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1

Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

Nizkorodov, Sergey

2

ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL CHLORDANE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The composition of technical chlordane has been investigated by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, employing a column commonly used for pesticide residue analysis. Partial or complete structure identification have been assigned to some 45 individual constituents. Many...

3

ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANT ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a widely used technique for the identification of organic chemicals in water. This paper describes the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system, the preparation and separation of samples, the selection of ionizing processes, the integrati...

4

Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

Gochman, Nathan; And Others

1979-01-01

5

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gas Chromotography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analysis used in many laboratory testing situations. This laboratory exercise explains this method and uses this method to analyse DMSO. This exercise includes images and screenshots, as well as group discussion questions and questions for individual exploration of mass spectrometry online. Users may download this experiment in Microsoft Word doc file format.

Solow, Mike

2013-07-19

6

Mercury determination in blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method using196Hg as an internal standard is described for determining Hg in blood. In this method, the blood samples are not subjected to\\u000a any digestion to avoid the loss of Hg. A solution of 0.6M HCl is used to free Hg present in blood from proteins. The pH of the solution is adjusted

Suresh K. Aggarwal; Michael Kinter; David A. Herold

1994-01-01

7

Characterization of archaeological frankincense by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method has been developed for the characterization of frankincense in archaeological samples. After trimethylsilylation of the methanolic extract, 15 triterpenoids have been found among the chemical constituents of commercial olibanum (?-boswellic acid, 3-O-acetyl-?-boswellic acid, ?-boswellic acid, 3-O-acetyl-?-boswellic acid, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, lupeol, 3-epi-?-amyrin, 3-epi-?-amyrin, 3-epi-lupeol, ?-amyrenone, ?-amyrenone, lupenone, 3?-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid and 3-O-acetyl-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acid). These compounds

Carole Mathe; Gérald Culioli; Paul Archier; Cathy Vieillescazes

2004-01-01

8

Identification of polychlorinated styrene compounds in heron tissues by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unknown compounds detected in Ardea herodias tissues are identified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as residues of octachlorostyrene. Heptachlorostyrene and hexachlorostyrene were tentatively identified.

Reichel, W.L.; Prouty, R.M.; Gay, M.L.

1977-01-01

9

Thermal degradation of deoxybenzoin polymers studied by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

Thermal degradation of deoxybenzoin polymers studied by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The polymers were synthesized Available online 29 March 2008 Keywords: Flame-retardant polymers Thermal degradation Pyrolysis-gas

10

Classification of natural resins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

Twenty-six resins from six botanical sources belonging to the class Magnoliopsida were compared based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. The extracts were analysed by GC after silylation and by reversed phase LC combined with atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) mass spectrometry. The chromatograms were re-organized in data matrices, where each sample was represented by a single column comprising 2755 observations (intensity, time, m/z) in GC-MS and 360 observations in LC-MS. A simple comparison of resin fingerprints was attempted by organizing data according to a three dimensional bubble chart (retention time against m/z where each point was a bubble which size represented the ion intensity) where it is possible to easily superimpose the fingerprints. Thus the common and different species can be easily observed enabling to classify the resins. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on characteristics of GC-MS and LC-MS profiles affords a complete description of the classes of the resins and shows that 26 resins are divided into five main clusters Commiphora mukul, Daniella oliveri, Gardenia gummifera, Canarium madagascariensis, Boswellia dalzielii and Boswellia serrata, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method has been applied to three other resinous samples from the Burseraceae family to evaluate their alteration state. PMID:22885042

Rhourrhi-Frih, B; West, C; Pasquier, L; André, P; Chaimbault, P; Lafosse, M

2012-09-21

11

Analysis of radioactive mixed hazardous waste using derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six samples of core segments from Tank 101-SY were analyzed for chelators, chelator fragments, and several carboxylic acids by derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components detected were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitroso...

J. A. Campbell, B. D. Lerner, R. M. Bean, K. E. Grant, R. B. Lucke

1994-01-01

12

Cell Wall Chemotyping for Functional Applications of PyrolysisGas Chromatography / Mass  

E-print Network

wall analysis, analytical pyrolysis, wood formation, lignocellulose Author's address: Lorenz GerberCell Wall Chemotyping for Functional Genomics Applications of Pyrolysis­Gas Chromatography / Mass, Umeå 2012 #12;Cell Wall Chemotyping for Functional Genomics Applications of Pyrolysis

13

Chemical Composition of Latent Fingerprints by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment in which gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is used for latent fingerprint extraction and analysis on glass beads or glass slides is conducted. The results determine that the fingerprint residues are gender dependent.

Hartzell-Baguley, Brittany; Hipp, Rachael E.; Morgan, Neal R.; Morgan, Stephen L.

2007-01-01

14

Determination of bromide in whole blood and urine from humans using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We devised a sensitive and simple method for determination of bromide in whole blood and urine from humans using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Bromide was alkylated with pentafluorobenzyl p-toluenesulphonate in the mixture of acetone and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). The derivative obtained was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with the positive-ion EI mode. The lower limit of detection for the compound

Shigetoshi Kage; Keiko Kudo; Hideaki Ikeda; Akira Tsujita; Noriaki Ikeda

2005-01-01

15

Isolation and derivatization of plasma taurine for stable isotope analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the isolation and derivatization of plasma taurine is described that allows stable isotope determinations of taurine to be made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The isolation procedure can be applied to 0.1 ml of plasma; the recovery of plasma taurine was 70 to 80%. For gc separation, taurine was converted to its dimethylaminomethylene methyl ester derivative which could

C. S. Irving; P. D. Klein

1980-01-01

16

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Sarin Exposures in Human Serum by Fluoride Reactivation Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluoride ion reactivation method was used to determine sarin exposures in human serum using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The reaction and extraction conditions were systematically investigated and optimized to regenerate the maximum amount of sarin. The highest reactivation efficiency was 86%, which was calculated from the recovery of butyrylcholinesterase activity. For regenerated sarin over the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase

Hai-Hong BAI; Lei GUO; Jian-Lin FENG; Feng Cui-Ling; Jia CHEN; Jian-Wei XIE

2008-01-01

17

Characterisation of traditionally kiln produced pine tar by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pine tar samples from each out of six, successively filled barrels from a traditionally accomplished, yet temperature monitored, kiln production have been characterised by combined gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative abundance of resin- and fatty acids correlated in a distinctive way to the temperature development within the kiln, which made it possible to identify from which barrel each

Inger Marie Egenberg; John A. B. Aasen; Ann Katrin Holtekjølen; Elsa Lundanes

2002-01-01

18

Identification of Synthetic Polymers and Copolymers by Analytical Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment for the identification of synthetic polymers and copolymers by analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was developed and performed in the polymer analysis courses for third-year undergraduate students of chemistry with material sciences, and for first-year postgraduate students of polymer sciences. In…

Kusch, Peter

2014-01-01

19

Identification of melamine derivative in powdered milk samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An identification method for the analysis of melamine in powdered milk using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed. Melamine analyte was extracted by homogenization of powdered milk in the homogeneous mixture of acetonitrile, water and diethylamine solvent. The homogenate was centrifuged and an aliquot of supernatant was diluted with acetonitrile, concentrated and fortified with a stable isotope- labeled analogue

M. Amzad Hossain; S. M. Salehuddin; M. J. Kabir; M. Ali

20

Incorporation of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry into the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical tool for detection, identification, and quantification of many volatile organic compounds. However, many colleges and universities have not fully incorporated this technique into undergraduate teaching laboratories despite its wide application and ease of use in organic…

Giarikos, Dimitrios G.; Patel, Sagir; Lister, Andrew; Razeghifard, Reza

2013-01-01

21

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF GC/MS (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY) DATA ANALYSIS PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass spectra obtained by fused silica capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/data system (GC/MS/DS) analysis of mixtures of organic chemicals adsorbed on Tenax GC cartridges was subjected to manual and automated interpretative techniques. Synthetic mixtures (85 chemicals ...

22

PERFORMANCE TESTS FOR THE EVALUATION OF COMPUTERIZED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY EQUIPMENT AND LABORATORIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of ten general purpose tests are described which are used to evaluate the performance of computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. All of the tests use the continuous, repetitive measurement of spectra method of data acquisition, and no selected ion moni...

23

Oil-spill identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two approaches are proposed for the identification of a contaminant caused by the spilling of oil or oil products in water. A capillary gas chromatography (CGC)-mass spectrometry (MS) method for oil spill identification is applied. The presented approaches describe the use of MS data of 18 selective ions of spilled product and the probable pollutant. The spill identification is accomplished on the bases of a quantitative comparison between the ion chromatograms of the samples taken from the probable pollutant and from the spill itself. The other approach is made by chemometric treatment of complete CGC-MS data. PMID:12841957

Pavlova, A; Papazova, D

2003-01-01

24

Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance. PMID:25325339

Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

2014-01-01

25

Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance. PMID:25325339

Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

2014-01-01

26

Laser desorption fast gas chromatography–Mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for fast analysis is presented. It is based on laser desorption injection followed by fast gas chromatography-mass\\u000a spectrometry (GC-MS) in supersonic molecular beams. The sample was placed in an open air or purged laser desorption compartment,\\u000a held at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature conditions. Desorption was performed with a XeCl Excimer pulsed laser\\u000a with pulse energy

Tzvi Shahar; Shai Dagan; Aviv Amirav

1998-01-01

27

Revised method for routine determination of urinary dialkyl phosphates using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among urinary organophosphorus pesticide (OP) metabolites, dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) have been most often measured as a sensitive biomarker in non-occupational and occupational OP exposure risk assessment. In our conventional method, we have employed a procedure including simple liquid–liquid extraction (diethyl ether\\/acetonitrile), derivatization (pentafluorobenzylbromide, PFBBr) and clean-up (multi-layer column) for gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis starting from 5-mL urine samples. In

Jun Ueyama; Michihiro Kamijima; Takaaki Kondo; Kenji Takagi; Eiji Shibata; Takaaki Hasegawa; Shinya Wakusawa; Tomoko Taki; Masahiro Gotoh; Isao Saito

2010-01-01

28

Simultaneous determination of urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we developed a safe and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of urinary dialkylphosphates (DAPs), metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), including dimethylphosphate (DMP), diethylphosphate (DEP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), and diethylthiophosphate (DETP), using a pentafluorobenzylbromide (PFBBr) derivatization and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Several parameters were investigated: pH on evaporation, reaction temperature and time for the derivatization, the use of

Jun Ueyama; Isao Saito; Michihiro Kamijima; Tamie Nakajima; Masahiro Gotoh; Takayoshi Suzuki; Eiji Shibata; Takaaki Kondo; Kenji Takagi; Ken-ichi Miyamoto; Junki Takamatsu; Takaaki Hasegawa; Kenzo Takagi

2006-01-01

29

Simultaneous Determination of Nalbuphine and Opiates in Human Hair by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method for simultaneous determination of nalbuphine and opiates (codeine, morphine, and 6-monoacetylmorphine) in human hair was developed in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Thirty-milligram hair samples were incubated in 0.01 M HCl overnight at 50 °C. We extracted the drugs from resulting hydrolyzed solutions with a mixture of chloroform-isopropanol- n-heptane (50:17:33, v\\/ v\\/

Jin Young Kim; Moon Kyo In; Ki-Jung Paeng; Bong Chul Chung

2004-01-01

30

Quantitative determination of amphetamines, cocaine, and opiates in human hair by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair of young subjects (N=36) suspected for drug abuse was analysed for morphine, codeine, heroin, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, methadone, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA). The analysis of morphine, codeine, heroin, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, and methadone in hair included incubation in methanol, solid-phase extraction, derivatisation by the mixture of propionic acid anhydride and pyridine, and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS).

L Skender; V Kara?i?; I Br?i?; A Bagari?

2002-01-01

31

Formation of dehydroalanine from mimosine and cysteine: artifacts in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Trimethylsilyation is a chemical derivatization procedure routinely applied in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics. In this report, through de novo structural elucidation and comparison with authentic standards, we demonstrate that mimosine can be completely converted into dehydroalanine and 3,4-dihydroxypyridine during the trimethylsilyating process. Similarly, dehydroalanine can be formed from derivatization of cysteine. This conversion is a potential interference in GC-MS-based global metabolomics, as well as in analysis of amino acids.

Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O.; Hu, Zeping; Wiedner, Susan D.; Kim, Jong Seo; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.; Zhang, Qibin

2011-08-15

32

Determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for determination of bisphenol A in waters was developed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with a Selected Ion Monitoring (GC\\/MS-SIM). A 1000 ml water sample was extracted with dichloromethane in acid medium. No clean-up was necessary. Anthracene-d10 was used as an internal standard. The applicable concentration range was 2.5 to 10 ng ml?1 in water samples. The detection

M. del Olmo; A. González-Casado; N. A. Navas; J. L. Vilchez

1997-01-01

33

Use of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for identification of a new disaccharide in honey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry has been used to separate and identify disaccharides of edible honey. According to the characteristic fragmentation behaviour of disaccharide TMS-oximes, fructofuranosyl-(2-1)-fructose (inulobiose) has been structurally characterized. Identification was carried out on the basis of retention time on two columns of different polarity and mass spectrometric analysis. Inulobiose was found in honeys of different origins for the first

A. I. Ruiz-Matute; M. L. Sanz; I. Martinez-Castro

2007-01-01

34

Establishment of beta-hydroxy fatty acids as chemical marker molecules for bacterial endotoxin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed Central

Selected ion-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for detection of beta-hydroxy fatty acids as an independent assay for the presence or absence of endotoxin in materials claimed to induce nonspecific activation of Limulus amoebocyte lysate. To this end, suspensions of gram-negative and -positive bacteria, one fungal species, cerebrospinal fluid, and hollow-fiber hemodialyzer rinses were assayed for endotoxin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Good qualitative agreement was shown for both methods when suspensions of test organisms were assayed. Two false-negative results were obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assays of cerebrospinal fluid and were shown to be a result of insufficient endotoxin in the cerebrospinal fluid specimens for detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hemodialyzer rinses were Limulus assay positive; however, no beta-hydroxy fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These data were compared with data obtained from USP rabbit pyrogen tests of the rinse materials (nonpyrogenic) and chemical characterization of the Limulus assay-reactive rinses, which showed the rinses to be cellulosic in nature. It is suggested that beta-hydroxy fatty acids, as assayed by selected ion-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, be used as chemical marker molecules for the presence or absence of endotoxin in materials reported to cause nonspecific activation of Limulus amoebocyte lysate. PMID:3094448

Maitra, S K; Nachum, R; Pearson, F C

1986-01-01

35

Analysis of isothiazolinones in environmental waters by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an analytical method for the determination of five biocides of isothiazolinone type (2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BIT), 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI), 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (DCOI)) in environmental waters. The method is based on pre-concentration of the analytes by solid-phase extraction onto a mixture of a polymeric material and RP-C18 material and subsequent determination by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). One of

Astrid Rafoth; Sabine Gabriel; Frank Sacher; Heinz-Jürgen Brauch

2007-01-01

36

Microwave-assisted derivatization procedures for gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, published applications of microwave-assisted derivatization procedures for gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry\\u000a (GC\\/MS) are summarized. Among the broad range of analytical techniques available, GC\\/MS is still the method of choice for\\u000a most high-throughput screening procedures in forensic\\/clinical toxicology, doping control and food and environmental analysis.\\u000a Despite the many advantages of the GC\\/MS method, time-consuming derivatization steps are often required

Sandra L. Söderholm; Markus Damm; C. Oliver Kappe

2010-01-01

37

Analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbon mixtures with laser ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Excimer laser induced multiphoton ionization has been utilized for ion generation in capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the technique applied to the separation and detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Detection limits as low as 200 fg and linearity over a range of 5 x 10/sup +4/ were obtained for the polyaromatic hydrocarbons examined. Multiphoton ionization mass spectra were dominated by parent ions. Selective ionization based upon small differences in ionization potentials has been demonstrated for coeluting chrysene and triphenylene. Instrumental parameters have been investigated to assess improvements in sensitivity.

Rhodes, G.; Opsal, R.B.; Meek, J.T.; Reilly, J.P.

1983-02-01

38

Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber. PMID:10757290

Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R

2000-03-17

39

Qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses using amines as chemical ionization reagent gases.  

PubMed

Ammonia is a very useful chemical ionization (CI) reagent gas for the qualitative analyses of compounds by positive ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The gas is readily available, inexpensive, and leaves no carbon contamination in the MS source. Compounds of interest to our laboratory typically yield abundant protonated or ammoniated species, which are indicative of a compound's molecular weight. Nevertheless, some labile compounds fragment extensively by substitution and elimination reactions and yield no molecular weight information. In these cases, a CI reagent gas mixture of methylamine in methane prepared dynamically was found to be very useful in obtaining molecular weight data. Likewise, deuterated ammonia and deuterated methylamine are useful CI reagent gases for determining the exchangeable protons in organic compounds. Deuterated methylamine CI reagent gas is conveniently prepared by dynamically mixing small amounts of methylamine with excess deuterated ammonia. PMID:24114260

Little, James L; Howard, Adam S

2013-12-01

40

Community air monitoring for pesticides-part 2: multiresidue determination of pesticides in air by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two multiresidue methods were developed to determine pesticides in air collected in California. Pesticides were trapped using XAD-4 resin and extracted with ethyl acetate. Based on an analytical method from the University of California Davis Trace Analytical Laboratory, pesticides were detected by analyzing the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine chlorothalonil, chlorthal-dimethyl, cycloate, dicloran, dicofol, EPTC, ethalfluralin, iprodione, mefenoxam, metolachlor, PCNB, permethrin, pronamide, simazine, trifluralin, and vinclozolin. A GC with a flame photometric detector was used to determine chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos oxon, diazinon, diazinon oxon, dimethoate, dimethoate oxon, fonophos, fonophos oxon, malathion, malathion oxon, naled, and oxydemeton. Trapping efficiencies ranged from 78 to 92 % for low level (0.5 ?g) and 37-104 % for high level (50 and 100 ?g) recoveries. Little to no degradation of compounds occurred over 31 days; recoveries ranged from 78 to 113 %. In the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) method, pesticides were detected by analyzing the extract by GC-MS to determine chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, dicofol, endosulfan 1, endosulfan sulfate, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, propargite, and trifluralin. A liquid chromatograph coupled to a MS was used to determine azinphos-methyl, chloropyrifos oxon, DEF, diazinon, diazinon oxon, dimethoate, dimethoate oxon, diuron, EPTC, malathion, malathion oxon, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, phosmet, propanil, simazine and thiobencarb. Trapping efficiencies for compounds determined by the CDFA method ranged from 10 to 113, 22 to 114, and 56 to 132 % for 10, 5, and 2 ?g spikes, respectively. Storage tests yielded 70-170 % recovery for up to 28 days. These multiresidue methods represent flexible, sensitive, accurate, and cost-effective ways to determine residues of various pesticides in ambient air. PMID:24370860

Hengel, Matt; Lee, P

2014-03-01

41

Quantitative Analysis and Fingerprint Profiles for Quality Control of Fructus Schisandrae by Gas Chromatography: Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a simple, rapid, and effective quality assessment method for Fructus Schisandrae by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). The method was established by using specific lignan fingerprint profiles and quantitation of characteristic compounds in this herbal medicine. The GC-MS fingerprints of 15 batches of Schisandra samples from different regions of China showed similar lignan profiles. Five peaks were selected as characteristic peaks, and all of these were identified by using GC-MS techniques. The relative retention times of these characteristic peaks in the GC-MS fingerprint were established as an important parameter for identification of Schisandra samples. Meanwhile, relative peak areas may be a feasible approach to discriminate the S. chinensis and S. sphenanthera. Finally, these pharmacologically active constituents in the titled plant, schisandrins A–C and schizandrols A and B, were quantitatively determined using a validated GC-MS method. PMID:24574919

Xia, Yong-Gang; Yang, Bing-You; Liang, Jun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Di; Kuang, Hai-Xue

2014-01-01

42

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric identification of iodine species arising from photo-chemical vapor generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet irradiation of aqueous solutions of iodide/iodate ion containing low molecular weight organic acids generates volatile iodine species that are amenable to detection by atomic spectrometry. In the presence of formic, acetic or propionic acids, photo-chemical generation results in the formation of HI, methyl- and ethyl-iodide respectively, the latter two products being directly identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Deuterium and 13C-labeled reagents were employed to elucidate the provenance of the alkyl group. Use of 13CH 3-COOH produced 13CH 3-I; deuterated acetic acid (D 3C-COOD) resulted in the formation of CD 3-I. These observations indicate direct transfer of the alkyl group from the carboxylic acid to iodide, consistent with the suggestion that the mechanism of synthesis involves radical induced reactions.

Grinberg, Patricia; Mester, Zoltan; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

2009-07-01

43

Detection of Several Classes of Pesticides and Metabolites in Meconium by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A solid phase extraction method was developed to isolate multiple classes of parent pesticides from meconium. A methanolic/hydrochloric acid methyl ester derivatization with liquid-liquid extraction technique was also developed for the analysis of metabolites. Identification and quantitation was by electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For the parent compounds and metabolites, recoveries in spiked meconium ranged between 72–109%, with coefficients of variation ranging from 1.55–16.92% and limits of detection between 0.01–4.15 ?g g?1. Meconium samples obtained from infants in the Philippines were assayed using these methods, and propoxur, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, malathion, 4,4?-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene, bioallethrin, and cyfluthrin were detected. PMID:17664958

Bielawski, D.; Ostrea, E.; Posecion, N.; Corrion, M.; Seagraves, J.

2007-01-01

44

Improvements in bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium purity as determined with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium (MgCp2) is used commonly as a source for doping nitride materials with magnesium. Increased oxygen incorporation known to accompany the use of MgCp2 makes the purity of this precursor an important consideration in nitride CVD. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS) methods have now been developed for the identification of volatile impurities in MgCp2. Diethylether, an oxygen containing organic compound (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}), and additional organic impurities were found in the MgCp2 supplied by three manufacturers. Subsequent refinements in the synthetic processes by these companies have resulted in the availability of MgCp2 free of ether and other organic impurities as determined by GCMS.

BARTRAM,MICHAEL E.

2000-03-08

45

[Differentiation of ballpoint pen inks by thermodesorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Differentiation and classification of ink entries with dated samples of a reference collection are important aspects in the examination of questioned documents. Classification of writing inks is presently achieved by analysis of dyes and colorants contained in the ink. This technique has its limitations in newly developed ink formulations with identical dye composition but differing in their solvents and binder resins. This paper introduces a method for the determination of solvents and binder resins of an ink sample directly from paper without sample preparation. This aim is accomplished by thermodesorption of the sample followed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The method was tested on numerous samples of ballpoint pen inks, which were subsequently grouped into several solvent and resin subgroups. A case study shows the applicability of the newly developed method. PMID:15666970

Bügler, Jürgen; Buchner, Hans; Dallmayer, Anton

2004-01-01

46

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Profiling of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Epileptic Dogs  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with seizures, but diagnostic approaches in veterinary clinics remain limited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid used for diagnosis in veterinary medicine. In this study, we explored canine epilepsy diagnostic biomarkers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling of CSF and multivariate data analysis. Profiles for subjects with idiopathic epilepsy differed significantly from those of healthy controls and subjects with symptomatic epilepsy. Among 60 identified metabolites, the levels of 20 differed significantly among the three groups. Glutamic acid was significantly increased in idiopathic epilepsy, and some metabolites including ascorbic acid were changed in both forms of epilepsy. These findings show that metabolic profiles of CSF differ between idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy and that metabolites including glutamic acid and ascorbic acid in CSF may be useful for diagnosis of canine epilepsy. PMID:24334864

HASEGAWA, Tetsuya; SUMITA, Maho; HORITANI, Yusuke; TAMAI, Reo; TANAKA, Katsuhiro; KOMORI, Masayuki; TAKENAKA, Shigeo

2013-01-01

47

Lignans in resin of Araucaria angustifolia by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Total extract of resin from Araucaria angustifolia was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and 32 lignans were identified. Lignan acetates are present in the resin and consist of four secoisolariciresinol acetates, six lariciresinol acetates, two 7'-hydroxylariciresinol acetates and an isolariciresinol acetate, which have hitherto not been reported in the plant kingdom. Shonanin and 7'-hydroxylariciresinol type lignans are also present in A. angustifolia resin. Lignans containing syringyl moieties, characteristic for angiosperms, occur in the resin and consist of 5-methoxylariciresinol-9-acetate, 5'-methoxylariciresinol-9-acetate, 5-methoxypinoresinol dimethyl ether and 5-methoxypinoresinol. This is noteworthy because syringyl moieties have only been reported for Thuja species (Cupressaceae) among the gymnosperms. The mass spectra of the various lignan trimethylsilyl derivatives are discussed with the interpretations of the fragmentation patterns. PMID:15532064

Yamamoto, Shuichi; Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R T

2004-11-01

48

Determination of chemical components derived from 2% chlorhexidine gel degradation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. This study determined the chemical components derived from degradation of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel and solution by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Materials and methods. Three 2% CHX gels were used to identify the products of CHX gel degradation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A solution of CHX was also evaluated to compare the degradation between gel and solution. Degradation was evaluated in four storage situations (on the worktable with light: on the worktable without light; in the Pasteur oven at 36.5°C without light; and in the refrigerator at 8°C without light). Measurements were made at four time points: initial analysis and 1, 3 and 6 months after. The conversion of CHX into para-chloroaniline in storage situations and in different periods was analyzed statistically using chi-square test (? = 5%). Results. The 2% CHX gel or solution had already degraded vial found within the period of validity, at all time points and for all storage conditions. The amount of para-chloroaniline (pCA) was directly proportional to time in the case of CHX solution, but not in CHX gel due to lack of homogeneity. CHX homogeneity in hydroxyethylcellulose gel was directly dependent on compounding mode. Conclusions. Degradation products, such as para-chloroaniline (pCA), orto- chloroaniline (oCA), meta-chloroaniline (mCA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organochlorines (ortho-chlorophenyl isocyanate and 2-amino-5-clorobenzonitrila) were found in 2% CHX gel and solution, regardless of storage conditions or time. In relationship to gel homogenization an alternative to produce 2% CHX gel and a new homogenization method have been developed. PMID:24850506

Câmara De Bem, Samuel Henrique; Estrela, Carlos; Guedes, Débora Fernandes Costa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

2014-11-01

49

Simultaneous determination of pharmaceutical compounds in environmental samples by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical substances are synthetic compounds with very widespread usage due to their therapeutic biological effects. These compounds and their bioactive metabolites are continually introduced into the aquatic environment as complex mixtures via sewage treatment plants (incomplete destruction), animal farms or leaching from landfills. In this study, an analytical procedure involving solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was developed to determine

S. Giandomenico; N. Cardellicchio; C. Annicchiarico; L. Lopez; M. Maggi; L. Spada; A. Di Leo

2011-01-01

50

An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

2011-01-01

51

The Analysis of Bud Exudate of Populus × euramericana, and of Propolis, by Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propolis and bud exudate of Populus × euramericana have been analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography--mass spectrometry; 104 compounds have been identified, including 26 not previously identified in propolis or bud exudate. The compounds identified in propolis are derived from three sources; plant exudate collected by bees, wax secreted by bees, and materials such as sugars, which are probably introduced accidentally

W. Greenaway; T. Scaysbrook; F. R. Whatley

1987-01-01

52

Determination of cocaine, benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene in human hair by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes a highly precise and sensitive method developed to detect cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE, its main metabolite) and cocaethylene (CE, transesterification product of the coingestion of COC with ethanol) in human head hair samples. The method was based on an alkylchloroformate derivatization of benzoylecgonine and the extraction of the analytes by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

Fernanda Crossi Pereira de Toledo; Mauricio Yonamine; Regina Lucia de Moraes Moreau; Ovandir Alves Silva

2003-01-01

53

Supplementary Data: Monosaccharide Composition and Linkage Analysis of RPS Glycosyl composition analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass  

E-print Network

composition analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the monosaccharide alditol in 4N TFA at 100o C (4 hr), resulting monosaccharides were reduced with NaBH4, acetylated in pyridine/acetic anhydride and analyzed on a DB-1 capillary column. Linkage analysis was done by GC-MS of the partially

Bush, C. Allen

54

DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SOILS USING EQUILIBRIUM HEADSPACE ANALYSIS AND CAPILLARY COLUMN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Existing methods for determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil matrices using the purge and trap technique with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) have several problems, which include preserving sample integrity from collection to analysis and efficient...

