20:80), and the ternary gas mixtures CO{sub 2}:CF{sub 4}:Ar (10:10:80) and H{sub 2}O: CF{sub 4}:Ar (2:18:80). Addition of the strongly electron thermalizing gas CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O to the binary mixture CF{sub 4}:Ar (1) cools'' the mixture (i.e., lowers the electron energies), (2) has only a small effect on the magnitude of w(E/N) in the E/N range employed in the particle detectors, and (3) increases {bar a}/N for E/N {ge} 50 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} V cm{sup 2}. The increase in {bar a}/N, even though the electron energies are lower in the ternary mixture, is due to the Penning ionization of CO{sub 2}(or H{sub 2}O) in collisions with excited Ar* atoms. The ternary mixtures -- being fast, cool, and efficient -- have potential for advanced gas-filled particle detectors such as those for the SCC muon chambers. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The Ionized Gas and Nuclear Environment in NGC 3783. IV; Variability and Modeling of the 900 ks CHANDRA Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud; Brandt, W. N.; Chelouche, Doron; George, Ian M.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Gabel, Jack R.; Hamann, Frederick W.; George, Steven B.

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the 900 ks spectrum of NGC3783 obtained by Chandra in 2000-2001 (Kaspi et al. 2002). We split the data in various ways to look for time dependent and luminosity dependent spectral variations. This analysis, the measured equivalent widths of a large number of X-ray lines, and our photoionization calculations, lead us to the following conclusions: 1) NGC 3783 fluctuated in luminosity, by a factor N 1.5, during individual 170 ks observations. The fluctuations were not associated with significant spectral variations. 2) On a longer time scale, of 20-120 days, we discovered two very different spectral shapes that are noted the high state and the low state spectra. The observed changes between the two can be described as the appearance and disappearance of a soft continuum component. The spectral variations are not related, in a simple way, to the brightening or the fading of the short wavelength continuum, as observed in other objects. NGC3783 seems to be the first AGN to show this unusual behavior. 3) The appearance of the soft continuum component is consistent with beeing the only spectral variation and there is no need to invoke changes in the absorber s opacity. In particular, all absorption lines with reliable measurements show the same equivalent width, within the observational uncertainties, during high and low states. 4) Photoionization model calculations show that a combination of three ionization components, each split into two kinematic components, explain very well the intensity of almost all absorption lines and the bound-free absorption. The components span a large range of ionization and a total column of about 3 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter Moreover, all components are thermally stable and are situated on the vertical branch of the stability curve.. This means that they are in pressure equilibrium and perhaps occupy the same volume of space. This is the first detection of such a multi-component equilibrium gas in AGN. 5) The only real discrepancy between the model and the observations is the wavelength of the iron M-shell UTA feature. This is most likely due to an underestimation of the dielectronic recombination O VI and discuss its possible origin. 6) The lower limit on the distance of the absorbing gas in NGC3783 is between 0.2 and 3.2 pc, depending of the specific ionization component. The constant pressure assumption imposes an upper limit of about 25 pc on the distance of the least ionized gas from the central sourec.

  15. H II Region G46.5-0.2: The Interplay between Ionizing Radiation, Molecular Gas, and Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Li, Jin Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2015-06-01

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J = 1-0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J = 3-2, HCO+, and HCN J = 4-3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10? to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 ?m and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  16. Nature of the ionizing source of the nuclear gas in NGC 1052

    SciTech Connect

    Keel, W.C.; Miller, J.S.

    1983-03-15

    We examine the ionization and physical state of the emission-line region in the nucleus of elliptical galaxy NGC 1052. The (O III) lambda4363/lambda5007 ratio, frequently used as a diagnostic for ionization mechanisms, is very poorly determined because of difficulties in matching the underlying stellar continuum spectrum, which is unusual in having very strong lines for the galaxy luminosity. Within these limitations, we find the (O III) temperature to be only marginally compatible with shock models, and the overall emission spectrum to be better fitted by photoionization models with a very dilute flat-spectrum central source. In any event, the case for NGC 1052 as a shock-heated nucleus is not strong.

  17. Quantitative determination of terbutaline and orciprenaline in human plasma by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leis, H J; Gleispach, H; Nitsche, V; Malle, E

    1990-06-01

    A method for the determination of unconjugated terbutaline and orciprenaline in human plasma is described. The assay is based on stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization/mass spectrometry. An inexpensive and rapid method for preparation of stable isotope labelled analogues as well as their use in quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is shown. A highly efficient sample work-up procedure with product recoveries of more than 95% is presented. The method developed permits quantitative measurement of terbutaline and orciprenaline in human plasma down to 100 pg ml-1, using 1 ml of sample. Plasma levels of terbutaline after oral administration of 5 mg of terbutaline sulphate were estimated. PMID:2357489

  18. Gas Chromatography Coupled to Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry for Improvement of Data Reliability.

    PubMed

    Schwemer, Theo; Rüger, Christopher P; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) offers the advantage of molecular ion information with low fragmentation. Hyphenating APCI to gas chromatography (GC) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) enables an improved characterization of complex mixtures. Data amounts acquired by this system are very huge, and existing peak picking algorithms are usually extremely time-consuming, if both gas chromatographic and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric data are concerned. Therefore, automatic routines are developed that are capable of handling these data sets and further allow the identification and removal of known ionization artifacts (e.g., water- and oxygen-adducts, demethylation, dehydrogenation, and decarboxylation). Furthermore, the data quality is enhanced by the prediction of an estimated retention index, which is calculated simply from exact mass data combined with a double bond equivalent correction. This retention index is used to identify mismatched elemental compositions. The approach was successfully tested for analysis of semivolatile components in heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel as well as primary combustion particles emitted by a ship diesel research engine. As a result, 10-28% of the detected compounds, mainly low abundant species, classically assigned by using only the mass spectrometric information, were identified as not valid and removed. Although GC separation is limited by the slow acquisition rate of the FT-ICR MS (<1 Hz), a database driven retention time comparison, as commonly used for low resolution GC/MS, can be applied for revealing isomeric information. PMID:26560682

  19. Resonantly enhanced vacuum-ultraviolet generation and multiphoton ionization in carbon monoxide gas

    SciTech Connect

    Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Competition between three-photon resonantly enhanced vacuum ultraviolet third-harmonic generation and six-photon multiphoton ionization using the A state in gaseous carbon monoxide is observed. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission exhibit increasing blue shifts and broadening with increasing pressure due to the phase matching requirements. Estimates for the efficiency and tunability show that third-harmonic generation in carbon monoxide molecules is a promising source for coherent vacuum ultraviolet light.

  20. THE KINEMATICS AND IONIZATION OF NUCLEAR GAS CLOUDS IN CENTAURUS A

    SciTech Connect

    Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Neumayer, Nadine E-mail: Ralph.Sutherland@anu.edu.au

    2013-03-20

    Neumayer et al. established the existence of a blueshifted cloud in the core of Centaurus A, within a few parsecs of the nucleus and close to the radio jet. We propose that the cloud has been impacted by the jet, and that it is in the foreground of the jet, accounting for its blueshifted emission on the southern side of the nucleus. We consider both shock excitation and photoionization models for the excitation of the cloud. Shock models do not account for the [Si VI] and [Ca VIII] emission line fluxes. However, X-ray observations indicate a source of ionizing photons in the core of Centaurus A; photoionization by the inferred flux incident on the cloud can account for the fluxes in these lines relative to Brackett-{gamma}. The power-law slope of the ionizing continuum matches that inferred from synchrotron models of the X-rays. The logarithm of the ionization parameter is -1.9, typical of that in Seyfert galaxies and consistent with the value proposed for dusty ionized plasmas. The model cloud density depends upon the Lorentz factor of the blazar and the inclination of our line of sight to the jet axis. For acute inclinations, the inferred density is consistent with expected cloud densities. However, for moderate inclinations of the jet to the line of sight, high Lorentz factors imply cloud densities in excess of 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} and very low filling factors, suggesting that models of the gamma-ray emission should incorporate jet Lorentz factors {approx}< 5.

  1. Observation of increased space-charge limited thermionic electron emission current by neutral gas ionization in a weakly-ionized deuterium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Yu, J. H.; Doerner, R. P.; Nishijima, D.; Seraydarian, R. P.

    2015-09-01

    The thermionic electron emission current emitted from a laser-produced hot spot on a tungsten target in weakly-ionized deuterium plasma is measured. It is found to be one to two orders of magnitude larger than expected for bipolar space charge limited thermionic emission current assuming an unperturbed background plasma. This difference is attributed to the plasma being modified by ionization of background neutrals by the emitted electrons. This result indicates that the allowable level of emitted thermionic electron current can be significantly enhanced in weakly-ionized plasmas due to the presence of large neutral densities.

  2. Acceleration of electrons generated during ionization of a gas by a nearly flat profile laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kunwar Pal

    2009-09-15

    A scheme of acceleration of electrons generated during ionization of krypton by nearly flat radial and nearly flat temporal laser pulse profiles has been suggested. The energy spectrum of the electrons suggests that energy of the electrons is higher for a nearly flat temporal profile than that for a nearly flat radial profile. The suppression of scattering of the electrons is better for a nearly flat radial profile than that for a nearly flat temporal profile. The energy of the electrons increases, scattering decreases, and beam quality improves with an increase in flatness of radial and temporal profiles.

  3. A Desorbed Gas Molecular Ionization Mechanism for Arcing Onset in Solar Arrays Immersed in a Low-Density Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.; Degroot, W.

    2002-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have hypothesized that the onset of Solar Array Arc (SAA) initiation in low-density space plasmas is caused by a desorbed gas molecular ionization mechanism. Indeed past investigations performed at the NASA Glenn Plasma Interaction Facility tend to not only support the desorbed gas molecular ionization mechanism, but have gone as far as identifying the crucial molecular species that must be present for molecular ion dominated process to occur. When electrical breakdown occurs at a triple junction site on a solar array panel, a quasi-neutral plasma cloud is ejected. Assuming the main component of the expelled plasma cloud by weight is due to water vapor, the fastest process available is due to HO molecules and OH(+) ions, or more succinctly, dissociative molecular-ion dominated recombination processes: H2O(+) + e(-) yields H* + OH*. Recently published spectroscopic observations of solar array arc spectra in ground tests have revealed the well-known molecular OH band (302 to 309nm), as well as the molecular SiH band (387nm peak), and the molecular CH band (432nm peak). Note that the OH band is observed in emission arcs where water vapor is present. Strong atomic lines were also observed for H(sub beta) at 486nm and H(sub alpha) at 656.3nm in prior ground testing. Independent supporting evidence of desorbed gas molecular ionization mechanisms also come from measurements of arc current pulse widths at different capacitances. We will revisit an earlier first order approximation demonstrating the dependence of arc current pulse widths on the square root of the capacitance. The simple arc current pulse width model will be then be used to estimate the temperature of the arc plasma (currently believed to be somewhere in the range of 3 to 5 eV). The current paper then seeks to extend the outlined work by including numerous vacuum chamber measurements obtained with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A small solar array was mounted inside the vacuum chamber. A plasma source, also mounted inside the vacuum chamber, is used to simulate a low-density plasma environment. The solar array is then biased to a high negative potential and allowed to arc while a mass spectrometer is used to record the partial pressure of H2O and to track other significant changes in mass (1 to 150) AMU.

  4. Detection of [O I] ?6300 and Other Diagnostic Emission Lines in the Diffuse Ionized Gas of M33 with Gemini-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voges, E. S.; Walterbos, R. A. M.

    2006-06-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in M33 near the H II region NGC 604. We present the first detection of [O I] ?6300 in the DIG of M33, one of the critical lines for distinguishing photoionization from shock ionization models. We measure [O I]/H? in the range of 0.04-0.10 and an increase in this ratio with decreasing emission measure. Our measurements of [S II]/H? and [N II]/H? also rise with decreasing emission measure, while our [O III]/H? measurements remain fairly constant. We have one tentative detection of He I in the region of brightest emission measure, with a ratio of He I/H? = 0.033 +/- 0.019, indicating that the helium is at least partially ionized. We compare our observed emission-line ratios to photoionization models and find that field star ionization models do not fit our data well. Leaky H II region models are consistent with our data, without the need to invoke additional ionization mechanisms to fit our [O I] or [O III] measurements. The closest large H II region is NGC 604 and is therefore a likely candidate for the source of the ionizing photons for the gas in this region.

  5. Isotopologue analysis of sugar phosphates in yeast cell extracts by gas chromatography chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dinh Binh; Troyer, Christina; Mairinger, Teresa; Ortmayr, Karin; Neubauer, Stefan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic flux analysis is based on the measurement of isotopologue ratios. In this work, a new GC-MS-based method was introduced enabling accurate determination of isotopologue distributions of sugar phosphates in cell extracts. A GC-TOFMS procedure was developed involving a two-step online derivatization (ethoximation followed by trimethylsilylation) offering high mass resolution, high mass accuracy and the potential of retrospective data analysis typical for TOFMS. The information loss due to fragmentation intrinsic for isotopologue analysis by electron ionization could be overcome by chemical ionization with methane. A thorough optimization regarding pressure of the reaction gas, emission current, electron energy and temperature of the ion source was carried out. For a substantial panel of sugar phosphates both of the glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, sensitive determination of the protonated intact molecular ions together with low abundance fragment ions was successfully achieved. The developed method was evaluated for analysis of Pichia pastoris cell extracts. The measured isotopologue ratios were in the range of 55:1-2:1. The comparison of the experimental isotopologue fractions with the theoretical fractions was excellent, revealing a maximum bias of 4.6% and an average bias of 1.4%. PMID:25673246

  6. A VUV photoionization measurement and ab-initio calculation of the ionization energy of gas phase SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Metz, Ricardo B.

    2008-12-05

    In this work we report on the detection and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of gas phase SiO2 generated in situ via laser ablation of silicon in a CO2 molecular beam. The resulting species are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable VUV synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are recorded for SiO and SiO2 and ionization energy estimates are revealed from such measurements. A state-to-state ionizationenergy of 12.60 (+-0.05) eV is recorded by fitting two prominent peaks in the PIE curve for the following process: 1SUM O-Si-O --> 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+. Electronic structure calculations aid in the interpretation of the photoionization process and allow for identification of the symmetric stretch of 2PRODg [O-Si-O]+ which is observed in the PIE spectrum to be 0.11 eV (890 cm-1) above the ground state of the cation and agrees with the 892 cm-1 symmetric stretch frequency calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level.

  7. Simultaneous generation of quasi-monoenergetic electron and betatron X-rays from nitrogen gas via ionization injection

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.; Yan, W. C.; Li, M. H.; Tao, M. Z.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Chen, L. M.; Li, D. Z.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ge, X. L.; Liu, F.; Hafz, N. M.; Zhang, J.

    2014-11-17

    Upon the interaction of 60 TW Ti: sapphire laser pulses with 4?mm long supersonic nitrogen gas jet, a directional x-ray emission was generated along with the generation of stable quasi-monoenergetic electron beams having a peak energy of 130?MeV and a relative energy spread of ? 20%. The betatron x-ray emission had a small divergence of 7.5 mrad and a critical energy of 4?keV. The laser wakefield acceleration process was stimulated in a background plasma density of merely 5.4?×?10{sup 17?}cm{sup ?3} utilizing ionization injection. The non-self-focusing and stable propagation of the laser pulse in the pure nitrogen gaseous plasma should be responsible for the simultaneous generation of the high-quality X-ray and electron beams. Those ultra-short and naturally-synchronized beams could be applicable to ultrafast pump-probe experiments.

  8. THE ORIGIN OF THE 6.4 keV LINE EMISSION AND H{sub 2} IONIZATION IN THE DIFFUSE MOLECULAR GAS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Dogiel, V. A.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Tatischeff, V.; Terrier, R.

    2013-07-10

    We investigate the origin of the diffuse 6.4 keV line emission recently detected by Suzaku and the source of H{sub 2} ionization in the diffuse molecular gas of the Galactic center (GC) region. We show that Fe atoms and H{sub 2} molecules in the diffuse interstellar medium of the GC are not ionized by the same particles. The Fe atoms are most likely ionized by X-ray photons emitted by Sgr A* during a previous period of flaring activity of the supermassive black hole. The measured longitudinal intensity distribution of the diffuse 6.4 keV line emission is best explained if the past activity of Sgr A* lasted at least several hundred years and released a mean 2-100 keV luminosity {approx}> 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}. The H{sub 2} molecules of the diffuse gas cannot be ionized by photons from Sgr A*, because soft photons are strongly absorbed in the interstellar gas around the central black hole. The molecular hydrogen in the GC region is most likely ionized by low-energy cosmic rays, probably protons rather than electrons, whose contribution into the diffuse 6.4 keV line emission is negligible.

  9. Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy in Glow Discharge: A New Dimension for Gas Chromatography Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheverev, V. A.; Khromov, N. A.; Kojiro, D. R.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Admixtures to helium of 100 ppm and 5 ppm of nitrogen, and 100 ppm and 10 ppm of carbon monoxide were identified and measured in the helium discharge afterglow using an electrical probe placed into the plasma. For nitrogen and carbon monoxide gases, the measured electron energy spectra display distinct characteristic peaks (fingerprints). Location of the peaks on the energy scale is determined by the ionization energies of the analyte molecules. Nitrogen and carbon monoxide fingerprints were also observed in a binary mixture of these gases in helium, and the relative concentration analytes has been predicted. The technically simple and durable method is considered a good candidate for a number of analytical applications, and in particular, in GC and for analytical flight instrumentation.

  10. On the origins of the diffuse H? emission: ionized gas or dust-scattered H? halos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Kwang-Il; Witt, Adolf N.

    2015-03-01

    We find that the dust-scattering origin of the diffuse H? emission cannot be ruled out. As opposed to the previous contention, the expected dust-scattered H? halos surrounding H II regions are, in fact, in good agreement with the observed H? morphology. We calculate an extensive set of photoionization models by varying elemental abundances, ionizing stellar types, and clumpiness of the interstellar medium (ISM) and find that the observed line ratios of [S II]/H?, [N II]/H?, and He I ?5876/H? in the diffuse ISM accord well with the dust-scattered halos around H II regions, which are photoionized by late O- and/or early B-type stars. We also demonstrate that the H? absorption feature in the underlying continuum from the dust-scattered starlight (``diffuse galactic light'') and unresolved stars is able to substantially increase the [S II]/H? and [N II]/H? line ratios in the diffuse ISM.

  11. Three-dimensional modeling of ionized gas. I. Did very massive stars of different metallicities drive the second cosmic reionization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. A.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Knogl, J. S.; Hoffmann, T. L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. The first generation of stars, which formed directly from the primordial gas, is believed to have played a crucial role in the early phase of the epoch of reionization of the universe. Theoretical studies indicate that the initial mass function (IMF) of this first stellar population differs significantly from the present IMF, being top-heavy and thus allowing for the presence of supermassive stars with masses up to several thousand solar masses. The first generation of population III stars was therefore not only very luminous, but due to its lack of metals its emission of UV radiation considerably exceeded that of present stars. Because of the short lifetimes of these stars the metals produced in their cores were quickly returned to the environment, from which early population II stars with a different IMF and different spectral energy distributions (SEDs) were formed, already much earlier than the time at which the universe became completely reionized (at a redshift of z ? 6). Aims: Using a state-of-the-art model atmosphere code we calculate realistic SEDs of very massive stars (VMSs) of different metallicities to serve as input for the 3-dimensional radiative transfer code we have developed to simulate the temporal evolution of the ionization of the inhomogeneous interstellar and intergalactic medium, using multiple stellar clusters as sources of ionizing radiation. The ultimate objective of these simulations is not only to quantify the processes which are believed to have lead to the reionized state of the universe, but also to determine possible observational diagnostics to constrain the nature of the ionizing sources. Methods: The multifrequency treatment in our combination of 3d radiative transfer - based on ray-tracing - and time-dependent simulation of the ionization structure of hydrogen and helium allows, in principle, to deduce information about the spectral characteristics of the first generations of stars and their interaction with the surrounding gas on various scales. Results: As our tool can handle distributions of numerous radiative sources characterized by high resolution synthetic SEDs, and also yields occupation numbers of the required energy levels of the most important elements which are treated in non-LTE and are calculated consistently with the 3d radiative transfer, the ionization state of an inhomogeneous gaseous density structure can be calculated accurately. We further demonstrate that the increasing metallicity of the radiative sources in the transition from population III stars to population II stars has a strong impact on the hardness of the emitted spectrum, and hence on the reionization history of helium. Conclusions: A top-heavy stellar mass distribution characterized by VMSs forming in chemically evolved clusters of high core mass density may not only provide the progenitors of intermediate-mass and supermassive black holes (SMBHs), but also play an important role for the reionization of He ii. The number of VMSs required to reionize He ii by a redshift of z ~ 2.5 is astonishingly close to the number of VMSs required to explain galactic SMBHs if one assumes that these have been formed by mergers of smaller black holes.

  12. The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign} and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W).

  13. The Physics of Partially Ionized Gas with Applications to Processes in the Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, E. J.; Jokipii, J. R.; Giacalone, Joe

    2011-09-21

    The dynamical equations for a partially ionized plasma are a matter of some recent controversy. Understanding this problem is important in understanding the interaction of the interstellar medium with the heliosphere and for understanding the spectrum of interstellar turbulence. If collision scales are much smaller than the internal interaction scales such as the ion gyroradius, the fluid approximation may be used. The analysis then must deal with at least three fluids (protons, electrons, and neutrals) which are coupled to each other by collisions and/or electromagnetic fields. Often, the proton and electron gyro-radii are much smaller than the collision length scales, so the electric and magnetic fields dominate the motions of the electrons and protons. In this case, the only important particle-particle collisions are those of the electrons and protons with the neutral atoms. Since the three species have, in general, different velocities, it is not immediately clear which fluid velocity to use. This ambiguity in the choice of fluid velocity has led to recent confusion regarding the physics of partially ionized plasmas. If the neutrals have a significant fraction of the mass, working in the center-of-mass coordinate frame can result in dynamical equations that differ greatly from those of ideal MHD. This is because the magnetic field is not frozen into the frame moving at the center-of-mass velocity, which leads to additional effects on the magnetic field that can be difficult to understand intuitively. To the extent that the electron mass is negligible, the magnetic field is actually found to be frozen into the frame moving with the electron bulk velocity. If we then take U to be the bulk velocity of the proton fluid the resulting dynamical equations closely resemble those of ideal MHD with the exception of the Hall term in the induction equation. Similarly, the frequently used Cowling conductivity also depends on the choice of coordinate frame. These conclusions address directly the recent controversy regarding the interaction of the interstellar medium with the heliosphere and also impact our understanding of interstellar turbulence.

  14. Determination of allergenic hydroperoxides in essential oils using gas chromatography with electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rudbäck, Johanna; Ramzy, Ahmed; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2014-04-01

    Fragrance monoterpenes are widely used commercially due to their pleasant scent. In previous studies, we have shown that air-exposed monoterpenes form hydroperoxides that are strong skin sensitizers. Methods for detection and quantification of the hydroperoxides in essential oils and scented products are thus desirable. Due to thermolability and low UV absorbance, this is a complicated task. We have recently developed a sensitive LC-ESI-MS method, but with limited structural information and separation efficiency for positional isomers and stereoisomers. In the present study, we investigated derivatization with a trimethyl silyl reagent and subsequent GC with electron ionization MS for the determination of monoterpene hydroperoxides. All investigated monoterpene hydroperoxides could be chromatographed as thermostable trimethyl silyl derivatives and yielded the fragment m/z 89 ([OSi(CH3)3](+)) at a higher extent compared to corresponding alcohols. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and four other hydroperoxide isomers of limonene were separated and detected in sweet orange oil autoxidized for two months. The concentration of limonene-2-hydroperoxide isomers was found to be 19 ?g/mg in total. Also isomers of linalyl acetate hydroperoxide and linalool hydroperoxide were detected in autoxidized petitgrain oil (two months). The presented GC-MS method showed concentrations in the same order as previous LC-MS/MS analysis of the same type of oils. PMID:24482420

  15. Quantum coherence in the dynamical excitation, ionization, and decaying of neon gas induced by X-ray laser

    E-print Network

    Li, Yongqiang; Dong, Wenpu; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    We develop a large scale quantum master equation approach to describe dynamical processes of practical open quantum systems driven by both coherent and stochastic interactions by including more than one thousand true states of the systems, motivated by the development of highly bright and fully coherent lasers in the X-ray wavelength regime. The method combines the processes of coherent dynamics induced by the X-ray laser and incoherent relaxations due to spontaneous emissions, Auger decays, and electronic collisions. As examples, theoretical investigation of {\\it real} coherent dynamics of inner-shell electrons of a neon gas, irradiated by a high-intensity X-ray laser with a full temporal coherence, is carried out with the approach. In contrast to the rate equation treatment, we find that coherence can suppress the multiphoton absorptions of a neon gas in the ultra-intense X-ray pulse, due to coherence-induced Rabi oscillations and power broadening effects. We study the influence of coherence on ionization p...

  16. [Gas chromatography with a Pulsed discharge helium ionization detector for measurement of molecular hydrogen(H2) in the atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Luan, Tian; Fang, Shuang-xi; Zhou, Ling-xi; Wang, Hong-yang; Zhang, Gen

    2015-01-01

    A high precision GC system with a pulsed discharge helium ionization detector was set up based on the commercial Agilent 7890A gas chromatography. The gas is identified by retention time and the concentration is calculated through the peak height. Detection limit of the system is about 1 x 10(-9) (mole fraction, the same as below). The standard deviation of 140 continuous injections with a standard cylinder( concentration is roughly 600 x 10(-9)) is better than 0.3 x 10(-9). Between 409.30 x 10(-9) and 867.74 x 10(-9) molecular hydrogen mole fractions and peak height have good linear response. By using two standards to quantify the air sample, the precision meets the background molecular hydrogen compatibility goal within the World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) program. Atmospheric molecular hydrogen concentration at Guangzhou urban area was preliminarily measured by this method from January to November 2013. The results show that the atmospheric molecular hydrogen mole fraction varies from 450 x 10(-9) to 700 x 10(-9) during the observation period, with the lowest value at 14:00 (Beijing time, the same as below) and the peak value at 20:00. The seasonal variation of atmospheric hydrogen at Guangzhou area was similar with that of the same latitude stations in northern hemisphere. PMID:25898644

  17. Characterization of diacylglycerol isomers in edible oils using gas chromatography-ion trap electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Clegg, Michael S; Shoemaker, Charles F; Wang, Selina C

    2013-08-23

    Verifying the authenticity of edible oils is of international concern. A new quality control standard for olive oil has been proposed that relates the ratio of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to 1,3-DAG to sensory aspects of olive oil. DAGs and their isomers are difficult to quantitate and characterize by Flame Ionization Gas Chromatography (GC-FID) due to the lack of suitable standards. Mass detectors offer the advantage of providing structural detail to the eluding DAG(s), thus removing ambiguity to the identification of both resolved and unresolved DAGs in GC chromatograms. In this study, a GC Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) method was developed to determine the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatized DAGs present in edible oils. Twenty-two species of DAG isomers were identified in refined coconut oil and unrefined olive oil utilizing signature fragment ions, [M-15](+), [M-89](+), [M-RCO2](+), [RCO2+58](+) and [M-RCO2CH2](+). The [M-RCO2CH2](+) ion is considered the key diagnostic ion to distinguish between DAG positional isomers. MS/MS spectra of [M-RCO2](+) and [M-15](+) ions obtained from commercial standards containing both 1,2- and 1,3-DAG isomers were used as a model system to confirm the identification of DAG isomers in natural products. Furthermore, a number of reaction mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of the most abundant mass fragments of DAGs and their isomers. PMID:23880469

  18. Influence of Gas Heating and Vibrational Kinetics on the Ionization Dynamics of Preformed Air Plasma Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladouceur, Harold; Baronavski, Andrew; Petrova, Tzvetelina

    2006-03-01

    An extensive self-consistent air-plasma model based upon the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function, coupled with a heavy particle kinetics was developed to study electric discharges in a preexisting air plasma column [1]. Incorporated in the model are the steady-state balance equations for various nitrogen and oxygen species in ground and excited states, as well as atomic and molecular ions. The influence of the gas temperature is accounted for by reduction of the neutral density, collisional processes such as recombination, dissociation, V-V and V-T reactions [2], and by reactions involving electronically excited states of O2. The model was applied to study the influence of the gas temperature and vibrational kinetics on the breakdown processes in a preformed air plasma channel. Numerical calculations predict that electrical breakdown occurs at relatively low electric field. The calculated self-consistent breakdown electric field is ˜10 kV/cm for gas temperature of 300 K, while at temperature of 600 K it drops to ˜5.7 kV/cm, in excellent agreement with the experimentally determined breakdown electric field [1]. * NRC-NRL Postdoc [1] Tz.B. Petrova, H.D. Ladouceur, and A.P. Baronavski, 58th Gaseous Electronics Conference, 2005; San Jose, California, FM.00062 [2] J. Loureiro and C.M. Ferreira, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys 19 (1986) 17-35

  19. Ionization compression impact on dense gas distribution and star formation. Probability density functions around H II regions as seen by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblin, P.; Schneider, N.; Minier, V.; Didelon, P.; Hill, T.; Anderson, L. D.; Motte, F.; Zavagno, A.; André, Ph.; Arzoumanian, D.; Audit, E.; Benedettini, M.; Bontemps, S.; Csengeri, T.; Di Francesco, J.; Giannini, T.; Hennemann, M.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Marston, A. P.; Peretto, N.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Russeil, D.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G. J.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: Ionization feedback should impact the probability distribution function (PDF) of the column density of cold dust around the ionized gas. We aim to quantify this effect and discuss its potential link to the core and initial mass function (CMF/IMF). Methods: We used Herschel column density maps of several regions observed within the HOBYS key program in a systematic way: M 16, the Rosette and Vela C molecular clouds, and the RCW 120 H ii region. We computed the PDFs in concentric disks around the main ionizing sources, determined their properties, and discuss the effect of ionization pressure on the distribution of the column density. Results: We fitted the column density PDFs of all clouds with two lognormal distributions, since they present a "double-peak" or an enlarged shape in the PDF. Our interpretation is that the lowest part of the column density distribution describes the turbulent molecular gas, while the second peak corresponds to a compression zone induced by the expansion of the ionized gas into the turbulent molecular cloud. Such a double peak is not visible for all clouds associated with ionization fronts, but it depends on the relative importance of ionization pressure and turbulent ram pressure. A power-law tail is present for higher column densities, which are generally ascribed to the effect of gravity. The condensations at the edge of the ionized gas have a steep compressed radial profile, sometimes recognizable in the flattening of the power-law tail. This could lead to an unambiguous criterion that is able to disentangle triggered star formation from pre-existing star formation. Conclusions: In the context of the gravo-turbulent scenario for the origin of the CMF/IMF, the double-peaked or enlarged shape of the PDF may affect the formation of objects at both the low-mass and the high-mass ends of the CMF/IMF. In particular, a broader PDF is required by the gravo-turbulent scenario to fit the IMF properly with a reasonable initial Mach number for the molecular cloud. Since other physical processes (e.g., the equation of state and the variations among the core properties) have already been said to broaden the PDF, the relative importance of the different effects remains an open question. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. Negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of low-dosed and/or polar drugs in plasma.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Hans H; Kraemer, Thomas; Kratzsch, Carsten; Peters, Frank T; Weber, Armin A

    2002-02-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology, doping control, and therapeutic drug monitoring, specific and sensitive detection and precise quantification of xenobiotics in biosamples are great challenges. Today, mass spectrometry techniques, coupled with gas chromatography or liquid chromatography, are the most powerful methods in analytic toxicology. The pros and cons of electron ionization (EI) and negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (APCI-LC-MS) are described for determination of the low-dosed benzodiazepine flunitrazepam and its 7-amino and its nor-metabolite in plasma. In addition, application of NICI-GC-MS is described for sensitive chiral determination of amphetamine derivatives in plasma and application of APCI-LC-MS for screening, library-assisted identification, and validated quantification of oral antidiabetics and for validated quantification of the neuroleptic risperidone and its 9-hydroxy metabolite. These examples show that NICI-GC-MS and LC-MS are powerful tools for determination of low-dosed and/or rather polar drugs or poisons, thus becoming indispensable supplements to classic EI-GC-MS in clinical and forensic toxicology as well as in doping control. PMID:11805732

  1. Correlation between the charge of polymer particles in solution and in the gas phase investigated by zeta-potential measurements and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ouadah, Nesrine; Doussineau, Tristan; Hamada, Thomas; Dugourd, Philippe; Bordes, Claire; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2013-11-19

    The relationship between the effective charge of polymer nanoparticles (PNP) in solution and the charge states of ionized particles produced in the gas phase by electrospray ionization was investigated. Charge detection mass spectrometry was used to measure both the mass and charge of individual electrosprayed ions. The effective charges extracted from the measured zeta-potential of PNPs in solution are partially correlated with the average values of charge of PNPs in the gas phase. The correlation between the magnitude of charging of PNPs ions produced in the gas phase with the PNPs surface charge in solution demonstrates that the mass spectrometry-based analysis described in this work is an alternative and promising way for a fast and systematic characterization of charges on colloidal particles. PMID:24144015

  2. Integral field spectroscopy of ionized and molecular gas in cool cluster cores: evidence for cold feedback?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilman, R. J.; Edge, A. C.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    We present VLT-SINFONI K-band integral field spectroscopy of the central galaxies in the cool core clusters A1664, A2204 and PKS 0745-191, to probe the spatio-kinematic properties of the Pa? and ro-vibrational H2 line emission. In A1664, the two emission-line velocity systems seen in our previous H? spectroscopy appear in both Pa? and H2 emission, with notable morphological differences. The recession velocity of the red component of Pa? increases linearly with decreasing radius, particularly along an 8kpc filament aligned with the major axis of the underlying galaxy and the cluster X-ray emission. These kinematics are modelled as gravitational free-fall as gas cools rapidly out of the hot phase. In A2204, the gas shows three or four filaments reaching radii of 10kpc, three of which lie towards `ghost bubbles' seen in X-ray imaging by Sanders et al. For PKS 0745-191, we confirm the twin-arm morphology in the narrow-band images of Donahue et al.; the Pa? kinematics suggest rotational motion about an axis aligned with the kiloparsec-scale radio jet; on nucleus, we find an underlying broad Pa? component [full width at half-maximum (FWHM) 1700kms-1] and a secondary H2 velocity system redshifted by +500kms-1. The H2v = 1-0 S(3)/Pa? ratio is the highest in the most isolated and extended regions where it matches the levels in the NGC 1275 filaments as modelled by Ferland et al. Regions with much lower ratios highlight active star formation and are often kinematically quiescent (FWHM < 200kms-1). Our findings suggest that the three clusters may be captured in different stages of the `cold feedback' cycle of Pizzolato & Soker, with A1664 in a short-lived phase of extreme cooling and star formation prior to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating event; PKS 0745-191 in an outburst state with the AGN accreting from a cool gas disc, and A2204 in a later phase in which cool gas is dragged out of the galaxy by the buoyant rise of old radio bubbles. Based on observations performed at the European Southern Observatory, Chile [Programme ID: 77.A-0057(A)]. E-mail: rwilman@unimelb.edu.au

  3. First Results of the Beam Gas Ionization Profile Monitor (BGIP) Tested in the SPS Ring

    E-print Network

    Arauzo-Garcia, A; Koopman, J; Variola, A

    2000-01-01

    The BGIP is a proposal for a new, non-destructive beam profile monitor for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This device provides the rms beam size value by means of the analysis of the velocity spectrum of the rest gas ions created and accelerated by the beam itself. After a thorough computer simulation study of the related physics, a first prototype of the BGIP has been conceived, built up and installed in the SPS main ring during 1999. This paper contains a short presentation of the simulation work and a description of the test set-up. The first experimental results are presented and compared with theoretical computations.