55

Chem 355 Jasperse Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy BACKGROUND Every type of chromatography depends on the distribution of a substance  

E-print Network

GC-MS 35 Chem 355 Jasperse Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy BACKGROUND Every type of chromatography depends on the distribution of a substance between two phases, a mobile phase and a stationary phase. Recall that in the liquid/solid chromatography the mobile phase was liquid flowing over

Jasperse, Craig P.

56

ANALYSIS OF TRACE-LEVEL ORGANIC COMBUSTION PROCESS EMISSIONS USING NOVEL MULTIDIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the analysis of trace-level organic combustion process emissions using novel multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) procedures. It outlines the application of the technique through the analyses of various incinerator effluent and produ...

57

Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industrial application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is a powerful technique that could be used to elucidate components of a complex mixture while offering the benefits of high-precision quantitative analysis. The natural wintergreen oil is examined for its phenol concentration to determine the level of refining…

Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor

2005-01-01

58

Identification of corrosion inhibiting long-chain primary alkyl amines by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been used to identify long-chain primary alkyl amines after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA)E Electron impact ionization (EI) and positive chemical ionization (PCI) mass spectra of trifluoroacetylated derivatives of the identified alkyl amines are presented. The corrosion inhibiting alkyl amines were applied in the investigation of a new anticorrosive and antifouling formulation for water-steam circuit of energy systems in the power industry.

Kusch, Peter; Knupp, Gerd; Hergarten, Marcus; Kozupa, Marian; Majchrzak, Maria

2007-05-01

59

Forensic Applications of Gas Chromatography-Differential Mobility Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, and Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Chemometric Analysis.  

E-print Network

?? Rapid, practical, and low-cost analytical methods are always desirable in forensic analysis. Using proper sample preparation techniques with the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry… (more)

Lu, Yao

2010-01-01

60

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy Study of tert-Butylarsine Stability and Purification  

SciTech Connect

TBA (tert-butylarsine, H{sub 2}AsC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) has been demonstrated to be an effective arsenic precursor for the deposition of compound semiconductors such as GaAs by MOCVD (metal organic chemical vapor deposition). TBA is used as a liquid (bubbler) source in MOCVD and is a less toxic alternative to the more commonly used gaseous arsine (AsH{sub 3}). Materials and device performance using TBA have in many cases equaled or surpassed those using arsine. This includes the first observation of fractional quantum Hall behavior in a two dimensional electron gas structure grown by MOCVD. Despite the beneficial characteristics, the use of TBA in our laboratories has revealed some inconsistent behavior. Small pressure rises have been observed in the TBA bubbler sources when left unused over a period of many days. Measurements of the TBA partial pressure using UV absorption revealed that new absorption peaks could be observed after storage. The features of the absorption profile were insufficient to ascribe to a specific chemical species. Attempts to remove the gaseous impurities with liquid nitrogen freeze-pump-thaw techniques had limited success. Unfortunately, there is no published information on the room temperature decomposition of TBA. In this paper, we present a series of GCMS (gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy) analyses designed to determine the stability of TBA and identify its decomposition products in storage containers. The GCMS is also used to evaluate several methods for in-situ purification of TBA.

Bartram, M.E.; Breiland, W.G.; Bruskas, L.A.; Killeen, K.P.

1999-07-20

61

Rapid and sensitive determination of nalmefene in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method for the determination of nalmefene in human plasma is described. The procedure involves protein precipitation, extraction with ethanol-chloroform mixture and derivatization with pentafluropropionic anhydride. The deuterated analog of nalmefene, 6beta-naltrexol-d(7), was used as the internal standard. Quantitation was achieved on a HP-1 column (12 mx0.2 mm I.D.) with negative chemical ionization (NCI) using methane:ammonia (95:5) as the reagent gas. The standard curves were fitted using a quadratic equation with the curve encompassing a range of 0.5 to 200 ng/ml, and the intra- and inter-assay variations for three different nalmefene levels were less than 10% throughout. The limit of quantitation was found to be 0.5 ng/ml. The method described is highly specific and reproducible, and could also be applied for the determination of naltrexone and 6beta-naltrexol. Application of the method to actual human plasma samples is demonstrated. PMID:12031840

Xie, Shan; Suckow, Raymond F; Mason, Barbara J; Allen, David; Cooper, Thomas B

2002-06-25

62

Laser desorption fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams.  

PubMed

A novel method for fast analysis is presented. It is based on laser desorption injection followed by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in supersonic molecular beams. The sample was placed in an open air or purged laser desorption compartment, held at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature conditions. Desorption was performed with a XeCl Excimer pulsed laser with pulse energy of typically 3 mJ on the surface. About 20 pulses at 50 Hz were applied for sample injection, resulting in about 0.4 s injection time and one or a few micrograms sample vapor or small particles. The laser desorbed sample was further thermally vaporized at a heated frit glass filter located at the fast GC inlet. Ultrafast GC separation and quantification was achieved with a 50-cm-long megabore column operated with a high carrier gas flow rate of up to 240 mL/min. The high carrier gas flow rate provided effective and efficient entrainment of the laser desorbed species in the sweeping gas. Following the fast GC separation, the sample was analyzed by mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams. Both electron ionization and hyperthermal surface ionization were employed for enhanced selectivity and sensitivity. Typical laser desorption analysis time was under 10 s. The laser desorption fast GC-MS was studied and demonstrated with the following sample/matrices combinations, all without sample preparation or extraction: (a) traces of dioctylphthalate plasticizer oil on stainless steel surface and the efficiency of its cleaning; (b) the detection of methylparathion and aldicarb pesticides on orange leaves; (c) water surface analysis for the presence of methylparathion pesticide; (d) caffeine analysis in regular and decaffeinated coffee powder; (e) paracetamol and codeine drug analysis in pain relieving drug tablets; (f) caffeine trace analysis in raw urine; (g) blood analysis for the presence of 1 ppm lidocaine drug. The features and advantages of the laser desorption fast GC-MS are demonstrated and discussed. PMID:9879375

Shahar, T; Dagan, S; Amirav, A

1998-06-01

63

Valid internal standard technique for arson detection based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The most popular procedures for the detection of residues of accelerants in fire debris are the ones published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM E1412-07 and E1618-10). The most critical stages of these tests are the conservation of fire debris from the sampling to the laboratory, the extraction of residues of accelerants from the debris to the activated charcoal strips (ACS) and from those to the final solvent, as well as the analysis of sample extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the interpretation of the instrumental signal. This work proposes a strategy for checking the quality of the sample conservation, the accelerant residues transference to final solvent and GC-MS analysis, using internal standard additions. It is used internal standards ranging from a highly volatile compound for checking debris conservation to low volatile compound for checking GC-MS repeatability. The developed quality control (QC) parameters are not affected by GC-MS sensitivity variation and, specifically, the GC-MS performance control is not affected by ACS adsorption saturation that may mask test performance deviations. The proposed QC procedure proved to be adequate to check GC-MS repeatability, ACS extraction and sample conservation since: (1) standard additions are affected by negligible uncertainty and (2) observed dispersion of QC parameters are fit for its intended use. PMID:22920302

Salgueiro, Pedro A S; Borges, Carlos M F; Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J N

2012-09-28

64

Comparison of gasolines using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and target ion response.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to compare gasoline samples obtained from different sources based on the difference in amounts of certain components found in the headspace of gasoline using target response data. Many suspected arson cases involve comparing an ignitable liquid extracted from fire debris to a liquid found in a suspect's possession to determine if they could have had a common source. Various component ratios are proposed for determining if an unevaporated gasoline sample could have originated from the same source as an evaporated gasoline extracted from fire debris. Fifty and 75% evaporated gasoline samples were both found to contain similar ratios of certain components when compared with its unevaporated source gasoline. The results of the comparisons in this study demonstrate that for cases involving gasoline that has been evaporated up to 50% and extracted from pine, it is possible to eliminate comparison samples as originating from the same source. The results of the 75% comparisons suggest it may be possible to apply the same type of comparison to cases involving 75% evaporated gasoline. PMID:15461104

Barnes, Aisha T; Dolan, Julia A; Kuk, Raymond J; Siegel, Jay A

2004-09-01

65

[Simultaneous determination of nine preservatives in fruits using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine typical preservatives (pyrimethanil, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, triadimefon, thiabendazole, imazalil, myclobutanil, iprodione, prochloraz) in fruits. The fruit samples were subjected to ultrasonic extraction with hexane/ethyl acetate (1/1, v/v), and followed by purification using diatomite column chromatography with hexane/ethyl acetate (1/3, v/v) eluant. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nine preservatives were performed on the GC-MS at full-scan (SCAN) and selected ion monitoring (SIM) modes, in which triphenylphosphate was used as the internal standard. The detection limits obtained for the nine preservatives were ranged from 0.10 microg/kg to 2.16 microg/kg. The average recoveries were in the range of 75.3% to 128% at the spiked levels of 50, 100 and 200 microg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.57% to 11.6% (n = 5). The results showed that the developed method is sensitive and accurate for the determination of the nine preservatives in fruits. PMID:24783871

Peng, Shunü; Wang, Qiuquan; Fang, Lanlan; Guo, Shanyong; Zeng, Zhouhua; Lin, Zhuguang

2014-01-01

66

Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The constituents of honey's volatile compounds depend on the nectar source and differ depending on the place of origin. To date, the volatile constituents of Tualang honey have never been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in local Malaysian Tualang honey. A continuous extraction of Tualang honey using five organic solvents was carried out starting from non-polar to polar solvents and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 35 volatile compounds were detected. Hydrocarbons constitute 58.5% of the composition of Tualang honey. Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey. The use of a simple one tube, stepwise, non-thermal liquid-liquid extraction of honey is a advantageous as it prevents sample loss. Further research to test the clinical benefits of these volatile compounds is recommended. PMID:24146441

Nurul Syazana, M S; Gan, S H; Halim, A S; Shah, Nurul Syazana Mohamad; Gan, Siew Hua; Sukari, Halim Ahmad

2013-01-01

67

Occurrence of short chain aliphatic diols in human blood: identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Patients attending a general hospital for various reasons were screened for raised serum gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The results served as objective biochemical tests of heavy drinking. Among 419 individuals, 50 (11.9%) met these requirements and blood samples were used to determine the presence of low molecular mass aliphatic diols. 1,2-Propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol were determined by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In patients with blood ethanol concentration less than 2 mmol/l, 1,2-propanediol and 2,2-dimethyl-1, 3-propanediol mainly occurred together at median concentrations of about 200 mumol/l. When blood ethanol was 2-42 mmol/1,2,3-butanediol was also present covering a wide concentration range: three patients had concentrations between 6 and 10 mmol/l. There was no apparent correlation between the concentration of 2,3-butanediol and the concentration of blood ethanol. The diols were below the limits of detection in blood from nonintoxicated control individuals and hospital in-patients. PMID:3698310

Sisfontes, L; Nyborg, G; Jones, A W; Blomstrand, R

1986-03-16

68

In situ Analysis of Organic Compounds on Mars using Chemical Derivatization and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the core science objectives of NASA's 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is to determine the past or present habitability of Mars. The search for key organic compounds relevant to terrestrial life will be an important part of that assessment. We have developed a protocol for the analysis of amino acids and carboxylic acids in Mars analogue materials using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). As shown, a variety of carboxylic acids were readily identified in soil collected from the Atacama Desert in Chile at part-per-billion levels by GCMS after extraction and chemical derivatization using the reagent N,N-tert.-butyl (dimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). Several derivatized amino acids including glycine and alanine were also detected by GCMS in the Atacama soil at lower concentrations (chromatogram not shown). Lacking derivatization capability, the Viking pyrolysis GCMS instruments could not have detected amino acids and carboxylic acids, since these non-volatile compounds require chemical transformation into volatile species that are stable in a GC column. We are currently optimizing the chemical extraction and derivatization technique for in situ GCMS analysis on Mars. Laboratory results of analyses of Atacama Desert samples and other Mars analogue materials using this protocol will be presented.

Glavin, D. P.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2005-01-01

69

The analysis of forensic samples using laser micro-pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Laser micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used for the analysis of paint, photocopier toner, and synthetic fiber materials to test the forensic potential of this emerging technology. It uses a laser microprobe to selectively target very small parts of the materials for GC-MS analysis. Whereas the paint and the toner samples were amenable to direct laser pyrolysis, the synthetic fibers proved transparent to the 1064 nm laser radiation. The difficulty with the fibers demonstrates that a specific laser wavelength may not be appropriate for all types of materials. Nevertheless, the fibers were able to be indirectly pyrolyzed by impregnation in a strongly absorbing graphite matrix. A vast array of hydrocarbon pyrolysates was detected from the different materials studied. Unique product distributions were detected from each sample and in sufficient detail to facilitate individual molecular characterization (i.e., molecular fingerprinting). The integrity of the laser data were confirmed by comparison to data obtained from the same samples by the more conventional pyroprobe pyrolysis GC-MS method. The high spatial resolution and selectivity of the laser method may be advantageous for specific forensic applications, however, further work may be required to improve the reproducibility of the data. PMID:11569542

Armitage, S; Saywell, S; Roux, C; Lennard, C; Greenwood, P

2001-09-01

70

Simultaneous determination of 102 pesticide residues in Chinese teas by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An efficient and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 102 pesticide residues in teas has been established and validated. The multi-residue analysis of the pesticides in teas involved extraction with acetone-ethyl acetate-hexane, clean-up using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE), and subsequent identification and quantification of the selected pesticides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) under retention time locked (RTL) conditions. For most of the target analytes, the optimized pretreatment processes led to no significant interference on analysis from sample matrix, and the determination of 102 compounds was achieved in about 120 min. Pesticide residues could be determined in low sub-ppb range, from 0.01 microg/mL for hexachlorobenzene to 2.5 microg/mL for propargite, with average recoveries ranging from 59.7 to 120.9% (mean 88%) and relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range 3.0-20.8% (mean 13.7%) for all analytes across three fortification tea levels. The limits of detection (LODs) were much lower than the maximum residue levels established by the European Union (EU) legislations. PMID:17400037

Huang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yongjun; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

2007-06-15

71

Novel sensitive determination of steryl glycosides in biodiesel by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A new method was developed for the quantitative analysis of steryl glycosides in biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters). This method is much more sensitive than existing methods and has minimum limits of quantification of 50 ?g/kg, compared to previously published minimum limits of quantification of about 15 mg/kg. The analysis is based on gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy determination of simple pre-treated and silylated samples via single ion monitoring at 204, 217, 247 m/z, which are specific ions for the silylated sugar moiety. Quantification was carried out using cholesteryl ?-D-glucopyranoside as internal standard. The modified synthesis and purification of the internal standard is also presented as well as the characterization by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The advantage of the method compared with other approaches is the simplified sample preparation avoiding extra pre-treatment steps coupled with complete derivatization of the sugar hydroxyl groups by using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide with 5% trimethylchlorosilane as derivatization reagent. On the given conditions high recovery rates ? 89% can be obtained. Evaluation of lab specific variance and intermediate precision underline the robustness of the method which will be further assessed by Round robin tests. PMID:20846658

Pieber, Bartholomaeus; Schober, Sigurd; Goebl, Christoph; Mittelbach, Martin

2010-10-15

72

Study on essential oils from four species of Zhishi with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus fruits are widely used as food and or for medicinal purposes, and they contain a host of active substances that contribute to health. The immature fruits of Citrus sinensis Osbeck and its cultivars (CS), C. junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (CJ), C. aurantium L. and its cultivars (CA) and Poncirus trifoliate Raf. (PT) are the most commonly used medicinal herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine, called Zhishi. And their mature fruits can be used as food. Results In this study, the essential oils of four different Zhishi species were extracted by steam distillation and detected using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 39 volatiles from the four species were tentatively identified. The limonene was the most abundant amongst the four species. Principal component analysis (PCA) of essential oils showed a clear separation of volatiles among CS, CJ and PT. However, CA could not be separated from these three species. Additionally, the volatiles accounting for the variations among the widely separated species were characterized through their corresponding loading weight. Conclusion Sesquiterpenes were identified as characteristic markers for PT. The content of some monoterpenes could be as taxonomic markers between CS and CJ. This work is of great importance for the evaluation and authentication of Zhishi samples through essential oils. PMID:24708882

2014-01-01

73

Optimization of focused ultrasonic extraction of propellant components determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for focused ultrasonic extraction of nitroglycerin, triphenyl amine and acetyl tributyl citrate presented in double-base propellant samples following by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis was developed. A face-centered central composite design of the experiments and response surface modeling was used for optimization of the time, amplitude and sample amount. The dichloromethane was used as the extractant solvent. The optimal extraction conditions with respect to the maximum yield of the lowest abundant compound triphenyl amine were found at the 20 min extraction time, 35% amplitude of ultrasonic waves and 2.5 g of the propellant sample. The results obtained under optimal conditions were compared with the results achieved with validated Soxhlet extraction method, which is typically used for isolation and pre-concentration of compounds from the samples of explosives. The extraction yields for acetyl tributyl citrate using both extraction methods were comparable; however, the yield of ultrasonic extraction of nitroglycerin and triphenyl amine was lower than using Soxhlet extraction. The possible sources of different extraction yields are estimated and discussed. PMID:22967558

Fryš, Ond?ej; ?esla, Petr; Bajerová, Petra; Adam, Martin; Ventura, Karel

2012-09-15

74

The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry can be used for dose estimation in irradiated pork  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food safety can be improved using ionizing radiation to reduce food spoilage and to extend its shelf life. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been validated by the European Community as a powerful method to identify irradiated food containing fat. The preliminary goals of our research were: (i) to set up this method, based on the detection of radiation induced 2-dodecylcyclobutanones (2-DCB) in pork muscle samples and (ii) to check the microbiological efficacy of the treatment. The main objective was to render the GC/MS a quantitative technique for dose estimation, through the measurement of the 2-DCB concentration in the irradiated sample. Our results show that the reduction of the microbial population is substantially reduced even at 2 kGy, and that a clear identification of irradiated samples can be achieved also one month after irradiation at 2 kGy in frozen-stored samples. The 2-DCB concentration showed a linear dependence on dose in the range 1-10 kGy, no matter the origin of the sample; a unique calibration function was obtained, that allowed dose estimation in irradiated pork samples. A retrospective evaluation on the quality of the treatment could be carried out this way.

D'Oca, M. C.; Bartolotta, A.; Cammilleri, M. C.; Giuffrida, S. A.; Parlato, A.; Di Noto, A. M.; Caracappa, S.

2009-07-01

75

[Determination of selenomethionine in selenium-enriched yeast by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method has been developed for the determination of selenomethionine in selenium-enriched yeast by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three extraction methods were compared for extraction efficiency of selenomethionine from the samples. Selenomethionine in the samples was extracted for 24 h with proteinase in Tris buffer. The selenomethionine was derivatized with butanol and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). The derivatization was accomplished in two steps, starting with the esterification of the carboxyl group of the selenoamino acid using butanol, followed by the acylation of the amino group with trifluoroacetic acid anhydride. The selected ion for monitoring selenomethionine was at m/z 349. The instrument operating conditions were optimized. The samples were analyzed by GC-MS with external standard method. Standard GC-MS chromatograms and mass spectra for selenomethionine were also obtained. The method was proved to be accurate and reliable. The recoveries of 98.5%-103.7% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.9%-2.4% (n = 6) and the correlation coefficient of 0.9978 were obtained. The detection limit of selenomethionine for the method was 0.5 mg/L (S/N = 3) and the selenomethionine contents of real sample was given. PMID:16929838

Gao, Jianzhong; Huang, Kehe; Qin, Shunyi

2006-05-01

76

Determination of cyclamate in urine by derivatized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aim: It is important in toxicological/drug screening work to rule out the possible interfering analytes, to eliminate the false positive or negative results. In this paper, we describe a simple, selective, and sensitive derivatized GC-MS method for the determination of cyclohexylsulfamic acid (cyclamate) in urine. Materials and Methods: Elite- 5MS capillary column was used for the separation of analytes and detection using GC-MS. The analysis was carried out in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) in the range of 26 to 200 using m/z values of 57, 30, 55, 41, 44, 67, 82, 98, and 39. Results and Discussion: The method is based on the conversion of cyclamate into nitroso derivative of cyclamate followed by its gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination. The limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity range of the proposed method were found to be 0.2 ?g/ ml, 0.7 ?g/ml, and 1-15 ?g/ml, respectively. The recovery of the present method is in the range of 88-94%. Conclusion: The proposed method can be applied for detection and quantification of cyclamate in urine. PMID:23559823

Idris, Mohd; Middha, Deepak; Rasool, Shaik N.; Shukla, Sudhir K.; Baggi, Tulsidas R.

2013-01-01

77

Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Dragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and Daemonorops micracantha by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) within the context of a routine analysis of binding media used in works of art. The detection of specific flavonoid marker compounds in both underivatised and methylated methanol extracts provided the first evidence for the use of dragon's blood from all four species in various works of art from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. Dragon's blood was mainly used as a red colourant in gold lacquers as well as translucent glazes and paints, e.g. in reverse-glass paintings (Hinterglasmalerei). PMID:20349349

Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick

2010-06-01

78

[Determination of two mouldy compounds in cork by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A simple and fast method for the simultaneous determination of two mouldy compounds, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA), in cork by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established. The analytes were extracted by ultrasonic extraction with methanol, and purified then by solid phase extraction using primary secondary amine (PSA) as solid phase. After concentrating, the sample was analyzed by GC-MS and quantified by the external standard method. The linear ranges were from 10 microg/L to 10 000 microg/L for TCA and TBA, the correlation coefficients (r2) of the calibration curves were above 0.99. The recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of TCA and TBA in different kinds of corks were investigated. The recoveries ranged from 88.4% to 97.6% with the RSDs between 1.02% and 4.58% (n = 6). The limits of detection (LODs) were 12 microg/L for TCA and 18 microg/L for TBA, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 40 microg/L for TCA and 50 microg/L for TBA. The method is suitable to the determination of TCA and TBA in corks. PMID:23189671

Tang, Xi; Liang, Ming; Li, Xiaojing; Xiong, Wenming; Tang, Hong; Jiang, Xiaoli; Chen, Jiamin

2012-07-01

79

[Analysis of fatty acid composition of Ulva pertusa Kjellm by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was established to determine the fatty acids of Ulva pertusa Kjellm. The total lipids of Ulva pertusa Kjellm were extracted using Folch method, derivatized with HCl-CH3OH solution, and analyzed by GC/MS. The fragmentation patterns and mass spectrometry characteristics of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were analyzed and concluded by regular patterns of organic mass spectrometry. According to the database index and standard controls, twenty-four fatty acid components in Ulva pertusa Kjellm were identified, and the contents of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 4,7,10,13-hexadecatetraenoic acid and 6,9,2,15-octadecatetraenoic acid accounted for 45.14% of the total fatty acids. The qualitative results of fatty acids in Ulva pertusa Kjellm show that it is very useful in identifying fatty acid methyl esters by characteristic ions, especially polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. PMID:21046785

Lou, Qiaoming; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Changhu; Sun, Zhaomin

2010-07-01

80

[Determination of hormone multi-residues in animal tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine sex hormone residues, such as hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol, etiocholan-3alpha-ol-17-one, epitestosterone, estrone, estradiol, ethinylestradiol and estriol, in animal tissues was developed. The sex hormones were extracted with acetonitrile, then cleaned-up with a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. The microwave-assisted derivatization of the target components with N,O-bis( trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) (99:1, v/v) using pyridine as solvent was performed, and then the derivatives were analyzed by GC-MS. The limits of detection were 0.1-1 microg/kg for all hormones, and the limits of quantification were 0.2-2 microg/kg. The average recoveries of sex hormones were 68.8%-93.1%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of inter- and intra-assay were 4.1%-22.3% and 3.1%-17.9%, respectively. The real sample tests showed this method can be used for the sensitive and accurate determination of multi-sex hormones residues in biological samples. PMID:19803132

Lin, Weixuan; Dong, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Tian, Miao; Yu, Ling; Zhao, Jinghong; Yang, Chunguang

2009-05-01

81

Headspace Analysis of Philippine Civet Coffee Beans Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Nose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Civet coffee, the most expensive and best coffee in the world, is an economically important export product of the Philippines. With a growing threat of food adulteration and counterfeiting, a need for quality authentication is essential to protect the integrity and strong market value of Philippine civet coffee. At present, there is no internationally accepted method of verifying whether a bean is an authentic civet coffee. This study presented a practical and promising approach to identify and establish the headspace qualitative profile of Philippine civet coffee using electronic nose (E-nose) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). E-nose analysis revealed that aroma characteristic is one of the most important quality indicators of civet coffee. The findings were supported by GC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clearly separated civet coffees from their control beans. The chromatographic fingerprints indicated that civet coffees differed with their control beans in terms of composition and concentration of individual volatile constituents.

Ongo, E.; Sevilla, F.; Antonelli, A.; Sberveglieri, G.; Montevecchi, G.; Sberveglieri, V.; de Paola, E. L.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.

2011-11-01

82

Automated thermochemolysis reactor for detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An automated sample preparation system was developed and tested for the rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for eventual use in the field. This reactor is capable of automatically processing suspected bio-threat agents to release and derivatize unique chemical biomarkers by thermochemolysis (TCM). The system automatically controls the movement of sample vials from one position to another, crimping of septum caps onto the vials, precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. The specific operations of introduction of sample vials, solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling, injection into the GC-MS system, and ejection of used vials from the system were performed manually in this study, although they can be integrated into the automated system. Manual SPME sampling is performed by following visual and audible signal prompts for inserting the fiber into and retracting it from the sampling port. A rotating carousel design allows for simultaneous sample collection, reaction, biomarker extraction and analysis of sequential samples. Dipicolinic acid methyl ester (DPAME), 3-methyl-2-butenoic acid methyl ester (a fragment of anthrose) and two methylated sugars were used to compare the performance of the autoreactor with manual TCM. Statistical algorithms were used to construct reliable bacterial endospore signatures, and 24 out of 25 (96%) endospore-forming Bacillus species were correctly identified in a statistically designed test. PMID:23601976

Li, Dan; Rands, Anthony D; Losee, Scott C; Holt, Brian C; Williams, John R; Lammert, Stephen A; Robison, Richard A; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

2013-05-01

83

[Analysis of supercritical fluid extracts of Radix caulophylli with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

To analyze the constituents in supercritical fluid CO2 extraction (SFE-CO2) of Radix caulophylli, the Radix caulophylli was extracted with SFE-CO2, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis with a DB-5MS capillary column (30 mm x 0.32 mm ID, 0.25 microm film thickness) was used. The inlet temperature was maintained at 280 degrees C. The column oven was held at 80 degrees C for 2 min, then programmed from 80 to 280 degrees C at 5 degrees C x min(-1) and, finally, held for 4 min. Helium at a constant flow rate of 2.0 mL x min(-1) was used as the carrier gas. The mass spectrometry conditions were as follows: ionization energy, 70 eV; ion source temperature, 200 degrees C. The mass selective detector was operated in the TIC mode (m/z was from 40 - 500). For the first time 49 peaks were separated and identified, the compounds were quantitatively determined by normalization method, and the identified compounds represent 97.44% of total GC peak areas. Viz, n-hexadecanoic acid (31.4%), (E, E) -9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (26.54%), (Z)-7-tetradecenal (9.4%), hexadecenoic acid (3.23%), 10-undecenal (3.22%), octadecanoic acid (2.25%), and caulophylline (1.76%) etc. The results will provide important foundation for understanding the constituents and further exploitation of Radix caulophylli. PMID:17703777

Wang, Si-Cen; Chen, Qin-Hua; Wei, Yao-Yuan; Li, Han-Wen; He, Lang-Chong

2007-05-01

84

Analysis of succinylcholine in tissues and body fluids by ion-pair extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine (SCh) has been identified and quantitated in biological material using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bisquaternary ammonium compound SCh is extracted from tissue homogenates or body fluids into dichloromethane as an ion pair with hexanitrodiphenylamine (DPA). The evaporated ion pair residue is demethylated with sodium benzenethiolate to form the corresponding tertiary amine which is identified and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a glass capillary column coated with SE 52. In the quantitative analysis deuterated SCh is used as internal standard. The instrument is focussed on m/z 58 for demethylated SCh and m/z 62 or 64 for the internal standard. Concentrations as low as 5 ng SCh iodide/g tissue or body fluid are easily detected. PMID:6578742

Nordgren, I K; Forney, R B; Carroll, F T; Holmstedt, B R; Jäderholm-Ek, I; Pettersson, B M

1983-01-01

85

Whole Microorganisms Studied by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: Significance for Extraterrestrial Life Detection Experiments 1  

PubMed Central

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric studies of two microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis var. niger, indicate that the majority of thermal fragments originate from the principal classes of bio-organic matter found in living systems such as protein and carbohydrate. Furthermore, there is a close qualitative similarity between the type of pyrolysis products found in microorganisms and the pyrolysates of other biological materials. Conversely, there is very little correlation between microbial pyrolysates and comparable pyrolysis studies of meteoritic and fossil organic matter. These observations will aid in the interpretation of a soil organic analysis experiment to be performed on the surface of Mars in 1975. The science payload of this landed mission will include a combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument as well as several “direct biology experiments” which are designed to search for extraterrestrial life. PMID:16349890

Simmonds, Peter G.

1970-01-01

86

Identification of organic acids as potential biomarkers in the urine of autistic children using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

There is a need to identify metabolic phenotypes in autism as they might each require unique approaches to prevention. Biological markers can help define autism subtypes and reveal potential therapeutic targets. The aim of the study was to identify alterations of small molecular weight compounds and to find potential biomarkers. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was employed to evaluate major metabolic changes in low molecular weight urine metabolites of 14 children with autism spectrum disorders vs. 10 non-autistic subjects. The results prove the usefulness of an identified set of 21 endogenous compounds (including 14 organic acids), whose levels are changed in diseased children. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method combined with multivariate statistical analysis techniques provide an efficient way of depicting metabolic perturbations of diseases, and may potentially be applicable as a novel strategy for the noninvasive diagnosis and treatment of autism. PMID:24565890

Ka?u?na-Czapli?ska, Joanna; ?urawicz, Ewa; Struck, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Micha?

2014-09-01

87

Comprehensive impurity profiling and quantification of Sudan III dyes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel analysis strategy was created for comprehensive qualitative and quantitative impurity profiling of the coloring agent Sudan III by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The identification of impurities in commercial Sudan III was performed by GC/MS combined with trimethylsilylation (TMS). A total of 24 impurities were identified or tentatively characterized in commercial Sudan III dyes by GC/MS and were mainly classified as phenylazo and naphtholazo analogs. Four new impurities with coplanar structures, suspected of being toxic compounds, were observed in commercial Sudan III dyes. For further identification and sensitive detection of polar impurities, an extract was trimethylsilyl-derivatized to improve the GC chromatographic properties and mass spectrometric detection sensitivity. On the basis of the impurities identified by GC/MS, pathways for the formation of the major impurities during the manufacture of Sudan III were suggested. Four impurities regulated by the EU commission and the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in Sudan III were quantified by GC/MS-scan mode. Method validation was conducted to determine linearity, precision, accuracy, and limit of quantification (LOQ). The linear dynamic range extended from 0.001 to 4.0%, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) greater than 0.997 for GC/MS. The LOQs of the impurities ranged from 2.73 to 4.39?g/g for GC/MS. Based on the established method, the levels of regulated impurities in five commercial Sudan III dyes manufactured by different chemical companies were successfully determined. This study provides very useful information for the quality control of Sudan III and evaluation of its manufacture. PMID:23726074

Hong, Ji Yeon; Park, Na Hyun; Yoo, Kyung Ho; Hong, Jongki

2013-07-01

88

Comprehensive drug screening by integrated use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Remedi HS.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated an integrated approach for the screening of drugs in biosamples consisting of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of serum or whole blood (SB/GC-MS) and of high-performance liquid chromatographic and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis of urine with the REMEDi HS Biorad system (U/REM) (Bio-rad; Segrate, MI, Italy). Urine and blood samples from 26 suspected intoxicated patients and from 22 suspected lethal poisoning cases were examined. Eighty-one of the 99 parent drugs/main metabolites detected were identified by SB/GC-MS and 54 with U/REM. Thirty-six drugs/metabolites were identified with both methods, 45 by SB/GC-MS alone, and 18 by U/REM alone. Absence of the mass spectrometry (MS) spectra in the reference library and high polarity of the analytes were the main reasons for failed identification by SB/GC-MS. Unsuccessful identifications with U/REM were basically caused by the absence of the UV spectra in the reference library or by low chromatographic and spectroscopic selectivity as in the case of barbiturates and benzodiazepines (BZD), which represented 11% and 51%, respectively, of the 45 SB/GC-MS unique identifications. Urine samples of 14 BZD-positive cases were also submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis and analyzed with the REMEDi UBz assay, and results were compared with those obtained by SB/GC-MS: 14 of the 22 identified BZD were detected with both methods, three by U/REM only, and five by SB/GC-MS only. In conclusion, the integrated use of SB/GC-MS and U/REM approaches greatly enhances the amount and quality of analytical information obtainable by applying either method alone. PMID:11360040

Valli, A; Polettini, A; Papa, P; Montagna, M

2001-06-01

89

Trace determination of antifouling compounds by on-line solid-phase extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) on-line coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry through an on-column interface has been applied to determine three antifouling compounds in water samples. Parameters affecting the SPE process and transfer step have been optimised and the method developed has been applied to the analysis of marinas, fishing ports and Ebro river water. The method

E Pocurull; L Brossa; F Borrull; R. M Marcé

2000-01-01

90

Identification and quantification of the indole alkaloid ibogaine in biological samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and highly selective analytical chemical method for measuring the indole alkaloid ibogaine in biological samples has been developed. The method utilizes organic extraction, derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride, and detection by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The deuterated analog of ibogaine, O-[Cd3]-ibogaine, was synthesized and used as an internal standard for the method. Standard curves, constructed from variable amounts of

Carol A. Gallagher; Lindsay B. Hough; Sandra M. Keefner; Ahmad Seyed-Mozaffari; Sydney Archer

1995-01-01

91

Automated storage of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry data in a relational database to facilitate compound screening and identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a database containing mass spectra from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) measurements as a tool for easy screening for multiple compounds. In this way additional compounds can be reported from the same run together with routine pesticide monitoring with little effort. The relevant analytical data from the GC–MS measurements are transferred automatically to a database. Search algorithms in

J. A. Staeb; O. J. Epema; P. van Duijn; J. Steevens; V. A. Klap; I. L. Freriks

2002-01-01

92

Solidphase microextraction for the determination of cocaine and cocaethylene in human hair by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the simultaneous determination of cocaine (COC) and cocaethylene (CE) in human hair was developed, using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) as analytical technique to identify and quantify the drugs. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used to obtain higher sensitivity. The deuterated-labeled analogues were used as internal standards. The detector response was linear for

Ana María Bermejo; Patricia López; Iván Álvarez; María Jesús Tabernero; Purificación Fernández

2006-01-01

93

Quantitation of cocaine and cocaethylene in small volumes of rat whole blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple solid phase extraction (SPE) technique combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode is described for quantitation of cocaine and cocaethylene in small samples (250 ?l) of rat whole blood. Use of (N-[2H3C])-cocaine and (N-[2H3C])-cocaethylene internal standards resulted in high sensitivity and selectivity for this analytical method. Analysis was performed using a Hewlett-Packard

Joel D. Burdick; Riccardo L. Boni; Frederick W. Fochtman

1997-01-01

94

Determination of cocaine and cocaethylene in plasma by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes a method for the simultaneous determination of cocaine and cocaethylene in plasma. It was based in the extraction of the analytes by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method showed to be very simple, rapid and sensitive. The method

Iván Álvarez; Ana María Bermejo; María Jesús Tabernero; Purificación Fernández; Patricia López

2007-01-01

95

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry of soil organic matter extracted from a Brazilian mangrove and Spanish salt marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil organic matter (SOM) extracted under different vegetation types from a Brazilian mangrove (Pai Matos Island, São Paulo State) and from three Spanish salt marshes (Betanzos Ría and Corrubedo Natural Parks, Galícia, and the Albufera Natural Park, Valencia) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS). The chemical variation was larger in SOM from the Spanish marshes than in the

Fernando Perobelli Ferreira; P. Buurman; F. Macias; X. L. Otero; R. Boluda

2009-01-01

96

Multicomponent analysis of volatile organic compounds in water by automated purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an automated purge and trap concentrator coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometric detection was evaluated by analyzing 40 volatile organic compounds of different chemical families. Compounds chosen defined as toxic for the environment and for human health were selected according to Directive 76\\/464\\/CEE. The present work includes: (i) the optimization of the purge and trap conditions, (ii) the

Elena Mart??nez; S??lvia Lacorte; Isabel Llobet; Paula Viana; Damià Barceló

2002-01-01

97

A dynamic programming approach for the alignment of signal peaks in multiple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a robust platform for the profiling of certain classes of small molecules in biological samples. When multiple samples are profiled, including replicates of the same sample and\\/or different sample states, one needs to account for retention time drifts between experiments. This can be achieved either by the alignment of chromatographic profiles prior to peak

Mark D. Robinson; David P. De Souza; Woon Wai Keen; Eleanor C. Saunders; Malcolm J. Mcconville; Terence P. Speed; Vladimir A. Likic

2007-01-01

98

Determination of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in wastewater by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the four most detected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in wastewater, namely ibuprofen (IBF), naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DFC) and ketoprofen (KFN), was developed based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Extraction from wastewater samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with C18 cartridges, while meclofenamic acid (MFC) was used as surrogate. The optimisation of

Vasilios G. Samaras; Nikolaos S. Thomaidis; Athanasios S. Stasinakis; Georgia Gatidou; Themistokles D. Lekkas

2010-01-01

99

Quantitation of Red Blood Cell Folates by Stable Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Utilizing a Folate Internal Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method of measurement of red blood cell folates utilizing a stable isotope-labeled bacterial synthesized folate internal standard. The GC-MS method exploits the fact that the common feature of all folate molecules is a p-aminobenzoic acid moiety sandwiched between a pteridine ring and a polyglutamate chain of varying length. In this method, red

C. R. Santhoshkumar; J. C. Deutsch; K. L. Hassell; N. M. Kolhouse; J. F. Kolhouse

1995-01-01

100

Determining leaching of bisphenol A from plastic containers by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographymass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to determine trace levels of bisphenol A in water and leached from plastic containers. The extraction using headspace post-derivatization with bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) vapor, following SPME was compared with extraction without derivatization. The SPME experimental procedures to extract bisphenol A in water were optimized

Chia-Min Chang; Chi-Chi Chou; Maw-Rong Lee

2005-01-01

101

Pyrolysis-high resolution gas chromatography and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of kerogens and kerogen precursors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of kerogens and kerogen precursors isolated from DSDP samples, oil shales and recent algal mats have been examined by Curie point pyrolysis-high resolution gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study has shown that the three main types of kerogens (marine, terrestrial and mixtures of both) can be characterized using these techniques. The marine (algal) kerogens yield principally aliphatic products and the terrestrial kerogens yield more aromatic and phenolic products with some n-alkanes and n-alkenes. The yields of n-alkanes and n-alkenes increase and phenols decrease with increasing geologic age, however, pyrolysis-GC cannot be used to characterize the influence of short term diagenesis on the kerogen structure.

Van De Meent, D.; Brown, S. C.; Philp, R. P.; Simoneit, B. R. T.

1980-01-01

102

Detecting Organic Compounds in Martian Soil Analogues Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary objectives of the 1976 Viking missions was to determine whether organic compounds, possibly of biological origin, were present in the Martian surface soils. The Viking gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) instruments found no evidence for any organic compounds of Martian origin above a few parts per billion in the upper 10 cm of surface soil [l], suggesting the absence of a widely distributed Martian biota. However, Benner et d. have suggested that significant amounts of non-volatile organic compounds, possibly including oxidation products of bioorganic molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS [2]. Moreover, other key organic compounds important to biology, such as amino acids and nucleobases, would also likely have been missed by the Viking GCMS as these compounds require chemical derivatization to be stable in a GC column [3]. Recent pyrolysis experiments with a Mars soil analogue that had been innoculated with Escherichia coli bacteria have shown that amino acid decomposition products (amines) and nucleobases are among the most abundant products generated after pyrolysis of the bacterial cells [4,5]. At the part per billion level (Viking GCMS detection limit), these pyrolysis products generated from several million bacterial cells per gram of Martian soil would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS instruments [4]. Analytical protocols are under development for upcoming in situ lander opportunities to target several important biological compounds including amino acids and nucleobases. For example, extraction and chemical derivatization techniques [3] are being adapted for space flight use to transform reactive or fragile molecules that would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS instruments, into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by GCMS. Recent experiments carried out at NASA Goddard have shown that using this derivatization technique all of the targeted compounds mentioned above can be separated on a GC column and detected by MS at sub-picomole (< 10(exp -l2 mole) levels. With these methods, the detection limit for amino acids, carboxylic acids and nucleobases is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than the Viking GCMS instruments for these compounds. Preliminary results using this analytical technique on a variety of Martian soil analogues will be presented.

Glavin, D. P.; Buch, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2004-01-01

103

Authentication of Organically and Conventionally Grown Basils by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Chemical Profiles  

PubMed Central

Basil plants cultivated by organic and conventional farming practices were accurately classified by pattern recognition of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) data. A novel extraction procedure was devised to extract characteristic compounds from ground basil powders. Two in-house fuzzy classifiers, i.e., the fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) and the fuzzy optimal associative memory (FOAM) for the first time, were used to build classification models. Two crisp classifiers, i.e., soft independent modeling by class analogy (SIMCA) and the partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used as control methods. Prior to data processing, baseline correction and retention time alignment were performed. Classifiers were built with the two-way data sets, the total ion chromatogram representation of data sets, and the total mass spectrum representation of data sets, separately. Bootstrapped Latin partition (BLP) was used as an unbiased evaluation of the classifiers. By using two-way data sets, average classification rates with FuRES, FOAM, SIMCA, and PLS-DA were 100 ± 0%, 94.4 ± 0.4%, 93.3 ± 0.4%, and 100 ± 0%, respectively, for 100 independent evaluations. The established classifiers were used to classify a new validation set collected 2.5 months later with no parametric changes except that the training set and validation set were individually mean-centered. For the new two-way validation set, classification rates with FuRES, FOAM, SIMCA, and PLS-DA were 100%, 83%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Thereby, the GC/MS analysis was demonstrated as a viable approach for organic basil authentication. It is the first time that a FOAM has been applied to classification. A novel baseline correction method was used also for the first time. The FuRES and the FOAM are demonstrated as powerful tools for modeling and classifying GC/MS data of complex samples and the data pretreatments are demonstrated to be useful to improve the performance of classifiers. PMID:23398171

Wang, Zhengfang; Chen, Pei; Yu, Liangli; Harrington, Peter de B.

2013-01-01

104

[Assessment of occupational exposure to ortho-toluidine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Ortho-toluidine is a carcinogen aromatic amine. It is in part eliminated as unchanged form and its urine determination allows biologic monitoriing of occupational exposure. We propose a new method simple and fast in gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, a company initiated destruction and depollution of an old industrialsite.The GS-MS method permits exposition evaluation of workers employed in demolition of a liquid SO2 plant polluted with ortho-toluidine. This plant has been stopped twenty years ago. These results are compared with results of workers without any exposure in the same company. A 5 mL urine sample spiked with internal standard (ortho-toluidine D9) is extracted with hexane. Derivatisation is achieved with anhydrous pentafluoropropionic acid during 30 min at 60 degrees C. Chromatographic separation is performed on a BPX5MS column (25 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 microm; SGE). Initial column temperature (60 degrees C) is hold 3 min then is raised to 300 degrees C at 25 degrees C/min. Detection is performed with mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionisation with methane. Acquisition is performed in single ion monitoring. Identification ions are 233 ion (m/z) and 213 ion (m/z) with 233 (m/z) used for quantification. Linearity of the method is verified between 0.1 and 100 microg/L. The limit of detection is 0.02 micro/L. Repeatability and intermediate fidelity are satisfactory (CV < 9%). For unexposed workers, urinary concentrations of ortho-toluidine ranged between 0.17 microg/L and 2.46 microg/g creatinine. Urinary concentrations for exposed workers ranged between 26.14 and 462.00 microg/g creatinine and after new action of protection between 2.35 et 20.11 microg/g creatinine. This new GC-MS method is specific and sensitive and allows for urinary determination of ortho-toluidine. Results showed that this method is adapted for biomonitoring as much for unexposed workers to this aromatic amine as for exposed workers. PMID:16700156

Labat, L; Thomas, J; Dehon, B; Humbert, L; Leleu, B; Nisse, C; Lhermitte, M

2006-01-01

105

Plasma metabolomic profiling of dairy cows affected with ketosis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Ketosis is an important problem for dairy cows` production performance. However, it is still little known about plasma metabolomics details of dairy ketosis. Results A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences in cows that had clinical ketosis (CK, n=22), subclinical ketosis (SK, n=32), or were clinically normal controls (NC, n=22). The endogenous plasma metabolome was measured by chemical derivatization followed by GC/MS, which led to the detection of 267 variables. A two-sample t-test of 30, 32, and 13 metabolites showed statistically significant differences between SK and NC, CK and NC, and CK and SK, respectively. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolic patterns of both CK and SK were mostly similar, with the exception of a few differences. The development of CK and SK involved disturbances in many metabolic pathways, mainly including fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. A diagnostic model arbitrary two groups was constructed using OPLS-DA and receiver–operator characteristic curves (ROC). Multivariate statistical diagnostics yielded the 19 potential biomarkers for SK and NC, 31 for CK and NC, and 8 for CK and SK with area under the curve (AUC) values. Our results showed the potential biomarkers from CK, SK, and NC, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, even sitosterol and vitamin E isomers, etc. 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were closely associated with metabolic perturbations in ketosis as Glc, BHBA and NEFA for dealing with metabolic disturbances of ketosis in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to explain changes of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, methylmalonic acid, sitosterol and ?-tocopherol in CK and SK, and to reveal differences between CK and SK. Conclusion Our study shows that some new biomarkers of ketosis from plasma may find new metabolic changes to have clinically new utility and significance in diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention of ketosis in the future. PMID:24070026

2013-01-01

106

Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of propolis volatile compounds.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel and efficient method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed for the analysis of propolis volatile compounds. The HS-SPME procedure, whose experimental parameters were properly optimized, was carried out using a 100 ?m polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. The GC-MS analyses were performed on a HP-5 MS cross-linked 5% diphenyl-95% dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm I.D., 1.00 ?m film thickness), under programmed-temperature elution. Ninety-nine constituents were identified using this technique in the samples of raw propolis collected from different Italian regions. The main compounds detected include benzoic acid (0.87-30.13%) and its esters, such as benzyl benzoate (0.16-13.05%), benzyl salicylate (0.34-1.90%) and benzyl cinnamate (0.34-3.20%). Vanillin was detected in most of the samples analyzed in this study (0.07-5.44%). Another relevant class of volatile constituents is represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, such as ?-cadinene (1.29-13.31%), ?-cadinene (1.36-8.85%) and ?-muurolene (0.78-6.59%), and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, such as ?-eudesmol (2.33-12.83%), T-cadinol (2.73-9.95%) and ?-cadinol (4.84-9.74%). Regarding monoterpene hydrocarbons, they were found to be present at low level in the samples analyzed in this study, with the exception of one sample from Southern Italy, where ?-pinene was the most abundant constituent (13.19%). The results obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS were also compared with those of hydrodistillation (HD) coupled with GC-MS. The HS-SPME-GC-MS method developed in this study allowed us to determine the chemical fingerprint of propolis volatile constituents, thus providing a new and reliable tool for the complete characterization of this biologically active apiary product. PMID:23807002

Pellati, Federica; Prencipe, Francesco Pio; Benvenuti, Stefania

2013-10-01

107

Detection of aldehydes in lung cancer cell culture by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization  

E-print Network

Aldehydes in lung cancer cell culture have been investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization. In this study, the poly(dimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used...

Shan, Guangqing

2007-09-17

108

Characterization of human expired breath by solid phase microextraction and analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and differential mobility spectrometry  

E-print Network

Breath analysis has potential to become a new medical diagnostic modality. In this thesis, a method for the analysis of human expired breath was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. It was subsequently ...

Merrick, William (William F. W.)