  4. Gas-Phase Oxidation of Cm+ and Cm2+ -- Thermodynamics of neutral and ionized CmO

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G.; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2008-12-08

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to study the products and kinetics of gas-phase reactions of Cm+ and Cm2+; parallel studies were carried out with La+/2+, Gd+/2+ and Lu+/2+. Reactions with oxygen-donor molecules provided estimates for the bond dissociation energies, D[M+-O](M = Cm, Gd, Lu). The first ionization energy, IE[CmO], was obtained from the reactivity of CmO+ with dienes, and the second ionization energies, IE[MO+](M = Cm, La, Gd, Lu), from the rates of electron-transfer reactions from neutrals to the MO2+ ions. The following thermodynamic quantities for curium oxide molecules were obtained: IE[CmO]= 6.4+-0.2 eV; IE[CmO+]= 15.8+-0.4 eV; D[Cm-O]= 710+-45 kJ mol-1; D[Cm+-O]= 670+-40 kJ mol-1; and D[Cm2+-O]= 342+-55 kJ mol-1. Estimates for the M2+-O bond energies for M = Cm, La, Gd and Lu are all intermediate between D[N2-O]and D[OC-O]--i.e., 167 kJ mol-1< D[M2+-O]< 532 kJ mol-1 -- such that the four MO2+ ions fulfill the thermodynamic requirement for catalytic O-atom transport from N2O to CO. It was demonstrated that the kinetics are also favorable and that the CmO2+, LaO2+, GdO2+ and LuO2+ dipositive ions each catalyze the gas-phase oxidation of CO to CO2 by N2O. The CmO2+ ion appeared during the reaction of Cm+ with O2 when the intermediate, CmO+, was not collisionally cooled -- although its formation is kinetically and/or thermodynamically unfavorable, CmO2+ is a stable species.

  5. Highly-Ionized Gas in the Galactic Halo: A FUSE Survey of O 6 Absorption toward 22 Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsargo, J.; Sembach, K. R.; Howk, J. C.; Savage, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of 22 Galactic halo stars are studied to determine the amount of O 6 in the Galactic halo between ~0.3 and ~10 kpc from the Galactic mid-plane. Strong O 6 ? 1031.93 absorption was detected toward 21 stars, and a reliable 3 ? upper limit was obtained toward HD 97991. The weaker member of the O 6 doublet at 1037.62 Å could be studied toward only six stars. The observed columns are reasonably consistent with a patchy exponential O 6 distribution with a mid-plane density of 1.7x10-8 cm-3 and scale height between 2.3 and 4 kpc. We do not see clear signs of strong high-velocity components in O 6 absorption along the Galactic sight lines, which indicates the general absence of high velocity O 6 within 2-5 kpc of the Galactic mid-plane. The correlation between the H 1 and O 6 intermediate velocity absorption is also poor. The O 6 velocity dispersions are much larger than the value of ~18 km/s expected from thermal broadening for gas at T ~ 3x105 K, the temperature at which O 6 is expected to reach its peak abundance in collisional ionization equilibrium. Turbulence, inflow, and outflow must have an effect on the shape of the O 6 profiles. Kinematical comparisons of O 6 with Ar 1 reveal that 9 of 21 sight lines are closely aligned in LSR velocity (|? VLSR| <=5 km/s ), while 8 of 21 exhibit significant velocity differences (|? VLSR| >= 15 km/s ). This dual behavior may indicate the presence of two different types of O 6-bearing environments toward the Galactic sight lines. Comparison of O 6 with other highly-ionized species suggests that the high ions are produced primarily by cooling hot gas in the Galactic fountain flow, and that turbulent mixing also has a significant contribution. The role of turbulent mixing is most important toward sight lines that sample supernova remnants like Loop I and IV. We are also able to show that the O 6 enhancement toward the Galactic center region that was observed in the FUSE survey of complete halo sight lines (Savage et al.) is likely associated with processes occurring near the Galactic center. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by the Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  6. Probing the extent and content of low ionization gas in galaxies: QSO absorption and HI emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womble, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    The small projected separations of some QSO's and low-redshift galaxies provide unique opportunities to study the extent and content of gas in galaxies through observation of absorption in the QSO spectra. Observations of these systems provide valuable information on the connection between the absorbing gas and the galaxy, as well as detailed information on the morphology and environment of the galaxy itself. While there is direct evidence that galaxies can produce the intervening-type QSO absorption lines, over the past decade, the study of such 'QSO-galaxy pairs' (at low redshift) has been considered unsuccessful because new detections of absorption were seldom made. A fundamental problem concerning the relation between these low-redshift systems and those seen at moderate to high redshift remains unresolved. Direct and indirect measures of galaxy absorption cross sections at moderate to high redshifts (z is approximately greater than 20.5) are much larger than the optical and HI sizes of local galaxies. However, direct comparison of the low and moderate to high redshift systems is difficult since different ions are observed in different redshift regimes. Observations are presented for a new sample of QSO-galaxy pairs. Nine new QSO's which shine through nearby galaxies (on the sky-plane) were observed to search for CaII absorption in the QSO spectra at the foreground galaxy redshifts.

  7. Electroscopy Ionization Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Probing the Electronic Structure of Inorganic Metal Complexes in the Gas Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Tom; Wang, Xue B.; Wang, Lai S.

    2007-02-01

    The coupling of electrospray to photoelectron spectroscopy has allowed a number of negatively charged solution phase transition metal complexes to be transferred to the gas phase and studied by photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. Experiments have been performed on a range of species, including classic square-planar and octahedral transition-metal halide complexes, metal-metal bonded species, transition metal bis(dithiolene) centers and a variety of mononuclear and polynuclear iron-sulfur clusters that are related to important bioinorganic centers. The studies have provided detailed information about the electronic structure and molecular orbital energy levels of these species, allowing for direct comparison with theoretical calculations, and providing insight into their intrinsic redox properties in the absence of solvation.

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of ionized gas. II. Spectral energy distributions of massive and very massive stars in stationary and time-dependent modeling of the ionization of metals in H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. A.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Hoffmann, T. L.

    2015-11-01

    Context. H II regions play a crucial role in the measurement of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium and provide fundamental data about element abundances that constrain models of galactic chemical evolution. Discrepancies that still exist between observed emission line strengths and those predicted by nebular models can be partly attributed to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the sources of ionizing radiation used in the models as well as to simplifying assumptions made in nebular modeling. Aims: One of the main influences on the nebular spectra is the metallicity, both nebular and stellar, which shows large variations even among nearby galaxies. Although nebular modeling often involves testing of different nebular metallicities against their influence on the predicted spectra, adequate grids of stellar atmospheres and realistic SEDs for different metallicities are still lacking. This is unfortunate because the influence of stellar metallicity on nebular line strength ratios, via its effect on the SEDs, is of similar importance as variations in the nebular metallicity. To overcome this deficiency we have computed a grid of model atmosphere SEDs for massive and very massive O-type stars covering a range of metallicities from significantly subsolar (0.1 Z?) to supersolar (2 Z?). Methods: The SEDs have been computed using a state-of-the-art model atmosphere code that takes into account the attenuation of the ionizing flux by the spectral lines of all important elements and the hydrodynamics of the radiatively driven winds and their influence on the SEDs. For the assessment of the SEDs in nebular simulations we have developed a (heretofore not available) 3D radiative transfer code that includes a time-dependent treatment of the metal ionization. Results: Using the SEDs in both 1D and 3D nebular models we explore the relative influence of stellar metallicity, gas metallicity, and inhomogeneity of the gas on the nebular ionization structure and emission line strengths. We find that stellar and gas metallicity are of similar importance for establishing the line strength ratios commonly used in nebular diagnostics, whereas inhomogeneity of the gas has only a subordinate influence on the global line emission. Conclusions: Nebular diagnostics as a quantitative tool for measuring the abundances in the interstellar gas can be used to its full potential only when the influence of SEDs, metallicity, and geometric structure of the nebula are taken into account. For these purposes, detailed stellar SEDs like those of our grid are an essential ingredient for the photoionization models used to predict nebular emission line spectra. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. DISCOVERY OF A DOUBLE INFRARED CLUSTER IN II Zw 40

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Sara; Lahad, Ohr; Turner, Jean; Lacy, John; Greathouse, Thomas

    2013-04-10

    The nearby dwarf galaxy II Zw 40 hosts an intense starburst. At the center of the starburst is a bright compact radio and infrared source, thought to be a giant dense H II region containing Almost-Equal-To 14, 000 O stars. Radio continuum images suggest that the compact source is actually a collection of several smaller emission regions. We accordingly use the kinematics of the ionized gas to probe the structure of the radio-infrared emission region. With TEXES on the NASA-IRTF we measured the 10.5 {mu}m [S IV] emission line with effective spectral resolutions, including thermal broadening, of {approx}25 and {approx}3 km s{sup -1} and spatial resolution {approx}1''. The line profile shows two distinct, spatially coextensive, emission features. The stronger feature is at galactic velocity and has FWHM 47 km s{sup -1}. The second feature is {approx}44 km s{sup -1} redward of the first and has FWHM 32 km s{sup -1}. We argue that these are two giant embedded clusters, and estimate their masses to be Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} and Almost-Equal-To 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. The velocity shift is unexpectedly large for such a small spatial offset. We suggest that it may arise in a previously undetected kinematic feature remaining from the violent merger that formed the galaxy.

  10. Determination of free amino compounds in betalainic fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Schreiter, Pat P-Y; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-06-14

    Amino acids and amines are the precursors of betalains. Therefore, the profiles of free amino compounds in juices obtained from cactus pears [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. cv. Bianca, cv. Gialla, and cv. Rossa], pitaya fruits [Selenicereus megalanthus (K. Schumann ex Vaupel) Moran, Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose, and Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose], and in extracts from differently colored Swiss chard [Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla (L.) Alef. cv. Bright Lights] petioles and red and yellow beets (B. vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. conditiva Alef. cv. Burpee's Golden) were investigated for the first time. Amino compounds were derivatized with propyl chloroformate. While gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry was used for peak assignment, GC flame ionization detection was applied for quantification of individual compounds. Whereas proline was the major free amino compound of cactus pear and pitaya fruit juices, glutamine dominated in Swiss chard stems and beets, respectively. Interestingly, extremely high concentrations of dopamine were detected in Swiss chard stems and beets. Furthermore, the cleavage of betaxanthins caused by derivatization in alkaline reaction solutions is demonstrated for the first time. Amino acids and amines thus released might increase the actual free amino compound contents of the respective sample. To evaluate the contribution of betaxanthin cleavage to total amino acid and amine concentration, isolated betaxanthins were derivatized according to the "EZ:faast" method prior to quantification of the respective amino compounds released. On a molar basis, betaxanthin contribution to overall amino compound contents was always below 6.4%. PMID:16756361

  11. Exploring petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater by double solid phase extraction coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Pindado Jiménez, Oscar; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Escolano Segovia, Olga; del Reino Querencia, Susana

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes an analytical procedure for measuring aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons fractions present in groundwater. In this method, hydrocarbons are solid phase extracted (SPE) twice from the groundwater and the resulting fractions are analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The first SPE disposes the hydrocarbons present in groundwater in organic solvents and the second SPE divides them into aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The validation study is carried out and its uncertainties are discussed. Identifying the main sources of uncertainty is evaluated through applying the bottom-up approach. Limits of detection for hydrocarbons ranges are below 5 µg L(-1), precision is not above of 30%, and acceptable recoveries are reached for aliphatic and aromatic fractions studied. The uncertainty due to volume of the sample, factor of calibration and recovery are the highest contributions. The expanded uncertainty range from 13% to 26% for the aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges and from 14% to 23% for the aromatic hydrocarbons ranges. As application, the proposed method is satisfactorily applied to a set of groundwater samples collected in a polluted area where there is evidence to present a high degree of hydrocarbons. The results have shown the range of aliphatic hydrocarbons >C21-C35 is the most abundant, with values ranging from 215 µg L(-1) to 354 µg L(-1), which it is associated to a contamination due to diesel. PMID:25281108

  12. Analysis of free and conjugated phytosterols in tobacco by an improved method using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Ding, Bin; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Jun; Liu, Shao-Min

    2007-09-01

    An improved and simple method using capillary gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detection system (GC-FID) has been developed for quantitative analysis of free and conjugated phytosterols in tobacco. Direct acid and alkaline hydrolysis were first introduced into tobacco analysis to liberate free phytosterols from conjugates, followed by extraction with hexane, derivatization to trimethylsilyl ether derivatives and finally GC quantitative determination. The generality and applicability of this improved method for analyzing free and conjugated phytosterols in tobacco were validated after a series of optimization and comparison were done. Compared with traditional methods, this improved method not only simplified procedures, but also saved time and solvent. The limits of detection (LODs) of phytosterols varied from 0.35 to 0.10 microg mL(-1), the relative standard deviations (RSD) were from 2.3% to 3.3% and recovery ranged from 87% to 99%. The analysis results showed that total phytosterols' content in tobacco ranged from 1.0 to 2.5 mg g(-1), and most phytosterols existed as conjugates, only approximately 15-25% phytosterols existed in free-form. Ergosterol was only found in mildewy flued-cured tobacco and the level was approximately 0.2-0.25 mg g(-1). PMID:17624356

  13. The temperature and ionization structure of the emitting gas in HII galaxies: Implications for the accuracy of abundance determinations

    E-print Network

    Guillermo F. Haegele; Enrique Perez-Montero; Angeles I. Diaz; Elena Terlevich; Roberto Terlevich

    2006-08-11

    We propose a methodology to perform a self-consistent analysis of the physical properties of the emitting gas of HII galaxies adequate to the data that can be obtained with the XXI century technology. This methodology requires the production and calibration of empirical relations between the different line temperatures that should superseed currently used ones based on very simple, and poorly tested, photo-ionization model sequences. As a first step to reach these goals we have obtained simultaneous blue to far red longslit spectra with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) of three compact HII galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 2 (DR2) spectral catalog using the INAOE Virtual Observatory superserver. Our spectra cover the range from 3200 to 10500 \\AA, including the Balmer jump, the [OII]3727,29 \\AA lines, the [SIII]9069,9532 \\AA doublet as well as various weak auroral lines such as [OIII]4363 \\AA and [SIII]6312 \\AA. For the three objects we have measured at least four line temperatures: T([OIII]), T([SIII]), T([OII]) and T([SII]) and the Balmer continuum temperature T(Bac). These measurements and a careful and realistic treatment of the observational errors yield total oxygen abundances with accuracies between 5 and 9%. These accuracies are expected to improve as better calibrations based on more precise measurements, both on electron temperatures and densities, are produced. ...

  14. A new method for total OH reactivity measurements using a fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Sinha, V.; Bockisch, S.; Klüpfel, T.; Williams, J.

    2012-05-01

    The primary and most important oxidant in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH). Currently OH sinks, particularly gas phase reactions, are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. To date direct measurements of total OH reactivity have been either performed using a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system ("pump-and-probe" or "flow reactor") or the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). Both techniques require large, complex and expensive detection systems. This study presents a feasibility assessment for CRM total OH reactivity measurements using a new detector, a Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID). Such a system is smaller, more portable, less power consuming and less expensive than other total OH reactivity measurement techniques. Total OH reactivity is measured by the CRM using a competitive reaction between a reagent (here pyrrole) with OH alone and in the presence of atmospheric reactive molecules. The new CRM method for total OH reactivity has been tested with parallel measurements of the GC-PID and the previously validated PTR-MS as detector for the reagent pyrrole during laboratory experiments, plant chamber and boreal field studies. Excellent agreement of both detectors was found when the GC-PID was operated under optimum conditions. Time resolution (60-70 s), sensitivity (LOD 3-6 s-1) and overall uncertainty (25% in optimum conditions) for total OH reactivity were equivalent to PTR-MS based total OH reactivity measurements. One drawback of the GC-PID system was the steady loss of sensitivity and accuracy during intensive measurements lasting several weeks, and a possible toluene interference. Generally, the GC-PID system has been shown to produce closely comparable results to the PTR-MS and thus in suitable environments (e.g. forests) it presents a viably economical alternative for groups interested in total OH reactivity observations.

  15. Resolved Spectroscopy of the Narrow-Line Region in NGC 1068: Kinematics of the Ionized Gas

    E-print Network

    D. M. Crenshaw; S. B. Kraemer

    2000-02-23

    We have determined the radial velocities of the [O III] emitting gas in the inner narrow-line region (NLR) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, along a slit at position angle of 202 degrees, from STIS observations at a spatial resolution of 0.1 arcsec and a spectral resolving power of approximately 1000. We use these data to investigate the kinematics of the NLR within 6 arcsec (430 pc) of the nucleus. The emission-line knots show evidence for radial acceleration, to a projected angular distance of 1.7 arcsec in most cases, followed by deceleration that approaches the systemic velocity at a projected distance of about 4 arcsec. We find that a simple kinematic model of biconical radial outflow can match the general trend of observed radial velocities. In this model, the emitting material is evacuated along the bicone axis, and the axis is inclined 5 degrees out of the plane of the sky. The acceleration of the emission-line clouds provides support for dynamical models that invoke radiation and/or wind pressure. We suggest that the deceleration of the clouds is due to their collision with a patchy and anistropically distributed ambient medium.

  16. Carbon nanotube-based field ionization vacuum

    E-print Network

    Jang, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a novel micropump architecture that uses arrays of isolated vertical carbon nanotubes (CNT) to field ionize gas particles. The ionized gas molecules are accelerated to and implanted into a ...

  17. Simulations of a surface glow discharge in a supersonic gas flow in the presence of external ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, A. L.

    2011-09-15

    Results of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a surface glow discharge operating at pressures of 0.2-0.5 Torr in a nitrogen flow propagating with a velocity of 1000 m/s in the presence of external ionization are presented. The effect of the external ionization rate on discharge operation is analyzed. The current-voltage characteristics of the discharge are calculated for different intensities of external ionization in both the presence and absence of secondary electron emission from the cathode. The discharge structure and plasma parameters in the vicinity of the loaded electrode are considered. It is shown that, when the discharge operates at the expense of secondary emission from the cathode, the discharge current and cathode sheath configuration are insensitive to external ionization. It is also demonstrated that, even at a high rate of external ionization, the discharge operates due to secondary emission from the cathode.

  18. Gas-Phase Synthesis of Singly and Multiply Charged Polyoxovanadate Anions Employing Electrospray Ionization and Collision Induced Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Al Hasan, Naila M.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-09-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) combined with in-source fragmentation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were used to generate a wide range of multiply charged vanadium oxide cluster anions including VxOyn- and VxOyCln- ions (x = 1 ? 14, y= 2 ? 36, n = 1 ? 3), protonated clusters, and ligand-bound VxOyn- species. These cluster anions were produced by electrospraying a solution of tetradecavanadate, V14O36Cl(L)5 (L= Et4N+, tetraethylammonium), in acetonitrile. Under mild source conditions, ESI-MS generates a distribution of doubly and triply charged VxOyCln- and VxOyCl(L)(n-1)- clusters predominantly containing 14 vanadium atoms. Accurate mass measurement using high-resolution mass spectrometry (m/?m = 60,000 at m/z 410) enabled unambiguous assignment of the elemental composition of the majority of peaks in the ESI-MS spectrum. In addition, high-sensitivity mass spectrometry allowed the charge state of the cluster ions to be assigned based on the separation of the major from the minor isotope of vanadium. In-source fragmentation resulted in facile formation of smaller VxOyCl(1-2)- and VxOy(1-2)- anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments enabled systematic study of the gas-phase fragmentation pathways of the cluster anions generated from solution. Surprisingly simple fragmentation patterns were obtained for all singly and doubly charged VxOyCl and VxOy species generated through multiple MS/MS experiments. In contrast, cluster ions originating directly from solution produced comparatively complex CID spectra. These results indicate that low-energy CID results in formation of stable cage-like structures of VxOyCl and VxOy anions. Furthermore, solution-phase synthesis of one precursor cluster combined with gas-phase CID is an efficient approach for the top-down synthesis of a wide range of multiply charged gas-phase metal oxide clusters for subsequent investigations of structure and reactivity.

  19. Performance of a gas flow ionization detector filled with He-iso-C4H10 mixtures for STIM-T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. C.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Fonte, P.; Beasley, D. G.; Cruz, C.; Alves, L. C.; da Silva, R. C.

    2015-04-01

    A cylindrical gas flow ionization chamber has been developed for measuring particle energy in Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T) experiments due to its ability to withstand the direct beam. The response of a He-iso-C4H10 filled ionization detector to 2 MeV H+ and He+ beams was studied. Different operating parameters, such as concentration of isobutane (in the range of 55-100%), anode voltage, amplifier shaping time, the geometry of the detector entrance canal and the solid angle of the detector, were investigated. The stable operating plateau and the anode voltage at which the best energy resolution is attained were also determined for every gas mixture. The best energy resolution achieved so far for 2 MeV H+ and He+ static beams was ?1.3%, which is comparable to that of Si PIN diode detectors (in the range of 15-30 keV). Computed tomography (CT) was applied to a set of STIM projections acquired with the gas ionization chamber at the IST/CTN microprobe beam line in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in a test structure.

  20. Reactions of metal ions and their clusters in the gas phase using laser ionization: Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Progress report, February 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Freiser, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    This report focuses on progress in seven areas: (1) Gas-Phase Reactions of Fe(Benzyne){sup +} with Simple Alkyl Halides; (2) Photodissociation and Collision-Induced Dissociation of Molecular Ions From Methylphenol and Chloromethylphenol; (3) Isotopomer Differentiation Using Metal Ion Chemical Ionization Reagents; (4) Multiple Excitation Collisional Activation (MECA) in Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry; (5) Chemistry of Fe{sup +}-Arene Ions with Halobenzenes; (6) Gas-Phase Photodissociaton Study of Ag(Benzene){sup +} and Ag(Toluene){sup +}; and (7) Reactivity of Ti{sup 2+} and V{sup 2+} with Small Alkanes.

  1. DECIPHERING THE IONIZED GAS CONTENT IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX G75.78+0.34

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Kurtz, Stan; Lizano, Susana; Palau, Aina; Estalella, Robert; Shepherd, Debra; Franco, Jose; Garay, Guido

    2013-04-01

    We present subarcsecond observations toward the massive star-forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 3}OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40{alpha} and H30{alpha}). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) H II region with an electron density {approx}3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCH II region (EAST), located {approx}6'' to the east of the cometary UCH II region, with an electron density {approx}1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located {approx}2'' to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 M{sub Sun }. The CORE source is resolved into two compact and unresolved sources which can be well fit by two homogeneous hypercompact H II regions each one photoionized by a B0.5 zero-age main sequence star, or by free-free radiation from shock-ionized gas resulting from the interaction of a jet/outflow system with the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution and kinematics of water masers close to the CORE-N and S sources, together with excess emission at 4.5 {mu}m and the detected dust emission, suggest that the CORE source is a massive protostar driving a jet/outflow.

  2. CO/H2, C/CO, OH/CO, and OH/O2 in dense interstellar gas: from high ionization to low metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialy, Shmuel; Sternberg, Amiel

    2015-07-01

    We present numerical computations and analytic scaling relations for interstellar ion-molecule gas-phase chemistry down to very low metallicities (10-3 × solar), and/or up to high driving ionization rates. Relevant environments include the cool interstellar medium (ISM) in low-metallicity dwarf galaxies, early enriched clouds at the reionization and Pop-II star formation era, and in dense cold gas exposed to intense X-ray or cosmic ray sources. We focus on the behaviour for H2, CO, CH, OH, H2O and O2, at gas temperatures ˜100 K, characteristic of a cooled ISM at low metallicities. We consider shielded or partially shielded one-zone gas parcels, and solve the gas-phase chemical rate equations for the steady-state `metal-molecule abundances for a wide range of ionization parameters, ?/n, and metallicties, Z '. We find that the OH abundances are always maximal near the H-to-H2 conversion points, and that large OH abundances persist at very low metallicities even when the hydrogen is predominantly atomic. We study the OH/O2, C/CO and OH/CO abundance ratios, from large to small, as functions of ?/n and Z '. Much of the cold dense ISM for the Pop-II generation may have been OH-dominated and atomic rather than CO-dominated and molecular.

  3. Gas-phase chemistry of ionized and protonated GeF4: a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Antoniotti, Paola; Bottizzo, Elena; Operti, Lorenza; Rabezzana, Roberto; Borocci, Stefano; Grandinetti, Felice

    2011-05-01

    The gas-phase ion chemistry of GeF(4) and of its mixtures with water, ammonia and hydrocarbons was investigated by ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) and ab initio calculations. Under ITMS conditions, the only fragment detected from ionized GeF(4) is GeF(3)(+). This cation is a strong Lewis acid, able to react with H(2)O, NH(3) and the unsaturated C(2)H(2), C(2)H(4) and C(6)H(6) by addition-HF elimination reactions to form F(2)Ge(XH)(+), FGe(XH)(2)(+), Ge(XH)(3)(+) (X = OH or NH(2)), F(2)GeC(2)H(+), F(2)GeC(2)H(3)(+) and F(2)GeC(6)H(5)(+). The structure, stability and thermochemistry of these products and the mechanistic aspects of the exemplary reactions of GeF(3)(+) with H(2)O, NH(3) and C(6)H(6) were investigated by MP2 and coupled cluster calculations. The experimental proton affinity (PA) and gas basicity (GB) of GeF(4) were estimated as 121.5 ± 6.0 and 117.1 ± 6.0 kcal mol(-1), respectively, and GeF(4)H(+) was theoretically characterized as an ion-dipole complex between GeF(3)(+) and HF. Consistently, it reacts with simple inorganic and organic molecules to form GeF(3)(+)-L complexes (L = H(2)O, NH(3), C(2)H(2), C(2)H(4), C(6)H(6), CO(2), SO(2) and GeF(4)). The theoretical investigation of the stability of these ions with respect to GeF(3)(+) and L disclosed nearly linear correlations between their dissociation enthalpies and free energies and the PA and GB of L. Comparing the behavior of GeF(3)(+) with the previously investigated CF(3)(+) and SiF(3)(+) revealed a periodically reversed order of reactivity CF(3)(+) < GeF(3)(+) < SiF(3)(+). This parallels the order of the Lewis acidities of the three cations. PMID:21500305

  4. Field ionization from carbon nanofibers

    E-print Network

    Adeoti, Bosun J

    2008-01-01

    The Micro Gas Analyzer project aims to develop power-efficient, high resolution, high sensitivity, portable and real-time gas sensors. We developed a field ionizer array based on gated CNTs. Arrays of CNTs are used because ...

  5. CF3+ fragmentation by electron impact ionization of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl-ethers, C5F10O, in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Toshio; Miyawaki, Yudai; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-04-01

    The gas phase fragmentations of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl ether (PPVE, C5F10O) are studied experimentally. Dominant fragmentations of PPVE are found to be the result of a dissociative ionization reaction, i.e., CF3+ via direct bond cleavage, and C2F3O- and C3F7O- via electron attachment. Regardless of the appearance energy of around 14.5 eV for the dissociative ionization of CF3+, the observed ion efficiency for the CF3+ ion was extremely large the order of 10-20 cm-2, compared with only 10-21 cm-2 for the other channels. PPVE characteristically generated CF3+ as the largest abundant ion are advantageous for use of feedstock gases in plasma etching processes.

  6. Deposition profile of Ti film inside a trench and its correlation with gas-phase ionization in high-pressure magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Nafarizal, N.; Takada, N.; Nakamura, K.; Sago, Y.; Sasaki, K.

    2006-11-15

    This article reports the relationship between the degree of ionization of Ti in the gas phase and the thickness profile of Ti film inside a trench in magnetron sputtering deposition. A conventional magnetron sputtering plasma source was used for depositing Ti films inside trenches formed on rf-biased SiO{sub 2} substrates. It was found that a high bottom coverage was obtained when a high gas pressure and a long distance between the target and the substrate were employed for the deposition. On the other hand, at a short distance between the target and the substrate, the bottom coverage was small and was almost independent of the gas pressure. The deposition profile was compared with the spatial distributions of Ti and Ti{sup +} densities measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging spectroscopy. The LIF results revealed that the density ratio of Ti{sup +} to Ti in the downstream region increased with the gas pressure up to 0.3, while in the upstream region, it was small (<0.05) and was roughly constant with the gas pressure. In the case with the enhanced density ratio of 0.3, the flux ratio of Ti{sup +} to Ti was estimated to be 4.4. Hence, it was concluded that, with a high gas pressure and a long distance between the target and substrate, the deposition profile with a high bottom coverage was obtained by accelerating Ti{sup +} toward the bottom of the trench. The high-pressure magnetron sputtering discharge is useful for enhancing the degree of ionization and the bottom coverage.

  7. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-ionization or resonance-enhanced-multi-photon-ionization for characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Otto, Stefan; Streibel, Thorsten; Erdmann, Sabrina; Klingbeil, Sophie; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as a part of dissolved organic matter (DOM), are environmental pollutants of the marine compartment. This study investigates the origin of PAH, which is supposed to derive mainly from anthropogenic activities, and their alteration along the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Pyrolysis in combination with gas chromatography and two mass selective detectors in one measurement cycle are utilized as a tool for an efficient trace analysis of such complex samples, by which it is possible to detect degradation products of high molecular structures. Along the north-south transect of the Baltic Sea a slightly rising trend for PAH is visible. Their concentration profiles correspond to the ship traffic as a known anthropogenic source, underlined by the value of special isomer ratios such as phenanthrene and anthracene (0.31-0.45) or pyrene and fluoranthene (0.44-0.53). The detection of naphthalene and the distribution of its alkylated representatives support this statement. PMID:26277803

  8. Enhanced metabolite profiling using a redesigned atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wachsmuth, Christian J; Hahn, Thomas A; Oefner, Peter J; Dettmer, Katja

    2015-09-01

    An improved atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI II) source for gas chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HRTOFMS) was compared to its first-generation predecessor for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters, methoxime-trimethylsilyl derivatives of metabolite standards, and cell culture supernatants. Reductions in gas turbulences and chemical background as well as optimized heating of the APCI II source resulted in narrower peaks and higher repeatability in particular for late-eluting compounds. Further, APCI II yielded a more than fourfold median decrease in lower limits of quantification to 0.002-3.91 ?M along with an average 20 % increase in linear range to almost three orders of magnitude with R (2) values above 0.99 for all metabolite standards investigated. This renders the overall performance of GC-APCI-HRTOFMS comparable to that of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC?×?GC)-electron ionization (EI)-TOFMS. Finally, the number of peaks with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 20 that could be extracted from metabolite fingerprints of pancreatic cancer cell supernatants upon switching from the APCI I to the APCI II source was more than doubled. Concomitantly, the number of identified metabolites increased from 36 to 48. In conclusion, the improved APCI II source makes GC-APCI-HRTOFMS a great alternative to EI-based GC-MS techniques in metabolomics and other fields. PMID:26092404

  9. Defect of the well-known (classical) expression for the ionization rate in gas-discharge plasma and its modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinov, I. I.

    2015-11-01

    A critical analysis is given of the well-known expression for the electron-impact ionization rate constant ? i of neutral atoms and ions, derived by linearization of the ionization cross section ? i (?) as a function of the electron energy near the threshold I and containing the characteristic factor ( I + 2 kT). Using the classical Thomson expression for the ionization cross section, it is shown that in addition to the linear slope of ? i (?), it is also necessary to take into account the large negative curvature of this function near the threshold. In this case, the second term in parentheses changes its sign, which means that the commonly used expression for ? i (˜4 kT/I) already at moderate values of the temperature ( kT/I ˜ 0.1). The source of this error lies in a mathematical mistake in the original approach and is related to the incorrect choice of the sequential orders of terms small in the parameter kT/I. On the basis of a large amount of experimental data and considerations similar to the Gryzinski theory, a universal two-parameter modification of the Thomson formula (as well as the Bethe—Born formula) is proposed and a new simple expression for the ionization rate constant for arbitrary values of kT/I is derived.

  10. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  11. Comparison of electron and chemical ionization modes for the quantification of thiols and oxidative compounds in white wines by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thibon, Cécile; Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Redon, Pascaline; Méreau, Raphaël; Darriet, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    A rapid, sensitive method for assaying volatile impact compounds in white wine was developed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) technology, with a triple quadrupole analyzer operating in chemical ionization and electron impact mode. This GC-MS/MS method made it possible to assay volatile thiols (3SH: 3-sulfanylhexanol, formerly 3MH; 3SHA: 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, formerly 3MHA; 4MSP: 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one, formerly 4MMP; BM: benzenemethanethiol; E2SA: ethyl 2-sulfanylacetate; and 2FM: 2-furanmethanethiol) and odoriferous oxidation markers (Sotolon: 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5)H-furanone, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde) simultaneously in dry white wines, comparing electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes. More molecular ions were produced by CI than protonated molecules, despite the greater fragmentation caused by EI. So, even using the best reactant gas giving the highest signal for thiols, EI was the best ionization mode, with the lowest detection limits. For all compounds of interest, the limits of quantification (LOQ) obtained were well below their detection thresholds (ranging from 0.5 to 8.5ng/L for volatile thiols and 65-260ng/L for oxidation markers). Recovery rates ranged from 86% to 111%, reproducibility (in terms of relative standard deviation; RSD) was below 18% in all cases, with correlation coefficients above 0.991 for all analytes. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of compounds of interest in Sauvignon Blanc wines from a single estate and ten different vintages. PMID:26358562

  12. Ionized Gas Kinematics at High Resolution V: [Ne ii], Multiple Clusters, High Efficiency Star Formation, and Blue Flows in He 2–10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Sara; Turner, Jean; Lacy, John; Greathouse, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We measured the 12.8 ?m [Ne ii] line in the dwarf starburst galaxy He 2–10 with the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the NASA IRTF. The data cube has a diffraction-limited spatial resolution of ?1? and a total velocity resolution, including thermal broadening, of ?5 km s?1. This makes it possible to compare the kinematics of individual star-forming clumps and molecular clouds in the three dimensions of space and velocity, and allows us to determine star formation efficiencies. The kinematics of the ionized gas confirm that the starburst contains multiple dense clusters. From the M/R of the clusters and the ?30%–40% star formation efficiencies, the clusters are likely to be bound and long lived, like globulars. Non-gravitational features in the line profiles show how the ionized gas flows through the ambient molecular material, as well as a narrow velocity feature, which we identify with the interface of the H ii region and a cold dense clump. These data offer an unprecedented view of the interaction of embedded H ii regions with their environment.

  13. Application of gas chromatography/flame ionization detector-based metabolite fingerprinting for authentication of Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak).

    PubMed

    Jumhawan, Udi; Putri, Sastia Prama; Yusianto; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2015-11-01

    Development of authenticity screening for Asian palm civet coffee, the world-renowned priciest coffee, was previously reported using metabolite profiling through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, a major drawback of this approach is the high cost of the instrument and maintenance. Therefore, an alternative method is needed for quality and authenticity evaluation of civet coffee. A rapid, reliable and cost-effective analysis employing a universal detector, GC coupled with flame ionization detector (FID), and metabolite fingerprinting has been established for discrimination analysis of 37 commercial and non-commercial coffee beans extracts. gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) provided higher sensitivity over a similar range of detected compounds than GC/MS. In combination with multivariate analysis, GC/FID could successfully reproduce quality prediction from GC/MS for differentiation of commercial civet coffee, regular coffee and coffee blend with 50 wt % civet coffee content without prior metabolite details. Our study demonstrated that GC/FID-based metabolite fingerprinting can be effectively actualized as an alternative method for coffee authenticity screening in industries. PMID:25912451

  14. Application of pyrolysis-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-ionization or resonance-enhanced-multi-photon ionization for characterization of crude oils.