2005-01-01

109

The use of stable isotopes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the identification of steroid metabolites in the equine  

SciTech Connect

Stable isotope gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been used successfully in the elucidation of structures of urinary steroid metabolites in the horse and in the identification of metabolites isolated from in vivo perfusion and in vitro incubation studies using equine tissue preparations. Deuterium-labeled steroids, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol have been synthesized by base-catalyzed isotope exchange methods and the products characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (16,16(-2)H2)Dehydroepiandrosterone (plus radiolabeled dehydroepiandrosterone) was perfused into a testicular artery of a pony stallion and was shown to be metabolized into 2H2-labeled testosterone, 4-androstenedione, isomers of 5-androstene-3,17-diol, 19-hydroxytestosterone, and 19-hydroxy-4-androstenedione. In further studies, equine testicular minces have been incubated with 2H2-labeled and radiolabeled dehydroepiandrosterone and 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The metabolites, whose identity was confirmed by stable isotope gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, proved the interconversion of the two substrates, as well as formation of testosterone and 4-androstenedione. The aromatization of dehydroepiandrosterone was also confirmed, together with the formation of an isomer of 5(10)-estrene-3,17-diol from both substrates showing 19-demethylation without concomitant aromatization. In studies of the feto-placental unit, the allantochorion was shown to aromatize (2H5)testosterone to (2H4)estradiol, the loss of one 2H from the substrate being consistent with aromatization of the A ring. The formation of 6-hydroxyestradiol was also confirmed in this study. The same technique has been valuable in determining the structure of two metabolites of nandrolone isolated from horse urine.

Houghton, E.; Dumasia, M.C.; Teale, P.; Smith, S.J.; Cox, J.; Marshall, D.; Gower, D.B. (Horseracing Forensic Laboratory, Newmarket, Suffolk (England))

1990-10-01

110

Determination of cocaine and cocaethylene in plasma by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present paper describes a method for the simultaneous determination of cocaine and cocaethylene in plasma. It was based in the extraction of the analytes by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method showed to be very simple, rapid and sensitive. The method was validated for the two compounds, including linearity (range 25-1000 ng/mL) and the main precision parameters. It was applied to ten plasma samples from cocaine and alcohol users, obtaining positive results in all cases. PMID:16935038

Alvarez, Iván; Bermejo, Ana María; Tabernero, María Jesús; Fernández, Purificación; López, Patricia

2007-01-01

111

Application of capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry/computer techniques to synoptic survey of organic material in bed sediment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bed sediment sample taken from an area impacted by heavy industrial activity was analyzed for organic compounds of environmental significance. Extraction was effected on a Soxhlet apparatus using a freeze-dried sample. The Soxhlet extract was fractionated by silica gel micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic compounds was accomplished by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. More than 50 compounds were identified; these include saturated hydrocarbons, olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes and ketones. The role of bed sediments as a source or sink for organic pollutants is discussed. ?? 1981.

Steinheimer, T.R.; Pereira, W.E.; Johnson, S.M.

1981-01-01

112

PRECISION AND ACCURACY IN THE DETERMINATION OF ORGANICS IN WATER BY FUSED SILICA CAPILLARY COLUMN GAS CHROMOTOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AND PACKED COLUMN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Two general methods for the identification and measurement of organic compounds in water are compared. One method employs packed column chromatography and the other fused silica capillary column chromatography. The two gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods use diff...

113

Laboratory Identification of the Nerve Gas Hydrolysis Products Alkyl Methylphosphonic Acids and Methylphosphonic Acid, by Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry after tert-Butyldimethylsilylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alky lm ethylphosphonic acids (RMPAs) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA), both nerve gas hydrol- ysis products, can be identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We adopted tert- butyldimethylsilylation (TBDMS) as a derivatization technique for the identification of these products by GC-MS. We found that it was difficult to detect RMPAs and MPA from evidence specimens such as soils and body fluids,

Mieko Kanamori-Kataoka; Yasuo Seto

2008-01-01

114

Identification of wild collected mosquito vectors of diseases using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Thirty-three species of mosquitoes have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several of these mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l., Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedimorphus vexans arabiensis (Patton) are known vectors of human and animal diseases. In this study, the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of eight mosquito species using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were analyzed. Wild collected fourth-instar larvae were reared, and single, newly emerged, unfed adult females were used for the analysis. A total of 146-160 peaks were detected from the cuticular extracts by gas chromatography. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD Post Hoc test was used to test for quantitative differences in relative hydrocarbon quantity. In addition, a linear regression model was applied using Enter method to determine the diagnostic peaks for the eight mosquito specimens. The ANOVA test indicated that relative peaks were significant (P < 0.05) when selected pairs of peaks were compared. Also, seven compounds showed qualitative differences among the five mosquito vectors tested. The classes of constituents present were n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, trimethylalkanes, alkenes, branched aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and esters. These compounds have a carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 18 carbons. The most abundant compound in all adult mosquito specimens was n-hexylacrylate [retention time (RT) 6.73 min], which was not detected in Cx. pipiens. In Cx. pipiens, the most abundant peak was benzaldehyde (RT 2.98 min). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a suitable method to identify adult mosquitoes, especially from focal areas of public health concern such as Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. This method allows a wide range of adult collected material to be identified with high accuracy. PMID:24259205

Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine; Al Othman, Zeid A; Sallam, Mohamed F

2013-11-01

115

Determination of some volatile compounds in alcoholic beverage by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography - mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile composition of alcoholic beverage was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Some volatile compounds, such as alcohols, esters, terpenes and other are mainly responsible for the flavor of fortified wines and their amounts specify the quality of the alcoholic beverages. From this perspective it is interesting to develop a rapid, selective and sensitive analytical method suitable for simultaneous quantification of the main molecules being responsible for the organoleptic characteristic of alcoholic beverages. Vermouth fortified drink was analyzed in order to characterize the volatile profile. Using the HS-SPME/GC-MS a number of twenty-six volatile compounds from a commercial market alcoholic beverage were identified. The most abundant compounds were m-thymol, o-thymol and eugenol, alongside of the ethyl ester compounds.

Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Feher, I.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

2012-02-01

116

Analysis of volatile components in a Chinese fish sauce, Fuzhou Yulu, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry*  

PubMed Central

Volatile components of Fuzhou Yulu, a Chinese fish sauce, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and two pretreatment methods, i.e., purge and trap (P&T) GC-MS and ethyl acetate extraction followed by GC-MS, were compared. P&T-GC-MS method determined 12 components, including sulfur-containing constituents (such as dimethyl disulfide), nitrogen-containing constituents (such as pyrazine derivatives), aldehydes and ketones. Ethyl acetate extraction followed by GC-MS method detected 10 components, which were mainly volatile organic acids (such as benzenepropanoic acid) and esters. Neither of the two methods detected alcohols or trimethylamine. This study offers an important reference to determine volatile flavor components of traditional fish sauce through modern analysis methods. PMID:19067466

Yang, Yuan-fan; Chen, Shen-ru; Ni, Hui; Ye, Xing-qian

2008-01-01

117

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of biological particulates collected during recent space shuttle missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological particulates collected on air filters during shuttle missions (STS-40 and STS-42) were identified using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). A method was developed for identifying the atmospheric particles and their sources through the analysis of standard materials and the selection of "marker" compounds specific to the particle type. Pyrolysis spectra of biological standards were compared with those of airborne particles collected during two space shuttle missions; marker compounds present in the shuttle particle spectra were matched with those of the standards to identify the source of particles. Particles of 0,5--1-mm diameter and weighing as little as 40 micrograms could be identified using this technique. The Py-GC/MS method identified rat food and soilless plant-growth media as two sources of particles collected from the shuttle atmosphere during flight.

Matney, M. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

1994-01-01

118

Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of MVOCs from moldy building materials.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction (GC-MS/SPME) was applied to identify microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) in water-damaged, mold-infested building materials (gypsum board papers (n=2), mineral wool, and masonite) and in cultivated molds (Aspergillus penicillioides, Stachybotrys chartarum, and Chaetomium globosum). Three SPME fibers (65-microm PDMS-DVB, 75-microm Carboxen-PDMS, and 70-microm Carbowax-stableflex) designed for automated injection were used of which the latter showed best performance. A number of previously reported MVOCs were detected both in the building materials and the cultivated molds. In addition, methyl benzoate was identified both in the S. chartarum and A. penicillioides cultures and in the building materials. SPME combined with GC-MS may be a useful method for the determination of MVOCs emitted from mold-infested building materials. PMID:12531501

Wady, Loay; Bunte, Annicka; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart

2003-03-01

119

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of biological particulates collected during recent space shuttle missions.  

PubMed

Biological particulates collected on air filters during shuttle missions (STS-40 and STS-42) were identified using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). A method was developed for identifying the atmospheric particles and their sources through the analysis of standard materials and the selection of "marker" compounds specific to the particle type. Pyrolysis spectra of biological standards were compared with those of airborne particles collected during two space shuttle missions; marker compounds present in the shuttle particle spectra were matched with those of the standards to identify the source of particles. Particles of 0,5--1-mm diameter and weighing as little as 40 micrograms could be identified using this technique. The Py-GC/MS method identified rat food and soilless plant-growth media as two sources of particles collected from the shuttle atmosphere during flight. PMID:11536649

Matney, M L; Limero, T F; James, J T

1994-09-15

120

Characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of diterpenoid resinous materials in Roman-age amphorae from northern Greece.  

PubMed

A combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach has been used for the characterization of two lumps of resin and 17 adsorbed residues on Roman-age vessels, mainly amphorae, from northern Greece. The data show that a diterpenic resin from plants of the Pinacae family is the main component of the tarry material associated with the analyzed archaeological samples. The identification and mass spectrometric fragmentation of several characteristic diterpenoid biomarkers is discussed. The abundance of secondary products identified in the archaeological samples suggests that the oxidative degradation of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid to aromatic products was the main pathway. Of particular interest is the presence of characteristic saturated abietane hydrocarbons in one sample, which indicate that a reductive process also occurred on a small scale. The overall similarity in the composition of the residues suggests the common use of pine tar as a waterproofing and sealing agent at different sites in northern Greece during the Roman period. PMID:22274948

Dimitrakoudi, Evagelia A; Mitkidou, Sofia A; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Kotsakis, Kostas; Stephanidou-Stephanatou, Julia; Stratis, John A

2011-01-01

121

Identification of nonecdysteroid steroids in hemolymph of both male and female Astacus leptodactylus (Crustacea) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The O-pentafluorobenzyloxime (OPFB)-heptafluorobutyrylester (HFB) derivatives of hemolymph steroid extracts from both male and female Astacus leptodactylus were subjected to negative ion chemical ionization and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (NCI/GC-MS). Five nonecdysteroid steroids, namely pregnenolone, 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, testosterone, cholesterol, and 6 beta-hydroxyprogesterone were identified. With selected ion monitoring (SIM), indications were found for the presence of four more steroids: androstenedione, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone. The presence of 6 beta-hydroxyprogesterone could only be demonstrated in the female hemolymph. With the technique used, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and estrogens could not be detected in male or female hemolymph extracts. PMID:2937682

Ollevier, F; De Clerck, D; Diederik, H; De Loof, A

1986-02-01

122

Validation of a procedure for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of cocaine and metabolites in pericardial fluid.  

PubMed

A method is described for the simultaneous quantification of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and cocaethylene in pericardial fluid. Pericardial fluid samples from autopsy casework involving cocaine-related deaths and deaths unrelated to drug abuse were collected. The extraction of cocaine and its metabolites was performed using Bond-Elut Certify columns. Pericardial fluid samples were adjusted to pH 7 and applied to the pre-conditioned cartridges. After the washing steps, compounds were eluted with a mixture of chloroform/isopropanol (80:20) with 2% ammonium hydroxide. The dry extracts were derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and hexafluoroisopropanol and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using electron impact ionization and selective ion monitoring acquisition. Deuterated internal standards were used. The analytical method developed was linear, sensitive, selective, accurate, and sufficiently precise to be applied routinely in forensic toxicology. In this study, the procedure has been successfully applied to a number of forensic cases involving cocaine intoxication. PMID:17536741

Contreras, María Teresa; González, Marisa; González, Susana; Ventura, Rosa; Valverde, Juan Luis; Hernández, Antonio F; Pla, Antonio; Vingut, Albert; Segura, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

2007-03-01

123

Determination of cocaine and cocaethylene in urine by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate recent cocaine exposure or its coingestion with ethanol, a simple and sensitive solid-phase microextraction (SPME) procedure for determination of cocaine and cocaethylene in urine was developed and validated. A polydimethylsiloxane fibre (100 microm) was submersed in the urine sample for 20 min under magnetic stirring after alkalinization with solid buffer (NaHCO(3):K(2)CO(3), 2:1). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The limits of quantification were 5.0 ng/mL for both analytes. Good inter- and intra-assay precision was also observed (coefficient of variation <9%). PMID:16583460

Yonamine, Mauricio; Saviano, Alessandro Morais

2006-10-01

124

A new extraction technique for in situ analyses of amino and carboxylic acids on Mars by gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to target key organic compounds in the Martian regolith using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we have developed a new extraction procedure coupled with chemical derivatization. This new technique was tested on a Mars analog soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert in Chile. We found that amino and carboxylic acids can be extracted from the Atacama soil in a 1:1 mixture of isopropanol and water after ultrasonic treatment for 30 min. The extracted organic compounds were then derivatized in a single-step reaction using N-methyl- N-( tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) as the silylating agent in order to transform these compounds into volatile species that can then be detected by GC-MS. We are currently developing a miniaturized reaction cell suited for spaceflight, where both organic extraction and chemical derivatization processes can take place in a single step.

Buch, A.; Glavin, D. P.; Sternberg, R.; Szopa, C.; Rodier, C.; Navarro-González, R.; Raulin, F.; Cabane, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

2006-12-01

125

Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost.  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung. PMID:23998948

Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

2013-12-01

126

Characterization of novel varietal floral hop aromas by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

PubMed

In this study, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were optimized and implemented to investigate the volatile composition of novel floral hop essences prepared from four German aroma hop varieties. In total, 91 different constituents were assigned, which were further grouped into monoterpene hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, aldehydes, furans, and oxygenated and nonoxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most volatiles belong to the ester group, whereas the monoterpene hydrocarbon ?-myrcene appears to be the predominant compound in all hop oil preparations investigated. Furthermore, as demonstrated by principal component analysis, varietal floral hop essences are clearly discriminated on the basis of their characteristic volatile composition. Via GC-olfactometry on the floral essence variety Spalter Select, ?-myrcene and 2-undecanone were identified as the most potent odorants. Several hop oil constituents were reported for the first time as impact odorants of hop aroma. PMID:23186043

Van Opstaele, Filip; De Causmaecker, Brecht; Aerts, Guido; De Cooman, Luc

2012-12-19

127

Discrimination and identification of regioisomeric ?-keto analogues of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very recently, ?-keto derivatives of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs) have appeared on the illicit drug market. In the\\u000a present study, we synthesized three isomers of ?-keto derivatives of MDAs, 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)butan-1-one\\u000a (bk-MBDB), 2-ethylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl) propan-1-one (bk-MDEA), and 2-dimethylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propan-1-one\\u000a (bk-MDDMA), and measured their electron ionization mass spectra without and with trifluoroacetyl (TFA) derivatization using\\u000a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although the spectral profiles of the three

Kei Zaitsu; Munehiro Katagi; Hiroe T. Kamata; Akihiro Miki; Hitoshi Tsuchihashi

2008-01-01

128

Identification and quantitation of glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three tobacco types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three different types of tobacco were investigated. After isolation of extracts obtained by Amberlite XAD-2 adsorption and ethyl acetate elution, glycosides were analyzed after enzymatic hydrolysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or directly after trifluoroacetylated (TFA) derivatization by GC-MS in electron ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode. In total 21 bound aglycones were identified by ?-glucosidase hydrolysis. These aglycones mainly consisted of C13-norisoprenoids, aromatic components and sesquiterpenoids. Additionally, with the aid of enzymatic hydrolysis, 15 ?-d-glucopyranosides and 1 ?-d-rutinoside were tentatively identified by TFA derivatization. TFA method was validated by repeatability and successfully employed to analyze different types of tobacco. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out on identified glycoside variables to visualize the difference between the tobacco types and the relationship between the glycoside variables and the tobacco types was established. PMID:24011421

Cai, Kai; Xiang, Zhangmin; Pan, Wenjie; Zhao, Huina; Ren, Zhu; Lei, Bo; Geng, Zhaoliang

2013-10-11

129

Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in biosolids using continuous ultrasound-assisted pressurized solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An efficient continuous pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) method assisted by ultrasound energy was developed for the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from biosolids. Analytes were determined in the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. A screening-type experimental design pointing to dynamic extraction time as the only significant variable in the extraction process was carried out to optimize PCB extraction from the biosolids. Final selected conditions for PSE were extraction temperature, 50 degrees C; static extraction time, 0 min; and dynamic extraction time, 30 min. Recovery of the PSE method was 73%, which was significantly improved (103%) when PSE was assisted with 30-min ultrasound (US-PSE). Precision of the overall method, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 3.6% and the detection limit was 0.037 mg/kg. The method was applied to the determination of PCBs in biosolids from different water treatment plants from central Chile. PMID:18452928

Rocco, Gabriela; Toledo, Carla; Ahumada, Inés; Sepúlveda, Betsabet; Cañete, Alvaro; Richter, Pablo

2008-06-01

130

Comparison of methods for extraction of ethyl carbamate from alcoholic beverages in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

A procedure to analyze ethyl carbamate (EC) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was optimized and validated. Deuterated EC (d5-EC) was added to the samples as an internal standard followed by extraction with polystyrene crosslinked polystyrene cartridges using minimal volumes of ethyl acetate. The EC response was measured in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode and found to be linear in the range between the limit of quantitation (10 micro/L) and 1000 microg/L. EC recoveries varied from 92 to 112%, with the average value of 100 +/- 8%. The procedure compared well (r2 = 0.9970) with the existing AOAC Official Method with the added benefits of minimal solvent usage and reduced matrix interferences. PMID:16915844

Mirzoian, Armen; Mabud, Abdul

2006-01-01

131

Quantitation of trimethyl amine by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a base-modified column.  

PubMed

Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been successfully applied to the analysis of the highly volatile species trimethyl amine (TMA). TMA quantitation in fiberglass insulation resins (ultimately used by the automotive and building products industries) is of interest because of its highly odoriferous nature. The release of TMA from fiberglass insulation products is the principal component responsible for the "fishy" odor encountered in automobiles. Currently, the industry standard for the analysis of TMA involves injecting an aqueous insulation extract into the GC-MS equipped with a polyethylene glycol column. Several problems inherent in this analysis prohibit consistent performance and enhance the possibility for wide variations in the quantitative results. This article reports the development of a new approach to the quantitation of TMA from fiberglass insulation between the levels of 1 and 150 ppm. PMID:12137206

Bir, David; Tutin, Kim

2002-07-01

132

Identification and quantitative analysis of cytokinins from shoot apices of Mercurialis ambigua by gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry computer system.  

PubMed

This paper describes the identification and quantitative analysis of cytokinins from natural sources (150-500 g fresh weight) at the submicrogram level. It summarizes an improved purification procedure with high resolution power that permits the detection of Trimethylsilylderivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A comparison of the intensity of a characteristic ion in the mass spectrum of suitable standard (5 ?g) and theintensity of the same ion in the mass spectrum of the extraction product permitted precise quantitative analysis. The method has been used to determine zeatin, trans- and cis-ribosylzeatin, and ?(2)-isopentenyladenosine concentrations in extracts from female and monoecious Mercurialis ambigua apices. It has been proved that differences appear in the endogenous cytokinin pools of monoecious and female individuals. PMID:24408681

Dauphin, B; Teller, G; Durand, B

1979-01-01

133

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach for the characterization of goat milk compared with cow milk.  

PubMed

In this work, the polar metabolite pool of commercial caprine milk was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical data analysis. Experimental data were compared with those of cow milk and the discriminant analysis correctly classified milk. By the same means, differences due to heat treatments (UHT or pasteurization) on milk samples were also investigated. Results of the 2 discriminant analyses were combined, with the aim of finding the discriminant metabolites unique for each class and shared by 2 classes. Valine and glycine were specific to goat milk, talose and malic acid to cow milk, and hydroxyglutaric acid to pasteurized samples. Glucose and fructose were shared by cow milk and UHT-treated samples, whereas ribose was shared by pasteurized and goat milk. Other discriminant variables were not attributed to specific metabolites. Furthermore, with the aim to reduce food fraud, the issue of adulteration of caprine milk by addition of cheaper bovine milk has been also addressed. To this goal, mixtures of goat and cow milk were prepared by adding the latter in a range from 0 to 100% (vol/vol) and studied by multivariate regression analysis. The error in the level of cow milk detectable was approximately 5%. These overall results demonstrated that, through the combined approach of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical data analysis, we were able to discriminate between milk typologies on the basis of their polar metabolite profiles and to propose a new analytical method to easily discover food fraud and to protect goat milk uniqueness. The use of appropriate visualization tools improved the interpretation of multivariate model results. PMID:25108860

Scano, Paola; Murgia, Antonio; Pirisi, Filippo M; Caboni, Pierluigi

2014-10-01

134

Spectrophotometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of a larger set of virtual lab experiments, this site specifically deals with the fundamentals of spectrophotometry The user may explore: 1) Absorbance Spectrum 2) Effect of Cell Path Length; 3)Effect of Concentration; 4) Beer's Law (where absorbance as a function of concentration provides insight on the molar absorptivity); 5) The construction of a calibration curve enables Analysis of an Unknown Solution.

Blauch, David N.

135

Detection of bromisovalum from the bone marrow of skeletonized human remains: a case report with a comparison between gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS).  

PubMed

We report a case of totally skeletonized human remains in which a considerable amount of a hypnotic, bromisovalum (bromovalerylurea), was detected from the bone marrow. The unknown skeletal remains were found in a bush, together with empty vials of bromisovalum and a water bottle. The body was identified as a 46-year-old male, who had died about seven months previously. There was no evidence of trauma. The dried bone marrow of both femurs was separately collected and toxicologically analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Bromisovalum was identified from the femurs. The concentration along with the circumstantial evidence suggested possible contribution of bromisovalum to the fatality. However, a considerable quantitative difference was observed between the left and right femur, showing significant post-mortem interference to toxicological evidence. The result showed that multiple sampling at least would be required for quantitative evaluation of post-mortem toxicological evidence. Moreover, the diagnostic value should also be considered with caution in relation to the load to bone marrow ratio of each drug concentration. PMID:9264232

Maeda, H; Oritani, S; Nagai, K; Tanaka, T; Tanaka, N

1997-07-01

136

Thermal Extraction?Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography?Mass Spectrometry with Heart-Cutting for Nitrogen Heterocyclics in Biomass Burning Aerosols  

EPA Science Inventory

A thermal extraction-two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TE-GC-MS) method (with heart-cutting) is developed for quantitatively assessing nitrogen (N-bearing organic species (e.g., pyrrole, pyridine, nitriles, and amines) in aerosols emitted from agricultural fir...

137

AUTOMATED GEL-PERMEATION SYSTEM FOR REMOVAL OF LIPIDS IN GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF FATTY TISSUES FOR XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The interference of natural lipids in gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of xenobiotic chemicals in fatty tissue can be substantially reduced using gel-permeation chromatographic removal of the lipids. This paper presents an inexpensive controller which can be used wi...

138

Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

2012-01-01

139

Solidphase extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry determination of kaempferol and quercetin in human urine after consumption of Ginkgo biloba tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for the quantification of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol in human urine using a solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Deuterated internal standards of the analytes were spiked into the samples prior to extraction. The limit of detection of the method was ca. 10 pg on column and precision of the method for quantification

D. G. Watson; E. J. Oliveira

1999-01-01

140

Dehydration of Methylcyclohexanol Isomers in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory and Product Analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dehydrations of "cis"- and "trans"-2-methylcyclohexanol mixtures were carried out with 60% sulfuric acid at 78-80 [degrees]C as a function of time and the products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. The compounds identified in the reaction mixtures include alkenes, 1-, 3-, and 4-methylcyclohexenes and…

Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L.

2011-01-01

141

Development and analytical validation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the assessment of gastrointestinal permeability and intestinal absorptive capacity in dogs  

E-print Network

administration. However, urine collection is difficult and uncomfortable. A protocol based on the analysis of blood samples would be easier to perform. Thus, the aim of the first part of this project was to develop and validate a new gas chromatography-mass...