    PubMed

    Otto, Stefan; Streibel, Thorsten; Erdmann, Sabrina; Sklorz, Martin; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-01-15

    A novel analytical system for gas-chromatographic investigation of complex samples has been developed, that combines the advantages of several analytical principles to enhance the analytical information. Decomposition of high molecular weight structures is achieved by pyrolysis and a high separation capacity due to the chromatographic step provides both an universal as well as a selective and sensitive substance detection. The latter is achieved by simultaneously applying electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (EI-QMS) for structural elucidation and [1+1]-resonance-enhanced-multi-photon ionization (REMPI) combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS). The system has been evaluated and tested with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standards. It was applied to crude oil samples for the first time. In such highly complex samples several thousands of compounds are present and the identification especially of low concentrated chemical species such as PAH or their polycyclic aromatic sulfur containing heterocyclic (PASH) derivatives is often difficult. Detection of unalkylated and alkylated PAH together with PASH is considerably enhanced by REMPI-ToFMS, at times revealing aromatic structures which are not observable by EI-QMS due to their low abundance. On the other hand, the databased structure proposals of the EI-QMS analysis are needed to confirm structural information and isomers distinction. The technique allows a complex structure analysis as well as selective assessment of aromatic substances in one measurement. Information about the content of sulfur containing compounds plays a significant role for the increase of efficiency in the processing of petroleum. PMID:25542090

  15. Ionizing radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter gives a comprehensive review on ionizing irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables. Topics include principles of ionizing radiation, its effects on pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, shelf-life, sensory quality, nutritional and phytochemical composition, as well as physiologic and...

  16. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  17. Miniature Gas Chromatograph (GC): Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES) Instrument for the Trace Analyses of Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    In situ exploration of the solar system to identify its early chemistry as preserved in icy bodies and to look for compelling evidence of astrobiology will require new technology for chemical analysis. Chemical measurements in space flight environments highlight the need for a high level of positive identification of chemical compounds, since re-measurement by alternative techniques for confirmation will not be feasible. It also may not be possible to anticipate all chemical species that are observed, and important species may be present only at trace levels where they can be masked by complex chemical backgrounds. Up to now, the only techniques providing independent sample identification of GC separated components across a wide range of chemical species have been Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS). We describe here the development of a versatile and robust miniature GC detector based on Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES), for use with miniature GC systems being developed for planetary missions. PIES identifies the sample molecule through spectra related to its ionization potential. The combination of miniature GC technology with the primary identification capabilities of PIES provides an analytical approach ideal for planetary analyses.

  18. Ionized gas kinematics of galaxies in the CALIFA survey. I. Velocity fields, kinematic parameters of the dominant component, and presence of kinematically distinct gaseous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lorenzo, B.; Márquez, I.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Masegosa, J.; Husemann, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, J.; Mast, D.; García-Benito, R.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; van de Ven, G.; Spekkens, K.; Holmes, L.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; del Olmo, A.; Ziegler, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Marino, R. A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Bekerait?, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Bomans, D.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Ionized gas kinematics provide important clues to the dynamical structure of galaxies and hold constraints to the processes driving their evolution. Aims: The motivation of this work is to provide an overall characterization of the kinematic behavior of the ionized gas of the galaxies included in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral field Area (CALIFA), offering kinematic clues to potential users of the CALIFA survey for including kinematical criteria in their selection of targets for specific studies. From the first 200 galaxies observed by CALIFA survey in its two configurations, we present the two-dimensional kinematic view of the 177 galaxies satisfaying a gas content/detection threshold. Methods: After removing the stellar contribution, we used the cross-correlation technique to obtain the radial velocity of the dominant gaseous component for each spectrum in the CALIFA data cubes for different emission lines (namely, [O ii] ??3726,3729, [O iii] ??4959,5007, H?+[N ii] ??6548,6584, and [SII]??6716,6730). The main kinematic parameters measured on the plane of the sky were directly derived from the radial velocities with no assumptions on the internal prevailing motions. Evidence of the presence of several gaseous components with different kinematics were detected by using [O iii] ??4959,5007 emission line profiles. Results: At the velocity resolution of CALIFA, most objects in the sample show regular velocity fields, although the ionized-gas kinematics are rarely consistent with simple coplanar circular motions. Thirty-five percent of the objects present evidence of a displacement between the photometric and kinematic centers larger than the original spaxel radii. Only 17% of the objects in the sample exhibit kinematic lopsidedness when comparing receding and approaching sides of the velocity fields, but most of them are interacting galaxies exhibiting nuclear activity (AGN or LINER). Early-type (E+S0) galaxies in the sample present clear photometric-kinematic misaligments. There is evidence of asymmetries in the emission line profiles in 117 out of the 177 analyzed galaxies, suggesting the presence of kinematically distinct gaseous components located at different distances from the optical nucleus. The kinematic decoupling between the dominant and secondary component/s suggested by the observed asymmetries in the profiles can be characterized by a limited set of parameters. Conclusions: This work constitutes the first determination of the ionized gas kinematics of the galaxies observed in the CALIFA survey. The derived velocity fields, the reported kinematic distortions/peculiarities and the identification of the presence of several gaseous components in different regions of the objects might be used as additional criteria for selecting galaxies for specific studies. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronmico Hispano Alemn (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Use of soft and hard ionization techniques for elucidation of unknown compounds by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Pitarch, Elena; López, Francisco J; Hernández, Félix; Niessen, Wilfried M A

    2011-06-15

    Investigation of trace-level non-target compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) often is a challenging task that requires powerful software tools to detect the unknown components, to obtain the deconvoluted mass spectra, and to interpret the data if no acceptable library match is obtained. In this paper, the complementary use of electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) is investigated in combination with GC/time-of-flight (TOF) MS for the elucidation of organic non-target (micro)contaminants in water samples. Based on accurate mass measurement of the molecular and fragment ions from the TOF MS, empirical formulae were calculated. Isotopic patterns, carbon number prediction filter and nitrogen rule were used to reduce the number of possible formulae. The candidate formulae were searched in databases to find possible chemical structures. Selection from possible structure candidates was achieved using information on substructures and observed neutral losses derived from the fragment ions. Four typical examples (bifenazate, boscalid, epoxiconazole, and fenhexamid) are used to illustrate the methodology applied and the various difficulties encountered in this process. Our results indicate that elucidation of unknowns cannot be achieved by following a standardized procedure, as both expertise and creativity are necessary in the process. PMID:21594934

  20. VLT FORS2 optical imaging and spectroscopy of nine luminous type 2 AGN at 0.3 < z < 0.6 - I. Ionized gas nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, A.; Villar-Martín, M.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Arribas, S.; Bessiere, P. S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present optical imaging and long slit spectroscopic observations of nine luminous type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN) within the redshift range 0.3 < z < 0.6 based on Very Large Telescope Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph (VLT FORS2) data. Most objects (6/9) are high luminosity Seyfert 2, and three are type 2 quasars (QSO2), with our sample extending to lower luminosity than previous works. Seven out of nine objects (78 per cent) show morphological evidence for interactions or mergers in the form of disturbed morphologies and/or peculiar features such as tidal tails, amorphous haloes, or compact emission line knots. The detection rate of morphological evidence for interaction is consistent with those found during previous studies of QSO2 at similar z, suggesting that the merger rate is independent of AGN power at the high end of the AGN luminosity function. We find the emission line flux spatial profiles are often dominated by the often spatially unresolved central source. In addition, all but one of our samples is associated with much fainter, extended line emission. We find these extended emission line structures have a variety of origins and ionization mechanisms: star-forming companions, tidal features, or extended ionized nebulae. AGN related processes dominate the excitation of the nuclear gas. Stellar photoionization sometimes plays a role in extended structures often related to mergers/interactions.

  1. Fast determination of multiple-reaction intermediates for long-chain dicarboxylic Acid biotransformation by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Han; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jung; Park, Kyungmoon; Lee, Do Yup; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2015-05-28

    For the analysis of multiple-reaction intermediates for long-chain dicarboxylic acid biotransformation, simple and reproducible methods of extraction and derivatization were developed on the basis of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) instead of mass spectrometry. In the derivatization step, change of the ratio of pyridine to MSTFA from 1:3 to 9:1 resulted in higher peak intensity (p = 0.021) and reproducibility (0.6%CV) when analyzing 32 g/l ricinoleic acid (RA). Extraction of RA and ?-hydroxyundec- 9-enoic acid with water containing 100 mM Tween 80 showed 90.4-99.9% relative extraction efficiency and 2-7%CV compared with those with hydrophobic ethyl acetate. In conclusion, reduction of the pyridine content and change of the extraction solvent to water with Tween 80 provided compatible derivatization and extraction methods to GC-FID-based analysis of longchain carboxylic acids. PMID:25737121

  2. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles and Identification of Capping Agent Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Karthick, V; Kumar, V Ganesh; Dhas, T Stalin; Govindaraju, K; Sinha, Sweta; Singaravelu, G

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using leaf extract of Syzygium jambolanum and capping agent has been explored. The synthesized AuNPs have been characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. The AuNPs show intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 528 nm and were found to be spherical and hexagonal in shape with particle size ranging from 20-30 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze the surface morphology of synthesized AuNPs. The capping ligand has been evaluated using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PMID:26369012

  3. In-gas-cell laser ionization spectroscopy in the vicinity of 100Sn: Magnetic moments and mean-square charge radii of N=50-54 Ag

    E-print Network

    R. Ferrer; N. Bree; T. E. Cocolios; I. G. Darby; H. De Witte; W. Dexters; J. Diriken; J. Elseviers; S. Franchoo; M. Huyse; N. Kesteloot; Yu. Kudryavtsev; D. Pauwels; D. Radulov; T. Roger; H. Savajols; P. Van Duppen; M. Venhart

    2013-11-27

    In-gas-cell laser ionization spectroscopy studies on the neutron deficient 97-101Ag isotopes have been performed with the LISOL setup. Magnetic dipole moments and mean-square charge radii have been determined for the first time with the exception of 101Ag, which was found in good agreement with previous experimental values. The reported results allow tentatively assigning the spin of 97,99Ag to 9/2 and con?firming the presence of an isomeric state in these two isotopes, whose collapsed hyperfine structure suggests a spin of 1/2 . The effect of the N=50 shell closure is not only manifested in the magnetic moments but also in the evolution of the mean-square charge radii of the isotopes investigated, in accordance with the spherical droplet model predictions.

  4. The warm ionized gas in CALIFA early-type galaxies: 2D emission-line patterns and kinematics for 32 galaxies

    E-print Network

    Gomes, J M; Kehrig, C; Vílchez, J M; Lehnert, M D; Sánchez, S F; Ziegler, B; Breda, I; Reis, S N dos; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Galbany, L; Bomans, D J; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Fernandes, R Cid; Walcher, C J; Falcón-Barroso, J; García-Benito, R; Márquez, I; del Olmo, A; Masegosa, J; Mollá, M; Marino, R A; Delgado, R M González; López-Sánchez, Á R

    2015-01-01

    The morphological, spectroscopic and kinematical properties of the warm interstellar medium (wim) in early-type galaxies (ETGs) hold key observational constraints to nuclear activity and the buildup history of these massive, quiescent systems. High-quality integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data with a wide spectral and spatial coverage, such as those from the CALIFA survey, offer an unprecedented opportunity for advancing our understanding of the wim in ETGs. This article centers on a 2D investigation of the wim component in 32 nearby (sample (Papaderos et al. 2013; P13). We include here H\\alpha\\ intensity and equivalent width (EW) maps and radial profiles, diagnostic emission-line ratios, besides ionized-gas and stellar kinematics. This study is supplemented by \\tau-ratio maps as an efficient means to quantify the role of photoionization by pAGB stars, as compared to other mechanisms (e.g., AGN, low-level star formation). Additio...

  5. Fluorohydrogenate Cluster Ions in the Gas Phase: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of the [1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium+][F(HF)2.3–] Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; James E. Delmore; Michael T. Benson; Tetsuya Tsuda; Rika Hagiwara

    2013-12-01

    Electrospray ionization of the fluorohydrogenate ionic liquid [1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium][F(HF)2.3] ionic liquid was conducted to understand the nature of the anionic species as they exist in the gas phase. Abundant fluorohydrogenate clusters were produced; however, the dominant anion in the clusters was [FHF-], and not the fluoride-bound HF dimers or trimers that are seen in solution. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that HF molecules are bound to the clusters by about 30 kcal/mol. The DFT-calculated structures of the [FHF-]-bearing clusters show that the favored interactions of the anions are with the methynic and acetylenic hydrogen atoms on the imidazolium cation, forming planar structures similar to those observed in the solid state. A second series of abundant negative ions was also formed that contained [SiF5-] together with the imidazolium cation and the fluorohydrogenate anions that originate from reaction of the spray solution with silicate surfaces.

  6. Quantification in gas chromatography: prediction of flame ionization detector response factors from combustion enthalpies and molecular structures.

    PubMed

    de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Merle, Philippe; Egger, Jonathan; Chaintreau, Alain

    2010-08-01

    In a previous report, we validated the use of a database that compiled the relative response factors of flavor and fragrance compounds under standard GC conditions for a flame ionization detector. Here we investigate the prediction of unknown response factors from the molecular structure by using combustion enthalpies. In a first step, this enthalpy was well-predicted with either ab initio calculation or multiple linear regression based on the molecular formula. In a second step, good correlation was observed between these combustion enthalpies and experimental relative response factors, and so the response factors were predictable from only the molecular formula. With a database of 351 compounds, about 60% of them exhibited a difference of less than 5% between the predicted and experimental relative response factors and about 80% exhibited a difference of less than 10%. PMID:20700911

  7. Quantification in Gas Chromatography: Prediction of Flame Ionization Detector Response Factors from Combustion Enthalpies and Molecular Structures.

    PubMed

    de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Merle, Philippe; Egger, Jonathan; Chaintreau, Alain

    2010-08-01

    In a previous report, we validated the use of a database that compiled the relative response factors of flavor and fragrance compounds under standard GC conditions for a flame ionization detector. Here we investigate the prediction of unknown response factors from the molecular structure by using combustion enthalpies. In a first step, this enthalpy was well-predicted with either ab initio calculation or multiple linear regression based on the molecular formula. In a second step, good correlation was observed between these combustion enthalpies and experimental relative response factors, and so the response factors were predictable from only the molecular formula. With a database of 351 compounds, about 60% of them exhibited a difference of less than 5% between the predicted and experimental relative response factors and about 80% exhibited a difference of less than 10%. PMID:20698579

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DENSE NEUTRAL AND DIFFUSE IONIZED GAS IN THE THICK DISKS OF TWO EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rueff, Katherine M.; Howk, J. Christopher; Pitterle, Marissa; Hirschauer, Alec S.; Fox, Andrew J.; Savage, Blair D.

    2013-03-15

    We present high-resolution, optical images (BVI + H{alpha}) of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) in the thick disks of the edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 4013 and NGC 4302. Our images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Large Binocular Telescope, and WIYN 3.5 m telescope reveal an extensive population of filamentary dust absorption seen to z {approx}2-2.5 kpc. Many of these dusty thick disk structures have characteristics reminiscent of molecular clouds found in the Milky Way disk. Our H{alpha} images show that the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in these galaxies is dominated by a smooth, diffuse component. The strongly filamentary morphologies of the dust absorption have no counterpart in the smoothly distributed H{alpha} emission. We argue that the thick disk DIG and dust-bearing filaments trace physically distinct phases of the thick disk ISM, the latter tracing a dense, warm or cold neutral medium. The dense, dusty matter in the thick disks of spiral galaxies is largely tracing matter ejected from the thin disk via energetic feedback from massive stars. The high densities of the gas may be a result of converging gas flows. This dense material fuels some thick disk star formation, as evidenced by the presence of thick disk H II regions.

  9. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, Angelica dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin, and Lonicera japonica Thunb, was developed using gas chromatography couple...

  10. A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shan-Hu; Mukherjee, Souptik; Brewer, Brittany; Ryan, Raphael; Yu, Huan; Gangoda, Mahinda

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This experiment is designed for upper-division undergraduate laboratory courses and can be implemented in conjunction with physical chemistry, analytical…

  11. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (?L), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up efficiency. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of TPH of Bunker C oil in contaminated soil. PMID:26607315

  12. Reactions of sulfur dioxide with neutral vanadium oxide clusters in the gas phase. II. Experimental study employing single-photon ionization.

    PubMed

    He, Sheng-Gui; Xie, Yan; Dong, Feng; Heinbuch, Scott; Jakubikova, Elena; Rocca, J J; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2008-11-01

    Single-photon ionization through vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10.5 eV) and soft X-ray (extreme ultraviolet, EUV, 26.5 eV) laser radiation is successfully employed for the study of the reactions of neutral vanadium oxide clusters (V(m)O(n)) with sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the gas phase. V(m)O(n) clusters are generated by reaction of a laser-generated vanadium plasma with O2 in a supersonic expansion. The clusters are cooled in the expansion and are reacted with SO2 in a fast-flow reactor. Detection of neutral clusters and products is through ionization employing VUV and EUV laser radiation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Many association reaction intermediates [V(m)O(n)SO2 and V2O4(SO2)2] are observed. Isolated SO is also observed, as a product as predicted by theoretical studies presented in part I (J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 13339). A weak feature at the SO3 mass channel (80 amu) is suggested to be present in the product mass spectra. Further reactions of the intermediates with O2 are positively identified for VO2SO2, V3O7SO2, and V5O10SO2. Reaction mechanisms are interpreted on the basis of the observations and preliminary theoretical calculations. Molecular level reaction mechanisms for oxidation of SO2 to SO3 facilitated by condensed-phase vanadium oxides as catalysts are suggested. PMID:18844333

  13. Gridded electron reversal ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

  14. Development of a gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system for on-site detection of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Takahiro; Kakegawa, Ken; Aida, Mari; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Seto, Yasuo; Okino, Akitoshi

    2015-06-01

    A gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system was developed to realize a mobile on-site analytical device for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In this system, the plasma source was directly connected to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. The plasma can be generated with ambient air, which is drawn into the discharge region by negative pressure in the mass spectrometer. High-power density pulsed plasma of 100 kW could be generated by using a microhollow cathode and a laboratory-built high-intensity pulsed power supply (pulse width: 10-20 ?s; repetition frequency: 50 Hz). CWAs were desorbed and protonated in the enclosed space adjacent to the plasma source. Protonated sample molecules were introduced to the mass spectrometer by airflow through the discharge region. To evaluate the analytical performance of this device, helium and air plasma were directly irradiated to CWAs in the gas-cylinder-free plasma desorption/ionization system and the protonated molecules were analyzed by using an ion-trap mass spectrometer. A blister agent (nitrogen mustard 3) and nerve gases [cyclohexylsarin (GF), tabun (GA), and O-ethyl S-2-N,N-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX)] in solution in n-hexane were applied to the Teflon rod and used as test samples, after solvent evaporation. As a result, protonated molecules of CWAs were successfully observed as the characteristic ion peaks at m/z 204, 181, 163, and 268, respectively. In air plasma, the limits of detection were estimated to be 22, 20, 4.8, and 1.0 pmol, respectively, which were lower than those obtained with helium plasma. To achieve quantitative analysis, calibration curves were made by using CWA stimulant dipinacolyl methylphosphonate as an internal standard; straight correlation lines (R(2) = 0.9998) of the peak intensity ratios (target per internal standard) were obtained. Remarkably, GA and GF gave protonated dimer ions, and the ratios of the protonated dimer ions to the protonated monomers increased with the amount of GA and GF applied. PMID:25958918

  15. Forbidden transition properties in the ground-state configurations of singly ionized noble gas atoms for stellar and interstellar media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D. K.; Sahoo, B. K.

    2015-06-01

    High-accuracy calculations of the forbidden transition amplitudes for the np 2P1/2 ? np 2P3/2 transitions with the ground-state principal quantum number n in singly charged inert gas atoms, which are of astrophysical interest, have been carried out using sophisticated relativistic many-body methods. Using these amplitudes, the line strengths, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities of the above transitions and lifetimes of the np 2P1/2 states are estimated precisely. Most of these transition wavelengths lie in the infrared region, while the corresponding Rn II line is the optical one, and they can be observed in the stellar and interstellar media, where the abundances of these ions have already been identified. The above forbidden transitions can also be very useful for astrophysical plasma diagnostics and can guide experiments to measure the lifetimes of the above np 2P1/2 states.

  16. Total OH reactivity measurements using a new fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Sinha, V.; Bockisch, S.; Klüpfel, T.; Williams, J.

    2012-12-01

    The primary and most important oxidant in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH). Currently OH sinks, particularly gas phase reactions, are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. To date, direct measurements of total OH reactivity have been either performed using a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system ("pump-and-probe" or "flow reactor") or the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). Both techniques require large, complex and expensive detection systems. This study presents a feasibility assessment for CRM total OH reactivity measurements using a new detector, a Gas Chromatographic Photoionization Detector (GC-PID). Such a system is smaller, more portable, less power consuming and less expensive than other total OH reactivity measurement techniques. Total OH reactivity is measured by the CRM using a competitive reaction between a reagent (here pyrrole) with OH alone and in the presence of atmospheric reactive molecules. The new CRM method for total OH reactivity has been tested with parallel measurements of the GC-PID and the previously validated PTR-MS as detector for the reagent pyrrole during laboratory experiments, plant chamber and boreal field studies. Excellent agreement of both detectors was found when the GC-PID was operated under optimum conditions. Time resolution (60-70 s), sensitivity (LOD 3-6 s-1) and overall uncertainty (25% in optimum conditions) for total OH reactivity were similar to PTR-MS based total OH reactivity measurements. One drawback of the GC-PID system was the steady loss of sensitivity and accuracy during intensive measurements lasting several weeks, and a possible toluene interference. Generally, the GC-PID system has been shown to produce closely comparable results to the PTR-MS and thus in suitable environments (e.g. forests) it presents a viably economical alternative for groups interested in total OH reactivity observations.

  17. Measurements of gas-phase inorganic and organic acids from biomass fires by negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Burling, Ian R.; Warneke, Carsten; de Gouw, Joost; Yokelson, Robert J.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from 34 laboratory biomass fires were investigated at the combustion facility of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. Gas-phase organic and inorganic acids were quantified using negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS), open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR), and proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). NI-PT-CIMS is a novel technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of ions generated from reactions of acetate (CH3C(O)O-) ions with inorganic and organic acids. The emission ratios for various important reactive acids with respect to CO were determined. Emission ratios for isocyanic acid (HNCO), 1,2 and 1,3-benzenediols (catechol, resorcinol), nitrous acid (HONO), acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, propionic acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, and glycolic acid were measured from biomass burning. Our measurements show that there is a significant amount of HONO in fresh smoke. The NI-PT-CIMS measurements were validated by comparison with OP-FTIR measurements of HONO and formic acid (HCOOH) and with PTR-MS measurements of HCOOH.

  18. Quantum Chemical Benchmark Studies of the Electronic Properties of the Green Fluorescent Protein Chromophore. 1. Electronically Excited and Ionized States of the Anionic Chromophore in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Polyakov, Igor; Grigorenko, Bella; Nemukhin, Alexander; Krylov, Anna I

    2009-07-14

    We present the results of quantum chemical calculations of the electronic properties of the anionic form of the green fluorescent protein chromophore in the gas phase. The vertical detachment energy of the chromophore is found to be 2.4-2.5 eV, which is below the strongly absorbing ??* state at 2.6 eV. The vertical excitation of the lowest triplet state is around 1.9 eV, which is below the photodetachment continuum. Thus, the lowest bright singlet state is a resonance state embedded in the photodetachment continuum, whereas the lowest triplet state is a regular bound state. Based on our estimation of the vertical detachment energy, we attribute a minor feature in the action spectrum as due to the photodetachment transition. The benchmark results for the bright ??* state demonstrated that the scaled opposite-spin method yields vertical excitation within 0.1 eV (20 nm) from the experimental maximum at 2.59 eV (479 nm). We also report estimations of the vertical excitation energy obtained with the equation-of-motion coupled cluster with the singles and doubles method, a multireference perturbation theory corrected approach MRMP2 as well as the time-dependent density functional theory with range-separated functionals. Expanding the basis set with diffuse functions lowers the ??* vertical excitation energy by 0.1 eV at the same time revealing a continuum of "ionized" states, which embeds the bright ??* transition. PMID:26610014

  19. Screening of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in feeds and fish tissues by gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Portolés, Tania; Berntssen, Marc H G; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Hernández, Félix

    2014-03-12

    This paper reports a wide-scope screening for detection and identification of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in feeds and fish tissues. QuEChERS sample treatment was applied, using freezing as an additional cleanup. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (GC-(APCI) QTOF MS). The qualitative validation was performed for over 133 representative pesticides and 24 PAHs at 0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg. Subsequent application of the screening method to aquaculture samples made it possible to detect several compounds from the target list, such as chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, and ethoxyquin, among others. Light PAHs (?4 rings) were found in both animal and vegetable samples. The reliable identification of the compounds was supported by accurate mass measurements and the presence of at least two representative m/z ions in the spectrum together with the retention time of the peak, in agreement with the reference standard. Additionally, the search was widened to include other pesticides for which standards were not available, thanks to the expected presence of the protonated molecule and/or molecular ion in the APCI spectra. This could allow the detection and tentative identification of other pesticides different from those included in the validated target list. PMID:24559176

  20. Design and Tests of a New Rest Gas Ionization Profile Monitor Installed in the SPS as a Prototype for the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.; Koopman, J.; Kramer, D.; Perret, R.; Sillanoli, M.

    2004-11-10

    Based on the encouraging results obtained with a Rest Gas Ionization Profile Monitor of a first generation, a new monitor was designed and then installed in the SPS at the beginning of 2002. Its design fulfills all the requirements for a future installation in the LHC where four such monitors are foreseen. After the initial tests performed during the run of 2002, a few upgrading steps appeared necessary mainly in order to cope with the nominal LHC beam characteristics. They were implemented during the subsequent winter stop and the operation of the monitor was resumed in 2003 under various conditions of beam, ranging from an LHC pilot bunch up to beams having nominal distributions in bunch number, intensity and energy in the SPS for injection into the LHC. After a description of the monitor design, the measurements performed with the instrument during these last two years are discussed with the difficulties encountered and the corresponding implemented cures. Data acquired in 2003 on the whole spectrum of LHC beam characteristics are presented and the modifications made to prepare the 2004 campaign with a view to still improve the performance are also discussed.

  1. A novel ultrasound-assisted back extraction reverse micelles method coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection for determination of aldehydes in heated edibles oils.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Zahra; Mirzajani, Roya; Kardani, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-assisted back extraction reverse micelles coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection has been developed for the extraction and determination of some short chain aldehydes in different heated edible oil samples. After the homogenization of the oil samples with Triton X-100, 200 ?L of methanol was added to facilitate the phase separation. The aqueous micelle phase has been separated by centrifugation, then it was treated with a mixture of H2O: CHCl3 and ultrasonic vibration, were used to effectively back-extraction of the analytes into the chloroform phase. The sedimented organic phase was obtained after centrifugation, withdrawn into the microsyringe and directly injected into the GC-FID system. The calibration graphs were linear in the range 0.05-20 mg L(-1). The limits of detection were in the range of 0.02-0.15 mg L(-1). This procedure was successfully applied for determination of propanal, butanal, hexanal and heptanal in real heated oil samples. PMID:26041160

  2. Application of a multidimensional gas chromatography system with simultaneous mass spectrometric and flame ionization detection to the analysis of sandalwood oil.

    PubMed

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Costa, Rosaria; Ragonese, Carla; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Tedone, Laura; Santi, Luca; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni; Joulain, Daniel; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The production and trade of Indian sandalwood oil is strictly regulated, due to the impoverishment of the plantations; for such a reason, Australian sandalwood oil has been evaluated as a possible substitute of the Indian type. International directives report, for both the genuine essential oils, specific ranges for the sesquiterpene alcohols (santalols). In the present investigation, a multidimensional gas chromatographic system (MDGC), equipped with simultaneous flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection (FID/MS), has been successfully applied to the analysis of a series of sandalwood oils of different origin. A detailed description of the system utilized is reported. Three santalol isomers, (Z)-?-trans-bergamotol, (E,E)-farnesol, (Z)-nuciferol, epi-?-bisabolol and (Z)-lanceol have been quantified. LoD (MS) and LoQ (FID) values were determined for (E,E)-farnesol, used as representative of the oxygenated sesquiterpenic group, showing levels equal to 0.002% and 0.003%, respectively. A great advantage of the instrumental configuration herein discussed, is represented by the fact that identification and quantitation of target analytes are carried out in one step, without the need to perform two separate analyses. PMID:21112592

  3. Determination of three antidepressants in urine using simultaneous derivatization and temperature-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Nabil, Ali Akbar Alizadeh; Nouri, Nina; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a fast and simple method for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of fluvoxamine, nortriptyline and maprotiline in urine using simultaneous derivatization and temperature-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TA-DLLME) followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). An appropriate mixture of dimethylformamide (disperser solvent), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent) and acetic anhydride (derivatization agent) was rapidly injected into the heated sample. Then the solution was cooled to room temperature and cloudy solution formed was centrifuged. Finally a portion of the sedimented phase was injected into the GC-FID. The effect of several factors affecting the performance of the method, including the selection of suitable extraction and disperser solvents and their volumes, volume of derivatization agent, temperature, salt addition, pH and centrifugation time and speed were investigated and optimized. Figures of merit of the proposed method, such as linearity (r(2) ?>?0.993), enrichment factors (820-1070), limits of detection (2-4?ng?mL(-1)) and quantification (8-12?ng?mL(-1)), and relative standard deviations (3-6%) for both intraday and interday precisions (concentration?=?50?ng?mL(-1)) were satisfactory for determination of the selected antidepressants. Finally the method was successfully applied to determine the target pharmaceuticals in urine. PMID:25516238

  4. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH+, MOH+, and MO2H+, respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH+ sharply decreased, that of MOH+ increased once and then decreased, and that of MO2H+ sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO2H+ at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH+ and 100 times higher than that of MOH+ in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO2H+ signal in the concentration range up to 60 ?g/m3, which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 ?g/m3, which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-?g/m3 vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  5. Determination of ambient sulfuric acid aerosol by gas chromatography/photo-ionization detection after pre-concentration in a denuder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, F.

    A technique, adaptable to automation, has been applied to monitoring ambient sulfuric acid (H 2SO 4) aerosol concentrations. H 2SO 4 is preconcentrated and separated from sulfate species by sampling air through a coated diffusion tube (denuder) at an elevated temperature. The H 2SO 4 collected is released as SO x by thermal desorption while the coating is regenerated simultaneously. Then SO x, is reduced to H 2S and analysed selectively by gas chromatography/photoionization detection. The stoichiometry factor for the conversion H 2SO 4-H 2S being 0.96 (relative standard deviation 17%, n = 56), the analytical system can be calibrated with gaseous H 2S standards. The minimum detectable concentration (defined as 3 times the standard deviation of the denuder blank) varied with the denuder storage time. For a storage time of a few hours, 0.06 ?g m -3 (60-? sample) was a representative value and 0.45 ?g m -3 that for a storage time exceeding 24 h. Results for ambient air sampling with a minimum time resolution of 60 min are presented. The precision of the determinations of H 2SO 4 concentrations in ambient air, expressed as the relative standard deviation, is 15%. No decrease in collecting efficiency was observed for denuders that had passed 40 sampling runs in ambient air with a minimum sampling duration of 60 min.

  6. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

    2010-04-08

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  7. The Relationship between the Dense Neutral and Diffuse Ionized Gas in the Thick Disks of Two Edge-on Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueff, Katherine M.; Howk, J. Christopher; Pitterle, Marissa; Hirschauer, Alec S.; Fox, Andrew J.; Savage, Blair D.

    2013-03-01

    We present high-resolution, optical images (BVI + H?) of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) in the thick disks of the edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 4013 and NGC 4302. Our images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Large Binocular Telescope, and WIYN 3.5 m telescope reveal an extensive population of filamentary dust absorption seen to z ~2-2.5 kpc. Many of these dusty thick disk structures have characteristics reminiscent of molecular clouds found in the Milky Way disk. Our H? images show that the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in these galaxies is dominated by a smooth, diffuse component. The strongly filamentary morphologies of the dust absorption have no counterpart in the smoothly distributed H? emission. We argue that the thick disk DIG and dust-bearing filaments trace physically distinct phases of the thick disk ISM, the latter tracing a dense, warm or cold neutral medium. The dense, dusty matter in the thick disks of spiral galaxies is largely tracing matter ejected from the thin disk via energetic feedback from massive stars. The high densities of the gas may be a result of converging gas flows. This dense material fuels some thick disk star formation, as evidenced by the presence of thick disk H II regions. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope operated at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also, based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the US, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona, on behalf of the Arizona University System; Instituto Nazionale do Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia. Also, based on observations obtained by the WIYN Observatory which is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Yale University, Indiana University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

  8. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    DOEpatents

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  9. Ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, H.

    2007-08-01

    The equipment, working principles, performance and disturbing effects of re-entrant (or 4?) pressurized ionization-chamber measuring systems for activity determinations of photon-emitting radionuclide sources are described. Important features of these systems are the measuring geometry—generally reproducible and repeatable, 'stable' measurement conditions and instrument response, in particular linearity with varying activity. Properties of the current-measuring electronics are also considered. Basic equations for instrument calibrations and related uncertainties are given. A few applications, particularly half-life measurements, are represented. Finally, the bibliography of publications during the past ten years is reviewed.