Rodriguez Frausto, Heriberto

2009-05-15

142

Comparison of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of fatty and resin acids in paper mill process waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the performance of liquid chromatography (LC)–atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI)–mass spectrometry (MS) and gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry techniques for the determination of resin and fatty acids from paper mill process waters was carried out. These compounds are responsible for the high toxicity of paper mill effluents and little research has been carried out regarding their analysis

A Latorre; A Rigol; S Lacorte; D Barceló

2003-01-01

143

Accuracy profile validation of a new analytical method for propane measurement using headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Propane can be responsible for several types of lethal intoxication and explosions. Quantifying it would be very helpful to determine in some cases the cause of death. Some gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of propane measurements do already exist. The main drawback of these GC-MS methods described in the literature is the absence of a specific propane internal standard necessary for accurate quantitative analysis. The main outcome of the following study was to provide an innovative Headspace-GC-MS method (HS-GC-MS) applicable to the routine determination of propane concentration in forensic toxicology laboratories. To date, no stable isotope of propane is commercially available. The development of an in situ generation of standards is thus presented. An internal-labeled standard gas (C?DH?) is generated in situ by the stoichiometric formation of propane by the reaction of deuterated water (D?O) with Grignard reagent propylmagnesium chloride (C?H?MgCl). The method aims to use this internal standard to quantify propane concentrations and, therefore, to obtain precise measurements. Consequently, a complete validation with an accuracy profile according to two different guidelines, the French Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Techniques (SFSTP) and the Gesellschaft für toxikologische und Forensische Chemie (GTFCh), is presented. PMID:24327620

Smith, Fiona; Augsburger, Marc; Varlet, Vincent

2014-03-01

144

[Determination of benzene series in marine sediment by headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method was developed for the determination of benzene series (BTEX) in marine sediment by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The conditions for extraction and gas chromatography, such as the amount of salt added, equilibrium time, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time and injection temperature, were optimized. The analytes were quantitatively analyzed by the internal standard method. The results showed that the linear correlation coefficients of BTEX compounds were from 0.995 to 0.999 in the range of 0.500-20.0 ng/g. The detection limits of this method were from 0.081 8 to 0. 175 ng/g, with the RSDs of inter- and intra-day of 1.2%-3.6% (n = 5) and 0.4%-6.3% (n = 3). The average recoveries under two different spiked concentrations (2.0 and 15.0 ng) were 61.7%-79.5% and 77.1%-85.6% with RSDs of 5.4%-9.6% and 3.9%-7.6% (n = 5), respectively. This method is quick, sensitive, simple, accurate and reproducible. It can be used to analyze the marine sediment samples with trace BTEX. PMID:24669715

Wu, Jinhao; Wang, Zhaohui; Wang, Bai; Zhou, Zunchun; Wang, Nianbin

2013-12-01

145

Development of thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a rapid method for ambient particulate characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD GC/MS) method for air particulate matter (PM) analysis of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds was investigated. This technique uses a specially designed microdesorption GC inlet utilizing an inductively heated ferromagnetic foil with a Curie point temperature suitable for desorption, which can accommodate microgram amounts of material deposited on a thin strip of quartz fiber filter. Liquid or solid samples can be rapidly desorbed within 10 s at 315°C, followed by 30--40 min of chromatography time. The results obtained by this technique were found to be statistically equivalent to those obtained by the conventional solvent extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SX GC/MS) method for analysis of aromatic and n alkane standards, single source soot particles, and PM 10 filter samples. Correlations between injecting an extract, desorbing an extract, and desorbing particles averaged R = 0.94, with a three way correlation averaging R = 0.97. High volume sampling conducted at 12 spatially distributed sites located along the US/Mexican border of the El Paso/Juarez metroplex supplied 24h PM 10 filters for an investigation combining thermal desorption with a rapid online chemical derivatization procedure, and multivariate methods of source attribution using principal component and canonical correlation analysis of the resultant chemical markers. Four major combustion related PM emission sources were revealed at these sites: automotive, waste burning, biomass burning and meat cooking. A second investigation conducted in the same area used mediumvolume sampling to collect 2 h timeresolved PM 10 receptor samples for TD GC/MS analysis. Additionally, 2 h samples for inorganic analysis, multichannel particle size distribution measurements, and meteorological data were collected enabling generation of circadian PM multicharacterization profiles. Factor analysis based receptor modeling using principal component analysis of the mixed characterization data resulted in the deconvolution of temporally overlapping PM events, trends and gradients. Results of the temporally resolved PM receptor sampling profiles confirmed the results of the spatially distributed PM receptor sampling in that the major sources were attributed to automotive traffic, biomass and waste combustion. However, in the time resolved data, urban dust events---in particular a large evening PM peak---were seen to play a more prominent role.

Sheya, Sue Anne N.

146

Comparison of the limulus amebocyte lysate test and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) in airborne dust from poultry-processing industries.  

PubMed Central

The lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) content in airborne dust samples from three different poultry slaughterhouses was determined with both the chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of lipopolysaccharide-derived 3-hydroxy fatty acids. Gram-negative cell walls were also measured by using two-dimensional gas chromatography/electron-capture analysis of diaminopimelic acid originating from the peptidoglycan. The correlation between the results of the Limulus assay and those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of the lipopolysaccharide content in the dust samples was poor, whereas a good correlation was obtained between lipopolysaccharide and diaminopimelic acid concentrations with the gas chromatographic methods. The results suggest that it is predominantly cell-wall-dissociated lipopolysaccharides that are measured with the Limulus assay, whereas the gas chromatographic methods allow determination of total concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, including Limulus-inactive lipopolysaccharide, gram-negative cells, and cellular debris. PMID:2187411

Sonesson, A; Larsson, L; Schütz, A; Hagmar, L; Hallberg, T

1990-01-01

147

Performance and optimization of a combustion interface for isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions and systems for on-line combustion of effluents from capillary gas chromatographic columns and for removal of water vapor from product streams were tested. Organic carbon in gas chromatographic peaks 15 s wide and containing up to 30 nanomoles of carbon was quantitatively converted to CO2 by tubular combustion reactors, 200 x 0.5 mm, packed with CuO or NiO. No auxiliary source of O2 was required because oxygen was supplied by metal oxides. Spontaneous degradation of CuO limited the life of CuO reactors at T > 850 degrees C. Since NiO does not spontaneously degrade, its use might be favored, but Ni-bound carbon phases form and lead to inaccurate isotopic results at T < 1050 degrees C if gas-phase O2 is not added. For all compounds tested except CH4, equivalent isotopic results are provided by CuO at 850 degrees C, NiO + O2 (gas-phase mole fraction, 10(-3)) at 1050 degrees C and NiO at 1150 degrees C. The combustion interface did not contribute additional analytical uncertainty, thus observed standard deviations of 13C/12C ratios were within a factor of 2 of shot-noise limits. For combustion and isotopic analyses of CH4, in which quantitative combustion required T approximately 950 degrees C, NiO-based systems are preferred, and precision is approximately 2 times lower than that observed for other analytes. Water must be removed from the gas stream transmitted to the mass spectrometer or else protonation of CO2 will lead to inaccuracy in isotopic analyses. Although thresholds for this effect vary between mass spectrometers, differential permeation of H2O through Nafion tubing was effective in both cases tested, but the required length of the Nafion membrane was 4 times greater for the more sensitive mass spectrometer.

Merritt, D. A.; Freeman, K. H.; Ricci, M. P.; Studley, S. A.; Hayes, J. M.

1995-01-01

148

Multiresidue determination of pesticides in apples and pears by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a rapid, specific and sensitive multiresidue method for the routine analysis of several classes of pesticides used for the treatment of apples and pears, involving a rapid extraction procedure at pH 4.5 with a mixture of acetone–dichloromethane–hexane (50:20:30, v\\/v\\/v) and gas chromatography coupled to mass-selective detection, in order to achieve quantitative analysis down to their respective maximum

E Lacassie; M.-F Dreyfuss; J. L Daguet; M Vignaud; P Marquet; G Lachâtre

1998-01-01

149

Determination of ractopamine and clenbuterol in feeds by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive and reproducible gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method was developed for monitoring ractopamine (RAC) and clenbuterol (CLB) in feeds. Feed samples were extracted with 0.1M perchloric acid, centrifuged, neutralized, followed by liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-isopropanol (9:1, v\\/v). The concentrated extracts were dissolved in 0.02M NH4Ac (pH 5.2), and applied to a solid phase extraction SCX cartridge for cleanup.

Limin He; Yijuan Su; Zhenling Zeng; Yahong Liu; Xianhui Huang

2007-01-01

150

Smith-Waterman peak alignment for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC × GC-MS) is a powerful technique which\\u000a has gained increasing attention over the last two decades. The GC × GC-MS provides much increased separation capacity, chemical\\u000a selectivity and sensitivity for complex sample analysis and brings more accurate information about compound retention times\\u000a and mass spectra. Despite these advantages, the retention times

Seongho Kim; Imhoi Koo; Aiqin Fang; Xiang Zhang

2011-01-01

151

Characterization of O-trimethylsilyl oximes of trisaccharides by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography (GC) data (linear retention indices and relative areas) and mass spectra (most representative m\\/z fragments) of 12 reducing trisaccharides as trimethylsilyl oximes (TMSO) and four non-reducing as trimethylsilyl (TMS) ethers have been described for the first time and related to their structural features. Some trends have been observed: earlier elution of non-reducing compounds and fructotrioses; aldotrioses bearing the

Micha? Brokl; Ana Cristina Soria; Isabel Martínez-Castro; Maria Luz Sanz; Ana Isabel Ruiz-Matute

2009-01-01

152

The evaluation of fatty acid ratios in latent fingermarks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis.  

PubMed

Despite advances in DNA, fingermarks remain one the best forms of evidence available. While fingermarks are routinely analyzed in terms of their patterns, it may be possible to obtain additional information in terms of their chemical composition. If successful, a chemical analysis of the constituents of a fingermark may give scientists additional information that may help in the identification of a person. The results presented herein describe the initial investigation into the analytical determination of some of these compounds, specifically the fatty acids. This study was specifically aimed at identifying possible fatty acids, which could aid in profiling or perhaps uniquely identifying an individual. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggests that this may in fact be possible, though additional research is certainly necessary. Utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, significant differences in the ratios of several fatty acid methyl esters were found when comparing individuals of varying race and gender. In addition, large intervariability and intravariability was discovered for some compounds, suggesting the possibility of being able to individualize based on chemical profile. Follow-up investigations will continue to determine whether this continues to be the case as greater numbers of individuals are sampled and more extensive control and information on the subjects is obtained. PMID:23082917

Michalski, Seth; Shaler, Robert; Dorman, Frank L

2013-01-01

153

Comparison of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay techniques on concentrations of atrazine in storm runoff  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to measure concentrations of dissolved atrazine in 149 surface-water samples. Samples were collected during May 1992-September 1993 near the mouth of the White River (Indiana) and in two small tributaries of the river. GC/MS was performed on a Hewlett- Packard 5971A with electron impact ionization and selected ion monitoring of filtered water samples extracted by C-18 solid phase extraction: ELISA was performed with a magnetic-particle-based assay with photometric analysis. ELISA results compared reasonably well to GC/MS measurements at concentrations below the Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (3.0 ??g/L), but a systematic negative bias was observed at higher concentrations. When higher concentration samples were diluted into the linear range of calibration, the relation improved. A slight positive bias was seen in all of the ELISA data compared to the GC/MS results, and the bias could be partially explained by correcting the ELISA data for cross reactivity with other triazine herbicides. The highest concentrations of atrazine were found during the first major runoff event after the atrazine was applied. Concentrations decreased throughout the rest of the sampling period even though large runoff events occurred during this time, indicating that most atrazine loading to surface waters in the study area occurs within a few weeks after application.

Lydy, M. J.; Carter, D. S.; Crawford, C. G.

1996-01-01

154

Quantitative ester analysis in cachaca and distilled spirits by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

An analytical procedure for the separation and quantification of ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl nonanoate, ethyl decanoate, isoamyl octanoate, and ethyl laurate in cachaca, rum, and whisky by direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method is simple, selective, and appropriated for the determination of esters in distilled spirits. The limit of detection ranged from 29 (ethyl hexanoate) to 530 (ethyl acetate) microg L(-1), whereas the standard deviation for repeatability was between 0.774% (ethyl hexanoate) and 5.05% (isoamyl octanoate). Relative standard deviation values for accuracy vary from 90.3 to 98.5% for ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate, respectively. Ethyl acetate was shown to be the major ester in cachaca (median content of 22.6 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol), followed by ethyl lactate (median content of 8.32 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol). Cachaca produced in copper and hybrid alembic present a higher content of ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate than those produced in a stainless-steel column, whereas cachaca produced by distillation in a stainless-steel column present a higher content of ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl laurate. As expected, ethyl acetate is the major ester in whiskey and rum, followed by ethyl lactate for samples of rum. Nevertheless, whiskey samples exhibit ethyl lactate at contents lower or at the same order of magnitude of the fatty esters. PMID:18570431

Nascimento, Eduardo S P; Cardoso, Daniel R; Franco, Douglas W

2008-07-23

155

Multiplexed dual first-dimension comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with contra-directional thermal modulation.  

PubMed

A multiplexed dual-primary column comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach (2GC×GC-MS) is introduced. The approach splits injected samples into two first-dimension columns with different stationary phases, and recombines the two streams into one second-dimension column that terminates at a single detector. The approach produces two two-dimensional chromatograms for each injection, and is made possible by using a dual-stage modulator operated in contra-directional modulation mode. The dual two-dimensional chromatograms produced by this single detector system provide complementary information due to selectivity differences between the three separation columns used in the column ensemble. An aged Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil was analyzed to demonstrate the 2GC×GC-MS approach. The number of compounds separated by each of the GC×GC separations in the 2GC×GC experiment is comparable to conventional GC×GC experiments with matching column configurations. Robust peak assignment was possible for this sample based on the combination of MS library matches and multiple linear retention index searching. Forty-nine components (22 unique) were identified using a non-polar×mid-polar column combination and 34 components (7 unique) were positively identified using a polar×mid-polar column combination. Twenty-seven peak assignments were corroborated by positive identification in both of the multiplexed separations. PMID:25249490

Savareear, Benjamin; Jacobs, Matthew R; Shellie, Robert A

2014-10-24

156

[Determination of migration of 25 primary aromatic amines from food contact plastic materials by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A solid phase extraction (SPE) combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the determination of the migration of 25 primary aromatic amines (PAAs) from food contact plastic materials and articles. The samples were extracted by deionized water and 30 g/L acetic acid, and the pH value of the solution was adjusted to 8 - 10 with ammonia. The extracts were cleaned up and concentrated on an SPE column, then eluted by equal volume of methyl-tert-butyl ether and ethanol. The analysis of the target compounds was performed by GC-MS. The results indicated that the limits of detection were in the range of 0.4 -2.0 microg/kg for different PAAs. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (n = 7) of 10 microg/kg PAAs ranged from 51.6% -118.4% and 0.5% -9.8%, respectively, except the 2,4-diaminoanisole in the acid simulant. The effects of different experimental conditions such as the pH value and volume ratio of methyl-tert-butyl ether and ethanol were studied. The results showed that the method is accurate and stable, and could meet the requirement of the European Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 for the determination of primary aromatic amines. It can be applied in the analysis of the primary aromatic amines in real food contact plastic material and article samples. PMID:23667989

Li, Ying; Li, Chengfa; Xiao, Daoqing; Liang, Feng; Chen, Zhinan; Schen, Xuhui; Sun, Xiaoying; Li, Yongtao

2013-01-01

157

Ionic liquid coated magnetic nanoparticles for the gas chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waters.  

PubMed

In this paper, ionic liquid coated magnetic nanoparticles (IL-MNPs) have been prepared by covalent immobilization. The as-synthesized MNPs have been successfully used as sorbent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples, the analytes being finally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The influence of several experimental variables (including the ionic strength, amount of MNPs, sample volume, agitation time and desorption solvent) has been considered in depth in the optimization process. The developed method, which has been analytically characterized under its optimal operation conditions, allows the detection of the analytes in the samples with method detection limits in the range from 0.04?gL(-1) (fluoranthene) to 1.11?gL(-1) (indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene). The repeatability of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD, n=7), varies between 4.0% (benzo[b]fluoranthene) and 8.9% (acenaphthene), while the enrichment factors are in the range from 49 (naphthalene) to 158 (fluoranthene). The proposed procedure has been applied for the determination of thirteen PAHs in water samples (tap, river, well and reservoir ones) with recoveries in the range from 75 to 102%. PMID:23601292

Galán-Cano, Francisco; Alcudia-León, María del Carmen; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

2013-07-26

158

Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings. PMID:24592162

Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Baldermann, Susanne; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

2014-01-01

159

New pilot for validation of automated analyses of organics by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS): application to space researches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for complex organic molecules in extraterrestrial environments, including important biomolecules such as amino acids and carboxylic acids, will require after an extraction a derivatization step to transform these organic compounds into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Current and future space missions, such as Mars Science Laboratory (MSL 2011, will include such derivatization method and thus a dedicated laboratory pilot is needed to validate protocols before launch of the probes. A new in situ generic Derivatization-Pyrolysis Unit (DPU) is presented. Derivatization is carried out in a 4 mL reactor placed on a GCMS injector for automated derivatization as well as for pre- and post treatment of the sample. The DPU unit is evaluated in terms of its technical features. The performances are illustrated with applications including conventional and in situ derivatization for using terrestrial Mars analog materials enriched by a 5 nmol amino acids solution. The DPU allows the analysis of a wide range of molecules to be detected and can be adapted to samples from any solid spatial object such as Mars, asteroids and comets. This pilot is a good basis for the validation of future generations of instruments, such as the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) of the Exomars 2018 mission, dedicated to the search for organics in spatial environments.

Sternberg, Robert; Buch, Arnaud; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Geffroy, Claude; David, Marc

160

Stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of thymoquinone in black cumin seed oil.  

PubMed

Black cumin seed (Nigella sativa L.) is a widely used spice and herb, where thymoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone) is the major bioactive compound. Here, a stable isotope dilution (SID) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique was developed for the quantification of thymoquinone. A doubly deuterated thymoquinone ([(2)H2]-thymoquinone) was synthesized for the first time with more than 93% deuteration degree shown by mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). This compound was used as an internal standard for the quantification of thymoquinone using a SID GC-MS method. The validation experiment showed a recovery rate of 99.1 ± 1.1% relative standard deviation (RSD). Standard addition and external calibration methods have also been used to quantify thymoquinone, which cross-validated the developed stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA). In comparison to external calibration and standard addition methods, the SIDA method is robust and accurate. The concentration of thymoquinone in five marketed black cumin seed oils ranged between 3.34 and 10.8 mg/mL by use of SID GC-MS. PMID:24871868

Johnson-Ajinwo, Okiemute Rosa; Li, Wen-Wu

2014-06-18

161

Rapid determination of nineteen chlorophenols in wood, paper, cardboard, fruits, and fruit juices by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Although the use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) is prohibited in most countries, it is still widely found in the wood of pallets, containers, crates and in cardboard, paper, etc. Such material may contain not only PCP but other chlorophenols as well. Wooden crates and cardboard boxes are often used to store and transport fresh fruits. Consequently, chlorophenols present in the wood may contaminate the stored fruits by migration. To ascertain that packaging, storage material, and fruit raw materials are free from chlorophenol residues, we developed a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of 19 chlorophenols by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The test portions are directly extracted and acetylated in a solution of sodium carbonate in the presence of acetic anhydride and hexane. The hexane layer is analyzed, without further purification, by GC/MS in the selective-ion monitoring mode. The method allows the analysis of >40 samples/day with detection limits of <20 microg/kg for chlorophenols in wood, cardboard, and paper, and <2 microg/kg for chlorophenols in fruits. Typical recoveries of all chlorophenols were 94% from paper, 115% from cardboard, 51% from wood (depending on the size of the chips or shavings), and 93% from fruit puree. PMID:11417649

Diserens, J M

2001-01-01

162

Simultaneous measurement of urinary bisphenol A and alkylphenols by automated solid-phase extractive derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols (APs) are widely used industrial chemicals. BPA is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins; APs are used to make alkylphenol ethoxylates, common nonionic surfactants. BPA and APs can leach into the environment during industrial production and after degradation of the polycarbonate plastics and nonionic surfactants. Environmental exposure to these phenolic compounds has been associated with adverse reproductive and developmental effects in wildlife. We developed a sensitive and robust method for measuring BPA and six APs; 3-tert-butylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, and technical-grade nonylphenol in urine. The method is based on the use of automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to isotope dilution-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). During the automated SPE process, the phenols are both extracted from the urine matrix and derivatized, using pentafluorobenzyl bromide, on commercially available styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer-based SPE cartridges. After elution from the SPE column, the derivatized phenols in the SPE eluate are analyzed by GC/MS. The method, validated on spiked pooled urine samples and on urine samples from exposed persons, has limits of detection of approximately 0.1 ng in 1 mL of urine. PMID:14670041

Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Ekong, John; Cutchins, Caroline D; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

2003-12-15

163

Distinguishing chinese star anise from Japanese star anise using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds from the pericarps of Illicium anisatum L., Illicium brevistylum A.C.Sm., Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium henryi Diels, Illicium lanceolatum A.C.Sm., Illicium majus Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium micranthum Dunn, and Illicium verum Hook.f. were examined by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The volatiles desorbed from the pericarps of I. verum (Chinese star anise), the species traded for culinary purposes, were generally characterized by a high proportion of (E)-anethole (57.6-77.1%) and the presence of foeniculin; the latter was otherwise only detected in the pericarps of I. lanceolatum. In the pericarps of all other species analyzed, the percentage composition of (E)-anethole was comparatively lower (

Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J

2009-07-01

164

[Matrix effects in analysis of three beta-agonist residues in pig edible tissues using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established for the determination of the residues of three beta-agonists (clenbuterol, salbutamol and ractopamine) in pig edible tissues. The matrix effects (MEs) in the analysis of the three compounds with the developed method were determined. The influences of matrix state and its weight on MEs were evaluated statistically. The analytes in pig liver and muscle and their corresponding freeze-dried powders were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Then the derivatives were determined in selected ion monitoring mode and the intensities of MEs of the three beta-agonists were obtained. Significant matrix enhancement was observed for the three analytes, and especially, the ME of ractopamine was more than 1000%. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that MEs were significantly different for the three analytes in two matrices among different matrix weights (P < 0.05), and MEs of the three analytes increased from 1 g to 5 g with the increase of matrix weight. MEs for the three analytes were not significantly different between fresh pig tissues and its freeze-dried powder matrices (P > 0.05), indicating that the freeze-dried powder matrices might be used to conveniently prepare the matrix-matched calibration solution, which could efficiently compensate the MEs of the beta-agonists in GC-MS analysis. PMID:24822451

Bian, Kui; Lin, Tao; Liu, Min; Yang, Jianwen; Wang, Zongnan; He, Limin

2014-02-01

165

Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomic Approach for Optimization and Toxicity Evaluation of Earthworm Sub-Lethal Responses to Carbofuran  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advances in understanding mechanism of toxicity, the development of biomarkers (biochemicals that vary significantly with exposure to chemicals) for pesticides and environmental contaminants exposure is still a challenging task. Carbofuran is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture and said to be most toxic carbamate pesticide. It is necessary to identify the biochemicals that can vary significantly after carbofuran exposure on earthworms which will help to assess the soil ecotoxicity. Initially, we have optimized the extraction conditions which are suitable for high-throughput gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics for the tissue of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Upon evaluation of five different extraction solvent systems, 80% methanol was found to have good extraction efficiency based on the yields of metabolites, multivariate analysis, total number of peaks and reproducibility of metabolites. Later the toxicity evaluation was performed to characterize the tissue specific metabolomic perturbation of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma after exposure to carbofuran at three different concentration levels (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of soil). Seventeen metabolites, contributing to the best classification performance of highest dose dependent carbofuran exposed earthworms from healthy controls were identified. This study suggests that GC-MS based metabolomic approach was precise and sensitive to measure the earthworm responses to carbofuran exposure in soil, and can be used as a promising tool for environmental eco-toxicological studies. PMID:24324663

Saxena, Prem Narain

2013-01-01

166

Determination of Volatile Compounds in Four Commercial Samples of Japanese Green Algae Using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings. PMID:24592162

Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

2014-01-01

167

Screening and determination of benzodiazepines in whole blood using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepines are one of the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of a wide spectrum of clinical disorders. They are used as anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, hypnotics or muscle relaxants with different duration of action. In this paper, a simple and sensitive method for the determination of benzodiazepines in whole blood using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is described. The drugs spiked in whole blood were extracted with an Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters), which contains a copolymer designed to have a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. GC/MS analysis was performed using a Shimadzu QP-5000 equipped with a BPX5 capillary column (15 mx0.32 mm I.D., film thickness 0.25 microm, SGE). Nineteen benzodiazepines and two thienodiazepines were well separated from each other on their SIM chromatograms and also on the TIC with the exception of oxazolam to cloxazolam separation. The blank extract from whole blood gave no peaks that interfered with all benzodiazepines and thienodiazepines on the chromatogram. The calibration curves for selected benzodiazepines with fludiazepam as an internal standard showed excellent linearity over the concentration range 5-500 ng/ml blood with a correlation coefficients of >0.995. The detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 20 ng/ml blood. The method is simple and sensitive for the determination of benzodiazepines in whole blood and seems to be useful in the practice of forensic science. PMID:10978650

Inoue, H; Maeno, Y; Iwasa, M; Matoba, R; Nagao, M

2000-09-11

168

Characterisation and discrimination of various types of lac resin using gas chromatography mass spectrometry techniques with quaternary ammonium reagents.  

PubMed

A variety of lac resin samples obtained from artists' suppliers, industrial manufacturers, and museum collections were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and reactive pyrolysis GCMS with quaternary ammonium reagents. These techniques allowed a detailed chemical characterisation of microgram-sized samples, based on the detection and identification of derivatives of the hydroxy aliphatic and cyclic (sesquiterpene) acids that compose the resin. Differences in composition could be related to the nature of the resin, e.g. wax-containing (unrefined), bleached, or aged samples. Furthermore, differences in the relative abundances of aliphatic hydroxyacids appear to be associated with the biological source of the resin. The diagnostic value of newly characterised lac components, including 8-hydroxyacids, is discussed here for the first time. Identification of derivatised components was aided by AMDIS deconvolution software, and discrimination of samples was enhanced by statistical evaluation of data using principal component analysis. The robustness of the analyses, together with the minimal sample size required, make these very powerful approaches for the characterisation of lac resin in museum objects. The value of such analyses for enhancing the understanding of museum collections is illustrated by two case studies of objects in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art: a restorer's varnish on a painting by Luca Signorelli, and a pictorial inlay in an early nineteenth-century High Chest by George Dyer. PMID:24642395

Sutherland, K; del Río, J C

2014-04-18

169

Automated storage of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data in a relational database to facilitate compound screening and identification.  

PubMed

This paper describes a database containing massspectra from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) measurements as a tool for easy screening for multiple compounds. In this way additional compounds can be reported from the same run together with routine pesticide monitoring with little effort. The relevant analytical data from the GC-MS measurements are transferred automatically to a database. Search algorithms in the database, containing the US EPA and Dutch NEN GC-MS identification criteria as standard settings, are used to identify compounds in the data. Screening of samples analysed in our laboratory show the ubiquitous presence of--up until now in monitoring largely overlooked--compounds in surface waters in The Netherlands. Most frequently found compounds include TAED (complexing agent), 2-methyl quinoline (industrial solvent), atrazin and desethylatrazin (pesticide and degradation product), caffeine (human consumption), surfinol-104 (anti foaming agent), HHCB (Galaxolide) and AHTN (Tonalide; fragrances). The database can also be used to quickly search a large number of datafiles for rare contaminants. This way, some interesting compounds such as pentoxifilin (a pharmaceutical) and Irgarol 1051 (an antifouling compound) were found. PMID:12458939

Staeb, J A; Epema, O J; van Duijn, P; Steevens, J; Klap, V A; Freriks, I L

2002-10-18

170

Characterization of commercial synthetic resins by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: application to modern art and conservation.  

PubMed

To characterize a set of synthetic resins, a methodology by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) has been developed. The studied reference materials were commercial versions of a wide range of synthetic resins. For each polymer, the pyrolytic and chromatographic conditions were optimized to adequately resolve the fragment mixture in a short time. The proposed analytical method does not require previous treatment of the sample, and due to its high sensitivity, only a small sample quantity in the microgram range can be used. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have little effect on the obtained pyrograms. The summarized data set for the individual polymer materials, especially the characteristic fragments with a structure close to the monomeric unit, was useful to identify commercial synthetic resins. These materials were used in the art and conservation field, as binding media, paint additives, painting varnishes, coatings, or consolidants. Two case studies are introduced where direct Py-GC/MS and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation GC/MS were applied on art objects: first, a modern gluing material of a medieval reverse glass painting, and the second example, the binding medium of a painting by Georg Baselitz ("Senta", 1992/1993) from the Sammlung Moderne Kunst at the Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich. PMID:19364144

Peris-Vicente, J; Baumer, U; Stege, H; Lutzenberger, K; Gimeno Adelantado, J V

2009-04-15

171

False identification of urinary ephedrine as methamphetamine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a DB-17 column.  

PubMed

A 17-year-old motorcyclist was killed in a traffic accident. The urine sample collected at autopsy was screened by the Toxi-Lab system; it showed a possible presence of either methamphetamine (MA) or ephedrine (Eph). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was carried out for a trifluoroacetyl (TFA)-derivatized sample after extraction with an Extrelut column. A peak was detected at the same retention time as that of the authentic Eph by GC-MS with a DB-17 wide-bore column; the mass spectrum of the peak was, however, very similar to that of MA. The presence of Eph and absence of MA were proved by GC-MS using a DB-1 column. The Eph in the urine was further confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS using an ODS column. By the REMEDi HS system, Eph and methylephedrine were determined in the urine, and their concentrations (hydrochloride salt) were 0.752 and 2.13 micrograms/ml, respectively. Ethanol was detected as well in the blood (1.55 mg/ml) and urine (2.01 mg/ml) by a pulse heating method. Nicotine, caffeine and dihydrocodeine were also qualitatively detected in the urine by Toxi-Lab, HPLC-MS and REMEDi HS systems. The present case warned that urinary Eph can be misidentified as MA by GC-MS with an intermediately polar column after TFA derivatization. PMID:9301231

Takayasu, T; Ohshima, T; Ohtsuji, M; Takayama, N; Kondo, T; Lin, Z; Sato, Y; Minamino, T

1997-06-01

172

Determination of trace levels of dimethyl sulfate in the presence of monomethyl sulfate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

During a routine determination of dimethyl sulfate in technical materials using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that residual monomethyl sulfate originating from a prior methylation reaction with dimethyl sulfate decomposed in the hot GC injection system to yield dimethyl sulfate and sulfuric acid. This thermal reaction leads to false positive or overestimated residue levels of dimethyl sulfate, accompanied by bad chromatographic peak shapes and poor precision and accuracy values. This short communication describes proper measures to counteract this problem and presents a fast, reliable and validated GC-MS method that is capable of determining dimethyl sulfate residues in the presence of monomethyl sulfate in technical materials using a simple dissolve-and-inject approach. Applying deuterated dimethyl sulfate as internal standard and with a sample weight of 25 mg, a limit of detection of 0.24 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.48 mg kg(-1) was achieved along with a linear range of 0.48-208.6 mg kg(-1). The method offers a precision of 9.1% and an accuracy of 96.5% at the limit of quantification and a precision of 3.6% and an accuracy of 93.8% at a dimethyl sulfate level of 1 mg kg(-1). PMID:23566920

Schäfer, Claudia; Zöllner, Peter

2013-05-10

173

Validation of Biomarkers for Distinguishing Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major international health problem. Rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is critical for decisions regarding patient management and choice of therapeutic regimen. Recently we developed a 20-compound model to distinguish between MTB and NTM. It is based on thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and partial least square discriminant analysis. Here we report the validation of this model with two independent sample sets, one consisting of 39 MTB and 17 NTM isolates from the Netherlands, the other comprising 103 isolates (91 MTB and 12 NTM) from Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa. All the MTB strains in the 56 Dutch samples were correctly identified and the model had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94%. For the South African samples the model had a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 100%. Based on our model, we have developed a new decision-tree that allows the differentiation of MTB from NTM with 100% accuracy. Encouraged by these findings we will proceed with the development of a simple, rapid, affordable, high-throughput test to identify MTB directly in sputum. PMID:24146846

Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Walters, Elisabetta; Claassens, Mareli; van Soolingen, Dick; Vivo-Truyols, Gabriel; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Kolk, Arend H. J.

2013-01-01

174

Four frequently used test systems for serum cholesterol evaluated by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry candidate reference method.  

PubMed

We evaluated the performance of four frequently used cholesterol test systems, using split-sample measurements with a panel of 79 patients' specimens and isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID GS-MS) as a comparison method. The test systems were from Beckman, a Boehringer Mannheim, Merck, and Johnson & Johnson Clinical Diagnostics, performed on the Synchron CX7, Hitachi 717, Mega, and Ektachem 250 analyzers, respectively. The liner regression data for the method comparison [ID GS-MS as independent variable (x)] were for Beckman: slope = 1.012, intercept = 0.0243 mmol/L, dispersion (S(y/x)) = 0.1303 mmol/l, and correlation coefficient (r) = 0.9867; for Boehringer Mannheim: slope = 1.002, intercept = 0.114 mmol/L, Sy/x = 0.0759 mmol/L, r = 0.9954; for Merck: slope = 1.034, intercept = -0.0613 mmol/L, Sy/x = 0.0886 mmol/L, r = 0.9941; and for Johnson & Johnson Clinical Diagnostics: slope = 1.007, intercept = 0.01 mmol/L, Sy/x = 0.15 mmol/L, and r = 0.9811. These data demonstrate excellent state-of-the-art cholesterol measurement for some of the most widely used test systems. PMID:8605669

Thienpont, L M; Van Landuyt, K G; Stöckl, D; De Leenheer, A P

1996-04-01

175

Simultaneous determination of 76 micropollutants in water samples by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the development of an analytical method based on headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of 76 micropollutants in water samples. The selected micropollutants include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e.g. chlorobenzenes, chloroalkanes), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (e.g. bisphenol A and tributyl phosphate), odour compounds (e.g. limonene, phenol), fragrance allergens (e.g. geraniol, eugenol) and some pesticides (e.g. heptachlor, terbutryn). The experimental conditions affecting their extraction, such as the type of fibre, temperature and time of extraction, sample volume and ionic strength of the samples were optimized using HS-SPME. The method showed good linear range, reproducibility between days, repeatability and low detection limits (at ng L(-1) levels). The validated method has been applied to determine the target organic micropollutants in aqueous samples from different experimental research units of surface water, sea water, waste water and those effluents of advance membrane treatments. The optimized method showed good performance in the different types of samples studied. The analysis revealed the presence of several micropollutants at concentrations between 20 and 5000 ?g L(-1), such as ethylbenzene, o-xylene, p-isopropilbenzene, D-limonene, citral and isoeugenol, due to the fact that these species are commonly used in domestic and industrial applications. PMID:24148498

Martínez, C; Ramírez, N; Gómez, V; Pocurull, E; Borrull, F

2013-11-15

176

Application of solid-phase extraction membrane disks in the determination of haloacetic acids in water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Gas-Chromatography (GC) coupled with an electron capture detector (ECD) is the technique which is most used to determine haloacetic\\u000a acids (HAAs), but when chlorinated waters are analysed, many other compounds can give signals and identification can be difficult.\\u000a In this paper a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system for determining these compounds has been used to improve\\u000a identification. To reach the

D. Martínez; F. Borrull; M. Calull; J. Ruana; A. Colom

1998-01-01

177

Nitrogen isotopic analyses by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids containing natural-abundance levels of 15N were derivatized and analyzed isotopically using a technique in which individual compounds are separated by gas chromatography, combusted on-line, and the product stream sent directly to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For samples of N2 gas, standard deviations of ratio measurement were better than 0.1% (Units for delta are parts per thousand or per million (%).) for samples larger than 400 pmol and better than 0.5% for samples larger than 25 pmol (0.1% 15N is equivalent to 0.00004 atom % 15N). Results duplicated those of conventional, batchwise analyses to within 0.05%. For combustion of organic compounds yielding CO2/N2 ratios between 14 and 28, in particular for N-acetyl n-propyl derivatives of amino acids, delta values were within 0.25% of results obtained using conventional techniques and standard deviations were better than 0.35%. Pooled data for measurements of all amino acids produced an accuracy and precision of 0.04 and 0.23%, respectively, when 2 nmol of each amino acid was injected on column and 20% of the stream of combustion products was delivered to the mass spectrometer.

Merritt, D. A.; Hayes, J. M.

1994-01-01

178

Different headspace solid phase microextraction--gas chromatography/mass spectrometry approaches to haloanisoles analysis in wine.  

PubMed

Three approaches in determination of six haloanisoles (2,4,6-trichloroanisole, 2,3,4-trichloroanisole, 2,3,6-trichloroanisole, tetrachloroanisole, pentachloroanisole and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole) in wine were compared. Comprehensive gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS) was described for the first time for this application and compared to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using triple quadrupole instrument. These techniques were compared with "standard" analytical approach using GC-MS(SIM). SPME method was developed and used for all separation methods (DVB/PDMS fiber, 70 °C, 30%NaCl, 20 min extraction). Extraction dependence on matrix was discussed using model wines with different ethanol contents (8%, 12%, and 18%) as well as water and different wines (dry white, dry red and sweet liqueur), with the lowest sensitivities obtained for highest ethanol contents in model wine and for liqueur wine. Limits of detection for GC×GC-ToF-MS method were 0.09-2.92 ng/L depending on the examined compound and matrix (compared to 0.1-13.3 ng/L obtained using GC/MS(SIM)). For GC-MS/MS method lower detection limits were achieved than for the GC×GC method (0.01-0.1 ng/L), however comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry provides full spectral information on analyzed compounds. Both methods had limits of detection far below odor thresholds of haloanisoles in wine, good linearity up to 2000 ng/L tested and good precision, what makes them suitable for analysis of these compounds in low ppt levels. PMID:23932370

Jele?, Henryk H; Dziadas, Mariusz; Majcher, Ma?gorzata

2013-10-25

179

Integration of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Methods for Differentiating Ricin Preparation Methods  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of crimes involving chemical or biological agents is infrequent, but presents unique analytical challenges. The protein toxin ricin is encountered more frequently than other agents and is found in the seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis. Typically, the toxin is extracted from castor seeds utilizing a variety of different recipes that result in varying purity of the toxin. Moreover, these various purification steps can also leave or differentially remove a variety of exogenous and endogenous residual components with the toxin that may indicate the type and number of purification steps involved. We have applied three gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric (GC-MS) based analytical methods to measure the variation in seed carbohydrates and castor oil ricinoleic acid as well as the presence of solvents used for purification. These methods were applied to the same samples prepared using four previously identified toxin preparation methods starting from four varieties of castor seeds. The individual data sets for seed carbohydrate profiles, ricinoleic acid or acetone amount each provided information capable of differentiating different types of toxin preparations across seed types. However, the integration of the data sets using multivariate factor analysis provided a clear distinction of all samples based on the preparation method and independent of the seed source. In particular the abundance of mannose, arabinose, fucose, ricinoleic acid and acetone were shown to be important differentiating factors. These complementary tools provide a more confident determination of the method of toxin preparation.

Wunschel, David S.; Melville, Angela M.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Colburn, Heather A.; Victry, Kristin D.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Wahl, Jon H.; Wahl, Karen L.

2012-05-17

180

Methods of analysis-Determination of pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 119 pesticides in environmental sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in support of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The pesticides included in this method were chosen through prior prioritization. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides along with degradates are included in this method and span a variety of chemical classes including, but not limited to, chloroacetanilides, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, triazines, and triazoles. Sediment samples are extracted by using an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE®, and the compounds of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences (including sulfur) by passing the extracts through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) along with the use of either stacked graphitized carbon and alumina solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges or packed Florisil®. Chromatographic separation, detection, and quantification of the pesticides from the sediment-sample extracts are done by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 micrograms per kilogram (?g/kg) dry weight ranged from 75 to 102 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 3 to 13 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), ranged from 0.6 to 3.4 ?g/kg dry weight.

Hladik, Michelle L.; McWayne, Megan M.

2012-01-01

181

Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction with hexane and dichloromethane. SPE was carried out on 500 mg octadecylsilane (C18) cartridges and elution with dichloromethane. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with hexane and dichloromethane. The essential oil in dichloromethane and infusion extracts in hexane and dichloromethane were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The quantitative results obtained by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction showed that SPE on C18 performed the highest recovery of the volatile compounds from infusion sample. PMID:14971492

Radulescu, Valeria; Chiliment, Silvia; Oprea, Eliza

2004-02-20

182

Potential biomarkers of smoked fentanyl utilizing pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Fentanyl is a potent opioid analgesic that is increasingly becoming a choice drug of abuse. Fentanyl transdermal patches (FTPs) are easily obtained and consumed by smoking the reservoir gel and/or the whole patch. This allows for an increased bioavailability when inhaled. A method using analytical pyrolysis was developed to identify possible biomarkers associated with smoked fentanyl and FTPs. Pyrolysis was carried out under anaerobic and aerobic conditions using helium and air coupled to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The presence of a trap enhanced recovery and afforded a positive identification of pyrolytic products. Anaerobic and aerobic pyrolysis of fentanyl and FTPs consistently yielded propionanilide as the major pyrolytic product along with pyridine and previously reported metabolites (norfentanyl and despropionyl fentanyl). Analysis of fentanyl resulted in chlorine-containing compounds, presumably formed from the HCl salt of fentanyl. Analysis of FTPs showed significant polymeric and hydrocarbon compounds and products likely derived from the gel matrix. Fentanyl in the FTPs was in the citrate salt form; therefore, the chlorine-containing pyrolytic products obtained with the neat drug were not observed. Based on this application, it may be possible to identify what salt form of the drug was smoked based on pyrolytic products and to target distinguishing metabolic products for future research. PMID:19874647

Nishikawa, Rona K; Bell, Suzanne C; Kraner, James C; Callery, Patrick S

2009-10-01

183

Analysis of frankincense in archaeological samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Four archaeological samples, unearthed from Qana in Yemen were analysed by analytical technique, currently applied in the field of petroleum geochemistry, and by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Sample no 1286 comes from a burned warehouse and samples no 964, 963 and 962 from the central sanctuary. These specimens were probably exposed to a heating source. In each case olibanum resin was identified according to the presence of their chemical markers corresponding to alpha- , beta-boswellic and lupeolic acids (3alpha-hydroxy-olean-12-en-24-oic, 3alpha-hydroxy-urs-12-en-24-oic and 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-20(29)en-24-oic acids) and their respective O-acetyled derivatives (3alpha- O-acetyl-olean-12-en-24-oic, 3alpha-O-acetyl-urs-12-en-24-oic and 3-O-acetyl-lup-20(29)-en-24-oic acids). Concerning the thermal degradation state of samples, the GC-MS results are in agreement with the geochemical ones. Sample no 1286 and 964 correspond to ageing incense which has not undergone any heating action and are consequently relatively well preserved. Lastly, samples no 963 and 962 are thermally degraded resins and their gross composition data permits to conclude that sample no 963 is only partially burnt while sample no 962 has been much more degraded. PMID:17867531

Mathe, Carole; Connan, Jacques; Archier, Paul; Mouton, Michel; Vieillescazes, Catherine

2007-07-01

184

Determination of the Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Toasted Bread Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in eighteen baked bread samples using gas oven toasting were evaluated in this study. Samples were classified into the following categories: (1) bread baked from white wheat flour, (2) bread baked from brown wheat flour, and (3) sandwich bread baked from white wheat flour. Analysis was performed by GC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of the sample and clean up of the extract. The levels of B[a]P was not detected in ten of eighteen samples. In the rest of the samples, B[a]P are varied from 2.83 to 16.54 ?g/kg. B[a]A, CHR, B[b]FA, B[k] FA, IP, DB[a,h]A, and B[ghi]P concentrations were found to be less than 10.0 ?g/kg. However, B[a]P are not detected in original white and brown wheat flour. The total PAHs were varied in the range 1.06–44.24 ?g/kg and 3.08–278.66 ?g/kg for H-PAH and L-PAH, respectively. Reproducibility and repeatability of the proposed method was calculated and presented in terms of recovery and relative standard deviations (RSD, %). Recoveries were varied from 72.46% to 99.06% with RSD ± 0.28–15.01% and from 82.39% to 95.01% with RSD ±1.91–13.01% for repeatability and reproducibility, respectively. Different commercialized samples of toasted bread were collected and analyzed. PMID:20862370

Al-Rashdan, Amal; Helaleh, Murad I. H.; Nisar, A.; Ibtisam, A.; Al-Ballam, Zainab

2010-01-01

185

Development and Application of Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Bound Trinitrotoluene Residues in Soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

TNT (trinitrotoluene) is a contaminant of global environmental significance, yet determining its environmental fate has posed longstanding challenges. To date, only differential extraction-based approaches have been able to determine the presence of covalently bound, reduced forms of TNT in field soils. Here, we employed thermal elution, pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to distinguish between covalently bound and noncovalently bound reduced forms of TNT in soil. Model soil organic matter-based matrixes were used to develop an assay in which noncovalently bound (monomeric) aminodinitrotoluene (ADNT) and diaminonitrotoluene (DANT) were desorbed from the matrix and analyzed at a lower temperature than covalently bound forms of these same compounds. A thermal desorption technique, evolved gas analysis, was initially employed to differentiate between covalently bound and added 15N-labeled monomeric compounds. A refined thermal elution procedure, termed "double-shot analysis" (DSA), allowed a sample to be sequentially analyzed in two phases. In phase 1, all of an added 15N-labeled monomeric contaminant was eluted from the sample at relatively low temperature. In phase 2 during high-temperature pyrolysis, the remaining covalently bound contaminants were detected. DSA analysis of soil from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP; ???5000 ppm TNT) revealed the presence of DANT, ADNT, and TNT. After scrutinizing the DSA data and comparing them to results from solvent-extracted and base/acid-hydrolyzed LAAP soil, we concluded that the TNT was a noncovalently bound "carryover" from phase 1. Thus, the pyrolysis-GC/MS technique successfully defined covalently bound pools of ADNT and DANT in the field soil sample.

Weiss, J.M.; Mckay, A.J.; Derito, C.; Watanabe, C.; Thorn, K.A.; Madsen, E.L.

2004-01-01

186

[Serum metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in patients with ulcerative colitis and celiac disease].  

PubMed

Metabolomics is the emerging science of measurement and analysis of metabolome--the complete set of low molecular weight compounds in a cell, tissue, organ or whole organism. One of the aims of metabolomics is to research the response of an organism to a pathophysiological insult by measuring the concentrations of small molecule metabolites in biofluids and tissues and its dynamics. Intestinal microbiota is most probably involved in the development and maintenance of autoimmune inflammation in ulcerative colitis and celiac disease. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC - MS) of serum generates comprehensive metabolic profiles, reflecting integrated human (systemic) and gut microbial metabolism which may be altered in disease states. The aim of this study was to investigate GC - MS-based serum metabolomic profiles in UC and CD patients. Serum metabolic profiles were collected from 75 individuals: 20 patients with mild-moderate active UC, 35 CD patients, and 20 healthy controls (HC). We characterized 84 serum metabolites by use GC-MS. 18 metabolites at least have a combined (human + microbial) origin. In serum of UC patients, phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), 3-indolylacetic acid (IAA), succinic acid (SA) and fumaric acid (FA) were the metabolites most prominently increased, whereas 3-phenylpropionic acid (PPA) was significantly decreased. Serum of CD patients showed significant increases in IAA, 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA), SA and FA. Increased serum levels of succinic acid suggest its possible damaging effect on intestinal mucosa especially in ulcerative colitis. Orally administered butyrate + inulin as supplement to mesalazine in UC or gluten free diet in CD was effective in reducing disease activity with a marked improvement of serum metabolomic profiles (including SA reduction) and gut microbiota in both diseases. There were no any adverse events. PMID:24933989

Sitkin, S I; Tkachenko, E I; Vakhitov, T Ia; Oreshko, L S; Zhigalova, T N

2013-01-01

187

Pharmacokinetic study of eight coumarins of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae in rats by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive, specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established for the quantitative determination of eight coumarins of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae including coumarin, isopsoralen, psoralen, xanthotoxin, bergapten, osthole, imperatorin and oxypeucedanin in rat plasma. Nitrendipine was used as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were extracted by acetonitrile. GC separation was accomplished on a DB-5MS column with temperature programmed from 160°C (17 min) to 190°C (10 min) at the rate of 20°C/min, then to 240°C (5 min) at 20°C/min, and finally to 280°C (14 min) at 20°C/min. The detection was performed on a quadrupole mass spectrometer detector operated by full-scan mode (m/z 50-500). The lower limit of quantitation was 5-10 ng/mL for eight coumarins, and the linear range was 5-1000 ng/mL for the coumarins (R(2)>0.9990). All the validation data were within the required limits. After oral administration, the plasma concentration-time curves showed that the time for maximum concentration (Tmax) was 1.29 for coumarin, 1.83 for isopsoralen, 1.93 for psoralen, 1.30 for xanthotoxin, 2.04 for bergapten, 0.64 for osthole, 1.41 for imperatorin and 0.51 h for oxypeucedanin. The plasma concentration of the eight coumarins was low, with a mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) <6.41 ?g/mL. Pharmacokinetic data analysis showed that the eight coumarins had different pharmacokinetic characteristics after oral administration. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of eight coumarins after oral administration in rats. PMID:23774663

Zhao, Gang; Peng, Cheng; Du, Wei; Wang, Sicen

2013-09-01

188

A simple and reliable procedure for the determination of psychoactive drugs in oral fluid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for identifying and quantifying psychoactive drugs in oral fluid is described. Substances under investigation were: psychostimulant drugs (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxiamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, phentermine), cocaine and metabolites (benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, and ecgonine methyl esther), cannabinoids (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and cannabidiol), opiates (6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine and codeine), hypnotics (flurazepam, flunitrazepam, dipotassium chlorazepate, alprazolam, diazepam and oxazepam), antidepressant drugs (amitryptiline, paroxetine and sertraline), antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol, chlorpromazine and fluphenazine) chlormethiazole, loratidine, hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine, valproic acid and gabapentin. After the addition of deuterated analogues of morphine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, (+/-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and clonazepam as internal standards, all the compounds were simultaneously extracted from oral fluid by solid-phase extraction procedure. Acid compounds were eluted with acetone while basic and neutral compounds with dichloromethane:isopropanol:ammonium (80:20:2, v/v/v). Chromatography was performed on a methylsilicone capillary column and analytes, derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide, were determined in the selected-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. Mean recovery ranged between 44.5 and 97.7 % and quantification limit between 0.9 and 44.2 ng/ml oral fluid for the different analytes. The developed analytical methodology was applied to investigate the presence of psychoactive drugs in oral fluid from injured individuals attending the emergency room (MACIUS project). PMID:17395417

Pujadas, Mitona; Pichini, Simona; Civit, Ester; Santamariña, Elena; Perez, Katherine; de la Torre, Rafael

2007-06-28

189

Composition research of n-alkanes in hydrothermal systems of Mid-Atlantic Ridge by method gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of n-alkanes in hydrothermal formations was studied in hydrothermal fields of several zones of Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The samples for investigation were collected on cruise 50 of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh by Mir-1 and Mir-2 manned submersibles (Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS). Molecular and group compositions of n-alkanes were analyzed in sulfide and carbonate deposits of hydrothermal fields in Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Rainbow, Lost City, Broken Spur) related with ultrabasic rocks in oceanic core and basalt volcanism. As a result of experiments it was devised procedures of detected and research n-alkanes in hydrothermal deposits using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Detection limit of n-alkanes by using this procedure formed 3×10^(-9) - 10^(-8) % depending on the component. It was shown a presence of n-alkanes C15-C32 in most explored samples of hydrothermal deposits. Total n-alkanes concentrations in the samples from Mid-Atlantic Ridge are low and vary widely from 0,02 to 0,038 µg/g of dry weight of ore deposits. These differences can be explained by different conditions of ore deposit formation (pressure, temperature), different mineralogical composition of ore deposits, and possibly by some others. Analysis of sulfide samples from the Broken Spur showed presence of n-alkanes biogenic and abiogenic-thermocatalytic nature in equal amount. It was concluded that the composition of n-alkanes in hydrothermal deposits from the Lost City hydrothermal field is influenced by two prevailing processes of organic matter transformation - microbial and thermocatalytic transformation. In hydrothermal deposits from the Rainbow field it was revealed abiogenic-thermocatalytic nature of n-alkanes predominantly.

Shulga, N. A.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Revelsky, I. A.