  10. Direct determination of acrylamide in potato chips by using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Hajipour, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide is a potentially toxic and carcinogenic substance present in many high-consumption foods. Recently, this matter has been placed in category of "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" by National Toxicology Program (NTP). Therefore, simple and cost-effective determination of acrylamide in food samples has attracted intense interest. The most reported techniques for this purpose are GC-MS and LC-MS, which are very expensive and available in few laboratories. In this research, for the first time, a rapid, easy and low-cost method is introduced for sensitive and precise determination of acrylamide in foodstuffs, using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system after its direct trapping in the upper atmosphere of samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The effects of main experimental variables were studied and the optimized parameters were obtained as the type of fiber, carboxen/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/DVB/PDMS); extraction time, 30min; extraction temperature, 60°C; moisture content, 10µL water per 1g of sample; desorption time, 2min; and desorption temperature, 230°C. The linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 0.77-50µgg(-1), with regression coefficient of 0.998. The detection and quantification limits of the proposed method were 0.22 and 0.77µgg(-1), respectively. The recoveries, for different food samples, were 79.6-95.7%. The repeatability of measurements, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were found to be 4.1-8.0% (n=9). The proposed HS-SPME-GC-FID method was successfully carried out for quantifying of trace levels of acrylamide in some processed food products (chips and French fries), sold in open local markets. PMID:26695284

  11. Identification and quantification of seven volatile n-nitrosamines in cosmetics using gas chromatography/chemical ionization-mass spectrometry coupled with head space-solid phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Na Rae; Kim, Yong Pyo; Ji, Won Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Ahn, Yun Gyong

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method was developed for the identification and quantification of seven volatile n-nitrosamines (n-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], n-nitrosoethylmethylamine [NMEA], n-nitrosodiethylamine [NDEA], n-nitrosodipropylamine [NDPA], n-nitrosodibutylamine [NDBA], n-nitrosopiperidine [NPIP], and n-nitrosopyrrolidine [NPYR]) in water insoluble cream type cosmetics. It was found that the head space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was suitable for extraction, clean up, and pre-concentration of n-nitrosamines in the cream type samples so its optimal conditions were investigated. Identification and quantification of n-nitrosamines using single quadrupole gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in chemical ionization (CI) mode were carried out with accurate mass measurements. Their accurate masses of protonated molecular ions were obtained within 10mDa of the theoretical masses when sufficiently high signal was acquired from the unique calibration method using mass and isotope accuracy. For the method validation of quantification, spiking experiments were carried out to determine the linearity, recovery, and method detection limit (MDL) using three deuterated internal standards. The average recovery was 79% within 20% relative standard deviation (RSD) at the concentration of 50ng/g. MDLs ranged from 0.46ng/g to 36.54ng/g, which was satisfactory for the directive limit of 50ng/g proposed by the European Commission (EC). As a result, it was concluded that the method could be provided for the accurate mass screening, confirmation, and quantification of n-nitrosamines when applied to cosmetic inspection. PMID:26653425

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Mixed Halogen Dioxins and Furans in Fire Debris Utilizing Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Organtini, Kari L; Myers, Anne L; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Ross, Brian; Ladak, Adam; Mullin, Lauren; Stevens, Douglas; Dorman, Frank L

    2015-10-20

    Residential and commercial fires generate a complex mixture of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile compounds. This study focused on the semi/nonvolatile components of fire debris to better understand firefighter exposure risks. Using the enhanced sensitivity of gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS), complex fire debris samples collected from simulation fires were analyzed for the presence of potentially toxic polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs). Extensive method development was performed to create multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods for a wide range of PXDD/Fs from dihalogenated through hexa-halogenated homologue groups. Higher halogenated compounds were not observed due to difficulty eluting them off the long column used for analysis. This methodology was able to identify both polyhalogenated (mixed bromo-/chloro- and polybromo-) dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the simulated burn study samples collected, with the dibenzofuran species being the dominant compounds in the samples. Levels of these compounds were quantified as total homologue groups due to the limitations of commercial congener availability. Concentration ranges in household simulation debris were observed at 0.01-5.32 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.18-82.11 ppb (PBDFs). Concentration ranges in electronics simulation debris were observed at 0.10-175.26 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.33-9254.41 ppb (PBDFs). Samples taken from the particulate matter coating the firefighters' helmets contained some of the highest levels of dibenzofurans, ranging from 4.10 ppb to 2.35 ppm. The data suggest that firefighters and first responders at fire scenes are exposed to a complex mixture of potentially hundreds to thousands of different polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans that could negatively impact their health. PMID:26412694

  13. Determination of valproic acid in human plasma using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli-Bakhtiyari, Rana; Panahi-Azar, Vahid; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector was developed for the determination of valproic acid (VPA) in human plasma. Materials and Methods: Using a syringe, a mixture of suitable extraction solvent (40 µl chloroform) and disperser (1 ml acetone) was quickly added to 10 ml of diluted plasma sample containing VPA (pH, 1.0; concentration of NaCl, 4% (w/v)), resulting in a cloudy solution. After centrifugation (6000 rpm for 6 min), an aliquot (1 µl) of the sedimented organic phase was removed using a 1-µl GC microsyringe and injected into the GC system for analysis. One variable at a time optimization method was used to study various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of target analyte. Then, the developed method was fully validated for its accuracy, precision, recovery, stability, and robustness. Results: Under the optimum extraction conditions, good linearity range was obtained for the calibration graph, with correlation coefficient higher than 0.998. Limit of detection and lower limit of quantitation were 3.2 and 6 ?g/ml, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intra and inter-day analysis of examined compound were less than 11.5%. The relative recoveries were found in the range of 97 to 107.5%. Finally, the validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of VPA in patient sample. Conclusion: The presented method has acceptable levels of precision, accuracy and relative recovery and could be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of VPA in human plasma.

  14. Optical ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

    1994-03-29

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

  15. Optical ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

  16. Screening and quantification of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables making use of gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Cervera, M I; Portolés, T; López, F J; Beltrán, J; Hernández, F

    2014-11-01

    An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source has been used to enhance the potential of gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for screening and quantification purposes in pesticide residue analysis. A screening method developed in our laboratory for around 130 pesticides has been applied to fruit and vegetable samples, including strawberries, oranges, apples, carrots, lettuces, courgettes, red peppers, and tomatoes. Samples were analyzed together with quality control samples (at 0.05 mg/kg) for each matrix and for matrix-matched calibration standards. The screening strategy consisted in first rapid searching and detection, and then a refined identification step using the QTOF capabilities (MS(E) and accurate mass). Identification was based on the presence of one characteristic m/z ion (Q) obtained with the low collision energy function and at least one fragment ion (q) obtained with the high collision energy function, both with mass errors of less than 5 ppm, and an ion intensity ratio (q/Q) within the tolerances permitted. Following this strategy, 15 of 130 pesticides were identified in the samples. Afterwards, the quantitation capabilities were tested by performing a quantitative validation for those pesticides detected in the samples. To this aim, five matrices were selected (orange, apple, tomato, lettuce, and carrot) and spiked at two concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg), and quantification was done using matrix-matched calibration standards (relative responses versus triphenyl phosphate used as an internal standard). Acceptable average recoveries and relative standard deviations were obtained for many but not all pesticide-matrix combinations. These figures allowed us to perform a retrospective quantification of positives found in the screening without the need for additional analysis. Taking advantage of the accurate-mass full-spectrum data provided by QTOF MS, we searched for a higher number of compounds (up to 416 pesticides) in a second stage by performing extra data processing without any new sample injection. Several more pesticides were detected, confirmed, and/or tentatively identified when the reference standard was unavailable, illustrating in this way the potential of gas chromatography-QTOF MS to detect pesticides in addition to the ones targeted in quantitative analysis of pesticides in food matrices. PMID:24828980

  17. Structure elucidation of an artifact discharging from rubber-based vial closures by means of gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Thomas; Vetter, Walter

    2006-12-01

    The use of vial closures equipped with butyl rubber septa may lead to sample contamination by rubber additives discharging from the septum material. In this study, the structure elucidation of an artifact causing intense signals in gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) and gas chromatographic analyses with electron capture detection is described. Tentative identification of the leached compound was achieved by employing tandem mass spectrometric techniques both in electron capture negative ion and in electron ionization modes. The artifact could thus be characterized as 2-benzothiazolyl-N,N-dimethyl dithiocarbamate, which is a known vulcanization accelerator for rubber. It is conceivable that the identified compound or related substances are also used in other applications. Therefore, two food-related matrixes were investigated for a possible migration of this compound into foods. During these analyses, the tentatively identified rubber additive was detected in an aqueous extract of a rubber seal ring for canning jars. GC/ECNI-MS provided better sensitivity and selectivity than GC/EI-MS for the determination of the rubber additive and other mercaptobenzothiazole-derived substances. PMID:17134153

  18. Two suicidal fatalities due to the ingestion of chlorfenvinphos formulations: simultaneous determination of the pesticide and the petroleum distillates in tissues by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María A; Ballesteros, Salomé

    2012-01-01

    Chlorfenvinphos (CFVP) is an organophosporus insecticide designated as a threat agent by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). However, there are very few reported cases of poisonings in humans and none with postmortem toxicological analysis. We report the first two fatalities due to suicidal massive ingestion of a veterinary formulation containing CFVP and petroleum distillates. Case 1: A 24-year-old woman was found dead by her mother. According to the police records, the room was filled with an odor of solvents or pesticides and feces. There was an empty bottle of Supona(®) near the body and a suicide note on a Bible on a table. The only relevant postmortem finding was that the lungs appeared congested and edematous. Case 2: A 60-year-old man committed in his van by ingesting an unknown product. The vehicle was locked and had an odor that resembled an acid, sulfate, or solvent according to different witnesses. There was a suicide note as well as multiple containers containing automobile products nearby. The stomach of the victim was filled with abundant pale greenish fluid with a similar odor to that presented in the vehicle. The simultaneous toxicological screening and quantitation of CFVP and petroleum distillates [a mixture of trimethylbenzene isomers (TMBs)] was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Disposition of CFVP and TMBs in different tissues were, respectively, as follows: Case 1: heart blood, 8.6 and 3.7 mg/L; liver, 60.0 and 33.4 mg/kg; and stomach contents, 1132 mg/L (792.4 mg total) and 377.0 mg/L (263.9 mg total). Case 2: heart blood, 4.4 and 6.5 mg/L; urine, 1.4 and detected (< LOQ); bile 7.8 and 12.2 mg/L; vitreous 0.3 mg/L and detected (< LOQ); liver, 139.2 and 172.1 mg/kg; and stomach contents, 76,168 mg/L (72,359 mg total) and 108,109 mg/L (102,703 mg total). Results of alcohol, other volatiles, abused and therapeutic drugs were negative in both cases. The proposed analytical method allows the simultaneous determination of a wide variety of pesticides and additives, including petroleum distillates suitable for toxicological investigation in forensic and clinical cases. This is crucial to solving poisoning cases in which the poisoning source is uncertain. PMID:22290752

  19. A multi-residue method for pesticides analysis in green coffee beans using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode.

    PubMed

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; de Kok, Andre; Dickow Cardoso, Carmem; Reichert, Bárbara; de Kroon, Marijke; Wind, Wouter; Weber Righi, Laís; Caiel da Silva, Rosselei

    2012-08-17

    In this study, a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, using the very selective negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode, was developed and applied in combination with a modified acetonitrile-based extraction method (QuEChERS) for the analysis of a large number of pesticide residues (51 pesticides, including isomers and degradation products) in green coffee beans. A previously developed integrated sample homogenization and extraction method for both pesticides and mycotoxins analysis was used. An homogeneous slurry of green milled coffee beans and water (ratio 1:4, w/w) was prepared and extracted with acetonitrile/acetic acid (1%), followed by magnesium sulfate addition for phase separation. Aliquots from this extract could be used directly for LC-MS/MS analysis of mycotoxins and LC-amenable pesticides. For GC-MS analysis, a further clean-up was necessary. C18- and PSA-bonded silica were tested as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) sorbents, separate and as a mixture, and the best results were obtained using C18-bonded silica. For the optimal sensitivity and selectivity, GC-MS detection in the NCI-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode had to be used to allow the fast analysis of the difficult coffee bean matrix. The validation was performed by analyzing recovery samples at three different spike concentrations, 10, 20 and 50 ?g kg(-1), with 6 replicates (n=6) at each concentration. Linearity (r(2)) of calibration curves, estimated instrument and method limits of detection and limits of quantification (LOD(i), LOD(m), LOQ(i) and LOQ(m), respectively), accuracy (as recovery %), precision (as RSD%) and matrix effects (%) were determined for each individual pesticide. From the 51 analytes (42 parent pesticides, 4 isomers and 5 degradation products) determined by GC-MS (NCI-SIM), approximately 76% showed average recoveries between 70-120% and 75% and RSD ? 20% at the lowest spike concentration of 10 ?g kg(-1), the target method LOQ. For the spike concentrations of 20 and 50 ?g kg(-1), the recoveries and RSDs were even better. The validated LOQ(m) was 10, 20 and 50 ?g kg(-1) for respectively 33, 3 and 6 of the analytes studied. For five compounds, the European Union method performance requirements for the validation of a quantitative method (average recoveries between 70-120% and repeatability RSD ? 20%) were not achieved and 4 problematic pesticides (captan, captafol, folpet and dicofol) could not be detected as their parent compound, but only via their degradation products. Although the matrix effect (matrix-enhanced detector response) was high for all pesticides studied, the matrix interference was minimal, due to the high selectivity obtained with the GC-NCI-MS detection. Matrix-matched calibration for applying the method in routine analysis is recommended for reliable quantitative results. PMID:22771261

  20. beta-Cyclodextrin-bonded silica particles as the solid-phase extraction medium for the determination of phenol compounds in water samples followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Hakim

    2005-09-16

    A new absorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was prepared by a beta-cyclodextrin bonded silica stationary phase (CDS) has been applied to determine the concentrations of phenol compounds in water samples. SPE of selected phenolic compounds from aqueous samples were performed using 250 mg CDS. The determination was subsequently carried out by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compared with available SPE, the CDS showed high sensitivity and fast velocity of mass transfer for phenolic compound because of its porous structure of beta-cyclodextrin. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for river water sample spiked with phenolic compounds at sub-ppb level was lower than 10% and limit of detection (LOD) for these compounds were between 10 and 100 ng l(-1). PMID:16130725

  1. Matrix Assisted Ionization Vacuum (MAIV), a New Ionization Method for Biological Materials Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Inutan, Ellen D.; Trimpin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for the mass spectrometric analysis of peptides and proteins had a dramatic impact on biological science. We now report that a wide variety of compounds, including peptides, proteins, and protein complexes, are transported directly from a solid-state small molecule matrix to gas-phase ions when placed into the vacuum of a mass spectrometer without the use of high voltage, a laser, or added heat. This ionization process produces ions having charge states similar to ESI, making the method applicable for high performance mass spectrometers designed for atmospheric pressure ionization. We demonstrate highly sensitive ionization using intermediate pressure MALDI and modified ESI sources. This matrix and vacuum assisted soft ionization method is suitable for the direct surface analysis of biological materials, including tissue, via mass spectrometry. PMID:23242551

  2. Ionization potentials of seaborgium

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.; Pershina, V.; Fricke, B.

    1999-10-21

    Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic radii obtained will be used to predict some physiochemical properties of seaborgium and its compounds.

  3. Probing Angular Correlations in Sequential Double Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A.; Woerner, H. J.; Arissian, L.; Liu, L. R.; Meckel, M.; Rippert, A.; Doerner, R.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Staudte, A.

    2011-09-09

    We study electron correlation in sequential double ionization of noble gas atoms and HCl in intense, femtosecond laser pulses. We measure the photoelectron angular distributions of Ne{sup +} relative to the first electron in a pump-probe experiment with 8 fs, 800 nm, circularly polarized laser pulses at a peak intensity of a few 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Using a linear-linear pump-probe setup, we further study He, Ar, and HCl. We find a clear angular correlation between the two ionization steps in the sequential double ionization intensity regime.

  4. Field ionizing elements and applications thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A field ionizing element formed of a membrane that houses electrodes therein that are located closer to one another than the mean free path of the gas being ionized. The membrane includes a supporting portion, and a non supporting portion where the ions are formed. The membrane may be used as the front end for a number of different applications including a mass spectrometer, a thruster, an ion mobility element, or an electrochemical device such as a fuel cell.

  5. GAS-PHASE SYNTHESIS OF PRECURSORS OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE: A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ACETIC ACID WITH HYDROXYLAMINE AND ITS IONIZED AND PROTONATED DERIVATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, Carmen; Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Laura; Rayon, Victor M.; Largo, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    A computational study of the reactions of hydroxylamine and its ionized and protonated derivatives with acetic acid is provided. The reaction of neutral hydroxylamine with acetic acid, despite being clearly exothermic, involves a very large energy barrier. The reaction of ionized hydroxylamine with acetic acid is also clearly exothermic, but again a significant energy barrier is found (around 24 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). The reaction of the most stable protonated isomer of hydroxylamine, NH{sub 3}OH{sup +}, with acetic acid also involves a high barrier (more than 27 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Only the higher energy isomer, NH{sub 2}OH{sup +}{sub 2}, leads to a sensibly lower energy barrier (about 2.3 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Nevertheless, an estimate of the reaction coefficient at low temperatures such as those reigning in the interstellar medium gives very low values. Therefore, it seems that precursors of interstellar glycine could not be efficiently produced from the reactions of hydroxylamine-derived ions with acetic acid.

  6. Single photon ionization (SPI) via incoherent VUV-excimer light: robust and compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for on-line, real-time process gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, F; Wieser, J; Ulrich, A; Zimmermann, R

    2002-08-01

    Fast on-line detection of organic compounds from complex mixtures, such as industrial process gas streams, require selective and sensitive analytical methods. One feasible approach for this purpose is the use of mass spectrometry (MS) with a selective and soft (fragment-free) ionization technique, such as chemical ionization (CI) or photo ionization (PI). Single photon ionization (SPI) with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light is a particularly sof tionization technique, well-suited for detection of both aromatic and aliphatic species. Problematic, however, is the generation of the VUV light. In general, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light sources for SPI-MS are based either on lasers (e.g., 118-nm radiation generated by frequency-tripling of the third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser) or on conventional VUV lamps, such as deuterium lamps. Althoughthe laser-based techniques are very sophisticated and expensive, the conventional lamps have serious drawbacks regarding their optical parameters, such as low-output power, low spectral power density, and broad emission bands. In this work, a novel excimer VUV light source, in which an electron beam is used to form rare gas excimer species, is used. The excimer VUV light sourceproduces brilliant and intense VUV light. The novel VUV light source was coupled to a compact and mobile time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A special interface design, including optical (VUV optics) as well as electronic measures (e.g., pulsed ion extraction) was realized. The use of the excimer VUV lamp for SPI will allow the realization of very compact, rugged, and sensitive SPI-TOFMS devices, which preferably will be adapted for process analytical application or monitoring issues (e.g., chemical warfare detection). The excimer VUV-lamp technology delivers VUV light with a good beam quality and high-output power at low costs. Furthermore, it allows changing the emitted wavelength as well as the bandwidth of the excimer VUV lamp in t he 100-200-nm region by changing the gas filling. Consequently, SPI-TOFMS with an excimer light source is a fast detection technique that can be used for online monitoring, for example, in environmental studies or industrial manufacturing processes. In this paper, technology and characteristics of the new excimer light source, as well as the combination with the TOFMS, are presented. Furthermore, a first characterization of the SPI-TOFMS instrument, regarding analytical parameters such as detection limits and selectivity, is given. This includes a discussion of potential improvements that probably will be achievable within a future prototype genertation. Finally, first applications of the system for on-line measurement of organic trace species in a complex gas mixture (here, motorcycle exhaust gas) are presented. PMID:12175168

  7. Field ionization of argon using -phase W nanorods J. P. Singh,a)

    E-print Network

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Field ionization of argon using -phase W nanorods J. P. Singh,a) T. Karabacak,b) T.-M. Lu, and G 11 August 2004) We report testing of -phase W nanorods as a gas ionizer for neutral argon atoms voltage 3­4 V applied to the W nanorods generates a high electric field, which ionizes gas-phase argon

  8. Ionization in Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets V: Alfv\\'{e}n Ionization

    E-print Network

    Stark, Craig R; Diver, Declan A; Rimmer, Paul B

    2013-01-01

    Observations of continuous radio and sporadic X-ray emission from low-mass objects suggest they harbour localized plasmas in their atmospheric environments. For low-mass objects, the degree of thermal ionization is insufficient to qualify the ionized component as a plasma, posing the question: what ionization processes can efficiently produce the required plasma that is the source of the radiation? We propose Alfv\\'{e}n ionization as a mechanism for producing localized pockets of ionized gas in the atmosphere, having sufficient degrees of ionization ($\\geq10^{-7}$) that they constitute plasmas. We outline the criteria required for Alfv\\'{e}n ionization and demonstrate it's applicability in the atmospheres of low-mass objects such as giant gas planets, brown dwarfs and M-dwarfs for both solar and sub-solar metallicities. We find that Alfv\\'{e}n ionization is most efficient at mid to low atmospheric pressures where a seed plasma is easier to magnetize and the pressure gradients needed to drive the required neut...

  9. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. V. ALFVÉN IONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, C. R.; Helling, Ch.; Rimmer, P. B.; Diver, D. A.

    2013-10-10

    Observations of continuous radio and sporadic X-ray emission from low-mass objects suggest they harbor localized plasmas in their atmospheric environments. For low-mass objects, the degree of thermal ionization is insufficient to qualify the ionized component as a plasma, posing the question: what ionization processes can efficiently produce the required plasma that is the source of the radiation? We propose Alfvén ionization as a mechanism for producing localized pockets of ionized gas in the atmosphere, having sufficient degrees of ionization (?10{sup –7}) that they constitute plasmas. We outline the criteria required for Alfvén ionization and demonstrate its applicability in the atmospheres of low-mass objects such as giant gas planets, brown dwarfs, and M dwarfs with both solar and sub-solar metallicities. We find that Alfvén ionization is most efficient at mid to low atmospheric pressures where a seed plasma is easier to magnetize and the pressure gradients needed to drive the required neutral flows are the smallest. For the model atmospheres considered, our results show that degrees of ionization of 10{sup –6}-1 can be obtained as a result of Alfvén ionization. Observable consequences include continuum bremsstrahlung emission, superimposed with spectral lines from the plasma ion species (e.g., He, Mg, H{sub 2}, or CO lines). Forbidden lines are also expected from the metastable population. The presence of an atmospheric plasma opens the door to a multitude of plasma and chemical processes not yet considered in current atmospheric models. The occurrence of Alfvén ionization may also be applicable to other astrophysical environments such as protoplanetary disks.

  10. Characterization of plant materials by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry: high-resolution mass spectrometry, time-resolved high-resolution mass spectrometry, and Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of spruce needles

    SciTech Connect

    Schulten, H.F.; Simmleit, N.; Mueller, R.

    1989-02-01

    In the course of a forest damage research project spruce needles are analyzed, without pretreatment except drying and milling, by in-source pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry. The mass signals are assigned by using high-resolution mass measurements and thermal degradation products identified by Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography. It is demonstrated that the thermal degradation products characterize the main chemical constituents of spruce needs such as polysaccharides and lignin. Furthermore, thermostable constituents such as lipids, steroids, and flavons are detected. The thermal degradation process is studied by temperature-programmed microfurnace pyrolysis in combination with time-resolved high-resolution mass spectrometry. The integrated interpretation of results achieved by the presented methods can be applied for the universal characterization of complex and in particular nonsoluble, polydisperse biological and geochemical materials.

  11. A bipolar outflow of ionized gas in K3-50A: H76 alpha radio recombination line and continuum observations of K3-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depree, C. G.; Goss, W. M.; Palmer, Patrick; Rubin, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The H II regions near K3-50 (G70.3 + 1.6) have been imaged at high angular resolution (approximately 1 sec .3) in the continuum and the recombination lines H76(sub alpha and He76(sub alpha) using the Very Large Array (VLA). The helium line is detected in only the brightest component K3-50A while the hydrogen line is detected in three components (K3-50A, B and C1). K3-50A shows a pronounced velocity gradient of approximately 150 km/sec/pc along its major axis (P.A. = 160 deg); in addition a wide range of line widths are observed, from 20 to 65 km/sec. Kinematics from the line data and the morphology of the continuum emission suggest that the ionized material associated with K3-50A is undergoing a high-velocity bipolar outflow.

  12. Dispersal of molecular clouds by ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walch, S. K.; Whitworth, A. P.; Bisbas, T.; Wünsch, R.; Hubber, D.

    2012-11-01

    Feedback from massive stars is believed to be a key element in the evolution of molecular clouds. We use high-resolution 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to explore the dynamical effects of a single O7 star-emitting ionizing photons at 1049 s-1 and located at the centre of a molecular cloud with mass 104 M? and radius 6.4 pc; we also perform comparison simulations in which the ionizing star is removed. The initial internal structure of the cloud is characterized by its fractal dimension, which we vary between D=2.0 and 2.8, and the standard deviation of the approximately log-normal initial densityPDF, which is ?10 = 0.38 for all clouds. (i) As regards star formation, in the short term ionizing feedback is positive, in the sense that star formation occurs much more quickly (than in the comparison simulations), in gas that is compressed by the high pressure of the ionized gas. However, in the long term ionizing feedback is negative, in the sense that most of the cloud is dispersed with an outflow rate of up to ˜10-2 M?yr-1, on a time-scale comparable with the sound-crossing time for the ionized gas (˜1-2 Myr ), and triggered star formation is therefore limited to a few per cent of the cloud's mass. We will describe in greater detail the statistics of the triggered star formation in a companion paper. (ii) As regards the morphology of the ionization fronts (IFs) bounding the H II region and the systematics of outflowing gas, we distinguish two regimes. For low D?2.2, the initial cloud is dominated by large-scale structures, so the neutral gas tends to be swept up into a few extended coherent shells, and the ionized gas blows out through a few large holes between these shells; we term these H II regions shell dominated. Conversely, for high D?2.6, the initial cloud is dominated by small-scale structures, and these are quickly overrun by the advancing IF, thereby producing neutral pillars protruding into the H II region, whilst the ionized gas blows out through a large number of small holes between the pillars; we term these H II regions pillar dominated. (iii) As regards the injection of bulk kinetic energy, by ˜1 Myr, the expansion of the H II region has delivered a mass-weighted rms velocity of ˜6 km s-1; this represents less than 0.1 per cent of the total energy radiated by the O7 star.

  13. Real-time air monitoring of mustard gas and Lewisite 1 by detecting their in-line reaction products by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow ion introduction.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2015-01-20

    A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds. In-line chemical reactions, ionization reactions, and ion fragmentations of these agents were investigated. Mustard gas is oxygenated in small quantity by reactive oxygen species generated in the corona discharge. With increasing air humidity, the MS(2) signal intensity of protonated molecules of mono-oxygenated HD decreases but exceeds that of dominantly existing intact HD. This result can be explained in view of proton affinity. Lewisite 1 is hydrolyzed and oxidized. As the humidity increases from zero, the signal of the final product, namely, didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, and mono-oxygenated L1, quickly increases and reaches a plateau, giving the highest MS(2) and MS(3) signals among those of L1 and its reaction products. The addition of minimal moisture gives the highest signal intensity, even under low humidity. The method was demonstrated to provide sufficient analytical performance to meet the requirements concerning hygienic management and counter-terrorism. It will be the first practical method, in view of sensitivity and specificity, for real-time air monitoring of HD and L1 without sample pretreatment. PMID:25553788

  14. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22?g sarin (GB), 100?g soman (GD), 210?g tabun (GA), 55?g cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8?g sulfur mustard, 390?g nitrogen mustard 1, 140?g of nitrogen mustard 2, 130?g nitrogen mustard 3, 120?g of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990?g of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  15. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. II. DUST-INDUCED COLLISIONAL IONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Helling, Ch.; Jardine, M.; Mokler, F.

    2011-08-10

    Observations have shown that continuous radio emission and also sporadic H{alpha} and X-ray emission are prominent in singular, low-mass objects later than spectral class M. These activity signatures are interpreted as being caused by coupling of an ionized atmosphere to the stellar magnetic field. What remains a puzzle, however, is the mechanism by which such a cool atmosphere can produce the necessary level of ionization. At these low temperatures, thermal gas processes are insufficient, but the formation of clouds sets in. Cloud particles can act as seeds for electron avalanches in streamers that ionize the ambient gas, and can lead to lightning and indirectly to magnetic field coupling, a combination of processes also expected for protoplanetary disks. However, the precondition is that the cloud particles are charged. We use results from DRIFT-PHOENIX model atmospheres to investigate collisional processes that can lead to the ionization of dust grains inside clouds. We show that ionization by turbulence-induced dust-dust collisions is the most efficient kinetic process. The efficiency is highest in the inner cloud where particles grow quickly and, hence, the dust-to-gas ratio is high. Dust-dust collisions alone are not sufficient to improve the magnetic coupling of the atmosphere inside the cloud layers, but the charges supplied either on grains or within the gas phase as separated electrons can trigger secondary nonlinear processes. Cosmic rays are likely to increase the global level of ionization, but their influence decreases if a strong, large-scale magnetic field is present as on brown dwarfs. We suggest that although thermal gas ionization declines in objects across the fully convective boundary, dust charging by collisional processes can play an important role in the lowest mass objects. The onset of atmospheric dust may therefore correlate with the anomalous X-ray and radio emission in atmospheres that are cool, but charged more than expected by pure thermal ionization.

  16. Modeling of Ionization Physics with PIC Code OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Suzhi; Tsung, Frank S.; Lu, Wei; Lee, Seung; Mori, Warren; Katsouleas, Tom

    2002-11-01

    When considering intense particle or laser beams propagating in dense plasma or gas, ionization plays an important role. Impact ionization and tunnel ionization may create new plasma electrons, altering the physics of wakefield accelerators, causing blue shifts in laser spectra, creating and modifying instabilities, etc. Here we describe the addition of an ionization package into the 3-D object-oriented fully parallel PIC code OSIRIS. We apply the simulation tool to the parameters of the upcoming E164 Plasma Wakefield Accelerator experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We find that impact ionization is dominated by the plasma electrons moving in the wake rather than the 30 GeV drive beam electrons. Using intense beams to tunnel ionize neutral gas may become a new source of plasma, eliminating the need for external lasers for beam wakefield accelerators. Benchmark comparisons of simulation results from OSIRIS and XOOPIC will be presented.

  17. S1 certification of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate in a candidate certified reference material (organochlorine pesticides in tea) by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sin, Della Wai-Mei; Wong, Yee-Lok; Cheng, Eddie Chung-Chin; Lo, Man-Fung; Ho, Clare; Mok, Chuen-Shing; Wong, Siu-Kay

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the certification of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate in a candidate tea certified reference material (code: GLHK-11-03) according to the requirements of the ISO Guide 30 series. Certification of GLHK-11-03 was based on an analytical method purposely developed for the accurate measurement of the mass fraction of the target analytes in the material. An isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method involving determination by (i) gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) and (ii) gas chromatography-electron ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-EI-HRMS) techniques was employed. The performance of the described method was demonstrated through participation in the key comparison CCQM-K95 "Mid-Polarity Analytes in Food Matrix: Mid-Polarity Pesticides in Tea" organized by the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance-Metrology in Chemistry in 2012, where the study material was the same as the certified reference material (CRM). The values reported by using the developed method were in good agreement with the key comparison reference value (KCRV) assigned for beta-endosulfan (727?±?14 ?g kg(-1)) and endosulfan sulfate (505?±?11 ?g kg(-1)), where the degree of equivalence (DoE) values were 0.41 and 0.40, respectively. The certified values of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate in dry mass fraction in GLHK-11-03 were 350, 730, and 502 ?g kg(-1), respectively, and the respective expanded uncertainties, due to sample inhomogeneity, long-term and short-term stability, and variability in the characterization procedure, were 27 ?g kg(-1) (7.8 %), 48 ?g kg(-1) (6.6 %), and 33 ?g kg(-1) (6.6 %). PMID:25619984

  18. First successful ionization of Lr (Z = 103) by a surface-ionization technique.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tetsuya K; Sato, Nozomi; Asai, Masato; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Sunao; Schädel, Matthias; Kaneya, Yusuke; Nagame, Yuichiro; Osa, Akihiko; Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Stora, Thierry; Kratz, Jens Volker

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a surface ionization ion-source as part of the JAEA-ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) setup, which is coupled to a He/CdI2 gas-jet transport system to determine the first ionization potential of the heaviest actinide lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103). The new ion-source is an improved version of the previous source that provided good ionization efficiencies for lanthanides. An additional filament was newly installed to give better control over its operation. We report, here, on the development of the new gas-jet coupled surface ion-source and on the first successful ionization and mass separation of 27-s (256)Lr produced in the (249)Cf + (11)B reaction. PMID:23464201

  19. First successful ionization of Lr (Z = 103) by a surface-ionization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya K.; Sato, Nozomi; Asai, Masato; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Sunao; Schädel, Matthias; Kaneya, Yusuke; Nagame, Yuichiro; Osa, Akihiko; Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Stora, Thierry; Kratz, Jens Volker

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a surface ionization ion-source as part of the JAEA-ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) setup, which is coupled to a He/CdI2 gas-jet transport system to determine the first ionization potential of the heaviest actinide lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103). The new ion-source is an improved version of the previous source that provided good ionization efficiencies for lanthanides. An additional filament was newly installed to give better control over its operation. We report, here, on the development of the new gas-jet coupled surface ion-source and on the first successful ionization and mass separation of 27-s 256Lr produced in the 249Cf + 11B reaction.

  20. Analytical instruments, ionization sources, and ionization methods

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.; Mottishaw, Paul

    2006-04-11

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous vaporization and ionization of a sample in a spectrometer prior to introducing the sample into the drift tube of the analyzer are disclosed. The apparatus includes a vaporization/ionization source having an electrically conductive conduit configured to receive sample particulate which is conveyed to a discharge end of the conduit. Positioned proximate to the discharge end of the conduit is an electrically conductive reference device. The conduit and the reference device act as electrodes and have an electrical potential maintained between them sufficient to cause a corona effect, which will cause at least partial simultaneous ionization and vaporization of the sample particulate. The electrical potential can be maintained to establish a continuous corona, or can be held slightly below the breakdown potential such that arrival of particulate at the point of proximity of the electrodes disrupts the potential, causing arcing and the corona effect. The electrical potential can also be varied to cause periodic arcing between the electrodes such that particulate passing through the arc is simultaneously vaporized and ionized. The invention further includes a spectrometer containing the source. The invention is particularly useful for ion mobility spectrometers and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometers.

  1. Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental Study Employing Single-Photon Ionization

    E-print Network

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental employed for the study of the reactions of neutral vanadium oxide clusters (VmOn) with sulfur dioxide (SO2 for oxidation of SO2 to SO3 (sulfuric acid production, SO2 removal), selective reduction of NOx with NH3

  2. SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF JASMONIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID IN PLANTS BY VAPOR PHASE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-CHEMICAL IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid represent important signaling compounds in plant defensive responses against other organisms. Here, we present a new method for the easy, sensitive and reproducible quantification of both compounds by vapor phase extraction and gas chromatography-positive ion chemic...

  3. CRYOGENIC PRECONCENTRATION-DIRECT FID (FLAME IONIZATION DETECTION) METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF AMBIENT NMOC (NONMETHANE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS): REFINEMENT AND COMPARISON WITH GC (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC) SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for measuring total nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) in the atmosphere has been refined to reduce measurement variability and evaluated for possible use in connection with the control of hydrocarbon emissions. The method, a simplification of the conventional gas chrom...

  4. Kinetic simulation of neutral/ionized gas and electrically charged dust in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    SciTech Connect

    Tenishev, Valeriy; Rubin, Martin; Combi, Michael R.

    2011-05-20

    The cometary coma is a unique phenomenon in the solar system being a planetary atmosphere influenced by little or no gravity. As a comet approaches the sun, the water vapor with some fraction of other gases sublimate, generating a cloud of gas, ice and other refractory materials (rocky and organic dust) ejected from the surface of the nucleus. Sublimating gas molecules undergo frequent collisions and photochemical processes in the near-nucleus region. Owing to its negligible gravity, comets produce a large and highly variable extensive dusty coma with a size much larger than the characteristic size of the cometary nucleus.The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. Both, interpretation of measurements and safety consideration of the spacecraft require modeling of the comet's dusty gas environment.In this work we present results of a numerical study of multispecies gaseous and electrically charged dust environment of comet Chyuryumov-Gerasimenko. Both, gas and dust phases of the coma are simulated kinetically. Photolytic reactions are taken into account. Parameters of the ambient plasma as well as the distribution of electric/magnetic fields are obtained from an MHD simulation of the coma connected to the solar wind. Trajectories of ions and electrically charged dust grains are simulated by accounting for the Lorentz force and the nucleus gravity.

  5. Ionized interstellar froth in irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Gallagher, John S., III

    1990-01-01

    The warm interstellar medium of galaxies is a complicated place. It is often full of holes, neutral and ionized loops and shells, and diffuse ionized gas. Deep H alpha images of Magellanic-type irregular galaxies also reveal complex spatial structures consisting of loops and filaments in the interstellar gas outside of the boundaries of traditional HII regions. Researchers refer to these ionized structures as froth. Such structures could mark paths over which newly produced heavy elements are dispersed in irregular galaxies, and they could be the signatures of a feedback process related to star formation. In order to investigate the physical nature of the froth, researchers obtained narrow-band images and high and low dispersion spectra from Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and deep blue-passband plates from the Canada-France-Hawaii Observatory (CFHO).

  6. The flatness and sudden evolution of the intergalactic ionizing background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Joseph A.; Oh, S. Peng; Davies, Frederick B.; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    The ionizing background of cosmic hydrogen is an important probe of the sources and absorbers of ionizing radiation in the post-reionization universe. Previous studies show that the ionization rate should be very sensitive to changes in the source population: as the emissivity rises, absorbers shrink in size, increasing the ionizing mean free path and, hence, the ionizing background. By contrast, observations of the ionizing background find a very flat evolution from z ˜ 2-5, before falling precipitously at z ˜ 6. We resolve this puzzling discrepancy by pointing out that, at z ˜ 2-5, optically thick absorbers are associated with the same collapsed haloes that host ionizing sources. Thus, an increasing abundance of galaxies is compensated for by a corresponding increase in the absorber population, which moderates the instability in the ionizing background. However, by z ˜ 5-6, gas outside of haloes dominates the absorption, the coupling between sources and absorbers is lost, and the ionizing background evolves rapidly. Our halo-based model reproduces observations of the ionizing background, its flatness and sudden decline, as well as the redshift evolution of the ionizing mean free path. Our work suggests that, through much of their history, both star formation and photoelectric opacity in the universe track halo growth.

  7. Analytical Estimates of the Dispersion Curve in Planar Ionization Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L.; Fontelos, Marco A.

    2009-04-27

    Fingers from ionization fronts for a hydrodynamic plasma model result from a balance between impact ionization and electron diffusion in a non-attaching gas. An analytical estimation of the size of the fingers and its dependence on both the electric field and electron diffusion coefficient can be done when the diffusion is low and the electric field is strong.

  8. Thermal Ionization Jurg Frohlich and Marco Merkli yz

    E-print Network

    Thermal Ionization Jurg Frohlich #3; and Marco Merkli yz Theoretical Physics ETH- Honggerberg CH is in a thermal state corresponding to a suÃ?ciently high positive temperature, and under suitable conditions is called thermal ionization. Thus, a very dilute gas of atoms or molecules in intergalactic space

  9. Currentvoltage response of anodic plasma contactors with external ionization

    E-print Network

    Carlos III de Madrid, Universidad

    experiments and space tests1­5 with hollow- cathode based plasma contactors suggest that external ioniza- tionARTICLES Current­voltage response of anodic plasma contactors with external ionization E. Ahedoa) E influence of plasma emission and external ionization of neutral gas on the operation of electron

  10. Beam cooling with ionization losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubbia, C.; Ferrari, A.; Kadi, Y.; Vlachoudis, V.

    2006-12-01

    This novel type of Ionization Cooling is an effective method in order to enhance the (strong) interaction probability of slow (few MeV/A) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin target strongly improve the nuclear reaction rate with respect to a single-pass collision, in a steady configuration in which ionization losses of a target "foil" (typically few hundred ?g/cm 2 thick) are continuously recovered by an RF-cavity. With a flat foil, betatron oscillations are "cooled", but the momentum spread diverges exponentially, since faster (slower) particles ionize less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" the beam also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge-shaped "foil". Therefore, in equilibrium conditions, multiple scattering and straggling are both balanced by phase-space compression. Classic Ionization Cooling [A.A. Kolomensky, Atomnaya Energiya 19 (1965) 534; Yu.M. Ado, V.I. Balbekov, Atomnaya Energiya 31(1) (1971) 40-44; A.N. Skrinsky, V.V. Parkhomchuk, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 12 (1981) 3; E.A. Perevendentsev, A.N. Skrinsky, in: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on High Energy Acceleration, 1983, p. 485] is designed to cool the direct beam until it has been compressed and extracted for further use. In practice, this limits its applicability to non-interacting muon beams. Instead, in this new method, applicable to strongly interacting collisions, the circulating beam is not extracted. Ionization cooling provides "in situ" storage of the beam until it is converted by a nuclear interaction with the target. Simple reactions—for instance 7Li+D?8Li+p—are more favourably produced in the "mirror" kinematical frame, namely with a heavier ion colliding against a gas-jet D 2 target. Kinematics is generally very favourable, with angles in a narrow angular cone (around ˜10° for the mentioned reaction) and with a relatively concentrated outgoing energy spectrum which allows an efficient collection of 8Li as a neutral gas in a tiny volume, a technology perfected by ISOLDE at high temperatures. The method should be capable of producing a "table top" storage ring with an accumulation rate in excess of 10 148Li radioactive ion/s. It has however a much more general applicability to many other nuclear reactions.

  11. Vacuum-ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectra of iodobutane isomers: Conformer-specific ionization and ion-core

    E-print Network

    Kim, Myung Soo

    Vacuum-ultraviolet mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectra of iodobutane isomers: Conformer-analyzed threshold ionization MATI spectra using coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation have been obtained for t-photon MATI spectroscopy using a vacuum-ultraviolet VUV laser source generated by four-wave mixing in Kr gas.8

  12. Method and apparatus utilizing ionizing and microwave radiation for saturation determination of water, oil and a gas in a core sample

    DOEpatents

    Maerefat, N.L.; Parmeswar, R.; Brinkmeyer, A.D.; Honarpour, M.

    1994-08-23

    A system is described for determining the relative permeabilities of gas, water and oil in a core sample has a microwave emitter/detector subsystem and an X-ray emitter/detector subsystem. A core holder positions the core sample between microwave absorbers which prevent diffracted microwaves from reaching a microwave detector where they would reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the microwave measurements. The microwave emitter/detector subsystem and the X-ray emitter/detector subsystem each have linear calibration characteristics, allowing one subsystem to be calibrated with respect to the other subsystem. The dynamic range of microwave measurements is extended through the use of adjustable attenuators. This also facilitates the use of core samples with wide diameters. The stratification characteristics of the fluids may be observed with a windowed cell separator at the outlet of the core sample. The condensation of heavy hydrocarbon gas and the dynamic characteristics of the fluids are observed with a sight glass at the outlet of the core sample. 11 figs.

  13. Method and apparatus utilizing ionizing and microwave radiation for saturation determination of water, oil and a gas in a core sample

    DOEpatents

    Maerefat, Nicida L. (Sugar Land, TX); Parmeswar, Ravi (Marlton, NJ); Brinkmeyer, Alan D. (Tulsa, OK); Honarpour, Mehdi (Bartlesville, OK)

    1994-01-01

    A system for determining the relative permeabilities of gas, water and oil in a core sample has a microwave emitter/detector subsystem and an X-ray emitter/detector subsystem. A core holder positions the core sample between microwave absorbers which prevent diffracted microwaves from reaching a microwave detector where they would reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the microwave measurements. The microwave emitter/detector subsystem and the X-ray emitter/detector subsystem each have linear calibration characteristics, allowing one subsystem to be calibrated with respect to the other subsystem. The dynamic range of microwave measurements is extended through the use of adjustable attenuators. This also facilitates the use of core samples with wide diameters. The stratification characteristics of the fluids may be observed with a windowed cell separator at the outlet of the core sample. The condensation of heavy hydrocarbon gas and the dynamic characteristics of the fluids are observed with a sight glass at the outlet of the core sample.

  14. The primordial abundance of deuterium: ionization correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan; Pettini, Max

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relative ionization of deuterium and hydrogen in low metallicity damped Lyman ? (DLA) and sub-DLA systems using a detailed suite of photoionization simulations. We model metal-poor DLAs as clouds of gas in pressure equilibrium with a host dark matter halo, exposed to the Haardt & Madau background radiation of galaxies and quasars at redshift z ? 3. Our results indicate that the deuterium ionization correction correlates with the H I column density and the ratio of successive ion stages of the most commonly observed metals. The N(N II)/N(N I) column density ratio provides the most reliable correction factor, being essentially independent of the gas geometry, H I column density, and the radiation field. We provide a series of convenient fitting formulae to calculate the deuterium ionization correction based on observable quantities. The ionization correction typically does not exceed 0.1 per cent for metal-poor DLAs, which is comfortably below the current measurement precision (2 per cent). However, the deuterium ionization correction may need to be applied when a larger sample of D/H measurements becomes available.

  15. Modeling of Ionization Physics with the PIC Code OSIRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S.; Tsung, F.; Lee, S.; Lu, W.; Mori, W.B.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; O'Connell, C.; Dodd, E.; Decker, F.J.; Huang, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Hemker, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Joshi, C.; Ren, C.; Raimondi, P.; Wang, S.; Walz, D.; /Southern California U. /UCLA /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    When considering intense particle or laser beams propagating in dense plasma or gas, ionization plays an important role. Impact ionization and tunnel ionization may create new plasma electrons, altering the physics of wakefield accelerators, causing blue shifts in laser spectra, creating and modifying instabilities, etc. Here we describe the addition of an impact ionization package into the 3-D, object-oriented, fully parallel PIC code OSIRIS. We apply the simulation tool to simulate the parameters of the upcoming E164 Plasma Wakefield Accelerator experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We find that impact ionization is dominated by the plasma electrons moving in the wake rather than the 30 GeV drive beam electrons. Impact ionization leads to a significant number of trapped electrons accelerated from rest in the wake.

  16. Possible ionization ``ignition`` in laser-driven clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Rose-Petruck, C.; Schafer, K.J.; Barty, C.P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The authors use Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulations to study the ionization of small rare gas clusters in short pulse, high intensity laser fields. They calculate, for a cluster of 25 neon atoms, the ionization stage reached and the average kinetic energy of the ionized electrons as functions of time and peak laser intensity. The CTMC calculations mimic the results of the much simpler barrier suppression model in the limit of isolated atoms. At solid density the results give much more ionization in the cluster than that predicted by the barrier suppression model. They find that when the laser intensity reaches a threshold value such that on average one electron is ionized from each atom, the cluster atoms rapidly move to higher ionization stages, approaching Ne{sup +8} in a few femtoseconds. This ignition process creates an ultrafast pulse of energetic electrons in the cluster at quite modest laser intensities.

  17. New surface ionization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knat'ko, M. V.; Lapushkin, M. N.

    2013-06-01

    The results of analysis of processes including surface ionization are presented. It is found that these processes do not fit into the classical theory of surface ionization. This concerns the processes with diffusion exchange of particles between the adsorbed layer and the bulk of the emitter, catalytic processes on the emitter surface involving individual centers, as well as processes occurring in the adsorbed layers under illumination, electron bombardment, and in electric fields. We consider the results of analysis of surface ionization of alkali metal atoms and organic molecules on the surface of gold intermetallide (Na x Au y ), considerably extending information about this phenomenon.

  18. Characterization and quantitative amino acids analysis of analgesic peptides in cinobufacini injection by size exclusion chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Si, Nan; Bo, Gao; Hu, Hao; Yang, Jian; Bian, Baolin; Zhao, Hai Yu; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Cinobufacini injection that comes from the water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor skin is widely used for cancer treatment in China. Peptide is one of its major types of constituents, however the biological effects and content of this injection are little reported. In present study, the analgesic effect of peptides was determined and evaluated by in-vivo models. To characterize and quantitatively analyze these peptides, a reliable and efficient method combining size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with amino acid analysis was developed. The peptides presented as a series of analogs with similar molecular weights mostly ranging from 2 to 8 kDa. The amino acid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine both free and combined amino acids (FAA and CAA) in cinobufacini injection. This method achieved good linearity (R(2) , 0.9909-0.9999) and low limit of detection and quantification. FAA and CAA samples were efficiently analyzed by modified Phenomenex EZ: faast procedure. For the sample analysis, the method showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD???10%). For most FAA and CAA the mean recoveries were >80% with RSD <10%. The GC-MS based method is useful for quality assurance of both FAA and CAA in cinobufacini injection. PMID:24924921

  19. A switchable reagent ion high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer for real-time measurement of gas phase oxidized species: characterization from the 2013 southern oxidant and aerosol study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, P.; Farmer, D. K.

    2015-07-01

    A novel configuration of the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) as a switchable reagent ion (SRI) HR-TOF-CIMS is presented and described along with data collected at the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) during the summer of 2013. The calibration system and reduced pressure gas phase inlet are characterized. The average limit of detection and limit of quantification for formic acid during SOAS are 82 and 863 ppt, respectively, corresponding to an average sensitivity of 13 ± 5 Hz ppt-1. Hourly background determinations and calibrations are shown to be essential for tracking instrument performance and accurately quantifying formic acid. Maximum daytime formic acid concentrations of 10 ppb are reported during SOAS, and a strong diel cycle is observed leading to nighttime concentrations below the limit of quantification. Other species presented exhibit diel behavior similar to formic acid. The concept of the mass defect enhancement plot and the use of signal-to-noise are described in detail as a method for investigating HR-TOF-CIMS spectra in an effort to reduce data complexity.

  20. A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W.

    1997-07-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM`s). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests.

  1. Determination of plant stanols and plant sterols in phytosterol enriched foods with a gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection method: NMKL collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Päivi H

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative study with nine participating laboratories was conducted to determine the total plant sterol and/or plant stanol contents in phytosterol fortified foods with a gas chromatographic method. Four practice and 12 test samples representing mainly commercially available foodstuffs were analyzed as known replicates. Twelve samples were enriched with phytosterols, whereas four samples contained only natural contents of phytosterols. The analytical procedure consisted of two alternative approaches: hot saponification method, and acid hydrolysis treatment prior to hot saponification. As a result, sterol/stanol compositions and contents in the samples were measured. The amounts of total plant sterols and total plant stanols varying from 0.005 to 8.04 g/100 g product were statistically evaluated after outliers were eliminated. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) varied from 1.34 to 17.13%. The reproducibility RSD (RSDR) ranged from 3.03 to 17.70%, with HorRat values ranging from 0.8 to 2.1. When only phytosterol enriched food test samples are considered, the RSDr ranged from 1.48 to 6.13%, the RSD, ranged from 3.03 to 7.74%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.8 to 2.1. Based on the results of this collaborative study, the study coordinator concludes the method is fit for its purpose. PMID:25145144

  2. A surface ionization source 

    E-print Network

    Buzatu, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

  3. The Extended Ionized Halos and Bridge of the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnarao, Dhanesh; Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen; Madsen, Gregory J.; Hill, Alex S.; Gaensler, Bryan M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) has revealed ubiquitous ionized emission throughout the gas complexes formed by the dynamic history of the Magellanic Clouds. We present an overview of the immediate environment around the galaxies themselves, including ionized halos of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC & LMC) as well as the bridge of material between them. Using WHAM, Barger et al. (2013) found H? emission extending throughout and beyond H I in the Bridge. We add these new maps of the SMC and LMC to provide the first complete view of the diffuse ionized gas near the interacting system. At R ~ 30,000, WHAM can cleanly separate diffuse emission at Magellanic velocities from the Milky Way and terrestrial sources to the limit of atmospheric line confusion (~ 10s of mR). We find that ionized gas extends at least 5° beyond the traditional boundary of the SMC when compared to recent deep-imaging surveys (e.g., MCELS; Smith et al. 2005). The diffuse ionized emission extent is similar to the neutral gas extent as traced by 21 cm emission. We compare the kinematic signatures between the neutral and ionized components throughout the region. Comprehensive multi-wavelength surveys are also underway to examine how physical parameters and ionization processes vary in these extended systems. WHAM research and operations are supported through NSF Award AST-1108911.

  4. Non-equilibrium helium ionization in an MHD simulation of the solar atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The ionization state of the gas in the dynamic solar chromosphere can depart strongly from the instantaneous statistical equilibrium commonly assumed in numerical modeling. We improve on earlier simulations of the solar atmosphere that only included non-equilbrium hydrogen ionization by performing a 2D radiation-magneto-hydrodynamics simulation featuring non-equilibrium ionization of both hydrogen and helium. The simulation includes the effect of hydrogen Lyman-$\\alpha$ and the EUV radiation from the corona on the ionization and heating of the atmosphere. Details on code implementation are given. We obtain helium ion fractions that are far from their equilibrium values. Comparison with models with LTE ionization shows that non-equilibrium helium ionization leads to higher temperatures in wave fronts and lower temperatures in the gas between shocks. Assuming LTE ionization results in a thermostat-like behaviour with matter accumulating around the temperatures where the LTE ionization fractions change rapidly. ...

  5. The development of a positron ionization gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, F.; Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Wiess, A.; Turner, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The authors present a method by which gas pressure (density) can be measured by positrons. The process to monitor is the formation of positronium, Ps, via electron capture by the e{sup +} from the rest gas molecules. The Ps signal which is proportional to the gas density is obtained from the annihilation photons which are emitted when the Ps atom decays. By this method it is not necessary to have access to the vacuum system in question other than having the possibility of passing a positron beam through it. Also the present method is fully UHV compatible. In its simplest version pressures below 10{sup {minus}8} torr (at room temperature) can be measured within a reasonable time. Techniques are discussed which will significantly improve the sensitivity of the present ionization gauge. The specific reason for designing and using the positron ionization gauge is to be able to measure the pressure inside the Superconducting Super Collider beam tubing during simulated operation.

  6. Earth’s Interaction Region: Plasma-Neutral Interactions in the Weakly Ionized gas of Earth’s High Latitude Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Vicki

    2015-04-01

    The high-latitude regions of Earth’s upper atmosphere are strongly influenced by plasma-neutral interactions. These interactions couple electrodynamic processes of the ionosphere with hydrodynamic processes of the more abundant thermosphere neutral gas, consequently connecting the high-latitude upper atmosphere to distant regions of the geoplasma environment. This produces a complex spatial and temporal interplay of competing processes that results in a myriad of physical and chemical responses and a rich array of neutral and plasma morphologies that constitute the high-latitude thermosphere and ionosphere. The altitude extent from the lower thermosphere to the upper ionosphere (90km - 1000km) can be considered Earth’s space-atmosphere interaction region - likened to the solar chromosphere’s interaction region where radiative processes and hydrodynamic waves from the dense lower atmosphere produce a cold lower boundary that quickly transitions over a few 100 kilometers to neutral and plasma temperatures that are five times hotter. A thousand or more kilometers further in altitude, Earth's upper atmosphere becomes a hot, collisionless, geomagnetically controlled protonosphere whose neutral and plasma population originates from the thermosphere and ionosphere. A grand challenge in the study of Earth’s interaction region is how the collision-dominated thermosphere/ionosphere system exchanges energy, mass and momentum with the collisionless magnetosphere. This talk will focus primarily on collision-dominated processes of the high-latitude ionosphere and the electromagnetic energy transfer processes that lead to frictional heating of ions and neutrals, and plasma instability phenomenon that leads to extreme electron heating. Observations of the ionosphere response to these processes will be illustrated using incoherent scatter radar measurements. Relevance to the solar chromosphere will be identified where appropriate and outstanding issues in Earth’s interaction region will be discussed.

  7. New insights into the magnetized diffuse ionized medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverkorn, Marijke

    2015-08-01

    A major fraction of the warm ionized interstellar gas is not in HII regions but is ubiquitously present in a broad layer around the Galactic plane. Since this gas is ionized, it is mostly frozen into the Galactic magnetic field, making for a complex interaction with feedback from both components. One of the most important ways to study this magnetized, ionized, gas is through radio polarimetry, which allows decomposition of Rotation Measures into various (Faraday depth) components along every sightline. I will discuss these and other observations in recent years that have taught us new information about the physical parameters of the magneto-ionized medium, such as magnetic field strength and configuration, scale height, turbulence, and filling factor.

  8. Ionization of EPA Contaminants in Direct and Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization and Atmospheric Pressure Laser Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Tiina J.; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-seven EPA priority environmental pollutants were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with an optimized atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and an atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) interface with and without dopants. The analyzed compounds included e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro compounds, halogenated compounds, aromatic compounds with phenolic, acidic, alcohol, and amino groups, phthalate and adipatic esters, and aliphatic ethers. Toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene, and acetone were tested as dopants. The widest range of analytes was ionized using direct APPI (66/77 compounds). The introduction of dopants decreased the amount of compounds ionized in APPI (e.g., 54/77 with toluene), but in many cases the ionization efficiency increased. While in direct APPI the formation of molecular ions via photoionization was the main ionization reaction, dopant-assisted (DA) APPI promoted ionization reactions, such as charge exchange and proton transfer. Direct APLI ionized a much smaller amount of compounds than APPI (41/77 compounds), showing selectivity towards compounds with low ionization energies (IEs) and long-lived resonantly excited intermediate states. DA-APLI, however, was able to ionize a higher amount of compounds (e.g. 51/77 with toluene), as the ionization took place entirely through dopant-assisted ion/molecule reactions similar to those in DA-APPI. Best ionization efficiency in APPI and APLI (both direct and DA) was obtained for PAHs and aromatics with O- and N-functionalities, whereas nitro compounds and aliphatic ethers were the most difficult to ionize. Halogenated aromatics and esters were (mainly) ionized in APPI, but not in APLI.

  9. A new method for direct total OH reactivity measurements using a fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Sinha, V.; Bockisch, S.; Klüpfel, T.; Williams, J.

    2012-04-01

    The primary and most important oxidant in the troposphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH). Currently the atmospheric sinks of OH are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink term of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. The first direct measurements of total OH reactivity were performed using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) [1], [2]. Recently a new method for determining OH reactivity was developed called the comparative reactivity method (CRM) [3]. The measurement principle is based on a competitive reaction between a reactive molecule not normally present in air with OH, and atmospheric OH reactive molecules with OH. The reactive molecule (X), is passed through a Teflon coated glass reactor and its concentration is monitored with a suitable detector. OH radicals are then introduced into the reactor at a constant rate to react with X, first in the presence of zero air and then in the presence of ambient air containing OH reactive species. Comparing the amount of X exiting the reactor with and without the competing ambient air molecules directly provides the atmospheric total OH reactivity. In the first version of this set up, molecule X is pyrrole (C5H4N) and the detector used is a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). In comparison to the original LIF based system, the PTR-MS has the advantage of being smaller, less expensive, and commercially available. However, using the PTR-MS for total OH reactivity measurements prevents it from probing the broad variety of volatile organic compounds in ambient air. Moreover, even smaller, less expensive and more portable detectors are available. This work examines the potential for a GC-PID in order to make the total OH reactivity measurement accessible to more practitioners. This study presents measurements of total OH reactivity with a custom built GC-PID (VOC-Analyzer from IUT-Berlin, now ENIT (Environics-IUT GmbH))[4]. The GC-PID is small (260*160*400 mm), light (8 kg) and provides a good time resolution (50-60 sec). The method is able to operate in ambient conditions, requires no external carrier gas, and an internal battery provides power for ca. 12 hours which makes the instrument suitable for outdoor field campaigns. The GC-PID detection limit for pyrrole is 3 ppb, which is adequate for this application and total OH reactivity can be measured under optimum conditions down to 4 sec-1. The new set-up has been tested in parallel to previously validated PTR-MS measurements for CRM in laboratory experiments, a plant chamber, and boreal forest field studies. Advantages and drawbacks of the new technique are discussed. Although the polymerization of pyrrole on the detector window remains a weakness in the present version of the system, in general the GC-PID produces acceptable results. [1] Calpini et al, 1999, Analusis, 27, 328 [2] Kovacs and Brune. 2001, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 39, 105-122 [3] V. Sinha et al, 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2213-2227 [4] http://www.environics-iut.de/

  10. Measurement of Organic Acids Produced By The Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Simple Olefins Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) as a Function of Temperature And Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, C. J.; Bacak, A.; Leather, K. E.; McGillen, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) form an important trace component of the atmosphere and are of particular environmental interest because of their deleterious effects on air quality, their numerous (and potentially counteractive) effects on Earth’s climate system and their sophisticated semiochemical roles in the world’s ecosystems. NMHCs are also important precursors to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g. Pandis et al., 1991; Kavouras et al., 1999). The ozonolysis reactions of olefins result in complex menageries of products, of which the acids are ubiquitous. Although the gas phase acid concentrations are small, they are thought to be key species in SOA formation as a result of their low volatility (e.g., Ma et al., 2009). Despite this, the factors that control acid formation are not well understood, especially with regards to humidity and temperature. Acid yields will be measured using the newly commissioned EXTreme RAnge (EXTRA) chamber (Leather et al., 2009). EXTRA is a 125 L stainless steel chamber, which can be temperature controlled using a commercial chest freezer unit (for T ? -20 °C) or a purpose built oven for T > 25 °C. The EXTRA chamber can be operated at pressures from 10-3800 Torr and at temperatures from 180-473 K. The stainless steel chamber walls have been coated with PFA to minimize wall loss of radicals. Fans, located at both ends of the cylinder, promote rapid mixing of reactants. Six sample ports are located at either end of the chamber for connection to ADS-GC-ECD, CIMS and commercial sensors such as a Thermo Electron Corporation 49i Ozone Analyzer, an Edinburgh Instruments Gascard CO2 sensor and a Trace Analytical inc. RGA3 CO analyzer. Experiments will be performed as a function of atmospherically relevant temperatures (T= 180-300 K). The field CIMS has sub ppt(v) L.O.D.s with a sub 1 Hz time response so will enable products to be quantified at very low concentrations in real time. Acid products will be detected using both the acetate ion (Verez et al., 2008) and silicon pentafluoride ion (Huey et al., 1998) reaction schemes, both of which have been used previously in atmospheric measurements, with little interference from water vapour. References Kavouras, I.G., Mihalopoulos N., Stephanou, E.G., 1999, Environ. Sci. Technol. 33: 1028-1037. Huey, L. G., E. J. Dunlea, E. R. Lovejoy, D. R. Hanson, R.B. Norton, F.C. Fehsenfeld and C. J. Howard, 1998, J. Geophys. Res, 103(D3), 3355-3360. Leather, K.E., Mcgillen, M.R. and Percival, C.J., 2009, Submitted to PCCP. Ma, Y., Porter, R.A., Chappell, D., Russell, A.T., Marston, G., 2009,. PCCP, 21, 4184-4197. Pandis, S. N., Paulson, S.E., Seinfeld, J.H., Flagan, R.C. 1991, Atmos. Environ. A, 1991, 25, 997-1008. Veres, P., Roberts, J.M., Warneke, C., Welsh-Bon, D., Zahniser, M., Herndon, S., Fall,R., de Gouw, J., 2008, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 274, 48-55.

  11. Surface ionization of terpene hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zandberg, E.Y.; Nezdyurov, A.L.; Paleev, V.I.; Ponomarev, D.A.

    1986-09-01

    By means of a surface ionization indicator for traces of materials in the atmosphere it has been established that many natural materials containing terpenes and their derivatives are ionized on the surface of heated molybdenum oxide at atmospheric air pressure. A mass-spectrometer method has been used to explain the mechanism of ionization of individual terpene hydrocarbons and to establish its principles. The ionization of ..cap alpha..-pinene, alloocimene, camphene, and also adamantane on oxidized tungsten under vacuum conditions has been investigated. The ..cap alpha..-pinene and alloocimene are ionized by surface ionization but camphene and adamantane are not ionized under vacuum conditions. The surface ionization mass spectra of ..cap alpha..-pinene and alloocimene are of low line brightness in comparison with electron ionization mass spectra and differ between themselves. The temperature relations for currents of the same compositions of ions during ionization of ..cap alpha..-pinene and alloocimene are also different, which leads to the possibility of surface ionization analysis of mixtures of terpenes being ionized. The ionization coefficients of alloocimene and ..cap alpha..-pinene on oxidized tungsten under temperatures optimum for ionization and the ionization potentials of alloocimene molecules and of radicals (M-H) of both compounds have been evaluated.

  12. Atmospheric Ionization Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Thomas; Mayes, Riley

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of atmospheric ionization is a largely unexplored science that potentially holds the key to better understanding many different geophysical phenomena through this new and valuable source of data. Through the LaACES program, which is funded by NASA through the Louisiana Space Consortium, students at Loyola University New Orleans have pursued the goal of measuring high altitude ionization for nearly three years, and were the first to successfully collect ionization data at altitudes over 30,000 feet using a scientific weather balloon flown from the NASA Columbia Scientific Ballooning Facility in Palestine, TX. In order to measure atmospheric ionization, the science team uses a lightweight and highly customized sensor known as a Gerdien condenser. Among other branches of science the data is already being used for, such as the study of aerosol pollution levels in the atmosphere, the data may also be useful in meteorology and seismology. Ionization data might provide another variable with which to predict weather or seismic activity more accurately and further in advance. Thomas Slack and Riley Mayes have served as project managers for the experiment, and have extensive knowledge of the experiment from the ground up. LaSPACE Louisiana Space Consortium.

  13. Does the shock wave in a highly ionized non-isothermal plasma really exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, A. A.; Sadykova, S. P.; Samkharadze, T. G.

    2015-09-01

    Here, we study the structure of a highly ionizing shock wave in a gas of high atmospheric pressure. We take into account the gas ionization when the gas temperature reaches few orders above ionization potential. It is shown that after gasdynamic temperature-raising shock and formation of a highly-ionized nonisothermal collisionless plasma Te?Ti , only the solitary ion-sound wave (soliton) can propagate in this plasma. In such a wave, the charge separation occurs: electrons and ions form the double electric layer with the electric field. The shock wave form, its amplitude, and front width are derived.

  14. Unusual collision-induced dissociation of fluorated and non-fluorated alpha-nitrotoluene analogs in a gas chromatograph triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer under electron-capturing negative-ion chemical ionization conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Frölich, Jürgen C

    2005-03-01

    Unusual collision-induced dissociation (CID) of perfluorated and non-perfluorated alpha-nitrotoluene analogs in a gas chromatograph triple-stage quadrupole (TSQ) mass spectrometer (GC-QqQ-MS) under electron-capturing negative-ion chemical ionization conditions is reported. CID of [M - 1]- of alpha-nitro-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorotoluene (C6F5CH2-NO2) and alpha-nitro-2,5-difluorotoluene (C6H3F2CH2-NO2) produced an intense ion with m/z 66. By using 15N- or 18O-labelled C6F5CH2-NO2 analogs, we found that this anion has the formula C3NO. By contrast, CID of [M - 1]- of alpha-nitrotoluene (C6H5CH2-NO2) and alpha-nitro-3,5-difluorotoluene (C6H3F2CH2-NO2) produced an anion with m/z 86 with the formula C3H4NO2. The expected CID of the C-N-bond of all alpha-nitrotoluene analogs to form the nitrite anion (NO2-, m/z 46) did not occur. We propose mechanisms for the formation of the anions C3NO and C3H4NO2 in the collision chamber of the TSQ mass spectrometer. The most likely structures for the anion C3NO are :C=C=C=N--O and N triple bond C-C triple bond C--O-. The unique CID behavior of C6F5CH2--NO2 can be utilized to unequivocally identify and accurately quantify nitrite in biological fluids by GC-tandem MS. PMID:15844540

  15. Determination of volatile compounds in wine by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection: comparison between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 3sigma approach and Hubaux-Vos calculation of detection limits using ordinary and bivariate least squares.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Rosario; Scordino, Monica; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    A capillary GC-flame ionization detection (FID) method to determine volatile compounds (ethyl acetate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, methyl alcohol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol) in wine was investigated in terms of calculation of detection limits and calibration method. The main objectives were: (1) calculation of regression coefficient parameters by ordinary least-squares (OLS) and bivariate least-squares (BLS) regression models, taking into account errors in both axes; (2) estimation of linear dynamic range (LDR) according to International Conference on Harmonization recommendations; (3) performance evaluation of a method by using three different internal standards (ISs) such as acetonitrile, acetone, and 1-pentanol; (4) evaluation of LODs according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 3sigma approach and the Hubaux-Vos (H-V) method; (5) application of H-V theory to a gas chromatographic analytical method and to a food matrix; and (6) accuracy assessment of the method relative to methyl alcohol content through a Unione Italiana Vini (UIV) interlaboratory proficiency test. Calibration curves calculated via BLS and OLS show similar slopes, while intercepts are closer to zero in the first case, independent of the chosen IS. The studied ISs show a substantially equivalent behavior, even though the IS closer to the analyte retention time seems to be more appropriate in terms of LDR and LOD. Results indicate an underestimation of LODs using the EPA 3sigma approach instead of the more realistic H-V method, both with OLS and BLS regression models. Methanol contents compared with UIV average values indicate recovery between 90 and 110%. PMID:22649934

  16. Determination of ?-sitosterol and cholesterol in oils after reverse micelles with Triton X-100 coupled with ultrasound-assisted back-extraction by a water/chloroform binary system prior to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Kardani, Fatemeh; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahrai, Reza

    2011-09-01

    Ultrasonic back-extraction of Triton X-100 reverse micelles by a water/chloroform binary system and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was developed for extraction and determination of ?-sitosterol and cholesterol in soybean and sunflower oil samples. After the homogenization of the oil samples with Triton X-100, an aliquot of 200 ?L of methanol was added to the samples to form two phases. The clear Triton X-100 extract obtained by centrifugation was treated with a mixture of water (1000 ?L) and chloroform (300 ?L) for back-extraction of the analytes into the chloroform phase by ultrasonication. After centrifugation, the sedimented chloroform layer was withdrawn easily by a microsyringe and directly injected into the GC-FID system. The influence of several important parameters on the extraction efficiencies of the analytes was evaluated. Under optimized experimental conditions, the calibration graphs were linear in the range of 1.0-30.0 mg L(-1) with coefficient of determination more than 0.994 for both analytes. The method detection limit values were in the range of 0.2-0.7 mg L(-1). The lower limit of quantification values were in the range of 0.7-2.4 mg L(-1). Intra-day relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.0-2.7%. This procedure was successfully applied with satisfactory results to the determination of ?-sitosterol and cholesterol in spiked oil samples. The relative mean recoveries of oil samples ranged from 93.6% to 105.0%. PMID:21801893

  17. Real-time monitoring of in situ gas-phase H/D exchange reactions of cations by atmospheric pressure helium plasma ionization mass spectrometry (HePI-MS).

    PubMed

    Attygalle, Athula B; Gangam, Rekha; Pavlov, Julius

    2014-01-01

    An enclosed atmospheric-pressure helium-plasma ionization (HePI-MS) source avoids, or minimizes, undesired back-exchange reactions usually encountered during deuterium incorporation experiments under ambient-pressure open-source conditions. A simple adaptation of an ESI source provides an economical way of conducting gas phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions (HDX) in real time without the need for complicated hardware modifications. For example, the spectrum of [(2)H8]toluene recorded under exposed ambient conditions showed the base peak at m/z 96 due to fast leaching of ring hydrogens because of interactions with H2O vapor present in the open source. Such D/H exchanges are rapidly reversed if the deuterium-depleted [(2)H8]toluene is exposed to D2O vapor. In addition to the enumeration of labile protons, our procedure enables the identification of protonation sites in molecules unambiguously, by the number of H/D exchanges observed in real time. For example, molecules such as tetrahydrofuran and pyridine protonate at the heteroatom and consequently undergo only one H/D exchange, whereas ethylbenzene, which protonates at a ring position of the aromatic ring, undergoes six H/D exchanges. In addition, carbocations generated in situ by in-source fragmentation of precursor protonated species, such as benzyl alcohol, do not undergo any rapid H/D exchanges. Because radical cations, second-generation cations (ions formed by losing a small molecule from a precursor ion), or those formed by hydride abstraction do not undergo rapid H/D exchanges, our technique provides a way to distinguish these ions from protonated molecules. PMID:24325360

  18. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  19. Nonequilibrium ionization phenomena behind shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Panesi, Marco; Magin, Thierry; Huo, Winifred

    2011-05-20

    An accurate investigation of the behavior of electronically excited states of atoms and molecules in the post shock relaxation zone of a trajectory point of the FIRE II flight experiment is carried out by means of a one-dimensional flow solver coupled to a collisional-radiative model. In the rapidly ionizing regime behind a strong shock wave, the high lying bound electronic states of atoms are depleted. This leads the electronic energy level populations of atoms to depart from Boltzmann distributions which strongly affects the non-equilibrium ionization process as well as the radiative signature. The importance of correct modeling of the interaction of radiation and matter is discussed showing a strong influence on the physico-chemical properties of the gas. The paper clearly puts forward the shortcomings of the simplified approach often used in literature which strongly relies on the escape factors to characterize the optical thickness of the gas.