2009-04-01

190

Simultaneous determination of human plasma levels of citalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, and their metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is presented which allows the simultaneous determination of the plasma concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors citalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, and their pharmacologically active N-demethylated metabolites (desmethylcitalopram, didesmethylcitalopram, and desmethylsertraline) after derivatization with the reagent N-methyl-bis(trifluoroacetamide). No interferences from endogenous compounds are observed following the extraction of plasma samples from six different human subjects. The standard curves are linear over a working range of 10-500 ng/mL for citalopram, 10-300 ng/mL for desmethylcitalopram, 5-60 ng/mL for didesmethylcitalopram, 20-400 ng/mL for sertraline and desmethylsertraline, and 10-200 ng/mL for paroxetine. Recoveries measured at three concentrations range from 81 to 118% for the tertiary amines (citalopram and the internal standard methylmaprotiline), 73 to 95% for the secondary amines (desmethylcitalopram, paroxetine and sertraline), and 39 to 66% for the primary amines (didesmethylcitalopram and desmethylsertraline). Intra- and interday coefficients of variation determined at three concentrations range from 3 to 11% for citalopram and its metabolites, 4 to 15% for paroxetine, and 5 to 13% for sertraline and desmethylsertraline. The limits of quantitation of the method are 2 ng/mL for citalopram and paroxetine, 1 ng/mL for sertraline, and 0.5 ng/mL for desmethylcitalopram, didesmethylcitalopram, and desmethylsertraline. No interferences are noted from 20 other psychotropic drugs. This sensitive and specific method can be used for single-dose pharmacokinetics. It is also useful for therapeutic drug monitoring of these three drugs and could possibly be adapted for the quantitation of the two other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the market, namely fluoxetine and fluvoxamine. PMID:9679303

Eap, C B; Bouchoux, G; Amey, M; Cochard, N; Savary, L; Baumann, P

1998-07-01

191

Hormonal diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in plasma and urine of neonates using benchtop gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We aimed at measuring the first plasma concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OH-P) determined by benchtop isotope dilution/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID/GC-MS) in term neonates with or without 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma samples from normal cord blood specimens (n=30), unaffected neonates (n=38) and neonatal patients with classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (eight salt-wasters, three simple virilizers) were analyzed. Steroid profiling of random urinary specimens by GC-MS served as a confirmatory test for 21-hydroxylase deficiency. 17OH-P (nmol/l) in cord blood plasma lay between 11.66 and 75.92 (median 24.74). It declined shortly after birth. In the first 8 days of life, the time that screening for 21-hydroxylase deficiency is performed, 17OH-P ranged between undetected levels and an upper limit of 22.87 (median 4.11). Thereafter (days 9-28) its concentrations lay between 2.18 and 20.30 (median 6.22). Except one simple virilizer, all other patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency had clearly elevated plasma 17OH-P at the time that screening for 21-hydroxylase deficiency would be performed. We suggest ID/GC-MS, which provides the highest specificity in steroid analysis, for checking suspicious concentrations of 17OH-P in neonates and underscore the potential of urinary steroid profiling by GC-MS as a rapid, non-invasive and non-selective confirmatory test for congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:10828852

Wudy, S A; Hartmann, M; Homoki, J

2000-06-01

192

Cerumen of Australian stingless bees ( Tetragonula carbonaria): gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fingerprints and potential anti-inflammatory properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerumen, or propolis, is a mixture of plant resins enriched with bee secretions. In Australia, stingless bees are important pollinators that use cerumen for nest construction and possibly for colony's health. While extensive research attests to the therapeutic properties of honeybee ( Apis mellifera) propolis, the biological and medicinal properties of Australian stingless bee cerumen are largely unknown. In this study, the chemical and biological properties of polar extracts of cerumen from Tetragonula carbonaria in South East Queensland, Australia were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and in vitro 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) cell-free assays. Extracts were tested against comparative (commercial tincture of A. mellifera propolis) and positive controls (Trolox and gallic acid). Distinct GC-MS fingerprints of a mixed diterpenic profile typical of native bee cerumen were obtained with pimaric acid (6.31 ± 0.97%, w/w), isopimaric acid (12.23 ± 3.03%, w/w), and gallic acid (5.79 ± 0.81%, w/w) tentatively identified as useful chemical markers. Characteristic flavonoids and prenylated phenolics found in honeybee propolis were absent. Cerumen extracts from T. carbonaria inhibited activity of 5-LOX, an enzyme known to catalyse production of proinflammatory mediators (IC50 19.97 ± 2.67 ?g/ml, mean ± SEM, n = 4). Extracts had similar potency to Trolox (IC50 12.78 ± 1.82 ?g/ml), but were less potent than honeybee propolis (IC50 5.90 ± 0.62 ?g/ml) or gallic acid (IC50 5.62 ± 0.35 ?g/ml, P < 0.001). These findings warrant further investigation of the ecological and medicinal properties of this stingless bee cerumen, which may herald a commercial potential for the Australian beekeeping industry.

Massaro, Flavia Carmelina; Brooks, Peter Richard; Wallace, Helen Margaret; Russell, Fraser Donald

2011-04-01

193

Cerumen of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria): gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fingerprints and potential anti-inflammatory properties.  

PubMed

Cerumen, or propolis, is a mixture of plant resins enriched with bee secretions. In Australia, stingless bees are important pollinators that use cerumen for nest construction and possibly for colony's health. While extensive research attests to the therapeutic properties of honeybee (Apis mellifera) propolis, the biological and medicinal properties of Australian stingless bee cerumen are largely unknown. In this study, the chemical and biological properties of polar extracts of cerumen from Tetragonula carbonaria in South East Queensland, Australia were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and in vitro 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) cell-free assays. Extracts were tested against comparative (commercial tincture of A. mellifera propolis) and positive controls (Trolox and gallic acid). Distinct GC-MS fingerprints of a mixed diterpenic profile typical of native bee cerumen were obtained with pimaric acid (6.31 ± 0.97%, w/w), isopimaric acid (12.23 ± 3.03%, w/w), and gallic acid (5.79 ± 0.81%, w/w) tentatively identified as useful chemical markers. Characteristic flavonoids and prenylated phenolics found in honeybee propolis were absent. Cerumen extracts from T. carbonaria inhibited activity of 5-LOX, an enzyme known to catalyse production of proinflammatory mediators (IC?? 19.97 ± 2.67 ?g/ml, mean ± SEM, n?=?4). Extracts had similar potency to Trolox (IC?? 12.78 ± 1.82 ?g/ml), but were less potent than honeybee propolis (IC?? 5.90 ± 0.62 g/ml) or gallic acid (IC?? 5.62 ± 0.35 ?g/ml, P < 0.001). These findings warrant further investigation of the ecological and medicinal properties of this stingless bee cerumen, which may herald a commercial potential for the Australian beekeeping industry. PMID:21347735

Massaro, Flavia Carmelina; Brooks, Peter Richard; Wallace, Helen Margaret; Russell, Fraser Donald

2011-04-01

194

Extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and screening of fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. for its antimicrobial potential  

PubMed Central

Background: Terminalia chebula is called the “king of medicines” in Tibet and is always listed first in the Ayurvedic meteria medica because of its extraordinary powers of healing. Objective: Identification, isolation and screening of pyrogallol which are responsible for antimicrobial property of fruits of Terminalia chebula. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate fraction of fruits of Terminalia chebula was subjected to Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the components present in the extract. Results: Sixty four constituents were identified out of which kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside flavonoid and Vitamin E has been detected for the first time in fruits of this plant. Pyrogallol (46.26%) which was the major component of the extract in GC-MS analysis was isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against selected test pathogens by Disc Diffusion Assay. Crude ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits was showing the same activity potential as was observed for pure pyrogallol which was the major component as per GC-MS analysis. The most sensitive species among the bacteria was Enterobacter aerogenes with highest inhibition zone (IZ = 31 mm; AI = 1.409 ± 0.046) even at minimum inhibitory concentration (0.039 mg/ml). Conclusion: Hence activity shown by crude ethyl acetate fraction might be due to pyrogallol present in the extract. On the basis of results it can be advocate that achieved crude ethyl acetate fraction can be explored for preparing antimicrobial drugs in future for the infectious caused by the pathogens tested in the study. PMID:23901211

Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Padma

2013-01-01

195

Simultaneous determination of amphetamine and its analogs in human whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive and specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in whole blood was designed, using the respective pentadeuterated analogs of the analytes as internal standards (I.S.). After alkalinisation of blood samples, the amphetamines were extracted using diethyl ether, derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, then purified by successive washings with deionized water and 4% NH4OH. Extraction recoveries were 85.2% for AM, 90.9% for MA, 76.5% for MDA, 84.1% for MDMA and 63.6% for MDEA. Chromatographic separation was performed on a non-polar 30 m x 0.32 mm HP 5 MS capillary column using a temperature program. Detection was carried out in the electron-impact, selected ion-monitoring mode, using three mass-to-charge ratios for each analyte and one for each I.S. Limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 8 ng/ml and limits of quantification were 10 ng/ml for AM, MDMA and MDEA; 20 ng/ml for MA; and 50 ng/ml for MDA. The method was linear from this limit up to 1000 ng/ml for all analytes, with good intra-assay precision and good intermediate precision and accuracy over these ranges. There was no interferences from other sympathomimetic drugs such as ephedrine, norephedrine or methoxyphenamine. This method is thus suitable for clinical and forensic toxicology, as well as for doping control. PMID:9390716

Marquet, P; Lacassie, E; Battu, C; Faubert, H; Lachâtre, G

1997-10-24

196

Chemometric Analysis of Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry Data using Fast Retention Time Alignment via a Total Ion Current Shift Function  

SciTech Connect

A critical comparison of methods for correcting severely retention time shifted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data is presented. The method reported herein is an adaptation to the Piecewise Alignment Algorithm to quickly align severely shifted one-dimensional (1D) total ion current (TIC) data, then applying these shifts to broadly align all mass channels throughout the separation, referred to as a TIC shift function (SF). The maximum shift varied from (-) 5 s in the beginning of the chromatographic separation to (+) 20 s toward the end of the separation, equivalent to a maximum shift of over 5 peak widths. Implementing the TIC shift function (TIC SF) prior to Fisher Ratio (F-Ratio) feature selection and then principal component analysis (PCA) was found to be a viable approach to classify complex chromatograms, that in this study were obtained from GC-MS separations of three gasoline samples serving as complex test mixtures, referred to as types C, M and S. The reported alignment algorithm via the TIC SF approach corrects for large dynamic shifting in the data as well as subtle peak-to-peak shifts. The benefits of the overall TIC SF alignment and feature selection approach were quantified using the degree-of-class separation (DCS) metric of the PCA scores plots using the type C and M samples, since they were the most similar, and thus the most challenging samples to properly classify. The DCS values showed an increase from an initial value of essentially zero for the unaligned GC-TIC data to a value of 7.9 following alignment; however, the DCS was unchanged by feature selection using F-Ratios for the GC-TIC data. The full mass spectral data provided an increase to a final DCS of 13.7 after alignment and two-dimensional (2D) F-Ratio feature selection.

Nadeau, Jeremy S.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

2010-04-15

197

Identification of microorganisms based on headspace analysis of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The identification of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microorganisms may assist in developing a fast and accurate methodology for the determination of pulmonary bacterial infections in exhaled air. As a first step, pulmonary bacteria were cultured and their headspace analyzed for the total amount of excreted VOCs to select those compounds which are exclusively associated with specific microorganisms. Development of a rapid, noninvasive methodology for identification of bacterial species may improve diagnostics and antibiotic therapy, ultimately leading to controlling the antibiotic resistance problem. Two hundred bacterial headspace samples from four different microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect a wide array of VOCs. Statistical analysis of these volatiles enabled the characterization of specific VOC profiles indicative for each microorganism. Differences in VOC abundance between the bacterial types were determined using ANalysis of VAriance-principal component analysis (ANOVA-PCA). These differences were visualized with PCA. Cross validation was applied to validate the results. We identified a large number of different compounds in the various headspaces, thus demonstrating a highly significant difference in VOC occurrence of bacterial cultures compared to the medium and between the cultures themselves. Additionally, a separation between a methicillin-resistant and a methicillin-sensitive isolate of S. aureus could be made due to significant differences between compounds. ANOVA-PCA analysis showed that 25 VOCs were differently profiled across the various microorganisms, whereas a PCA score plot enabled the visualization of these clear differences between the bacterial types. We demonstrated that identification of the studied microorganisms, including an antibiotic susceptible and resistant S. aureus substrain, is possible based on a selected number of compounds measured in the headspace of these cultures. These in vitro results may translate into a breath analysis approach that has the potential to be used as a diagnostic tool in medical microbiology. PMID:24737039

Boots, A W; Smolinska, A; van Berkel, J J B N; Fijten, R R R; Stobberingh, E E; Boumans, M L L; Moonen, E J; Wouters, E F M; Dallinga, J W; Van Schooten, F J

2014-06-01

198

A novel derivative for the assessment of urinary and salivary nitrate using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Previous gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods for determining nitrate in biological samples involve either hazardous chemicals or produce multiple isomers that can be difficult to quantitate. Modification of these methods, by the nitration of mesitylene instead of benzene and in the presence of trifluoroacetic anhydride rather than sulphuric acid, should enable simple isotopic quantitation for use in tracer studies, for example, in the measurement of nitric oxide production. Desiccated urine and saliva samples, in addition to aqueous labelled and unlabelled nitrate standards, were treated with trifluoroacetic anhydride and mesitylene at 70 degrees C for 1 h, cooled, then sequentially washed with deionised water and aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The solution of nitromesitylene in mesitylene was separated, dried and analysed by GC/MS. The full mass spectra exhibited abundant ions at m/z 165 and 166 corresponding to the unlabelled and labelled molecular species of nitromesitylene, respectively. Selected ion monitoring of these masses for a series of gravimetrically prepared standards indicated good agreement with isotopic enrichments in the range 0.0625-5 mole % excess, and at nitrate concentrations within the physiological range of 0.078-2 mmol/L. Derivatised samples were stable with respect to isotopic enrichments and nitrate concentrations at -20 degrees C for up to 21 days and exhibited excellent repeatability. Nitration of mesitylene proved to be a simple and rapid method for the measurement of isotope ratios in aqueous nitrates by GC/MS, which has applications in tracer studies and in concentration determinations by isotope dilution techniques for nitric oxide production. PMID:19039799

Jackson, Sarah J; Siervo, Mario; Persson, Emma; McKenna, Louise M; Bluck, Leslie J C

2008-12-01

199

Serum level of 19-hydroxyandrostenedione during pregnancy and at delivery determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

19-Hydroxyandrostenedione (19-OHA) is secreted from the adrenal glands in men and women and also from the placenta during pregnancy. It has been found to cause hypertension in animal models. We have synthesized (7,7-2H2)-19-OHA with high deuterium content and, together with (7,7-2H2)A and (9,11-2H2)estrone (E1), have developed a quantitative assay of serum level 19-OHA, A, and E1 using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-mass fragmentography method to monitor individual subjects throughout pregnancy. The labeled 19-OHA, used as internal standard, showed only 6.73% of unlabeled compound. Recovery of standard 19-OHA, A, and E1 (5,000 pg each) added to male plasma was 97.4 +/- 2.3%, 96.3 +/- 2.1%, and 100.1 +/- 4.1% (mean +/- SD), respectively; the intraassay coefficient of variation was 2.1%, 3.5%, and 3.8%, respectively. Ten pregnant subjects without complications and 10 pregnant subjects near term with hypertension were selected (with informed consent). The 19-OHA and E1 serum concentrations of maternal venous blood from uncomplicated pregnancies increased significantly as gestation progressed (19-OHA: first trimester, 225 +/- 72; second trimester, 656 +/- 325; third trimester, 1,518 +/- 544 pg/ml), reaching the highest level at delivery (19-OHA: 1,735 +/- 684 pg/ml). Whereas a positive correlation was found between the level of 19-OHA and E1, no apparent change of the A level was observed during pregnancy. Levels of the three steroid hormones in pregnancy complicated by hypertension in the second and third trimester were not found to be significantly different from those of normal pregnancy (19-OHA of hypertensive subjects: second trimester, 762 +/- 349; third trimester, 1,473 +/- 491 pg/ml).

Osawa, Y.; Ohnishi, S.; Yarborough, C.; Ohigashi, S.; Kosaki, T.; Hashino, M.; Yanaihara, T.; Nakayama, T. (Medical Foundation of Buffalo Research Institute, NY (USA))

1990-04-01

200

Determination of Alkylphenols in Water by SolidPhase Extraction with On-column Derivatization Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical methods based on the solid-phase extraction (SPE) with in situ derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of alkylphenols (APs) in water samples. Two important APs, 4-n-nonylphenol and 4-t-octylphenol, were selected as the target compounds for method development. The SPE extraction was conducted on a C18 extraction cartridges with on column silylation by

Yang Bai-Juan; Jiang Feng-Hua; Xu Xiao-Qin; Chen Jun-Hui; Frank S. C. Lee

2007-01-01

201

Determination of 266 pesticide residues in apple juice by matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography–mass selective detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A macro matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) method was developed to extract 266 pesticides from apple juice samples prior to gas chromatography–mass selective detection (GC–MSD) determination. A 10g samples was mixed with 20g diatomaceous earth. The mixture was transferred into a glass column. Pesticide residues were leached with a 160mL hexane–dichloromethane (1:1) at 5mL\\/min. Two hundred and sixty-six pesticides were divided

Xiao-Gang Chu; Xiao-Zhong Hu; Hui-Yuan Yao

2005-01-01

202

Ruggedness and other performance characteristics of low-pressure gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the fast analysis of multiple pesticide residues in food crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-pressure gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (LP-GC–MS) using a quadrupole MS instrument was further optimized and evaluated for the fast analysis of multiple pesticide residues in food crops. Performance of two different LP-GC–MS column configurations was compared in various experiments, including ruggedness tests with repeated injections of pesticides in matrix extracts. The tested column configurations employed the same 3m × 0.15mm i.d.

Kate?ina Maštovská; Jana Hajšlová; Steven J. Lehotay

2004-01-01

203

Fast analysis of multiple pesticide residues in apple juice using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and multidimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the rapid trace analysis of 24 residual pesticides in apple juice by multidimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (MD-GC\\/MS) using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed and optimized. Several parameters of the extraction procedure such as type and volume of extraction solvent, type and volume of dispersive solvent and salt addition were evaluated to achieve the highest yield and

S. C. Cunha; J. O. Fernandes; M. B. P. P. Oliveira

2009-01-01

204

Rapid determination of volatile flavor components in soy sauce using head space solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and simple method was developed for the determination of volatile flavor components (VFCs) in soy sauce using head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the conditions of HS-SPME, including types of SPME fibers, adsorption time, salt concentration, and extraction temperature, on the extraction of VFC were investigated. The optimized conditions were an

Liujun YAN; Yanfang ZHANG; Wenyi TAO; Liping WANG; Shengfang WU

2008-01-01

205

Analysis of volatile compounds emitted from fresh Syringa oblata flowers in different florescence by headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a simple and solvent-free method was developed for determination of the volatile compounds from fresh flowers of Syringa oblata using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The SPME parameters were studied, the optimum conditions of a 65?m polydimethylsiloxan\\/divinylbenezene (PDMS\\/DVB), extraction temperature of 25°C and extraction time of 30min were obtained and applied to extraction of the

Zu-Guang Li; Maw-Rong Lee; De-Long Shen

2006-01-01

206

A vascular smooth muscle\\/cell membrane chromatography–offline-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry method for recognition, separation and identification of active components from traditional Chinese medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an analytical method of vascular smooth muscle cell membrane chromatography (VSM\\/CMC) combined with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) for recognition, separation and identification of active components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). VSM cells by means of primary culture with rat thoracic aortas were used for preparation of the stationary phase in the CMC model. Retention components by the VSM–CMC

Xiaofang Hou; Mingzhe Zhou; Qiao Jiang; Sicen Wang; Langchong He

2009-01-01

207

Study on the Determination Trace Level of Triphenylarsine in Water by SolidPhase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper established a method of determining trace amounts of triphenylarsine in water by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (with selective ion monitoring). The experimental results indicated that the recoveries are more than 95%, the lowest detected concentration is 0.0005 mg\\/L, and the relative standard deviation of 7 times determining is 5.3%. This method could satisfy the requirements of

Zhou Liming; Zhou Jianmei; Lu Shengli; Li Xingkuo; Zhu Baoxia; Liu Bo

2008-01-01

208

Simultaneous determination of the endocrine disrupting compounds nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, triclosan and bisphenol A in wastewater and sewage sludge by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in wastewater (dissolved and particulate phase) and sewage sludge was developed based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Chromatographic analysis was achieved after derivatization with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). Extraction from water samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The optimization

Georgia Gatidou; Nikolaos S. Thomaidis; Athanasios S. Stasinakis; Themistokles D. Lekkas

2007-01-01

209

Simultaneous analysis of fourteen tertiary amine stimulants in human urine for doping control purposes by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the simultaneous screening and confirmation of the presence of fourteen tertiary amine stimulants in human urine by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in combination with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) has been developed and validated. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) approaches were utilized for the pre-treatment of the urine samples. The study indicated that the

Jianghai Lu; San Wang; Ying Dong; Xiaobing Wang; Shuming Yang; Jianli Zhang; Jing Deng; Yang Qin; Youxuan Xu; Moutian Wu; Gangfeng Ouyang

2010-01-01

210

Development and validation of a solid phase micro-extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the determination of furan in baby-food  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and simple method for the determination of furan in baby-food (vegetables and fruits) by solid phase micro-extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME–GC–MS) was developed and validated. Experimental design was used to investigate the effects of temperature and time of extraction. The calculated regression model was used to find the experimental conditions providing the optimal SPME extraction yield. Validation was carried

Federica Bianchi; Maria Careri; Alessandro Mangia; Marilena Musci

2006-01-01

211

The effect of experimental conditions on the levels of oxidatively modified bases in DNA as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, an artifactual formation of a number of modified DNA bases has been alleged during derivatization of DNA hydrolysates to be analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). These modified bases were 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua), 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OH-Cyt), 8-hydroxyadenine (8-OH-Ade), 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-OHMeUra), and 5-formyluracil, which represent only a small percentage of more than 20 modified DNA bases that can be analyzed by GC-MS.

Sema Sentürker; Miral Dizdaroglu

1999-01-01

212

An alternative method for the determination of estrogens in surface water and wastewater treatment plant effluent using pre-column trimethylsilyl derivatization and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure using pre-column trimethylsilyl derivatization and gas chromatography\\/ mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) was developed\\u000a and applied in determining trace estrogens in complex matrix. Main conditions were optimized, including pH value, salinity\\u000a of water sample, elution reagents, clean procedure, derivative solvent and temperature. The optimized method was used to determine\\u000a steroid estrogens in surface water and effluents of wastewater treatment plant

Yiqi Zhou; Jun Zhou; Yiping Xu; Jinmiao Zha; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang

2009-01-01

213

Trace Level Determination of Lewisite in Water by SolidPhase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Selected Ion-Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analytical procedure was developed for the extraction of Lewisite of chemical warfare agents from water and for derivatization prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion-monitoring. Firstly, lewisite and its degradation products 2-chlorovinylarsonous acid (CVAA) or 2-chlorovinylarsenous oxide(CVAO) or 2-chlorovinylarsonic acid (CVAOA) were derivatized with the propane- 1,3-dithiol, then SPME with 100 mum polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

Zhou Liming; Zhou Jianmei; Liu Bo; Dong Junjun; Lu Shengli; Lu Caihong

2008-01-01

214

Stir bar sorptive extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of tetramethylene disulfotetramine in food: Method development and comparison to solid-phase microextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stir bar sorptive extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SBSE–GC–MS) method for the determination of tetramethylene disulfotetramine is presented. The limits of detection (LOD) of the optimized method was 0.2ngg?1 for extractions from water and 0.3–2.1ngg?1 for extractions from foods. Recovery was highly matrix dependent (36–130%) and quantification required standard addition calibrations. Standard addition calibration lines had high linearity (R2>0.97) and replicate

Lowri S. De Jager; Gracia A. Perfetti; Gregory W. Diachenko

2009-01-01

215

Trace analysis of phenolic xenoestrogens in water samples by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization and thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the simultaneous measurement of trace amounts of phenolic xenoestrogens, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-tert-butylphenol (BP), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol (NP), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and bisphenol A (BPA), in water samples was developed using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ derivatization followed by thermal desorption (TD)–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. The conditions for derivatization with acetic acid anhydride

Migaku Kawaguchi; Koichi Inoue; Mariko Yoshimura; Norihiro Sakui; Noriya Okanouchi; Rie Ito; Yoshihiro Yoshimura; Hiroyuki Nakazawa

2004-01-01

216

Liquid phase microextraction with in situ derivatization for measurement of bisphenol A in river water sample by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method that involves liquid phase microextraction (LPME) with in situ derivatization and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) is described for the determination of trace amounts of bisphenol A (BPA) in river water samples. The LPME conditions, such as the type of extraction solvent and the extraction time, are investigated. Then, the extract is directly injected into GC–MS. The detection

Migaku Kawaguchi; Rie Ito; Naoyuki Endo; Noriya Okanouchi; Norihiro Sakui; Koichi Saito; Hiroyuki Nakazawa

2006-01-01

217

Simultaneous determination of phenol, methylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol-A by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in water samples and industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) automatic method for simultaneous determination of trace amounts of phenol, methylphenols (MPs), chlorophenols (CPs) and bisphenol-A (BPA) in water samples and industrial effluents has been developed. Prior to SPME extraction, a direct derivatisation step using acetic anhydride was performed. Four different SPME fibre coatings (75 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm

Intissar Limam; Angéline Guenne; Mohamed Ridha Driss; Laurent Mazéas

2010-01-01

218

Analysis of deteriorated rubber-based pressure sensitive adhesive by pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubber-based pressure sensitive adhesives of three packing tapes were exposed to sunlight for 6 months to accelerate the oxidation of the adhesives. The exposed adhesives and the unexposed adhesives were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR\\/FT-IR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS). The ATR\\/FT-IR spectra and the pyrograms changed drastically after the exposure. The pyrolyzate peaks of

Y. Kumooka

2006-01-01

219

Study of the precision in the purge-and-trap–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of volatile compounds in honey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data precision in the analysis by purge-and-trap coupled on-line to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (P&T-GC–MS) of honey volatiles has been studied by statistical analysis. The contribution of non-random factors to dispersion of quantitative results was proven by comparing several statistical parameters (correlation coefficients, principal component analysis (PCA) eigenvalues and loadings) from both experimental and simulated data. PCA was also useful for

Ana Cristina Soria; Isabel Martínez-Castro; Jesús Sanz

2009-01-01

220

Determination of parts-per-billion concentrations of dioxane in water and soil by purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or charcoal tube enrichment gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Two methods for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in water have been studied. The first method is a heated purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system following salting out with sodium sulfate. The second method is an adsorption on coconut-shell charcoal and solvent desorption with carbon disulfide/methanol followed by analysis of the desorbate by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The first method is also successful for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in solids and sediments. The second method is shown to be successful for 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, and butoxyethanol in water. The two methods are compared by analyzing 15 samples by both methods and achieving similar results.