  20. Microliter-sized ionization device and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin J. (Inventor); Simac, Robert M. (Inventor); Wernlund, Roger F. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A microliter-sized metastable ionization device with a cavity, a sample gas inlet, a corona gas inlet and a gas outlet. A first electrode has a hollow and disposed in the cavity and is in fluid communication with the sample gas inlet. A second electrode is in fluid communication with the corona gas inlet and is disposed around the first electrode adjacent the hollow end thereof. A gap forming means forms a corona gap between the first and second electrodes. A first power supply is connected to the first electrode and the second power supply is connected to the second electrode for generating a corona discharge across the corona gap. A collector has a hollow end portion disposed in the cavity which is in fluid communications with the gas outlet for the outgassing and detection of ionized gases. The first electrode can be a tubular member aligned concentrically with a cylindrical second electrode. The gap forming means can be in annular disc projecting radially inwardly from the cylindrical second electrode. The collector can have a tubular opening aligned coaxially with the first electrode and has an end face spaced a short distance from an end face of the first electrode forming a small active volume therebetween for the generation and detection of small quantities of trace analytes.

  1. High-temperature Ionization in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desch, Steven J.; Turner, Neal J.

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the abundances of electrons and ions in the hot (?500 K), dusty parts of protoplanetary disks, treating for the first time the effects of thermionic and ion emission from the dust grains. High-temperature ionization modeling has involved simply assuming that alkali elements such as potassium occur as gas-phase atoms and are collisionally ionized following the Saha equation. We show that the Saha equation often does not hold, because free charges are produced by thermionic and ion emission and destroyed when they stick to grain surfaces. This means the ionization state depends not on the first ionization potential of the alkali atoms, but rather on the grains’ work functions. The charged species’ abundances typically rise abruptly above about 800 K, with little qualitative dependence on the work function, gas density, or dust-to-gas mass ratio. Applying our results, we find that protoplanetary disks’ dead zone, where high diffusivities stifle magnetorotational turbulence, has its inner edge located where the temperature exceeds a threshold value ?1000 K. The threshold is set by ambipolar diffusion except at the highest densities, where it is set by Ohmic resistivity. We find that the disk gas can be diffusively loaded onto the stellar magnetosphere at temperatures below a similar threshold. We investigate whether the “short-circuit” instability of current sheets can operate in disks and find that it cannot, or works only in a narrow range of conditions; it appears not to be the chondrule formation mechanism. We also suggest that thermionic emission is important for determining the rate of Ohmic heating in hot Jupiters.

  2. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  3. Variable pressure ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, Michelle V. (Knoxville, TN); Wise, Marcus B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for differentiating organic compounds based on their electron affinity. An electron capture detector cell (ECD) is operated at pressures ranging from atmospheric to less than 1 torr. Through variation of the pressure within the ECD cell, the organic compounds are induced to either capture or emit electrons. Differentiation of isomeric compounds can be obtianed when, at a given pressure, one isomer is in the emission mode and the other is in the capture mode. Output of the ECD is recorded by chromatogram. The invention also includes a method for obtaining the zero-crossing pressure of a compound, defined as the pressure at which the competing emission and capture reactions are balanced and which may be correlated to the electron affinity of a compound.

  4. Alkali ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Hrizo, John (Monroeville, PA); Bauerle, James E. (Plum Borough, PA); Witkowski, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

  5. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. PMID:21774684

  6. Oxygen ionization rates at Mars and Venus - Relative contributions of impact ionization and charge exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, M. H. G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Nagy, A. F.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    Oxygen ion production rates above the ionopauses of Venus and Mars are calculated for photoionization, charge exchange, and solar wind electron impact ionization processes. The latter two require the use of the Spreiter and Stahara (1980) gas dynamic model to estimate magnetosheath velocities, densities, and temperatures. The results indicate that impact ionization is the dominant mechanism for the production of O(+) ions at both Venus and Mars. This finding might explain both the high ion escape rates measured by Phobos 2 and the greater mass loading rate inferred for Venus from the bow shock positions.

  7. Electrospray ionization of volatiles in breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lozano, P.; de La Mora, J. Fernández

    2007-08-01

    Recent work by Zenobi and colleagues [H. Chen, A. Wortmann, W. Zhang, R. Zenobi, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (2007) 580] reports that human breath charged by contact with an electrospray (ES) cloud yields many mass peaks of species such as urea, glucose, and other ions, some with molecular weights above 1000 Da. All these species are presumed to be involatile, and to originate from breath aerosols by so-called extractive electrospray ionization EESI [H. Chen, A. Venter, R.G. Cooks, Chem. Commun. (2006) 2042]. However, prior work by Fenn and colleagues [C.M. Whitehouse, F. Levin, C.K. Meng, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 34th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Denver, 1986 p. 507; S. Fuerstenau, P. Kiselev, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 47th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, 1999, Dallas, TX, 1999] and by Hill and colleagues [C. Wu, W.F. Siems, H.H. Hill Jr., Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 396] have reported the ability of electrospray drops to ionize a variety of low vapor pressure substances directly from the gas phase, without an apparent need for the vapor to be brought into the charging ES in aerosol form. The Ph.D. Thesis of Martínez-Lozano [P. Martínez-Lozano Sinués, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Thermal and Fluid Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; April 5, 2006 (in Spanish); http://hdl.handle.net/10016/655] had also previously argued that the numerous human breath species observed via a similar ES ionization approach were in fact ionized directly from the vapor. Here, we observe that passage of the breath stream through a submicron filter does not eliminate the majority of the breath vapors seen in the absence of the filter. We conclude that direct vapor charging is the leading mechanism in breath ionization by electrospray drops, though aerosol ionization may also play a role.

  8. On the large escape of ionizing radiation from GEHRs

    E-print Network

    M. Castellanos; A. I. Diaz; G. Tenorio-Tagle

    2001-12-19

    A thorough analysis of well studied giant HII regions on galactic discs for which we know the ionizing stellar population, the gas metallicity and the Wolf-Rayet population, leads to photoionization models which can only match all observed line intensity ratios ([OIII], [OII], [NII], [SII] and [SIII] with respect to the intensity of H$\\beta$), as well as the H$\\beta$ luminosity and equivalent width if one allows for an important escape of energetic ionizing radiation. For the three regions presented here, the fractions of escaping Lyman continuum photons amount to 10 to 73 % and, in all cases, the larger fraction of escaping photons has energies between 13.6 and 24.4 eV. These escaping photons clearly must have an important impact as a source of ionization of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) found surrounding many galaxies, as well as of the intergalactic medium (IGM).

  9. A double ionization chamber for fission fragment detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepigin, V. I.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Nagy, S.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Voronin, A. S.

    1984-03-01

    In the present paper some problems associated with studies of the spontaneous fission of transfermium elements are considered, and advantages of ionization chambers over other detectors for fission fragment detection are discussed. A double ionization chamber for detecting fission fragments has been built, and the energy and mass calibrations have been performed using the thermal neutron-induced fission of 235U. The use of a gas jet, in combination with a double ionization chamber as a detector, in experiments with heavy ions is discussed. Model experiments have been carried out.

  10. Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H. S.; Miller, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Shuman, D.; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T. H. V. T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gil, A.; Gómez, H.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jinete, M. A.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Moiseenko, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Natal da Luz, H.; Navarro, G.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Palma, R.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Seguí, L.; Serra, L.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Tomás, A.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-09-01

    Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope ?-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

  11. Fossil Ionized Bubbles Around Dead Quasars During Reionization

    E-print Network

    Steven Furlanetto; Zoltan Haiman; S. Peng Oh

    2008-03-24

    One of the most dramatic signatures of the reionization era may be the enormous ionized bubbles around luminous quasars (with radii reaching ~40 comoving Mpc), which may survive as "fossil'' ionized regions long after their source shuts off. Here we study how the inhomogeneous intergalactic medium (IGM) evolves inside such fossils. The average recombination rate declines rapidly with time, and the brief quasar episode significantly increases the mean free path inside the fossil bubbles. As a result, even a weak ionizing background generated by galaxies inside the fossil can maintain it in a relatively highly and uniformly ionized state. For example, galaxies that would ionize 20-30% of hydrogen in a random patch of the IGM can maintain 80-90% ionization inside the fossil, for a duration much longer than the average recombination time in the IGM. Quasar fossils at zfossils, at z>10 have a weaker galaxy-generated ionizing background and a higher gas density, so they can attain a swiss-cheese topology similar to the rest of the IGM, but with a smaller contrast between the ionized bubbles and the partially neutral regions separating them. Analogous HeIII-fossils should exist around the epoch of HeII/HeIII reionization at z~3, although rapid recombinations inside the HeIII-fossils will be more common. Our model of inhomogeneous recombination also applies to "double reionization'' models and shows that a non-monotonic reionization history is even more unlikely than previously thought.

  12. Tunneling ionization and Wigner transform diagnostics in OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, S.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Tsung, F.; Mori, W. B.

    2004-11-01

    We describe the ionization module implemented in the PIC code OSIRIS [1]. Benchmarks with previously published tunnel ionization results were made. Our ionization module works in 1D, 2D and 3D simulations with barrier suppression ionization or the ADK ionization model, and allows for moving ions. Several illustrative 3D numerical simulations were performed, namely of the propagation of a SLAC beam in a Li gas cell, for the parameters of [2]. We compare the performance of OSIRIS with/without the ionization module, concluding that much less simulation time is usually required when using the ionization module. A novel diagnostic over the electric field is implemented, the Wigner transform, that provides information on the local spectral content of the field. This diagnostic is applied to the analysis of the chirp induced in an ionizing laser pulse. [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342-351, (Springer, Heidelberg, 2002). [2] S. Deng et al., Phys. Rev. E 68, 047401 (2003).

  13. Ionization efficiency studies for xenon ions with thesuperconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Lyneis, Claude M.; Todd, DamonS.; Tarvainen,Olli

    2007-06-05

    Ionization efficiency studies for high charge state xenon ions using a calibrated gas leak are presented. A 75% enriched {sup 129}Xe gas leak with a gas flow equivalent to 5.11p{mu}A was used in all the measurements. The experiments were performed at the VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for Nuclear Science) ion source for 18 GHz, 28 GHz and double frequency operation. Overall, total ionization efficiencies close to 100% and ionization efficiencies into a single charge state up to 22% were measured. The influence of the biased disk on the ionization efficiency was studied and the results were somewhat surprising. When the biased disk was removed from the plasma chamber, the ionization efficiency was dramatically reduced for single frequency operation. However, using double frequency heating the ionization efficiencies achieved without the biased disk almost matched the ionization efficiencies achieved with the biased probe. In addition, we have studied the influence of the support gas on the charge state distribution of the xenon ions. Either pure oxygen or a mixture of oxygen and helium were used as support gases. The addition of a small amount of helium can increase the ionization efficiency into a single charge state by narrowing the charge state distribution. Furthermore by varying the helium flow the most efficient charge state can be shifted over a wide range without compromising the ionization efficiency. This is not possible using only oxygen as support gas. Results from these studies are presented and discussed.

  14. Interstellar hydrogen ionization in the heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, Mike

    2015-08-01

    The expanding solar wind plasma undergoes a shock transition at the interstellar boundary of the solar system and fills the inner heliosheath, the region between the termination shock and the heliopause. The nonequilibrium heliosheath plasma is a main source of energetic neutral atoms that allow remote probing of the heliospheric interface region. Global models of the heliosphere interaction with the interstellar medium often disregard solar photoionization and electron impact ionization of interstellar gas in the heliosheath. When ionization is included, it is commonly treated in a simplified manner and complexity of heliospheric interactions obscures its effect on the properties of the plasma. This work concentrates on physical estimates of ionization and shows that it may lead to significant mass loading of plasma flows in the heliosheath. In turn, mass loading would slow down plasma flows and deplete populations of nonthermal energetic protons. The magnitude of the effect depends on poorly understood and largely unknown energy transfer to electrons at the termination shock and beyond. The presented estimates show that inclusion of ionization is indispensable for global heliospheric modeling and for interpretation of heliosphere imaging in fluxes of energetic neutral atoms.

  15. Analysis of ketamine and norketamine in urine by automatic solid-phase extraction (SPE) and positive ion chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-mi; Lee, Ju-seon; Choi, Sang-kil; Lim, Mi-ae; Chung, Hee-sun

    2008-01-30

    Ketamine (KT) is widely abused for hallucination and also misused as a "date-rape" drug in recent years. An analytical method using positive ion chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS) with an automatic solid-phase extraction (SPE) apparatus was studied for the determination of KT and its major metabolite, norketamine (NK), in urine. Six ketamine suspected urine samples were provided by the police. For the research of KT metabolism, KT was administered to SD rats by i.p. at a single dose of 5, 10 and 20mg/kg, respectively, and urine samples were collected 24, 48 and 72 h after administration. For the detection of KT and NK, urine samples were extracted on an automatic SPE apparatus (RapidTrace, Zymark) with mixed mode type cartridge, Drug-Clean (200 mg, Alltech). The identification of KT and NK was by PCI-GC-MS. m/z238 (M+1), 220 for KT, m/z 224 (M+1), 207 for NK and m/z307 (M+1) for Cocaine-D(3) as internal standard were extracted from the full-scan mass spectrum and the underlined ions were used for quantitation. Extracted calibration curves were linear from 50 to 1000 ng/mL for KT and NK with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.99. The limit of detection (LOD) was 25 ng/mL for KT and NK. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 50 ng/mL for KT and NK. The recoveries of KT and NK at three different concentrations (86, 430 and 860 ng/mL) were 53.1 to 79.7% and 45.7 to 83.0%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day run precisions (CV) for KT and NK were less than 15.0%, and the accuracies (bias) for KT and NK were also less than 15% at the three different concentration levels (86, 430 and 860 ng/mL). The analytical method was also applied to real six KT suspected urine specimens and KT administered rat urines, and the concentrations of KT and NK were determined. Dehydronorketamine (DHNK) was also confirmed in these urine samples, however the concentration of DHNK was not calculated. SPE is simple, and needs less organic solvent than liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and PCI-GC-MS can offer both qualitative and quantitative information for urinalysis of KT in forensic analysis. PMID:17553643

  16. Dating of H II Regions from Ionization Modeling

    E-print Network

    Donald R. Garnett

    1999-07-21

    The emission-line spectrum of an H II region essentially reflects the shape of the EUV spectral energy distribution of the OB stars that ionize the gas. In principle one can use this spectrum to extract information about the age of the underlying association. In practice, a number of effects can lead to systematic errors in derived ages. The star-gas geometry is an important consideration, as it determines the ionization parameter; high spatial resolution imaging is thus essential to constrain the geometry. Dust grains absorb ionizing photons and decrease the Balmer equivalent widths and derived Lyman-continuum luminosity; differential extinction between stars and gas can also affect equivalent widths. Starburst synthesis models appear to over-predict the numbers of very hot Wolf-Rayet stars, especially for metal-rich starbursts; this can have deleterious effects on the modeling for such objects.

  17. Low-temperature plasma ionization differential ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kuklya, Andriy; Engelhard, Carsten; Uteschil, Florian; Kerpen, Klaus; Marks, Robert; Telgheder, Ursula

    2015-09-01

    A low-temperature plasma (LTP) was used as an ionization source for differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) for the first time. This ionization source enhances the potential of DMS as a miniaturized system for on-site rapid monitoring. The effects of experimental parameters (e.g., discharge/carrier gas composition and flow rate, applied voltage) on the analysis of model aromatic compounds were investigated and discussed. It was found that the nature of reactant ion positive (RIP) is dependent on the discharge/carrier gas composition. The best response to the analyte was achieved when pure nitrogen was used as the discharge/carrier gas. The ability to perform analysis with zero helium consumption is especially attractive in view of the potential application of LTP-DMS for online (and on-site) monitoring. Analytical performance was determined with six environmentally relevant model compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and naphthalene) using LTP and directly compared to APPI and APCI ((63)Ni) ionization sources. When LTP was coupled to DMS, calculated LOD values were found to be in the range of 35-257 ng L(-1) (concentration in the carrier gas). These values are competitive with those calculated for two DMS equipped with traditional ionization sources (APPI, (63)Ni). The obtained results are promising enough to ensure the potential of LTP as ionization source for DMS. PMID:26266836

  18. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunguang; Li, Jinxu; Tang, Bin; Zhu, Liping; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI-) photoelectron ionization (PEI) portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE) below 10.6?eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6?eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29?cm, the weight is 27?kg, and the power consumption is only 70?W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5?ppbv (S/N = 10?:?1) with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear. PMID:26587023

  19. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunguang; Li, Jinxu; Tang, Bin; Zhu, Liping; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI-) photoelectron ionization (PEI) portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE) below 10.6?eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6?eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29?cm, the weight is 27?kg, and the power consumption is only 70?W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5?ppbv (S/N = 10?:?1) with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear. PMID:26587023

  20. Stagnation-point heat transfer correlation for ionized gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bade, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Based on previous laminar boundary-layer solutions for argon, xenon, nitrogen, and air, it is shown that the effect of gas ionization on stagnation-point heat transfer can be correlated with the variation of the frozen Prandtl number across the boundary layer. A formula is obtained for stagnation-point heat transfer in a noble gas and is shown to be valid from the low-temperature range to the region of strong ionization. It is concluded that the considered effect can be well correlated by the 0.7 power of the Prandtl-number ratio across the boundary layer.

  1. The Ionization Source and Distance to the Magellanic Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Kathleen; Madsen, Gregory J.; Fox, Andrew; Wakker, Bart P.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Nidever, David L.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Lehner, Nicolas; Hill, Alex S.

    2015-01-01

    We present multiline observations of the ionized gas along the Magellanic Stream towards 39 sight lines. Using the Wisconsin H? Mapper telescope, we detect H? emission brighter than 30-50 mR in 29/39 sight lines. This H? emission extends more than 2° off the HI emission. We further find that the ionization fraction of the Stream increases as the HI column density deceases. Based on comparisons of the [O I] and H? emission, regions with HI column densities between 1019.5 and 1020.0 cm-2 are 15 - 65%. These ionization fractions closely agree with those found in absorption-line studies, implying that there is very little ionization change on the < 1° scale. The sight lines positioned off or on the edge of HI gas of the Stream tend to have higher H? intensities than those that align with the high HI column density gas. The spectral profiles of these offset sight lines are typically kinematically displaced from the HI emission by as much as 30 km s-1. We conclude that these low H I column density sight lines are less shielded from the surrounding coronal gas and ionizing radiation field and are likely evaporating into the Galactic halo. The H? detections, from this and previous studies, towards high H I column density sight lines follow the strength of the incident photoionizing radiation field from the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), the Milky Way (MW), and the extragalactic background (EGB). This compatibility places the distance to the Magellanic Stream at 100° from the Magellanic Clouds between 50 - 75 kpc away from the Sun. This agreement suggests that the combined ionized and neutral gas mass of the Stream is ~2 × 109 M?, based on the work of Fox et al. 2014 for this distance. Additionally, this agreement implies that an ionizing photon escape fraction of ~5% for the Galactic disk, ~4% for the Large Magellanic Cloud, and ~6% for the Small Magellanic Clouds. However, if the trailing gas lies further away, then other sources must also contribute to the ionization. The ionizing contribution from these sources will decreases if the Stream is located further away with a ~50% at 100 kpc and ~15% at very large distances (> 200 kpc).

  2. THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Andrew; Venkatesan, Aparna; Shull, J. Michael E-mail: avenkatesan@usfca.edu

    2013-06-10

    The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

  3. The ionization rate under a general magnetic field for microwave breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huihui Meng, Lin; Liu, Dagang; Liu, Laqun

    2014-07-15

    The ionization rate under an extra magnetic field is studied by theory and particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo Collision simulations. The result shows that a magnetic field always decreases the ionization rate if ?(3)??ionization rate if ?(3)??>??{sub m}. The effect of the magnetic field on the ionization rate fades away when the angle between the magnetic field and the electric filed approaches to zero. Furthermore, the peak ionization rate among different magnetic fields is almost independent of ?. This peak ionization rate is in direct proportion to the gas pressure in the low pressure region, while it is about in inverse proportion to the gas pressure in the high pressure region.

  4. Ionization of polarized hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are discussed for the production of polarized H/sup -/ ions from polarized atoms produced in ground state atomic beam sources. Present day sources use ionizers of two basic types - electron ionizers for H/sup +/ Vector production followed by double charge exchange in a vapor, or direct H/sup -/ Vector production by charge exchange of H/sup 0/ with Cs/sup 0/. Both methods have ionization efficiencies of less than 0.5%. Ionization efficiencies in excess of 10% may be obtained in the future by the use of a plasma ionizer plus charge exchange in Cs or Sr vapor, or ionization by resonant charge exchange with a self-extracted D/sup -/ beam from a ring magnetron or HCD source. 36 references, 4 figures.

  5. HCl acid ionization at the surface of the stratospheric ice

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, J.T.; Gertner, B.J.

    1996-10-01

    We will describe our recent theoretical work on the acid ionization of HCl at the surface of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) ice, a reaction of importance in connection with catalytic gas-phase ozone depletion over the Antarctic. Because of the dynamic character of the ice surface under stratospheric conditions, we propose a method whereby HCl is incorporated into the ice lattice. We find that the acid ionization process at the ice surface is quite exothermic. Concomitantly, we observe that the surface does not form a quasi-liquid layer to induce ionization. However, there is some subsequent rearrangement of nearby waters to solvate the ions. Details of the acid ionization process, including rearrangements of the ice lattice, will be discussed.

  6. Density, Velocity and Ionization Structure in Accretion-Disc Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Long, Knox

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to exploit the unique capabilities of FUSE to monitor variations in the wind- formed spectral lines of the luminous, low-inclination, cataclysmic variables(CV) -- RW Sex. (The original proposal contained two additional objects but these were not approved.) These observations were intended to allow us to determine the relative roles of density and ionization state changes in the outflow and to search for spectroscopic signatures of stochastic small-scale structure and shocked gas. By monitoring the temporal behavior of blue-ward extended absorption lines with a wide range of ionization potentials and excitation energies, we proposed to track the changing physical conditions in the outflow. We planned to use a new Monte Carlo code to calculate the ionization structure of and radiative transfer through the CV wind. The analysis therefore was intended to establish the wind geometry, kinematics and ionization state, both in a time-averaged sense and as a function of time.

  7. Capillary atmospheric pressure electron capture ionization (cAPECI): a highly efficient ionization method for nitroaromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Valerie; Mueller, David; Bejan, Iustinian; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Wilberscheid, Sonja; Koppmann, Ralf; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    We report on a novel method for atmospheric pressure ionization of compounds with elevated electron affinity (e.g., nitroaromatic compounds) or gas phase acidity (e.g., phenols), respectively. The method is based on the generation of thermal electrons by the photo-electric effect, followed by electron capture of oxygen when air is the gas matrix yielding O2(-) or of the analyte directly with nitrogen as matrix. Charge transfer or proton abstraction by O2(-) leads to the ionization of the analytes. The interaction of UV-light with metals is a clean method for the generation of thermal electrons at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, only negative ions are generated and neutral radical formation is minimized, in contrast to discharge- or dopant assisted methods. Ionization takes place inside the transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer leading to comparably short transfer times of ions to the high vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. This strongly reduces ion transformation processes, resulting in mass spectra that more closely relate to the neutral analyte distribution. cAPECI is thus a soft and selective ionization method with detection limits in the pptV range. In comparison to standard ionization methods (e.g., PTR), cAPECI is superior with respect to both selectivity and achievable detection limits. cAPECI demonstrates to be a promising ionization method for applications in relevant fields as, for example, explosives detection and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:24399666

  8. Ionization Driven Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks and Observational Signatures of Ionization Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleeves, Lauren Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2015-01-01

    Circumstellar disks around young stars set the stage for the formation of planetary systems. The ionization fraction of the disk fundamentally regulates turbulence, which drives accretion onto the star and plays a role in the formation of planetesimals. Ionization is also central to the chemistry of the coldest disk gas, where comets and other icy bodies are assembled. During my PhD I studied the expected levels --- including possible severe suppression --- of the primary ionizing agents in disks, including cosmic rays, X-rays and the decay of short-lived radionuclides. Within this framework, I examined how each of these sources impacts turbulence-free "dead zones," and I identified submillimeter molecular emission tracers that can be used to spatially map-out ionization in disks with ALMA. I applied these theoretical results to SMA and ALMA observations of the extensively studied TW Hya protoplanetary disk, and I measured a disk-averaged upper limit to the cosmic ray ionization rate ~100 times below the canonical rate of 10-17 s-1 per H2. These results point to extensive CR deflection by either natal winds or twisted magnetic fields from the background environment or within the disk itself. One of the important implications of this work is that cold disk chemistry is inefficient without sufficient ionization, and as a direct result, deuterated water (HDO) is not significantly produced in disks. Given the elevated levels of HDO/H2O present throughout Solar System bodies, these results point to a substantial interstellar inheritance of deuterium-enriched ices during the formation of our own planetary system.

  9. X-ray ionization and the chemistry of the Orion molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.; Kallman, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    The collection of unusually strong stellar X-ray sources in the vicinity of the Orion molecular cloud together bathe the gas with such an intensity of X-rays that they, rather than cosmic rays, dominate the ionization and heating of the gas. Estimates of the ionization rate and the elevation in temperature are presented, and the consequences for the gas chemistry are discussed. Strong small-scale inhomogeneities in molecular abundances and temperature are a distinguishing feature of ionization by stellar X-rays.

  10. IONIZED OUTFLOWS FROM COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan; Kewley, Lisa E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Massive outflows are known to exist, in the form of extended emission-line regions (EELRs), around about one-third of powerful FR II radio sources. We investigate the origin of these EELRs by studying the emission-line regions around compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies that are younger (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} yr old) versions of the FR II radio galaxies. We have searched for and analyzed the emission-line regions around 11 CSS sources by taking integral field spectra using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North. We fit the [O III] {lambda}5007 line and present the velocity maps for each detected emission-line region. We find, in most cases, that the emission-line regions have multi-component velocity structures with different velocity dispersions and/or flux distributions for each component. The velocity gradients of the emission-line gas are mostly well aligned with the radio axis, suggesting a direct causal link between the outflowing gas and the radio jets. The complex velocity structure may be a result of different driving mechanisms related to the onset of the radio jets. We also present the results from the line-ratio diagnostics we used to analyze the ionization mechanism of the extended gas, which supports the scenario where the emission-line regions are ionized by a combination of active galactic nucleus radiation and shock excitation.

  11. [Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2012-01-01

    The population has widely used mobile communication for already more than 15 years. It is important to note that the use of mobile communication has sharply changed the conditions of daily exposure of the population to EME We expose our brain daily for the first time in the entire civilization. The mobile phone is an open and uncontrollable source of electromagnetic radiation. The comparative risk estimation for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was carried out taking into account the real conditions of influence. Comparison of risks for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation leads us to a conclusion that EMF RF exposure in conditions of wide use of mobile communication is potentially more harmful than ionizing radiation influence. PMID:22690585

  12. Associative ionization reactions involving excited atoms in nitrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, N. A.

    2009-05-15

    A model of kinetic processes in gas-discharge plasmas of pure nitrogen and its mixtures with nitrogen oxide and oxygen is presented. A distinctive feature of the model is that it includes associative ionization reactions involving N({sup 2}P) electronically excited atoms. Taking into account these processes allows one to explain both the anomalously slow decay of gas-discharge nitrogen plasma and the increase in the electron density in the region of the so-called pink afterglow in nitrogen. The possibility of substantially accelerating secondary ionization by adding NO molecules to a partially dissociated nitrogen is demonstrated. It is shown that such acceleration is caused by the associative ionization reaction N({sup 2}P) + O({sup 3}P) {yields} e + NO{sup +}. The calculated results agree well with available experimental data.

  13. ADVANTAGES OF THE PULSED DISCHARGE HELIUM IONIZATION DETECTOR (PDHID) IN DETECTING SEPARATIONS OF BACTERIAL METABOLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional gas chromatographic methods for the determination of hydrogen and methane at the ppmv level require two separations with different detectors; a Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD) for hydrogen and a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) for methane. A Pulsed Discharge Helium Ionization Detecto...

  14. The Ionization History of The Intergalactic Medium:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero

    2003-01-01

    The funded project seeked a unified description of the ionization, physical structure, and evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and quasar intervening absorption systems. We proposed to conduct theoretical studies of the IGM and QSO absorbers in the context of current theories of galaxy formation, developing and using numerical and analytical techniques aimed at a detailed modeling of cosmological radiative transfer, gas dynamics, and thermal and ionization evolution. The ionization history of the IGM has important implications for the metagalactic UV background, intergalactic helium absorption 21-cm tomography, metal absorption systems, fluctuations in the microwave background, and the cosmic rate of structure and star formation. All the original objectives of our program have been achieved, and the results widely used and quoted by the community. Indeed, they remain relevant as the level and complexity of research in this area has increased substantially since our proposal was submitted, due to new discoveries on galaxy formation and evolution, a flood of high-quality data on the distant universe, new theoretical ideas and direct numerical simulations of structure formation in hierarchical clustering theories.

  15. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Mendez, Victor P. (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  16. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  17. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  18. Signal generation in gas detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, A.

    1993-11-01

    This tutorial describes the generation of electrical signals in gas detectors. Ionization of the gas by the passage of charged particles generates these signals. Starting with the Bethe-Bloch equation, the treatment is a general introduction to the production of ion-pairs in gas devices. I continue with the characterization of the ionization as an electrical signal, and calculate the signal current in a simple example. Another example demonstrates the effect of space charge on the design of a detector. The AGS Booster ionization profile monitor is a model for this calculation.

  19. Double-gated isolated vertically aligned carbon nanofiber field emission and field ionization arrays

    E-print Network

    Chen, Liang-Yu, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Electron impact ionization (ElI) is used extensively in mass spectrometry for gas-phase analytes. Due to the significant amount of fragmentation generated by ElI, the spectrum is usually very noisy. In addition, the ...

  20. NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION STUDIES OF HUMAN AND FOOD CHAIN CONTAMINATION WITH XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a mixture of isobutane, methylene chloride, and oxygen as the reagent gas has been used to explore contamination of environmental substrates with xenobiotic chemicals. The substrates in question, fish tissue, human seminal plasm...

  1. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  2. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  3. A simple way to model nebulae with distributed ionizing stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, L.; Morisset, C.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: This work is a follow-up of a recent article by Ercolano et al. that shows that, in some cases, the spatial dispersion of the ionizing stars in a given nebula may significantly affect its emission spectrum. The authors found that the dispersion of the ionizing stars is accompanied by a decrease in the ionization parameter, which at least partly explains the variations in the nebular spectrum. However, they did not research how other effects associated to the dispersion of the stars may contribute to those variations. Furthermore, they made use of a unique and simplified set of stellar populations. The scope of the present article is to assess whether the variation in the ionization parameter is the dominant effect in the dependence of the nebular spectrum on the distribution of its ionizing stars. We examined this possibility for various regimes of metallicity and age. We also investigated a way to model the distribution of the ionizing sources so as to bypass expensive calculations. Methods: We wrote a code able to generate random stellar populations and to compute the emission spectra of their associated nebulae through the widespread photoionization code cloudy. This code can process two kinds of spatial distributions of the stars: one where all the stars are concentrated at one point, and one where their separation is such that their Strömgren spheres do not overlap. Results: We found that, in most regimes of stellar population ages and gas metallicities, the dependence of the ionization parameter on the distribution of the stars is the dominant factor in the variation of the main nebular diagnostics with this distribution. We derived a method to mimic those effects with a single calculation that makes use of the common assumptions of a central source and a spherical nebula, in the case of constant density objects. This represents a computation time saving by a factor of at least several dozen in the case of H ii regions ionized by massive clusters.

  4. Femtosecond growth dynamics of an underdense ionization front measured by spectral blueshifting

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.M.; Siders, C.W.; Downer, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive report of time-resolved spectral blue shifts of 100-femtosecond laser pulses caused by ionization of atmospheric density N[sub 2] and noble gases subjected to high (10[sup 14] W/cm[sup 2] - 10[sup 16] W/cm[sup 2]) light intensities is presented. Included are data for two experiments: (1) self-shifting of the ionizing laser pulses for varying peak intensities, pressures (1-5 atm.), and gas species; and (2) time-resolved blueshifts of a weak copropagating probe pulse for the same range of ionization conditions. The self-shift data reveal a universal, reproducible pattern in the shape of the blueshifted spectra: as laser intensity, gas pressure, or atomic number increase, the self-blueshifted spectra develop from a near replica of the incident pulse spectrum into a complex structure consisting of two spectral peaks. The time-resolved data reveal different temporal dependence for each of these two features. A quantitative model for a simplified cylindrical focal geometry is presented which explains the presence of the two spectral features in terms of two distinct ionization mechanisms: collisionless tunneling ionization, which dominates early in the ionizing pulse profile, and electron impact ionization, which dominates during the intense maximum of the ionizing pulse. Transient resonant enhancements may also contribute to ionization near the peak of the pulse.

  5. Femtosecond growth dynamics of an underdense ionization front measured by spectral blueshifting

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.M.; Siders, C.W.; Downer, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    A comprehensive report of time-resolved spectral blue shifts of 100-femtosecond laser pulses caused by ionization of atmospheric density N{sub 2} and noble gases subjected to high (10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} - 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}) light intensities is presented. Included are data for two experiments: (1) self-shifting of the ionizing laser pulses for varying peak intensities, pressures (1-5 atm.), and gas species; and (2) time-resolved blueshifts of a weak copropagating probe pulse for the same range of ionization conditions. The self-shift data reveal a universal, reproducible pattern in the shape of the blueshifted spectra: as laser intensity, gas pressure, or atomic number increase, the self-blueshifted spectra develop from a near replica of the incident pulse spectrum into a complex structure consisting of two spectral peaks. The time-resolved data reveal different temporal dependence for each of these two features. A quantitative model for a simplified cylindrical focal geometry is presented which explains the presence of the two spectral features in terms of two distinct ionization mechanisms: collisionless tunneling ionization, which dominates early in the ionizing pulse profile, and electron impact ionization, which dominates during the intense maximum of the ionizing pulse. Transient resonant enhancements may also contribute to ionization near the peak of the pulse.

  6. Initial ionization stage of FRC formation

    SciTech Connect

    Commisso, R.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Cochrane, J.C.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Lipson, J.; Linford, R.K.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.

    1980-01-01

    A Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) is a prolate compact torus that is confined by poloidal fields only. Theta-pinch formation of an FRC employs an initial bias field, B/sub 1/, whose direction is opposite to that of the main theta-pinch field. Some fraction of the flux associated with this bias field eventually constitutes the closed-field-line flux of the FRC. Experimental and theoretical evidence suggest that the longest-lived FRC's are obtained when the closed flux is maximized. Because the initial ionization is done in the presence of the bias field, the actual bias flux available at the time of application of the main theta-pinch field depends strongly on the initial ionization, or preionization, technique used. In this paper we report on experiments characterizing the previously used theta-pinch preionization technique that employed a net field (bias plus preionization) null, or zero-crossing, of the axial component of the magnetic field to break down the gas. We also discuss results of experiments designed to develop preionization techniques in which the gas breakdown is not accomplished by a zero-crossing.

  7. Ionization layer at the edge of a fully ionized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilov, M. S.; Naidis, G. V.

    1998-02-01

    A model is developed of the ionization layer which separates a thermal plasma close to full ionization from the space-charge sheath adjacent to the surface of an electrode or of an insulating wall. The multifluid description of the plasma is used. Asymptotic solutions are obtained for the cases in which the thickness of the ionization layer is much larger or much smaller than the mean free path for ion-atom collisions. The solution obtained for the latter case describes an interesting new regime which is in some aspects similar to the conventional diffusion regime, though essentially different from the diffusion regime in other aspects. Formulas are derived for the ion flux coming from the ionization layer to the edge of the space-charge sheath. Application of results to atmospheric-pressure argon and mercury plasmas is considered.

  8. Ionization Mechanism of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, I.-Chung; Lee, Chuping; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2015-07-01

    In past studies, mistakes in determining the ionization mechanism in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) were made because an inappropriate ion-to-neutral ratio was used. The ion-to-neutral ratio of the analyte differs substantially from that of the matrix in MALDI. However, these ratios were not carefully distinguished in previous studies. We begin by describing the properties of ion-to-neutral ratios and reviews early experimental measurements. A discussion of the errors committed in previous theoretical studies and a comparison of recent experimental measurements follow. We then describe a thermal proton transfer model and demonstrate how the model appropriately describes ion-to-neutral ratios and the total ion intensity. Arguments raised to challenge thermal ionization are then discussed. We demonstrate how none of the arguments are valid before concluding that thermal proton transfer must play a crucial role in the ionization process of MALDI.

  9. Iron ionization and recombination rates and ionization equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, M.; Raymond, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years important progress has been made on the knowledge of ionization and recombination rates of iron, an astrophysically abundant heavy element and a major impurity in laboratory fusion devices. We make a critical review of the existing data on ionization and dielectronic recombination and present new computations of radiative recombination rate coefficients of Fe(+14) through Fe(+25) using the photoionization cross sections of Clark et al. (1986). We provide analytical fits to the recommended data (direct ionization and excitation-autoionization cross sections; radiative and dielectronic recombination rate coefficients). Finally we determine the iron ionic fractions at ionization equilibrium and compare them with previous computations as well as with observational data.

  10. Galaxies as Fluctuations in the Ionizing Background Radiation at Low Redshift

    E-print Network

    Suzanne M. Linder; Roland Gunesch; Jonathan I. Davies; Maarten Baes; Rhodri Evans; Sarah Roberts; Sabina Sabatini; Rodney Smith

    2003-03-02

    Some Lyman continuum photons are likely to escape from most galaxies, and these can play an important role in ionizing gas around and between galaxies, including gas that gives rise to Lyman alpha absorption. Thus the gas surrounding galaxies and in the intergalactic medium will be exposed to varying amounts of ionizing radiation depending upon the distances, orientations, and luminosities of any nearby galaxies. The ionizing background can be recalculated at any point within a simulation by adding the flux from the galaxies to a uniform quasar contribution. Normal galaxies are found to almost always make some contribution to the ionizing background radiation at redshift zero, as seen by absorbers and at random points in space. Assuming that about 2 percent of ionizing photons escape from a galaxy like the Milky Way, we find that normal galaxies make a contribution of at least 30 to 40 percent of the assumed quasar background. Lyman alpha absorbers with a wide range of neutral column densities are found to be exposed to a wide range of ionization rates, although the distribution of photoionization rates for absorbers is found to be strongly peaked. On average, less highly ionized absorbers are found to arise farther from luminous galaxies, while local fluctuations in the ionization rate are seen around galaxies having a wide range of properties.

  11. KINEMATICS IN PARTIALLY IONIZED MOLECULAR CLOUDS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TRANSITION TO COHERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Nicole D.; Caselli, Paola; Basu, Shantanu E-mail: caselli@mpe.mpg.de

    2015-01-10

    A previous paper by Bailey and Basu shows analysis of density and mass-to-flux ratio maps for simulations with either an ionization profile which takes into account photoionization (step-like profile) or a cosmic ray only ionization profile. We extend this study to analyze the effect of these ionization profiles on velocity structures, kinematics, and synthetic spectra. Clump regions are found to occur at the convergence of two flows with a low velocity region and velocity direction transition occurring at the junction. Models with evident substructure show that core formation occurs on the periphery of these velocity valleys. Analysis of synthetic spectra reveals the presence of large non-thermal components within low-density gas, especially for models with the step-like ionization profile. All cores show small, sub-thermal relative motions compared to background gas. Large deviations within this analysis are due to the line of sight intersecting low- and high-density regions across the velocity switch transition. Positive deviations correspond to a foreground core moving away from the observer while negative deviations correspond to a background core moving toward the observer. Comparison of velocities resulting from different ionization profiles suggest that high ionization fractions yield supersonic velocities, up to two times the sound speed, while regions with low ionization fractions tend to be subsonic or mildly supersonic. This suggests that the transition to coherence within cores could be a transition between high and low ionization fractions within the gas.

  12. Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Luckey, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism.

  13. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  14. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  15. Microwave reflectometer ionization sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seals, Joseph; Fordham, Jeffrey A.; Pauley, Robert G.; Simonutti, Mario D.

    1993-01-01

    The development of the Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) Instrument for use on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) spacecraft is described. The instrument contract was terminated, due to cancellation of the AFE program, subsequent to testing of an engineering development model. The MRIS, a four-frequency reflectometer, was designed for the detection and location of critical electron density levels in spacecraft reentry plasmas. The instrument would sample the relative magnitude and phase of reflected signals at discrete frequency steps across 4 GHz bandwidths centered at four frequencies: 20, 44, 95, and 140 GHz. The sampled data would be stored for later processing to calculate the distance from the spacecraft surface to the critical electron densities versus time. Four stepped PM CW transmitter receivers were located behind the thermal protection system of the spacecraft with horn antennas radiating and receiving through an insulating tile. Techniques were developed to deal with interference, including multiple reflections and resonance effects, resulting from the antenna configuration and operating environment.

  16. Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas

    E-print Network

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2013-01-01

    Employing the weak interaction reaction wherein a heavy electron is captured by a proton to produce a neutron and a neutrino, the neutron production rate for neutral hydrogen gases and for fully ionized plasmas is computed. Using the Coulomb atomic bound state wave functions of a neutral hydrogen gas, our production rate results are in agreement with recent estimates by Maiani {\\it et al}. Using Coulomb scattering state wave functions for the fully ionized plasma, we find a substantially enhanced neutron production rate. The scattering wave function should replace the bound state wave function for estimates of the enhanced neutron production rate on water plasma drenched cathodes of chemical cells.

  17. Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases.

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, N; Zhang, X-C

    2009-03-01

    We study tunnel ionized electron wave packet dynamics during the initial transition from a gas to a plasma by detecting the terahertz radiation emitted in the process. Experimental and theoretical results show that much of the observed radiation is due to coherent buildup of bremsstrahlung released during the first electron-atom collision. Coherent control of the tunnel ionization process combined with ab initio modeling provides a real-time view of the initial stages of the formation of a laser-induced plasma and allows us to fully understand this important source of terahertz radiation. PMID:19392516

  18. Coherent Terahertz Echo of Tunnel Ionization in Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Karpowicz, N.; Zhang, X.-C.

    2009-03-06

    We study tunnel ionized electron wave packet dynamics during the initial transition from a gas to a plasma by detecting the terahertz radiation emitted in the process. Experimental and theoretical results show that much of the observed radiation is due to coherent buildup of bremsstrahlung released during the first electron-atom collision. Coherent control of the tunnel ionization process combined with ab initio modeling provides a real-time view of the initial stages of the formation of a laser-induced plasma and allows us to fully understand this important source of terahertz radiation.

  19. Evidence of Branching Phenomena in Current-Driven Ionization Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebner, Keith T. K.; Underwood, Thomas C.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-10-01

    This Letter reports the first fully consistent experimental observations of current-driven ionization waves conforming to the magnetohydrodynamic Rankine-Hugoniot model for hydromagnetic shocks. Detailed measurements of the thermodynamic and electrodynamic plasma state variables across the ionization region confirm the existence of two types of waves, corresponding to the upper and lower solution branches of the Hugoniot curve. These waves are generated by pulsed currents in a coaxial gas-fed plasma accelerator. The coupling between the state variables of this complex, transient, three-dimensional system shows a remarkable quantitative agreement of less than 8% deviation from the quasisteady, one-dimensional theoretical model.

  20. Quantum statistical mechanics of dense partially ionized hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, H. E.; Rogers, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of dense hydrogen plasmas beginning with the two component quantum grand partition function is reviewed. It is shown that ionization equilibrium and molecular dissociation equilibrium can be treated in the same manner with proper consideration of all two-body states. A quantum perturbation expansion is used to give an accurate calculation of the equation of state of the gas for any degree of dissociation and ionization. The statistical mechanical calculation of the plasma equation of state is intended for stellar interiors. The general approach is extended to the calculation of the equation of state of the outer layers of large planets.

  1. Ionization satellites of the ArHe dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Miteva, Tsveta; Klaiman, Shachar; Gokhberg, Kirill; Gromov, Evgeniy V.

    2014-05-28

    Ionization satellites are key ingredients in the control of post ionization processes such as molecular dissociation and interatomic Coulombic decay. Here, using the high-level ab initio method of multi-reference configuration interaction up to triple excitations, we study the potential energy curves (PECs) of the ionization satellites of the ArHe dimer. With this model system, we demonstrate that the simple model used in alkaline earth metal and rare gas complexes to describe the satellites as a Rydberg electron moving on top of a dicationic core does not fully hold for the rare gas clusters. The more complex valence structure in the rare gas atom leads to the mixing of different electronic configurations of the dimer. This prevents one from assigning a single dicationic parent state to some of the ionization satellites. We further analyze the structure of the different PECs, demonstrating how the density of the Rydberg electron is reflected in the structure of the PEC wherever the simple model is applicable.

  2. Measuring Air-Ionizer Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonborg, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    Test apparatus checks ion content of airstream from commercial air ionizer. Apparatus ensures ion output is sufficient to neutralize static charges in electronic assembly areas and concentrations of positive and negative ions are balanced.

  3. Salts Are Mostly NOT Ionized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the misconception that salts are completely ionizing in solution, the presence of this error in textbooks, probable origins of the error, covalent bonding and ion pairs, and how to tell students the truth. (MKR)

  4. Double ionization of atomic cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Linusson, P.; Fritzsche, S.; Eland, J. H. D.; Hedin, L.; Karlsson, L.; Feifel, R.

    2011-02-15

    We have recorded the double photoionization spectrum of atomic Cd at four different photon energies in the range 40-200 eV. The main channel is single ionization and subsequent decay of excited Cd{sup +} states, some involving Coster-Kronig processes, whereas direct double ionization is found to be weak. The decay of the excited Cd{sup +} states shows a strong selectivity, related to the configuration of the final state. Double ionization leading to the Cd{sup 2+} ground state is investigated in some detail and is found to proceed mainly through ionization and decay of 4d correlation satellites. The most prominent autoionization peaks have been identified with the aid of quantum-mechanical calculations.

  5. Strong Ionization in carbon Nanowires

    E-print Network

    Kaymak, Vural; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N; Rocca, Jorge J

    2015-01-01

    Surfaces covered with nanostructures, such as nanowire arrays, have shown to facilitate a significantly higher absorption of laser energy as compared to flat surfaces. Due to the efficient coupling of the laser energy, highly energetic electrons are produced, which in turn can emit intense ultrafast X-ray pulses. In the present work we use full three dimensional PIC simulations to analyze the behavior of arrays of carbon nanowires $400 nm$ in diameter, irradiated by a $\\lambda_0 = 400 nm$ laser pulse of $60 fs$ duration at FWHM and a vector potential of $a_0 = 18$. We analyze the ionization dynamics of the nanowires. We investigate the difference of the ionization strength and structure between linearly and circularly polarized laser beam. The nanowires are found to be fully ionized after about 30 laser cycles. Circularly polarized light reveals a slightly stronger ionization effect.

  6. COSMIC RAY HEATING OF THE WARM IONIZED MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, Joshua; Peng Oh, S.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2013-04-10

    Observations of line ratios in the Milky Way's warm ionized medium suggest that photoionization is not the only heating mechanism present. For the additional heating to explain the discrepancy, it would have to have a weaker dependence on the gas density than the cooling rate, {Lambda}n{sub e}{sup 2}. Reynolds et al. suggested turbulent dissipation or magnetic field reconnection as possible heating sources. We investigate here the viability of MHD-wave mediated cosmic ray heating as a supplemental heating source. This heating rate depends on the gas density only through its linear dependence on the Alfven speed, which goes as n{sub e}{sup -1/2}. We show that, scaled to appropriate values of cosmic ray energy density, cosmic ray heating can be significant. Furthermore, this heating is stable to perturbations. These results should also apply to warm ionized gas in other galaxies.

  7. THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION Lesley Hines lhines@ehs.ufl.edu Environmental Health Radiation Damage Occur? #12;Ionization · Ionizing Radiation can remove tightly bound electrons from is the primary target for biological damage! #12;Radiation Damage Mechanisms 1. Direct Action: Direct ionization

  8. Ionization mechanisms of the intercloud medium. [in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.

    1974-01-01

    A generalized treatment of the ionization equilibrium of the intercloud medium is developed, which is model-independent in the steady-state approximation, and which is suited to an interpretation of ultraviolet absorption data. It is found that the most satisfactory models require the presence of density inhomogeneities along the line of sight. In all models considered for lambda Sco, 2-MeV cosmic rays and X rays are found to lead to large disagreements with the observations, and data on upsilon Sco, alpha Leo, and other stars seem to support this conclusion. Therefore, it would seem that these cannot be the physical agents responsible for the bulk of the ionization of the gas. An alternative model is developed, in which the ionization below 24.58 eV is provided by ultraviolet photons. This model appears to satisfy theoretical requirements, and leads to good agreement with the data.

  9. Equation of state of partially ionized argon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q. F.; Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Cai, L. C.

    2011-11-15

    The ionization degree, Hugoniots, and equation of state of partially ionized argon plasma were calculated by using self-consistent fluid variational theory for temperature of 6-50 kK and density of 0.05-4.0 g/cm{sup 3}. The corrections of lowering of ionization energy of fluid argon caused by the interactions among all particles of Ar, Ar{sup +}, Ar{sup 2+}, and e have been taken into consideration in terms of the correlation contributions to the chemical potential which is determined self-consistently by the free energy function. The initial density effects of gas argon under shock compression have been discussed. Comparison is performed with available shock-wave experiments and other theoretical calculations.

  10. Low-Pressure, Field-Ionizing Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A small mass spectrometer utilizing a miniature field ionization source is now undergoing development. It is designed for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements for a lightweight, low-power-consumption instrument that can analyze the masses of a wide variety of molecules and ions. The device can operate without need for a high-vacuum, carrier-gas feed radioactive ionizing source, or thermal ionizer. This mass spectrometer can operate either in the natural vacuum of outer space or on Earth at any ambient pressure below 50 torr (below about 6.7 kPa) - a partial vacuum that can easily be reached by use of a small sampling pump. This mass spectrometer also has a large dynamic range - from singly charged small gas ions to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments larger than 104 atomic mass units - with sensitivity adequate for detecting some molecules and ions at relative abundances of less than one part per billion. This instrument (see figure) includes a field ionizer integrated with a rotating-field mass spectrometer (RFMS). The field ionizer effects ionization of a type characterized as "soft" in the art because it does not fragment molecules or initiate avalanche arcing. What makes the "soft" ionization mode possible is that the distance between the ionizing electrodes is less than mean free path for ions at the maximum anticipated operating pressure, so that the ionizer always operates on the non-breakdown side of the applicable Paschen curve (a standard plot of breakdown potential on the ordinate and pressure electrode separation on the abscissa). The field ionizer in this instrument is fabricated by micromachining a submicron-thick membrane out of an electrically nonconductive substrate, coating the membrane on both sides to form electrodes, then micromachining small holes through the electrodes and membrane. Because of the submicron electrode separation, even a potential of only 1 V applied between the electrodes gives rise to an electric field with a strength of in excess of a megavolt per meter strong enough to ionize any gas molecules passing through the holes. An accelerator grid and an electrostatic deflector focus the ions from the field ionizer into the rotating-field cell of the RFMS. The potentials applied to the electrodes of the cell to generate the rotating electric field typically range from 1 to 13 V. The ions travel in well-defined helices within this cell, after which they are collected in a Faraday cup. The mass of most of the molecules reaching the Faraday cup decreases with increasing frequency of rotation of the electric field in the cell. Therefore, the frequency of rotation of the electric field is made to vary in order to scan through a desired range of ion masses: For example, lightweight gas molecules are scanned at frequencies in the megahertz range, while DNA and other large organic molecules are scanned at kilohertz frequencies.

  11. Massive Stars and the Ionization of the Diffuse Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahre, Lauren E.; Walterbos, Rene A. M.

    2015-08-01

    Diffuse ionized Gas (DIG, sometimes called the warm ionized medium or WIM) has been recognized as a major component of the interstellar medium (ISM) in disk galaxies. A general understanding of the characteristics of the DIG is emerging, but several questions remain unanswered. One of these is the ionization mechanism for this gas, believed to be connected to OB stars and HII regions. Using 5-band (NUV (2750 A), U, V, B, and I) photometric imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Legacy Extragalactic Ultraviolet Survey (LEGUS) and ground-based Halpha data from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey and HST Halpha data from LEGUS, we will investigate the photoionization of HII regions and DIG in nearly 50 galaxies. The 5-band photometry will enable us to determine properties of the most massive stars and reddening corrections for specific regions within a galaxy. Luminosities and ages for groups and clusters will be obtained from SED-fitting of photometric data. For individual stars ages will be determined from isochrone-fitting using reddening-corrected color-magnitude diagrams. We can then obtain estimates of the ionizing luminosities by matching these photometric properties for massive stars and clusters to various stellar atmosphere models. We will compare these predictions to the inferred Lyman continuum production rates from reddening-corrected ground- and HST-based Halpha data for HII regions and DIG. This particular presentation will demonstrate the above process for a set of selected regions in galaxies within the LEGUS sample. It will subsequently be expanded to cover the full LEGUS sample, with the overall goals of obtaining a better understanding of the radiative energy feedback from massive stars on the ISM, particularly their ability to ionize the surrounding ISM over a wide range of spatial scales and SFR surface densities, and to connect the ionization of the ISM to HII region morphologies.

  12. MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Marc E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es

    2013-11-01

    Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma ?, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.

  13. Rapid ionization of the environment of SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raga, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    It has been suggested by some authors that IUE observations of the supernova SN 1987A show the presence of a strong component of the interstellar C IV 1550 and Si IV 1393 absorption lines at a velocity that approximately corresponds to the velocity of the LMC. It is possible that this component might come from originally neutral (or at least not very highly ionized) gas which has been photoionized by the initially very strong ionizing radiation field of the supernova. Theoretical considerations of this scenario lead to the study of fast (with velocities of about c) ionization fronts. It is shown that for reasonable model parameters it is possible to obtain considerably large C IV column densities, in agreement with the IUE observations. On the other hand, the models do not so easily predict the large Si IV column densities that are also obtained from the IUE observations. It is found that only models in which the interstellar medium surrounding SN 1987A is initially composed of already ionized hydrogen and helium predict substantial Si IV column densities. This result provides an interesting prediction of the ionization state of the environment of the presupernova star.

  14. A Prototype Ionization Profile Monitor for RHIC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W.; Shea, T.; Sikora, R.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPMs). Each IPM will measure the integrated distribution of electrons in one plane resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The high space-charge electric field of the beam makes it necessary to image with electrons which are guided by a magnetic field. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. It consists of a collector circuit board mounted on one side of the beam and a parallel electrode on the other to provide an electric sweep field. The collector board has 48 electrodes oriented parallel to the beam with a chevron microchannel plate amplifier mounted in front of the collection traces. The detector vacuum chamber is placed in the gap of a magnet. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are integrated, amplified, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. This paper describes the prototype detector and gives results from the beam tests.

  15. Ionized nebulae surrounding brightest cluster galaxies

    E-print Network

    N. A. Hatch; C. S. Crawford; A. C. Fabian

    2007-06-05

    We present IFU observations of six emission-line nebulae that surround the central galaxy of cool core clusters. Qualitatively similar nebulae are observed in cool core clusters even when the dynamics and possibly formation and excitation source are different. Evidence for a nearby secondary galaxy disturbing a nebula, as well as AGN and starburst driven outflows are presented as possible formation mechanisms. One nebula has a rotation velocity of the same amplitude as the underlying molecular reservoir, which implies that the excitation or formation of a nebula does not require any disturbance of the molecular reservoir within the central galaxy. Bulk flows and velocity shears of a few hundred km/s are seen across all nebulae. The majority lack any ordered rotation, their configurations are not stable so the nebulae must be constantly reshaping, dispersing and reforming. The dimmer nebulae are co-spatial with dust features whilst the more luminous are not. Significant variation in the ionization state of the gas is seen in all nebulae through the non-uniform [NII]/H_alpha ratio. There is no correlation between the line ratio and H_alpha surface brightness, but regions with excess blue or UV light have lower line ratios. This implies that UV from massive, young stars act in combination with an underlying heating source that produces the observed low-ionization spectra.

  16. Dynamic Reactive Ionization with Cluster Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hua; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Gas cluster ion beams (GCIB) have been tuned to enhance secondary ion yields by doping small gas molecules such as CH4, CO2, and O2 into an Ar cluster projectile, Arn + (n = 1000-10,000) to form a mixed cluster. The `tailored beam' has the potential to expand the application of secondary ion mass spectrometry for two- and three-dimensional molecular specific imaging. Here, we examine the possibility of further enhancing the ionization by doping HCl into the Ar cluster. Water deposited on the target surface facilitates the dissociation of HCl. This concerted effect, occurring only at the impact site of the cluster, arises since the HCl is chemically induced to ionize to H+ and Cl- , allowing improved protonation of neutral molecular species. This hypothesis is confirmed by depth profiling through a trehalose thin film exposed to D2O vapor, resulting in ~20-fold increase in protonated molecules. The results show that it is possible to dynamically maintain optimum ionization conditions during depth profiling by proper adjustment of the water vapor pressure. H-D exchange in the trehalose molecule M was monitored upon deposition of D2O on the target surface, leading to the observation of [Mn* + H]+ or [Mn* + D]+ ions, where n = 1-8 hydrogen atoms in the trehalose molecule M have been replaced by deuterium. In general, we discuss the role of surface chemistry and dynamic reactive ionization of organic molecules in increasing the secondary ion yield.

  17. Choosing between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and electrospray ionization interfaces for the HPLC/MS analysis of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Ferrer, I.; Barcelo, D.

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of over 75 pesticides by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) clearly shows that different classes of pesticides are more sensitive using either atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electrospray ionization (ESI). For example, neutral and basic pesticides (phenylureas, triazines) are more sensitive using APCI (especially positive ion). While cationic and anionic herbicides (bipyridylium ions, sulfonic acids) are more sensitive using ESI (especially negative ion). These data are expressed graphically in a figure called an ionization-continuum diagram, which shows that protonation in the gas phase (proton affinity) and polarity in solution, expressed as proton addition or subtraction (pKa), is useful in selecting APCI or ESI. Furthermore, sodium adduct formation commonly occurs using positive ion ESI but not using positive ion APCI, which reflects the different mechanisms of ionization and strengthens the usefulness of the ionization-continuum diagram. The data also show that the concept of "wrong-way around" ESI (the sensitivity of acidic pesticides in an acidic mobile phase) is a useful modification of simple pKa theory for mobile-phase selection. Finally, this finding is used to enhance the chromatographic separation of oxanilic and sulfonic acid herbicides while maintaining good sensitivity in LC/MS using ESI negative.

  18. Miniature Flow-Through Low-Temperature Plasma Ionization Source for Ambient Ionization of Gases and Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sandra E; Santiago, Brandon G; Glish, Gary L

    2015-12-01

    The design and operation of an inexpensive, miniature low-temperature plasma ion source is detailed. The miniature low-temperature plasma ion source is operated in a "flow-through" configuration, wherein the gaseous or aerosolized analyte, caffeine or pyrolyzed ethyl cellulose, in a carrier gas is used as the plasma gas. In this flow-through configuration, the sensitivity for the caffeine standard and the pyrolysis products of ethyl cellulose is maintained or increased and the reproducibility of the ion source is increased. Changes in the relative intensity of ions from the aerosol produced by pyrolysis of ethyl cellulose are observed in the mass spectrum when the low-temperature plasma ion source is used in the flow-through configuration. Experiments suggest this change in relative intensity is likely due to differences in ionization efficiency rather than increased fragmentation of ethyl cellulose pyrolysis products during ionization. Flow-through low-temperature plasma ionization with the miniature ion source is shown to be a promising technique for the ionization of compounds in gases or aerosol particles. PMID:26531160

  19. Characteristics of low-temperature plasma ionization for ambient mass spectrometry compared to electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Albert, Anastasia; Engelhard, Carsten

    2012-12-18

    Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS) is an attractive method for direct analysis with applications in homeland security, forensics, and human health. For example, low-temperature plasma probe (LTP) ionization was successfully used to detect, e.g., explosives, drugs, and pesticides directly on the target. Despite the fact that the field is gaining significant attention, few attempts have been made to classify ambient ionization techniques based on their ionization characteristics and performance compared to conventional ionization sources used in mass spectrometry. In the present study, relative ionization efficiencies (RIEs) for a large group of compound families were determined with LTP-Orbitrap-MS and compared to those obtained with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). RIEs were normalized against one reference compound used across all methods to ensure comparability of the results. Typically, LTP analyte ionization through protonation/deprotonation (e.g., 4-acetamidophenol) was observed; in some cases (e.g., acenaphthene) radicals were formed. Amines, amides, and aldehydes were ionized successfully with LTP. A benefit of LTP over conventional methods is the possibility to successfully ionize PAHs and imides. Here, the studied model compounds could be detected by neither APCI nor ESI. LTP is a relatively soft ionization method because little fragmentation of model compounds was observed. It is considered to be an attractive method for the ionization of low molecular weight compounds over a relatively wide polarity range. PMID:23134531

  20. Numerical Simulation of the Critical Ionization Velocity Mechanism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasca, Rodger J.

    1992-01-01

    The 'critical ionization velocity' (CIV) of a neutral gas is related to a form of anomalous ionization first proposed by Alfven. Although the CIV phenomenon has been verified in laboratory experiments, space-based experiments have provided only inconclusive or negative results as to the existence of CIV in the space environment. If the existence of CIV can be confirmed in space plasmas, there may be wide applications of the theory to astrophysical models such as cometary coma formation and Io's plasma torus, as well as engineering implications regarding space shuttle glow, MPD thruster operation, and thruster firings from spacecraft. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the mechanism of CIV, develop an estimate for the rate of CIV, and apply these rate estimates to explain the discrepancy between laboratory and space experiments. Many of the results are achieved through particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Unlike previous PIC simulations of CIV, the current work employs an implicit PIC code to allow the use of realistic mass ratios and collisional cross sections in the simulation. The inclusion of realistic mass ratios and collisional cross sections results in realistic estimates of the characteristic times required for CIV to develop. The results of the simulations and analyses indicate that CIV operates through the initiation of an ion beam through some form of seed ionization. This ion beam is unstable to the modified two-stream instability (M2SI). The M2SI efficiently transfers energy from the beam ions to electrons. The electrons heat to energies above the ionization energy of the neutral gas. Electron impact ionization of the neutral gas then reinforces the ion beam and leads to a positive feedback loop resulting in an anomalous form of ionization occurring on a time scale much faster than classical ionization processes. The results are used to recommend an improved experimental design for space experiments, as well as to investigate the possibility of CIV during an arcjet thruster firing. If CIV occurs during an arcjet thruster firing, the plasma density near the vehicle may be greatly enhanced. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.) (Abstract shortened with permission of school.).

  1. Numerical Analysis on Non-Equilibrium Mechanism of Laser-Supported Detonation Wave Using Multiply-Charged Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki

    2006-05-02

    Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), one type of Laser-Supported Plasma (LSP), is considered as the most important phenomena because it can generate high pressure and high temperature for laser absorption. In this study, I have numerically simulated the 1-D LSD waves propagating through a helium gas, in which Multiply-charged ionization model is considered for describing an accurate ionization process.

  2. Peas in a Pod: Environment and Ionization in Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Heather; Jaskot, Anne; Drew, Patrick; Pare, Dylan; Griffin, Jon; Petersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Green Peas are extreme, highly ionized, starburst galaxies with strong [OIII] 5007 emission. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present statistics on the environment of Green Peas and investigate its effects on their ionized gas properties. Although most dwarf starburst galaxies are in low-density environments, we identify a sample of Green Peas in dense environments. Emission line observations with the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak reveal that one cluster Green Pea is more highly ionized in the direction of the cluster center. Ram pressure stripping likely generates this ionization gradient. We explore the role of the environment in enhancing star formation rates and ionization, and we compare the nebular properties of Green Peas in high-density environments to those in low-density environments.

  3. Chemi-ionization Processes. Alkali-metal Geocosmical Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Klyucharev, Andrey N.; Bezuglov, Nikolay N.; Matveev, Andrey A.; Mihajlov, Anatolij A.; Ignjatovic, Ljubinko M.; Dimitrijevic, Milan S.

    2007-09-28

    Chemi-ionization processes, leading to formation of molecular ions, can play an essential role in the sequence of ion-molecular reactions on surfaces of solid particles or in associative processes of the binary collisions leading to surprising variety of molecular formations in interstellar gas and geocosmical plasmas. The presented results may be recommended for the interpretation of experimental data and for theoretical research of geocosmical plasmas, first of all the the volcanic gases on Io.

  4. Bistability in Interstellar Gas-Phase Chemistry

    E-print Network

    Gai I. Boger; Amiel Sternberg

    2006-01-16

    We present an analysis of "bistability" in gas-phase chemical models of dark interstellar clouds. We identify the chemical mechanisms that allow high- and low-ionization solutions to the chemical rate-equations to coexist. We derive simple analytic scaling relations for the gas densities and ionization rates for which the chemistry becomes bistable. We explain why bistability is sensitive to the H3+ dissociative recombination rate coefficient, and why it is damped by gas-grain neutralization.

  5. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-02-20

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

  6. CEILCOTE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a Ceilcote ionizing wet scrubber installed on a refractory brick kiln. Tests involved particulate mass emission, particle size distribution, and opacity. Overall efficiency was 93% with an average outlet opacity determined with a heate...

  7. Trends in resonance ionization spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the history of resonance ionization spectroscopy and then comments on the delineations of RIS with reference to many related laser processes. The substance of the paper deals with the trends in RIS and especially how the needs for sensitive analytical methods have overshadowed the orginal plan to study excited species. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Ionization Potentials for Isoelectronic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agmon, Noam

    1988-01-01

    Presents a quantitative treatment of ionization potentials of isoelectronic atoms. By looking at the single-electron view of calculating the total energy of an atom, trends in the screening and effective quantum number parameters are examined. Approaches the question of determining electron affinities. (CW)

  9. THE FRACTIONAL IONIZATION OF THE WARM NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Edward B.

    2013-02-10

    When the neutral interstellar medium is exposed to extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation, the argon atoms in it are far more susceptible to being ionized than the hydrogen atoms. We make use of this fact to determine the level of ionization in the nearby warm neutral medium. By analyzing Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer observations of ultraviolet spectra of 44 hot subdwarf stars a few hundred parsecs away from the Sun, we can compare column densities of Ar I to those of O I, where the relative ionization of oxygen can be used as a proxy for that of hydrogen. The measured deficiency [Ar I/O I]=-0.427{+-}0.11 dex below the expectation for a fully neutral medium implies that the electron density n(e) Almost-Equal-To 0.04 cm{sup -3} if n(H) = 0.5 cm{sup -3}. This amount of ionization is considerably larger than what we expect from primary photoionizations resulting from cosmic rays, the diffuse X-ray background, and X-ray emitting sources within the medium, along with the additional ionizations caused by energetic secondary photoelectrons, Auger electrons, and photons from helium recombinations. We favor an explanation that bursts of radiation created by previous, nearby supernova remnants that have faded by now may have elevated the ionization, and the gas has not yet recombined to a quiescent level. A different alternative is that the low-energy portion of the soft X-ray background is poorly shielded by the H I because it is frothy and has internal pockets of very hot, X-ray emitting gases.

  10. University of Toronto IONIZING RADIATION SAFETY

    E-print Network

    Chan, Hue Sun

    of Contents Page EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SPILL...... 2 INTRODUCTIONUniversity of Toronto IONIZING RADIATION SAFETY PROCEDURES AND POLICIES MANUAL Radiation Protection Service Office of Environmental Health and Safety Revision: December 2014 #12;U of T Ionizing Radiation

  11. Design and Prototyping of an Ionization Profile Monitor for the SNS Accumulator Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bartkoski, Dirk A; Deibele, Craig E; Polsky, Yarom

    2014-12-01

    An ionization profile monitor (IPM) has been designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. Utilizing ionized electrons produced by beam-gas ionization, the SNS IPM uses a 120 kV bias potential to overcome beam space charge and accelerate electrons towards a movable particle detector. A 300 G magnetic field is used to confine the transverse electron motion, resulting in profile errors at the estimated 7% level. With a system bandwidth of 17.5 MHz. The SNS IPM is capable of measuring turn-by-turn beam profiles for a fully accumulated beam. This paper presents a description of the system and design.

  12. Approximate analytic solutions for the ionization structure of a pressure equilibrium Strömgren sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinoco Arenas, A.; González Bolívar, M.; Medina Covarrubias, R.; Raga, A. C.

    2015-10-01

    We present analytic models for a photoionized region in pressure equilibrium with the surrounding, neutral material. The models are based on the assumption of a linear relation between the H ionization fraction and the square of the sound speed of the gas. We show that under these assumptions the "grey" radiative transfer equation has analytic solutions that provide the ionization structure and the density of the nebula as a function of radius.

  13. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor...Environmental Controls § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related...involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor...Environmental Controls § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related...involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor...Environmental Controls § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related...involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor...Environmental Controls § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related...involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.53 - Ionizing radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ionizing radiation. 1926.53 Section 1926.53 Labor...Environmental Controls § 1926.53 Ionizing radiation. (a) In construction and related...involving the use of sources of ionizing radiation, the pertinent provisions of the...

  18. Nonideal ionization in plasmas with higher charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, W.; Lehmann, H.

    The effect of multiple ionization in dense plasmas is studied. By including the Coulomb interactios into the chemical potentials generalized Saha equations are derived. The existence of the following feedback loop is verified: (1) multiply charged ions strongly enhance the nonideality; (2) nonideality enhances multiple ionization. Based on the pair distribution function at small distances simple expressions for the ionization recombination coefficients are derived.

  19. Ionization and heating by X-rays and cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    High-energy radiation from the central T Tauri and protostars plays an important role in shaping protoplanetary disks and influences their evolution. Such radiation, in particular X-rays and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, is predominantly generated in unstable stellar magnetic fields (e.g., the stellar corona), but also in accretion hot spots. Even jets may produce X-ray emission. Cosmic rays, i.e., high-energy particles either from the interstellar space or from the star itself, are of crucial importance. Both highenergy photons and particles ionize disk gas and lead to heating. Ionization and heating subsequently drive chemical networks, and the products of these processes are accessible through observations of molecular line emission. Furthermore, ionization supports the magnetorotational instability and therefore drives disk accretion, while heating of the disk surface layers induces photoevaporative flows. Both processes are crucial for the dispersal of protoplanetary disks and therefore critical for the time scales of planet formation. This chapter introduces the basic physics of ionization and heating starting from a quantum mechanical viewpoint, then discusses relevant processes in astrophysical gases and their applications to protoplanetary disks, and finally summarizes some properties of the most important high-energy sources for protoplanetary disks. 14th Lecture from Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  20. First observation of transfer ionization between Ar+ and Br-, I-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Johnsen, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    We have studied reactions between noble gas positive ions and atomic halogen negative ions at thermal energies to determine mutual neutralization rate coefficients. In the cases of Ar+ + Br- and Ar+ + I-, we have observed not only mutual neutralization, but also transfer ionization, e.g., yielding Ar + Br+ + e- and Ar + I+ + e-, respectively. The reactions are exothermic at thermal energies, by 0.58 and 2.25 eV, and rate coefficients of 1.9(+/- 0.6) × 10-9 and 1.1(+0.8,-0.3) × 10-9 cm3/s, respectively, were measured at 300 K. Transfer ionization accounts for about 40% of the loss of Ar+ in reaction with Br- and 6% in the I- case, with the remainder being due to mutual neutralization. Measurements at 400 and 500 K indicate a temperature dependence between T- 0 . 5 and T-1. In contrast to the Br- and I- cases, the transfer ionization reaction between Ar+ and Cl- is endothermic by 0.82 eV, and only the neutralization channel is observed. We surmise that an initial electron transfer takes place in the reaction at an avoided curve crossing. That process may result in excited Ar* (perhaps in a 4s state) with enough energy to ionize Br or I. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, AFOSR 2303EP.

  1. Ionizing Radiation in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    E-print Network

    O. Kessel-Deynet; A. Burkert

    2000-02-11

    A new method for the inclusion of ionizing radiation from uniform radiation fields into 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPHI) simulations is presented. We calculate the optical depth for the Lyman continuum radiation from the source towards the SPHI particles by ray-tracing integration. The time-dependent ionization rate equation is then solved locally for the particles within the ionizing radiation field. Using test calculations, we explore the numerical behaviour of the code with respect to the implementation of the time-dependent ionization rate equation. We also test the coupling of the heating caused by the ionization to the hydrodynamical part of the SPHI code.

  2. Microwave remote sensing of ionized air.

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Heifetz, A.; Elmer, T.; Fiflis, P.; Koehl, E. R.; Chien, H. T.; Raptis, A. C.

    2011-07-01

    We present observations of microwave scattering from ambient room air ionized with a negative ion generator. The frequency dependence of the radar cross section of ionized air was measured from 26.5 to 40 GHz (Ka-band) in a bistatic mode with an Agilent PNA-X series (model N5245A) vector network analyzer. A detailed calibration scheme is provided to minimize the effect of the stray background field and system frequency response on the target reflection. The feasibility of detecting the microwave reflection from ionized air portends many potential applications such as remote sensing of atmospheric ionization and remote detection of radioactive ionization of air.

  3. Multiphoton ionization of uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.P.; Harkins, D.A. ); Compton, R.N.; Ding, D. )

    1994-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization (MPI) time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (TOFMS) and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies of UF[sub 6] are reported using focused light from the Nd:YAG laser fundamental ([lambda]=1064 nm) and its harmonics ([lambda]=532, 355, or 266 nm), as well as other wavelengths provided by a tunable dye laser. The MPI mass spectra are dominated by the singly and multiply charged uranium ions rather than by the UF[sup +][sub [ital x

  4. Flow injection of liquid samples to a mass spectrometer with ionization under vacuum conditions: a combined ion source for single-photon and electron impact ionization.

    PubMed

    Schepler, Claudia; Sklorz, Martin; Passig, Johannes; Famiglini, Giorgio; Cappiello, Achille; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photo-ionization (APPI) are the most important techniques for the ionization of liquid samples. However, working under atmospheric pressure conditions, all these techniques involve some chemical rather than purely physical processes, and therefore, side reactions often yield to matrix-dependent ionization efficiencies. Here, a system is presented that combines both soft single-photon ionization (SPI) and hard 70 eV electron impact ionization (EI) of dissolved compounds under vacuum conditions. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was modified to enable direct EI, a technique developed by Cappiello et al. to obtain library-searchable EI mass spectra as well as soft SPI mass spectra of sample solutions. An electron beam-pumped rare gas excimer lamp working at 126 nm was used as well as a focusable vacuum UV light source for single-photon ionization. Both techniques, EI and SPI, were applied successfully for flow injection experiments providing library-matchable EI fragment mass spectra and soft SPI mass spectra, showing dominant signals for the molecular ion. Four model compounds were analyzed: hexadecane, propofol, chlorpropham, and eugenol, with detection limits in the picomolar range. This novel combination of EI and SPI promises great analytical benefits, thanks to the possibility of combining database alignment for EI data and molecular mass information provided by SPI. Possible applications for the presented ionization technology system are a matrix-effect-free detection and a rapid screening of different complex mixtures without time-consuming sample preparation or separation techniques (e.g., for analysis of reaction solutions in combinatorial chemistry) or a switchable hard (EI) and soft (SPI) MS method as detection step for liquid chromatography. PMID:23812882

  5. DWARF GALAXIES WITH IONIZING RADIATION FEEDBACK. I. ESCAPE OF IONIZING PHOTONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    We describe a new method for simulating ionizing radiation and supernova feedback in the analogs of low-redshift galactic disks. In this method, which we call star-forming molecular cloud (SFMC) particles, we use a ray-tracing technique to solve the radiative transfer equation for ultraviolet photons emitted by thousands of distinct particles on the fly. Joined with high numerical resolution of 3.8 pc, the realistic description of stellar feedback helps to self-regulate star formation. This new feedback scheme also enables us to study the escape of ionizing photons from star-forming clumps and from a galaxy, and to examine the evolving environment of star-forming gas clumps. By simulating a galactic disk in a halo of 2.3 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ?}, we find that the average escape fraction from all radiating sources on the spiral arms (excluding the central 2.5 kpc) fluctuates between 0.08% and 5.9% during a ?20 Myr period with a mean value of 1.1%. The flux of escaped photons from these sources is not strongly beamed, but manifests a large opening angle of more than 60° from the galactic pole. Further, we investigate the escape fraction per SFMC particle, f{sub esc}(i), and how it evolves as the particle ages. We discover that the average escape fraction f{sub esc} is dominated by a small number of SFMC particles with high f{sub esc}(i). On average, the escape fraction from an SFMC particle rises from 0.27% at its birth to 2.1% at the end of a particle lifetime, 6 Myr. This is because SFMC particles drift away from the dense gas clumps in which they were born, and because the gas around the star-forming clumps is dispersed by ionizing radiation and supernova feedback. The framework established in this study brings deeper insight into the physics of photon escape fraction from an individual star-forming clump and from a galactic disk.

  6. Dwarf Galaxies with Ionizing Radiation Feedback. I. Escape of Ionizing Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    We describe a new method for simulating ionizing radiation and supernova feedback in the analogs of low-redshift galactic disks. In this method, which we call star-forming molecular cloud (SFMC) particles, we use a ray-tracing technique to solve the radiative transfer equation for ultraviolet photons emitted by thousands of distinct particles on the fly. Joined with high numerical resolution of 3.8 pc, the realistic description of stellar feedback helps to self-regulate star formation. This new feedback scheme also enables us to study the escape of ionizing photons from star-forming clumps and from a galaxy, and to examine the evolving environment of star-forming gas clumps. By simulating a galactic disk in a halo of 2.3 × 1011 M ?, we find that the average escape fraction from all radiating sources on the spiral arms (excluding the central 2.5 kpc) fluctuates between 0.08% and 5.9% during a ~20 Myr period with a mean value of 1.1%. The flux of escaped photons from these sources is not strongly beamed, but manifests a large opening angle of more than 60° from the galactic pole. Further, we investigate the escape fraction per SFMC particle, f esc(i), and how it evolves as the particle ages. We discover that the average escape fraction f esc is dominated by a small number of SFMC particles with high f esc(i). On average, the escape fraction from an SFMC particle rises from 0.27% at its birth to 2.1% at the end of a particle lifetime, 6 Myr. This is because SFMC particles drift away from the dense gas clumps in which they were born, and because the gas around the star-forming clumps is dispersed by ionizing radiation and supernova feedback. The framework established in this study brings deeper insight into the physics of photon escape fraction from an individual star-forming clump and from a galactic disk.

  7. Low-density ionization behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.A. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    As part of a continuing study of the physics of matter under extreme conditions, I give some results on matter at extremely low density. In particular I compare a quantum mechanical calculation of the pressure for atomic hydrogen with the corresponding pressure given by Thomas-Fermi theory. (This calculation differs from the ``confined atom`` approximation in a physically significant way.) Since Thomas-Fermi theory in some sense, represents the case of infinite nuclear charge, these cases should represent extremes. Comparison is also made with Saha theory, which considers ionization from a chemical point of view, but is weak on excited-state effects. In this theory, the pressure undergoes rapid variation as electron ionization levels are passed. This effect is in contrast to the smooth behavior of the Thomas-Fermi fixed temperature, complete ionization occurs in the low density limit, I study the case where the temperature goes appropriately to zero with the density. Although considerable modification is required, Saha theory is closer to the actual results for this case than is Thomas-Fermi theory.

  8. Monte Carlo calculation of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, Chen; Shuming, Peng; Dan, Meng; Yuehong, He; Heyi, Wang

    2014-10-01

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements has been theoretically studied using Monte Carlo code MCNP 5. The influence of many factors, including carrier gas, chamber size, wall materials and gas pressure, has been evaluated in the simulations. It is found that ? rays emitted by tritium deposit much more energy into chambers flowing through with argon than with deuterium in them, as much as 2.7 times higher at pressure 100 Pa. As chamber size gets smaller, energy deposition decreases sharply. For an ionization chamber of 1 mL, ? rays deposit less than 1% of their energy at pressure 100 Pa and only 84% even if gas pressure is as high as 100 kPa. It also indicates that gold plated ionization chamber results in the highest deposition ratio while aluminum one leads to the lowest. In addition, simulations were validated by comparison with experimental data. Results show that simulations agree well with experimental data.

  9. Multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Imasaka, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Imasaka, Totaro

    2015-08-01

    In order to suppress the fragmentation and improve the sensitivity for determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), the mechanism of multiphoton ionization was studied for the following representative NPAHs, 9-nitroanthracene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, and 1-nitropyrene. The analytes were extracted from the PM2.5 on the sampling filter ultrasonically, and were measured using gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry with a femtosecond tunable laser in the range from 267 to 405 nm. As a result, a molecular ion was observed as the major ion and fragmentation was suppressed at wavelengths longer than 345 nm. Furthermore, the detection limit measured at 345 nm was measured to be the subpicogram level. The organic compounds were extracted from a 2.19 mg sample of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), and the extract was subjected to multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry after gas chromatograph separation. The background signals were drastically suppressed at 345 nm, and the target NPAHs, including 9-nitroanthracene and 1-nitropyrene, were detected, and their concentrations were determined to be 5 and 3 pg/m(3), respectively. PMID:26048831

  10. Merged ionization/dissociation fronts in planetary nebulae

    E-print Network

    William J. Henney; R. J. R. Williams; Gary J. Ferland; Gargi Shaw; C. R. O'Dell

    2007-11-27

    The hydrogen ionization and dissociation front around an ultraviolet radiation source should merge when the ratio of ionizing photon flux to gas density is sufficiently low and the spectrum is sufficiently hard. This regime is particularly relevant to the molecular knots that are commonly found in evolved planetary nebulae, such as the Helix Nebula, where traditional models of photodissociation regions have proved unable to explain the high observed luminosity in H_2 lines. In this paper we present results for the structure and steady-state dynamics of such advection-dominated merged fronts, calculated using the Cloudy plasma/molecular physics code. We find that the principal destruction processes for H_2 are photoionization by extreme ultraviolet radiation and charge exchange reactions with protons, both of which form H_2^+, which rapidly combines with free electrons to undergo dissociative recombination. Advection moves the dissociation front to lower column densities than in the static case, which vastly increases the heating in the partially molecular gas due to photoionization of He^0, H_2, and H^0. This causes a significant fraction of the incident bolometric flux to be re-radiated as thermally excited infrared H_2 lines, with the lower excitation pure rotational lines arising in 1000 K gas and higher excitation H_2 lines arising in 2000 K gas, as is required to explain the H_2 spectrum of the Helix cometary knots.

  11. Optics for Phase Ionization Cooling of Muon Beams

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Johnson; S.A. Bogacz; Y.S. Derbenev

    2006-06-26

    The realization of a muon collider requires a reduction of the 6D normalized emittance of an initially generated muon beam by a factor of more than 106. Analytical and simulation studies of 6D muon beam ionization cooling in a helical channel filled with pressurized gas or liquid hydrogen absorber indicate that a factor of 106 is possible. Further reduction of the normalized 4D transverse emittance by an additional two orders of magnitude is envisioned using Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC). To realize the phase shrinkage effect in the parametric resonance method, one needs to design a focusing channel free of chromatic and spherical aberrations. We report results of our study of a concept of an aberration-free wiggler transport line with an alternating dispersion function. Resonant beam focusing at thin beryllium wedge absorber plates positioned near zero dispersion points then provides the predicted PIC effect.

  12. Wigner time delay for tunneling ionization via the electron propagator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Klaiber, Michael; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.

    2014-07-01

    Recent attoclock experiments using the attosecond angular streaking technique enabled the measurement of the tunneling time delay during laser-induced strong-field ionization. One of the theoretical models for the tunneling time delay is the Wigner time delay, which is the asymptotic time difference between the quasiclassical and the Wigner trajectories. The latter is derived from the derivative of the phase of the electron steady-state wave function with respect to energy. Here, we present an alternative method for the calculation of the Wigner trajectory by using the fixed-energy propagator. The developed formalism is applied to the nonrelativistic regime as well as to the relativistic regime of the tunnel-ionization process from a zero-range potential. Finally, it is shown that the Wigner time delay is measurable in the near-threshold-tunneling regime within the current state of the momentum spectroscopy via detecting the induced electron momentum shift in a mixture of two gas species.

  13. Quantum statistical mechanics of dense partially ionized hydrogen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, H. E.; Rogers, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of dense hydrogenic plasmas beginning with the two component quantum grand partition function is reviewed. It is shown that ionization equilibrium and molecular dissociation equilibrium can be treated in the same manner with proper consideration of all two-body states. A quantum perturbation expansion is used to give an accurate calculation of the equation of state of the gas for any degree of dissociation and ionization. In this theory, the effective interaction between any two charges is the dynamic screened potential obtained from the plasma dielectric function. We make the static approximation; and we carry out detailed numerical calculations with the bound and scattering states of the Debye potential, using the Beth-Uhlenbeck form of the quantum second virial coefficient. We compare our results with calculations from the Saha equation.

  14. INSTABILITY OF MAGNETIZED IONIZATION FRONTS SURROUNDING H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-12-20

    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes the transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number M{sub M2}?1. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor ? by a factor of 1 + 1/(2?{sub 1}) compared to the unmagnetized case, with ?{sub 1} denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations owing to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber, as well as the upstream flow speed, and approximately to ?{sup 1/2}. The IF instability is stabilized by gas compressibility and becomes completely quenched when the front is D-critical. The instability is also stabilized by magnetic pressure when the perturbations propagate in the direction perpendicular to the fields. When the perturbations propagate in the direction parallel to the fields, on the other hand, it is magnetic tension that reduces the growth rate, completely suppressing the instability when M{sub M2}{sup 2}<2/(2?{sub 1}?1). When the front experiences an acceleration, the IF instability cooperates with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to make the front more unstable.

  15. Instability of Magnetized Ionization Fronts Surrounding H II Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2014-12-01

    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes the transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number {M}_M2 ? 1. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor ? by a factor of 1 + 1/(2?1) compared to the unmagnetized case, with ?1 denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations owing to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber, as well as the upstream flow speed, and approximately to ?1/2. The IF instability is stabilized by gas compressibility and becomes completely quenched when the front is D-critical. The instability is also stabilized by magnetic pressure when the perturbations propagate in the direction perpendicular to the fields. When the perturbations propagate in the direction parallel to the fields, on the other hand, it is magnetic tension that reduces the growth rate, completely suppressing the instability when {M}_M22 < 2/(2? 1 - 1). When the front experiences an acceleration, the IF instability cooperates with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to make the front more unstable.

  16. 355 nm Multiphoton Dissociation and Ionization of 2, 5-Dihydroxyacetophenone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyakov, Yuri A.; Tsai, Shang-Ting; Bagchi, Arnab; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Lee, Yuan T.; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2009-09-01

    Multiphoton dissociation and ionization of 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP), an important matrix compound in UV matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), is studied in a molecular beam at 355 nm using multimass ion imaging mass spectrometer and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For laser fluence larger than 130 mJ/cm2, nearly all of the irradiated molecules absorb at least one photon. The absorption cross section was found to be ? = 1.3(±0.2) × 10-17cm2. Molecules excited by two photons quickly dissociate into fragments. The major channels are (1) C6H3(OH)2COCH3 ? C6H3(OH)2CO + CH3 and (2) C6H3(OH)2COCH3 ? C6H3(OH)2 + COCH3. Molecules absorbing three or more photons become parent ions or crack into smaller ionic fragments. The concentration ratio of ions (parent ions and ionic fragments) to neutral fragments is about 10-6:1. Changing the molecular beam carrier gas from He at 250 Torr to Ar at 300 Torr results in molecular beam clustering (dimers and trimers). Multiphoton ionization of clusters by a 355 nm laser beam produces only dimer cations, (C6H3(OH)2COCH3)2+. Protonated clusters or negatively charged ions, observed from a solid sample of DHAP using 355 nm multiphoton ionization, were not found in the molecular beam. The experimental results indicate that the photoionization occurs in the gas phase after DHAP vaporizes from the solid phase may not play an important role in the MALDI process.

  17. Resonant- and avalanche-ionization amplification of laser-induced plasma in air

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili; Jiang, Naibo; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2014-10-14

    Amplification of laser-induced plasma in air is demonstrated utilizing resonant laser ionization and avalanche ionization. Molecular oxygen in air is ionized by a low-energy laser pulse employing (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) to generate seed electrons. Subsequent avalanche ionization of molecular oxygen and nitrogen significantly amplifies the laser-induced plasma. In this plasma-amplification effect, three-body attachments to molecular oxygen dominate the electron-generation and -loss processes, while either nitrogen or argon acts as the third body with low electron affinity. Contour maps of the electron density within the plasma obtained in O?/N? and O?/Ar gas mixtures are provided to show relative degrees of plasma amplification with respect to gas pressure and to verify that the seed electrons generated by O? 2 + 1 REMPI are selectively amplified by avalanche ionization of molecular nitrogen in a relatively low-pressure condition (?100 Torr). Such plasma amplification occurring in air could be useful in aerospace applications at high altitude.

  18. C^2-Ray: A new method for photon-conserving transport of ionizing radiation

    E-print Network

    Garrelt Mellema; Ilian T. Iliev; Marcelo A. Alvarez; Paul R. Shapiro

    2005-09-29

    We present a new numerical method for calculating the transfer of ionizing radiation, called C^2-Ray=Conservative, Causal Ray-tracing method. The method is explicitly photon-conserving, so the depletion of ionizing photons by bound-free opacity is guaranteed to equal the photoionizations these photons caused. As a result, grid cells can be large and very optically-thick without loss of accuracy. The method also uses an analytical relaxation solution for the ionization rate equations for each time step which can accommodate time steps which greatly exceed the characteristic ionization and ionization front crossing times. Together, these features make it possible to integrate the equation of transfer along a ray with many fewer cells and time steps than previous methods. For multi-dimensional calculations, the code utilizes short-characteristics ray tracing. C^2-Ray is well-suited for coupling radiative transfer to gas and N-body dynamics methods, on both fixed and adaptive grids, without imposing additional limitations on the time step and grid spacing. We present several tests of the code involving propagation of ionization fronts in one and three dimensions, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous density fields. We compare to analytical solutions for the ionization front position and velocity, some of which we derive here for the first time.

  19. Multiphoton ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +} in xuv laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Guan Xiaoxu; Secor, Ethan B.; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I.

    2011-09-15

    We consider the ionization of the hydrogen molecular ion after one-, two-, and three-photon absorption over a large range of photon energies between 9 and 40 eV in the fixed-nuclei approximation. The temporal development of the system is obtained in a fully ab initio time-dependent grid-based approach in prolate spheroidal coordinates. The alignment dependence of the one-photon ionization amplitude is highlighted in the framework of time-dependent perturbation theory. For one-photon ionization as a function of the nuclear separation, the calculations reveal a significant minimum in the ionization probability. The suppressed ionization is attributed to a Cooper-type minimum, which is similar, but not identical, to the cancellation effect observed in photoionization cross sections of some noble-gas atoms. The effect of the nonspherical two-center Coulomb potential is analyzed. For two- and three-photon ionization, the angle-integrated cross sections clearly map out intermediate-state resonances, and the predictions of the current computations agree very well with those from time-independent calculations. The dominant emission modes for two-photon ionization are found to be very similar in both resonance and off-resonance regions.

  20. Spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet applicable for soft ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenici-Craciunescu, S. B.; Müller, S.; Michels, A.; Horvatic, V.; Vadla, C.; Franzke, J.

    2011-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure microplasma ionization source based on a dielectric barrier discharge with a helium plasma cone outside the electrode region has been developed for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and as ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry. It turned out that dielectric barrier discharge ionization could be regarded as a soft ionization technique characterized by only minor fragmentation similar to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Mainly protonated molecules were detected. In order to characterize the soft ionization mechanism spatially resolved optical emission spectrometry (OES) measurements were performed on plasma jets burning either in He or in Ar. Besides to spatial intensity distributions of noble gas spectral lines, in both cases a special attention was paid to lines of N 2+ and N 2. The obtained mapping of the plasma jet shows very different number density distributions of relevant excited species. In the case of helium plasma jet, strong N 2+ lines were observed. In contrast to that, the intensities of N 2 lines in Ar were below the present detection limit. The positions of N 2+ and N 2 distribution maxima in helium indicate the regions where the highest efficiency of the water ionization and the protonation process is expected.

  1. Ionizing Radiation and Its Risks

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Marvin

    1982-01-01

    Penetrating ionizing radiation fairly uniformly puts all exposed molecules and cells at approximately equal risk for deleterious consequences. Thus, the original deposition of radiation energy (that is, the dose) is unaltered by metabolic characteristics of cells and tissue, unlike the situation for chemical agents. Intensely ionizing radiations, such as neutrons and alpha particles, are up to ten times more damaging than sparsely ionizing sources such as x-rays or gamma rays for equivalent doses. Furthermore, repair in cells and tissues can ameliorate the consequences of radiation doses delivered at lower rates by up to a factor of ten compared with comparable doses acutely delivered, especially for somatic (carcinogenic) and genetic effects from x- and gamma-irradiation exposure. Studies on irradiated laboratory animals or on people following occupational, medical or accidental exposures point to an average lifetime fatal cancer risk of about 1 × 10-4 per rem of dose (100 per 106 person-rem). Leukemia and lung, breast and thyroid cancer seem more likely than other types of cancer to be produced by radiation. Radiation exposures from natural sources (cosmic rays and terrestrial radioactivity) of about 0.1 rem per year yield a lifetime cancer risk about 0.1 percent of the normally occurring 20 percent risk of cancer death. An increase of about 1 percent per rem in fatal cancer risk, or 200 rem to double the “background” risk rate, is compared with an estimate of about 100 rem to double the genetic risk. Newer data suggest that the risks for low-level radiation are lower than risks estimated from data from high exposures and that the present 5 rem per year limit for workers is adequate. PMID:6761969

  2. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  3. Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Verhoef, Aart J.; Mitrofanov, Alexander V.; Kartashov, Daniil V.; Baltuska, Andrius

    2010-04-23

    We have experimentally detected optical harmonics that are generated due to a tunneling-ionization-induced modulation of the electron density. The optical signature of electron tunneling can be isolated from concomitant optical responses by using a noncollinear pump-probe setup. Whereas previously demonstrated tools for attosecond metrology of gases, plasmas, and surfaces rely on direct detection of charged particles, detection of the background-free time-resolved optical signal, which uniquely originates from electron tunneling, offers an interesting alternative that is especially suited for systems in which free electrons cannot be directly measured.

  4. Power lines and ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, T.; Wozniak, P.; Norman, J.

    1996-12-01

    The magnetic field and ionizing radiation dose rate were measured near groundlevel in the vicinity of a utility power line. The dose rate was monitored using thermoluminescence detectors. Measurements were made at distances up to about 100 m from the main transmission line from the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant while the plant was in operation and while the plant was shut down for refueling. No evidence was found that the dose rate is significantly different in the presence of the magnetic field from the power line that in its absence. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above.

  6. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  7. Using HII region spectra to probe the ionizing radiation from massive stars

    E-print Network

    S. Simón-Díaz; J. García-Rojas; G. Stasi?ska; C. Esteban

    2008-01-31

    We present some results of an on-going project aimed at studying a sample of Galactic HII regions ionized by a single massive star to test the predictions of modern generation stellar atmosphere codes in the H Lyman continuum. The observations collected for this study comprise the optical spectra of the corresponding ionizing stars, along with imaging and long-slit spatially resolved nebular observations. The analysis of the stellar spectra allows to obtain the stellar parameters of the ionizing star, while the nebular observations provide constraints on the nebular abundances and gas distribution. All this information is then used to construct tailored photoionization models of the HII regions. The reliability of the stellar ionizing fluxes is hence tested by comparing the photoionization model results with the observations in terms of the spatial variation across the nebula of an appropriate set of nebular line ratios.

  8. Energy Balance for a Sonoluminescence Bubble Yields a Measure of Ionization Potential Lowering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappus, B.; Bataller, A.; Putterman, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Application of energy conservation between input sound and the microplasma which forms at the moment of sonoluminescence places bounds on the process, whereby the gas is ionized. Detailed pulsed Mie scattering measurements of the radius versus time for a xenon bubble in sulfuric acid provide a complete characterization of the hydrodynamics and minimum radius. For a range of emission intensities, the blackbody spectrum emitted during collapse matches the minimum bubble radius, implying opaque conditions are attained. This requires a degree of ionization >36%. Analysis reveals only 2.1±0.6eV/atom of energy available during light emission. In order to unbind enough charge, collective processes must therefore reduce the ionization potential by at least 75%. We interpret this as evidence that a phase transition to a highly ionized plasma is occurring during sonoluminescence.

  9. Heating of the Warm Ionized Medium by Low-Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-print Network

    Walker, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    In light of evidence for a high ionization rate due to Low-Energy Cosmic Rays (LECR), in diffuse molecular gas in the solar neighbourhood, we evaluate their heat input to the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM). LECR are much more effective at heating plasma than they are at heating neutrals. We show that the upper end of the measured ionization rates corresponds to a local LECR heating rate sufficient to maintain the WIM against radiative cooling, independent of the nature of the ionizing particles or the detailed shape of their spectrum. Elsewhere in the Galaxy the LECR heating rates may be higher than measured locally. In particular, higher fluxes of LECR have been suggested for the inner Galactic disk, based on the observed hard X-ray emission, with correspondingly larger heating rates implied for the WIM. We conclude that LECR play an important, perhaps dominant role in the thermal balance of the WIM.

  10. How periodic orbit bifurcations drive multiphoton ionization

    E-print Network

    S. Huang; C. Chandre; T. Uzer

    2006-12-26

    The multiphoton ionization of hydrogen by a strong bichromatic microwave field is a complex process prototypical for atomic control research. Periodic orbit analysis captures this complexity: Through the stability of periodic orbits we can match qualitatively the variation of experimental ionization rates with a control parameter, the relative phase between the two modes of the field. Moreover, an empirical formula reproduces quantum simulations to a high degree of accuracy. This quantitative agreement shows how short periodic orbits organize the dynamics in multiphoton ionization.

  11. Miniature metastable ionization detectors for exobiology flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Metastable Ionization Detector (MID) is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the thermal conductivity detectors used on previous flight instruments. The miniature MID provides scientists with a much smaller and highly sensitive detector for flight gas chromatographs. A miniature MID featuring an unconventional triaxial electrode configuration was developed and used routinely in the laboratory. Although much smaller and lighter than the commercial MID, its performance characteristics parallel those of the traditional design. The detector is compatible with the modulated voltage circuitry, also developed here, and thus can perform over an expanded response range of more than 7 orders magnitude. A micro volume version of a miniature MID, with an internal volume of less than 8 microliter, was recently designed is now being tested. The micro volume MID uses carrier gas flow rates of approx. 2cc/min thus eliminating the need for makeup gas when capillary columns are used.

  12. Reversal electron attachment ionizer for detection of trace species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernius, Mark T. (inventor); Chutjian, Ara (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An in-line reversal electron, high-current ionizer capable of focusing a beam of electrons to a reversal region and executing a reversal of the electrons, such that the electrons possess zero kinetic energy at the point of reversal, may be used to produce both negative and positive ions. A sample gas is introduced at the point of electron reversal for low energy electron-(sample gas) molecule attachment with high efficiency. The attachment process produces negative ions from the sample gas, which includes species present in trace (minute) amounts. These ions are extracted efficiently and directed to a mass analyzer where they may be detected and identified. The generation and detection of positive ions is accomplished in a similar fashion with minimal adjustment to potentials applied to the apparatus.

  13. Reversal electron attachment ionizer for detection of trace species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernius, Mark T. (Inventor); Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An in-line reversal electron, high-current ionizer capable of focusing a beam of electrons to a reversal region and executing a reversal of said electrons, such that the electrons possess zero kinetic energy at the point of reversal, may be used to produce both negative and positive ions. A sample gas is introduced at the point of electron reversal for low energy electron-(sample gas) molecule attachment with high efficiency. The attachment process produces negative ions from the sample gas, which includes species present in trace (minute) amounts. These ions are extracted efficiently and directed to a mass analyzer where they may be detected and identified. The generation and detection of positive ions is accomplished in a similar fashion with minimal adjustment to potentials applied to the apparatus.

  14. Enhanced Selective Field Ionization with Optical Dumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregoric, Vincent C.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2015-05-01

    Detection of Rydberg atoms by field ionization provides some degree of state identification due to the 1/n4 scaling of the ionization threshold. However, some state information is lost when the atoms traverse avoided crossings during the ionization process. Here, we present an experimental method utilizing a ``dump pulse'' to detect dipole-dipole interactions involving initial and final states which would otherwise be indistinguishable in a field ionization signal. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1205897.

  15. Ionization probes of molecular structure and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Various photoionization processes provide very sensitive probes for the detection and understanding of the spectra of molecules relevant to combustion processes. The detection of ionization can be selective by using resonant multiphoton ionization or by exploiting the fact that different molecules have different sets of ionization potentials. Therefore, the structure and dynamics of individual molecules can be studied even in a mixed sample. The authors are continuing to develop methods for the selective spectroscopic detection of molecules by ionization, and to use these methods for the study of some molecules of combustion interest.

  16. Hall Magnetohydrodynamics of weakly-ionized plasma

    E-print Network

    B. P. Pandey; Mark Wardle

    2006-08-02

    We show that the Hall scale in a weakly ionized plasma depends on the fractional ionization of the medium and, Hall MHD description becomes important whenever the ion-neutral collision frequency is comparable to the ion-gyration frequency, or, the ion-neutral collisional mean free path is smaller than the ion gyro-radius. Wave properties of a weakly-ionized plasma also depends on the fractional ionization and plasma Hall parameters, and whistler mode is the most dominant mode in such a medium. Thus Hall MHD description will be important in astrophysical disks, dark molecular clouds, neutron star crusts, and, solar and planetary atmosphere.

  17. Influence of renormalization shielding on the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-04-15

    The renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization of hydrogen atom are investigated in dense partially ionized plasmas. The effective projectile-target interaction Hamiltonian and the semiclassical trajectory method are employed to obtain the transition amplitude as well as the ionization probability as functions of the impact parameter, the collision energy, and the renormalization parameter. It is found that the renormalization shielding effect suppresses the transition amplitude for the electron-impact ionization process in dense partially ionized plasmas. It is also found that the renormalization effect suppresses the differential ionization cross section in the peak impact parameter region. In addition, it is found that the influence of renormalization shielding on the ionization cross section decreases with an increase of the relative collision energy. The variations of the renormalization shielding effects on the electron-impact ionization cross section are also discussed.

  18. Electron ionization mass spectrum of tellurium hexafluoride.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard A; McNamara, Bruce K; Barinaga, Charles J; Peterson, James M; Govind, Niranjan; Andersen, Amity; Abrecht, David G; Schwantes, Jon M; Ballou, Nathan E

    2015-05-18

    The electron ionization mass spectrum of tellurium hexafluoride (TeF6) is reported for the first time. The starting material was produced by direct fluorination of Te metal or TeO2 with nitrogen trifluoride. Formation of TeF6 was confirmed through cryogenic capture of the tellurium fluorination product and analysis through Raman spectroscopy. The eight natural abundance isotopes were observed for each of the set of fragment ions: TeF5(+), TeF4(+) TeF3(+), TeF2(+), TeF1(+), and Te(+), Te2(+). A trend in increasing abundance was observed for the odd fluoride bearing ions, TeF1(+) < TeF3(+) < TeF5(+), and a decreasing abundance was observed for the even fragment series, Te(F0)(+) > TeF2(+) > TeF4(+) > TeF6(+), with the molecular ion TeF6(+) not observed at all. Density functional theory based electronic structure calculations were used to calculate optimized ground state geometries of these gas phase species, and their relative stabilities explain the trends in the data and the lack of observed signal for TeF6(+). PMID:25932569

  19. The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Fich, M.; Taylor, R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary of research activities carried out in this eighth and final progress report. The final report includes: this summary document, copies of three published research papers, plus a draft manuscript of a fourth research paper entitled "The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the FarInfrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way; Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo around the W4 Chimney/Supershell." The main activity during the final quarterly reporting period was research on W4, including analysis of the radio and far-infrared images, generation of shell models, a literature search, and preparation of a research manuscript. There will be additional consultation with co-authors prior to submission of the paper to the Astrophysical Journal. The results will be presented at the 4th Tetons Summer Conference on "Galactic Structure, Stars, and the ISM" in May 2000. In this fourth and last paper we show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis shows there is dense interstellar material directly below the shell, evidence that that the lower W4 shell "ran into a brick wall" and stalled, whereas the upper W4 shell achieved "breakout" to form a Galactic chimney. An ionized halo is evidence of Lyman continuum leakage which ionizes the WIM (warm ionized medium). It has long been postulated that the strong winds and abundant ionizing photons from massive stars are responsible for much of the large scale structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), including the ISM in other galaxies. However standard HII region theory predicts few photons will escape the local HII region. The significance of W4 and this work is it provides a direct example of how stellar winds power a galactic chimney, which in turn leads to a low density cavity from which ionizing photons can escape to large distances to ionize the WIM.

  20. Enhancements of rescattered electron yields in above-threshold ionization of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cornaggia, C.

    2010-11-15

    In above-threshold ionization of rare-gas atoms, photoelectron spectra recorded in the 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} range exhibit enhancements in the rescattering plateaus that do not have a unified theoretical interpretation yet. Here an experimental search for such enhancements is reported in simple molecules with ionization potentials near those of rare-gas atoms such as H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} for argon and O{sub 2} for xenon, and in other molecules such as CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O. Only H{sub 2} exhibits the enhancements previously observed in atoms. The H{sub 2} particularity is interpreted in terms of its simpler ion structure and associated ionization paths compared with other molecules.