Epstein, P.S.; Mauer, T.; Wagner, M.; Chase, S.; Giles, B.

1987-08-01

221

Solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method optimization for characterization of surface adsorption forces of nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A complete characterization of the different physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) is necessary for the evaluation of their impact on health and environment. Among these properties, the surface characterization of the nanomaterial is the least developed and in many cases limited to the measurement of surface composition and zetapotential. The biological surface adsorption index approach (BSAI) for characterization of surface adsorption properties of NPs has recently been introduced (Xia et al. Nat Nanotechnol 5:671-675, 2010; Xia et al. ACS Nano 5(11):9074-9081, 2011). The BSAI approach offers in principle the possibility to characterize the different interaction forces exerted between a NP's surface and an organic-and by extension biological-entity. The present work further develops the BSAI approach and optimizes a solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) method which, as an outcome, gives a better-defined quantification of the adsorption properties on NPs. We investigated the various aspects of the SPME/GC-MS method, including kinetics of adsorption of probe compounds on SPME fiber, kinetic of adsorption of probe compounds on NP's surface, and optimization of NP's concentration. The optimized conditions were then tested on 33 probe compounds and on Au NPs (15 nm) and SiO2 NPs (50 nm). The procedure allowed the identification of three compounds adsorbed by silica NPs and nine compounds by Au NPs, with equilibrium times which varied between 30 min and 12 h. Adsorption coefficients of 4.66?±?0.23 and 4.44?±?0.26 were calculated for 1-methylnaphtalene and biphenyl, compared to literature values of 4.89 and 5.18, respectively. The results demonstrated that the detailed optimization of the SPME/GC-MS method under various conditions is a critical factor and a prerequisite to the application of the BSAI approach as a tool to characterize surface adsorption properties of NPs and therefore to draw any further conclusions on their potential impact on health. PMID:25168112

Omanovic-Miklicanin, Enisa; Valzacchi, Sandro; Simoneau, Catherine; Gilliland, Douglas; Rossi, Francois

2014-10-01

222

Simultaneous quantitative determination of amphetamines, ketamine, opiates and metabolites in human hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of common drugs of abuse in Asia. The method was able to simultaneously quantify amphetamines (amphetamine; AP, methamphetamine; MA, methylenedioxy amphetamine; MDA, methylenedioxymeth mphetamine; MDMA, methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine; MDEA), ketamine (ketamine; K, norketamine; NK), and opiates (morphine; MOR, codeine; COD, 6-acetylmorphine; 6-AM) in human hair. Hair samples (25 mg) were washed, cut, and incubated overnight at 25 degrees C in methanol/trifluoroacetic acid (methanol/TFA). The samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE), derivatized using heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA) at 70 degrees C for 30 min, and the derivatives were analyzed by electron ionization (EI) GC/MS in selected ion monitoring mode. Confirmation was accomplished by comparing retention times and the relative abundances of selected ions with those of standards. Deuterated analogs of the analytes were used as internal standards for quantification. Calibration curves for ten analytes were established in the concentration range 0.1-10 ng/mg with high correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.999). The intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 12.1% and 15.8%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracies were between -8.7% and 10.7%, and between -5.9% and 13.8%, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) obtained were 0.03 and 0.05 ng/mg for AP, MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA; 0.05 and 0.08 ng/mg for K, NK, MOR and COD; and 0.08 and 0.1 ng/mg for 6-AM. The recoveries were above 88.6% for all the compounds, except K and NK which were in the range of 71.7-72.7%. Eight hair samples from known polydrug abusers were examined by this method. These results show that the method is suitable for broad-spectrum drug testing in a single hair specimen. PMID:18288687

Wu, Ya-Hsueh; Lin, Keh-Liang; Chen, Su-Chin; Chang, Yan-Zin

2008-01-01

223

Chapter 3. Determination of semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 38 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semivolatile organic compounds in solid samples is described. Samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from the solid sample twice at 13,800 kilopascals; first at 120 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (50:50, volume-to-volume ratio), and then the sample is extracted at 200 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio). The compounds are isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing divinylbenzene-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer resin. The cartridges are dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds are eluted from the SPE material using a dichloromethane/diethyl ether mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio) and passed through a sodium sulfate/Florisil SPE cartridge to remove residual water and to further clean up the extract. The concentrated extract is solvent exchanged into ethyl acetate and the solvent volume reduced to 0.5 milliliter. Internal standard compounds are added prior to analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Comparisons of PAH data for 28 sediment samples extracted by Soxhlet and the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method described in this report produced similar results. Extraction of PAH compounds from standard reference material using this method also compared favorably with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of PAHs less than molecular weight 202 (pyrene or fluoranthene) are higher by up to 20 percent using this ASE method, whereas the recoveries of PAHs greater than or equal to molecular weight 202 are equivalent. This ASE method of sample extraction of solids has advantages over conventional Soxhlet extraction by increasing automation of the extraction process, reducing extraction time, and using less solvent. Extract cleanup also is greatly simplified because SPE replaces commonly used gel permeation chromatography. The performance of the method (as expressed by mean recoveries and mean precision) was determined using Ottawa sand, a commercially available topsoil, and an environmental stream sediment, fortified at 1.5 and 15 micrograms per compound. Recoveries of PAH and semivolatile compounds in Ottawa sand samples fortified at 1.5 micrograms averaged 88 percent ? 9.4 percent relative standard deviation, and calculated initial method detection limits per compound averaged 14 micrograms per kilogram, assuming a 25-gram sample size. The recovery for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene is less than 60 percent; thus, the concentration of this compound will always be reported as estimated with the E remark code. The analysis of 25 alkylated PAH homolog groups also can be determined with this method with extra data analysis and review, but because of the lack of authentic reference standard compounds, these results are considered to be semiquantitative. The PAH homolog groups are quantitated using the response factor of a parent PAH method compound, if available. Precision data for the alkylated PAH homologs detected in a marine sediment standard reference material (SRM 1944) also are presented to document and demonstrate method capability.

Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Burbank, Teresa L.; Olson, Mary C.; Iverson, Jana L.; Schroeder, Michael P.

2006-01-01

224

Use of hydrogen as a carrier gas for the analysis of steroids with anabolic activity by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Due to the impact in the media and the requirements of sensitivity and robustness, the detection of the misuse of forbidden substances in sports is a really challenging area for analytical chemistry, where any study focused on enhancing the performance of the analytical methods will be of great interest. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of using hydrogen instead of helium as a carrier gas for the analysis of anabolic steroids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron ionization. There are several drawbacks related with the use of helium as a carrier gas: it is expensive, is a non-renewable resource, and has limited availability in many parts of the world. In contrast, hydrogen is readily available using a hydrogen generator or high-pressure bottled gas, and allows a faster analysis without loss of efficiency; nevertheless it should not be forgotten that due to its explosiveness hydrogen must be handled with caution. Throughout the study the impact of the change of the carrier gas will be evaluated in terms of: performance of the chromatographic system, saving of time and money, impact on the high vacuum in the analyzer, changes in the fragmentation behaviour of the analytes, and finally consequences for the limits of detection achieved with the method. PMID:21907993

Muñoz-Guerra, J A; Prado, P; García-Tenorio, S Vargas

2011-10-14

225

Determination of o-phenylphenol, diphenylamine, and propargite pesticide residues in selected fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid method was developed to detect o-phenylphenol, diphenylamine, and propargite in selected fruits and vegetables. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selective-ion monitoring mode was used to identify and quantitate the 3 residues. Residues were extracted with acetonitrile and transferred to acetone. Limits of detection were 10, 8, and 15 ppb for o-phenylphenol, diphenylamine, and propargite, respectively. Recovery data were obtained by fortifying 4 matrixes (apples, oranges, canned peaches, and spinach) at 0.025-0.888 ppm. The method provides very good linearity data with low coefficients of variation. PMID:9170661

Yu, L; Schoen, R; Dunkin, A; Firman, M; Cushman, H; Fontanilla, A

1997-01-01

226

Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic drug fipexide in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic fipexide (FIP) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). FIP was extensively metabolized to 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]piperazine, N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)piperazine, piperazine, N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)ethylenediamine, and N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]ethylenediamine. The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC–MS after acid hydrolysis of one urine aliquot, liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation

Roland F. Staack; Hans H. Maurer

2004-01-01

227

Evaluation of the QuEChERS Method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis Pesticide Residues in Water and Sediment  

PubMed Central

A method for the determination of pesticide residues in water and sediment was developed using the QuEChERS method followed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits. The recovery percentages obtained for the pesticides in water at different concentrations ranged from 63 to 116%, with relative standard deviations below 12%. The corresponding results from the sediment ranged from 48 to 115% with relative standard deviations below 16%. The limits of detection for the pesticides in water and sediment were below 0.003 mg L?1 and 0.02 mg kg?1, respectively. PMID:21165598

de Macedo, A. N.; Vicente, G. H. L.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

2010-01-01

228

Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

PubMed

The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. PMID:25236195

Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

2015-02-15

229

Efficiency of pretreatment of aqueous samples using a macroporous strong anion-exchange resin on the determination of nerve gas hydrolysis products by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after tert.-butyldimethylsilylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pretreatment procedure, using a macroporous strong anion-exchange resin (MSA) has been established for the determination of nerve gas hydrolysis products by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after tert.-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatization. Aqueous solutions of methylphosphonic acid (MPA) and three alkyl methylphosphonic acids (AMPAs) (ethyl, isopropyl and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid), were retained on the MSA column, and then quantitatively eluted with 0.1

Mieko Kataoka; Kouichiro Tsuge; Yasuo Seto

2000-01-01

230

Development of criteria for the detection of adrenosterone administration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for doping control.  

PubMed

Adrenosterone (androst-4-ene-3,11,17-trione, 11-oxoandrostenedione) is an endogenous steroid hormone that has been promoted as a dietary supplement capable of reducing body fat and increasing muscle mass. It is proposed that adrenosterone may function as an inhibitor of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11beta-HSD1), which is primarily responsible for reactivation of cortisol from cortisone. The urinary metabolism of adrenosterone was investigated, after a single oral administration in two male subjects, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Substantially increased excretion of 11beta-hydroxyandrosterone, 11beta-hydroxyetiocholanolone, 11-oxoandrosterone and 11-oxoetiocholanolone was observed. Minor metabolites such as 3alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5beta-androstan-11-one, 3alpha-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-11,17-dione and 3alpha,11beta-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-17-one were also identified. The exogenous origin of the most abundant adrenosterone metabolites was confirmed by GC-C-IRMS according to World Anti-Doping Agency criteria. Through analysis of a reference population data set obtained from urine samples provided by elite athlete volunteers (n = 85), GC-MS doping control screening criteria are proposed: 11beta-hydroxyandrosterone concentration greater than 10 000 ng/mL (specific gravity adjusted to 1.020) or 11beta-hydroxyandrosterone/11beta-hydroxyetiocholanolone ratio greater than 20.Urine samples fulfilling these screening criteria may be subjected to GC-C-IRMS analysis for confirmation of adrenosterone administration. PMID:20355175

Brooker, Lance; Parr, Maria Kristina; Cawley, Adam; Flenker, Ulrich; Howe, Christopher; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; George, Adrian

2009-11-01

231

Use of headspace sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in herbal infusions.  

PubMed

A solvent-free method is described for the determination of 10 volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), considered as priority pollutants by the EU, in different herbal infusions using headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The parameters affecting both the extraction and thermal desorption steps in the HSSE were optimized by means of Plackett-Burman designs. Ten millilitres of the herbal infusion was submitted to the HSSE preconcentration in the presence of salt for 4h at 88 °C. The use of d(10)-phenanthrene as internal standard not only improved the repeatability of the method but allowed quantification of the samples against external aqueous standards. Detection limits ranged between 11 and 26 ng L(-1). PMID:25001331

Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

2014-08-22

232

Molecularly imprinted fibers with renewable surface for solid-phase microextraction of triazoles from grape juice samples followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber able to renew its selective binding sites because of the gradual thermal decomposition of the polymeric network. The injector of the chromatograph operates at 300 °C, and during the desorption step of the analytes (in a short period), the polymeric network is degraded from the surface to the core in volatile compounds that do not interfere with the analysis. The renewable MIP fiber was successfully employed to extract triazole fungicides (triadimenol, tebuconazole, and metconazole) from grape juice samples followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The method was adjusted to the quadratic models from 100 to 2000 ?g L(-1), with good precision and accuracy. The limits of quantification (100 ?g L(-1) for all analytes) were sufficient to analyze triadimenol, tebuconazole, and metconazole in grape juice samples, where their maximum residue limits in Brazil are 100, 2000, and 1000 ?g L(-1), respectively. PMID:24317365

Freitas, Lissara Aparecida de Souza; Vieira, André Coutinho; Mendonça, João Antônio Felipe Risolia; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa

2014-02-01

233

Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) to detect the abuse of 17?-estradiol in cattle.  

PubMed

Although the ability to differentiate between endogenous steroids and synthetic homologues on the basis of their (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratio has been known for over a decade, this technique has been scarcely implemented for food safety purposes. In this study, a method was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS) to demonstrate the abuse of 17?-estradiol in cattle, by comparison of the (13)C/(12)C ratios of the main metabolite 17?-estradiol and an endogenous reference compound (ERC), 5-androstene-3?,17?-diol, in bovine urine. The intermediate precisions were determined as 0.46 and 0.26‰ for 5-androstene-3?,17?-diol and 17?-estradiol, respectively. This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first reported use of GC-MS/C/IRMS for the analysis of steroid compounds for food safety issues. PMID:23815698

Janssens, Geert; Mangelinckx, Sven; Courtheyn, Dirk; Prévost, Stéphanie; De Poorter, Geert; De Kimpe, Norbert; Le Bizec, Bruno

2013-07-31

234

Metabolomic profiling of human follicular fluid from patients with repeated failure of in vitro fertilization using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Objective: To establish a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics method to compare the metabolites in the follicular fluid (FF) from patients with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and repeated IVF failure (RIF). Methods: A prospective study was employed in Center for Reprodutive Medcine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai, China, between January and October 2010. FF samples were collected from 13 patients with RIF and 15 patients who achieved pregnancy after the first IVF cycle. Results: Partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis of the PCA data revealed that the samples were scattered into two different regions. FF from the two groups differed with respect to 20 metabolites. FF from RIF group showed elevated levels of several amino acids (valine, threonine, isoleucine, cysteine, serine, proline, alanine, phenylalanine, lysine, methionine and ornithine), and reduced levels of dicarboxylic acids, cholesterol and some organic acids. Conclusions: The studies corroborated successful determination of the levels of metabolite in the FF. PMID:25400819

Xia, Lan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Sun, Yun; Hong, Yan; Gao, Yuping; Hu, Shuanggang

2014-01-01

235

Quantitation of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and cocaethylene in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

Cocaine, a stimulant, is a commonly abused drug. Cocaine and its metabolites are measured in various biological specimens for clinical and forensic purposes. Urine or plasma or serum is spiked with deuterated internal standards cocaine-d3, benzoylecgonine-d3, ecgonine methyl ester-d3, and cocaethylene-d3 and buffered with phosphate buffer. The drugs in the sample are extracted by cation-exchange solid phase extraction. The drugs from the solid phase cartridge are eluted and the eluent is dried under the stream of nitrogen. The residue is incubated with pentafluoropropionic acid anhydride and pentafluoropropanol to form pentafluoropropionyl derivatives of ecgonine methyl ester and benzoylecgonine. Cocaine and cocaethylene are refractory to derivatization. The extract is dried, reconstituted in ethyl acetate, and injected into gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analyzer. Quantitation of the drugs in the samples is made, using selected ion monitoring, from a 3-point calibration curve. PMID:20077067

Fleming, Steven W; Dasgupta, Amitava; Garg, Uttam

2010-01-01

236

Determination of diclofenac in plasma and urine by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with possible simultaneous determination of deuterium-labelled diclofenac.  

PubMed

A specific and sensitive method for the determination of diclofenac at concentrations down to ca. 1 ng/ml, the limit of detection being 100 pg/ml, in human plasma and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with 2H4-labelled diclofenac as internal standard is described. The method is also suitable for the simultaneous assay of these two compounds when both are present in samples of human plasma or urine. In this case, 5-chlorodiclofenac is used as internal standard. After toluene extraction from plasma or without extraction for urine, the method involves the formation of a dimethylindolinone derivative by extractive alkylation. The technique was applied to determine low plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of labelled and unlabelled diclofenac after percutaneous applications of Voltaren Emulgel to humans applied simultaneously under occlusive dressing as deuterated diclofenac sodium, and without occlusive dressing as unlabelled diclofenac sodium. PMID:1810969

Sioufi, A; Pommier, F; Godbillon, J

1991-11-15

237

Determination of seven pyrethroids biocides and their synergist in indoor air by thermal-desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after sampling on Tenax TA ® passive tubes.  

PubMed

A method coupling thermal desorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 7 pyrethroids (allethrin, bifenthrin, cyphenothrin, imiprothrin, permethrin, prallethrin and tetramethrin) and piperonyl butoxide adsorbed on Tenax TA(®) passive samplers after exposure in indoor air. Thermal desorption was selected as it permits efficient and rapid extraction without solvent used together with a good sensitivity. Detection (S/N>3) and quantification (S/N>10) limits varied between 0.001 ng and 2.5 ng and between 0.005 and 10 ng respectively with a reproducibility varied between 14% (bifenthrin) and 39% (permethrin). The method was used for the comparison indoor air contamination after low-pressure spraying and fumigation application in a rubbish chute situated in the basement of a building. PMID:25281107

Raeppel, Caroline; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

2015-01-01

238

Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and guaiacol in cork stoppers by pressurised fluid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of an analytical method consisting of pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using experimental designs to determine two volatile compounds in naturally-tainted cork stoppers. The target analytes, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) and guaiacol, are involved in the cork taint of wine. First, a Plackett-Burman experimental design was carried out in order to determine the significant experimental parameters affecting the PFE process, and then a central composite design was used to optimise these significant parameters. Once the method had been optimised, the influence of the number of extraction cycles was studied. The method was applied to determine the concentration of 2,4,6-TCA and guaiacol in three cork samples, and the results were compared with the ones obtained by multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) and by Soxhlet extraction. PMID:16257409

Ezquerro, Oscar; Garrido-López, Alvaro; Tena, María Teresa

2006-01-13

239

Development and application of a method for analysis of phthalates in ham sausages by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay was developed and successfully applied for the determination of phthalates in ham sausage migrated from packaging film. The phthalates studied were dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), with dibutyl adipate (DBA) as internal standard. The sample pre-treatments included extraction with n-hexane, solvent evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile before and after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The extraction and cleaning up procedure was carried out with cartridges containing dimethyl butylamine groups, which showed extraction efficiencies over 87.3%. The calibration curves obtained were linear with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The method proved to be accurate and precise for the six phthalates used. It was successfully applied to a study on the migration of phthalates from packaging PVC film into ham sausage. PMID:20374814

Guo, Zhiyong; Wang, Sui; Wei, Danyi; Wang, Meili; Zhang, Huina; Gai, Panpan; Duan, Jing

2010-03-01

240

Identification of volatiles in leaves of Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' is an aromatic medicinal plant, its foliage producing an intense, unique fragrant odor. This study identified 46 volatile compounds in the leaf tissue of this plant using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The major compounds included 1, 8-cineole (43.5%), p-cymene (14.7%), humulene (5.5%), camphor (5.3%), linalool (4.7%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (3.8%), gamma-cadinene (3.3%), humulene oxide II (2.1%) and a-terpineol (1.5%). The majority of the volatiles were terpenoids of which oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant, accounting for 57.2% of the total volatiles. Alcohols made up the largest (52.8%) and aldehydes the smallest (0.2%) portions of the volatiles. Many bioactive compounds were present in the volatiles. PMID:25230513

Chen, Jian Yan; Ye, Zheng Mei; Huang, Tian Yi; Chen, Xiao Dan; Li, Yong Yu; Wu, Shao Hua

2014-07-01

241

Triclosan and methyl-triclosan monitoring study in the northeast of Spain using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay and confirmatory analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryFor the first time, the occurrence of triclosan and its metabolite methyl-triclosan was investigated in a typical Mediterranean area using a two-step methodology based on screening using a magnetic particle immunoassay (IA) and confirmatory analysis by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, 95 environmental samples were analyzed. A commercial immunoassay was assessed for use in the different types of water selected for this study. A large monitoring study was performed on the influent and the effluent of eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), water samples from Ebro and Llobregat rivers, and drinking water. All wastewater samples tested in this study (influents and effluents) showed the presence of triclosan, with concentrations for raw influents being high (10 ?g/L as average value). The percentages of triclosan removal for the WWTPs were evaluated (30-70%) along the different treatment processes showing that the best removal rates were obtained by the processes equipped with membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, important concentrations of triclosan were detected even after treatment by MBRs. The presence of this biocide was confirmed in 50% of the river samples analyzed. Twenty two drinking water samples from the Barcelona city area were investigated, and in this case no triclosan was detected. Due to its properties and the widespread usage of triclosan, there is a need for monitoring and controlling the amounts present in wastewater effluents, river water, drinking water catchments areas, and drinking water. To this end, we present a feasible methodology using a magnetic particle-based immunoassay as a screening, followed by confirmatory analysis using solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS).

Kantiani, Lina; Farré, Marinella; Asperger, Danijela; Rubio, Fernando; González, Susana; López de Alda, Maria J.; Petrovi?, Mira; Shelver, Weilin L.; Barceló, Damià

2008-10-01

242

Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for simultaneous determination of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its main metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in urine samples.  

PubMed

In presented paper analytical method based on solid-phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the confirmation of THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH in urine samples. Non-covalent molecularly imprinted polymers of THC-OH were prepared using different functional monomers (methacrylic acid, 4-vinylpyridine, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and 2,2'-azobis-isobutyronitrile as an initiator of radical polymerization. Analytes were extracted from urine samples using prepared polymer sorbent with highest binding selectivity and capability. Before extraction, urine samples were hydrolyzed with alkaline. Elution was performed with chloroform:ethyl acetate (60:40, v/v). Dry extracts were silylated with BSTFA+1% TMCS. Detection and quantification were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion recording mode. The developed method was linear over the range from LOQ to 150 ng mL(-1) for all three analytes. For THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH LOD was 2.5, 1 and 1 ng mL(-1), and LOQ was 3, 2 and 2 ng mL(-1), respectively. The precision, accuracy, recovery and matrix effect were investigated at 5, 25 and 50 ng mL(-1). In the investigated concentration range recoveries were 71.9% for THC, 78.6% for THC-OH and 75.2% for THC-COOH. Matrix effect was not significant (<10%) for all analytes in the concentration range from 5 ng mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1). Extraction recovery on non-imprinted polymer was relatively high indicating high non-specific binding. Optimized and validated method was applied to 15 post-mortem urine samples. PMID:23890655

Nesti?, Marina; Babi?, Sandra; Pavlovi?, Dragana Mutavdži?; Sutlovi?, Davorka

2013-09-10

243

Validation of pentaacetylaldononitrile derivative for dual 2H gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and 13C gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of glucose.  

PubMed

A reference method to accurately define kinetics in response to the ingestion of glucose in terms of total, exogenous and endogenous glucose is to use stable-isotope-labelled compounds such as 2H and 13C glucose followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) analysis. The use of the usual pentaacetyl (5Ac) derivative generates difficulties in obtaining accurate and reproducible results due to the two chromatographic peaks for the syn and anti isomers, and to the isotopic effect occurring during acetylation. Therefore, the pentaacetylaldononitrile derivative (Aldo) was validated for both isotopes, and compared with the 5Ac derivative. A correction factor including carbon atom dilution (stoichiometric equation) and the kinetic isotopic effect (KIE) was determined. Analytical validation results for the 2H GC/MS and 13C GC/C/IRMS measurements produced acceptable results with both derivatives. When 2H enrichments of plasma samples were < or = 1 mol % excess (MPE), the repeatability (RSD(Aldo Intra assay and Intra day) <0.94%, RSD(5Ac Intra assay and Intra day) <3.29%), accuracy (Aldo <3.4%, 5Ac <29.0%), and stability of the derivatized samples were significantly better when the Aldo derivatives of the plasma samples were used (p < 0.05). When the glucose kinetics were assessed in nine human subjects, after glucose ingestion, the plasma glucose 2H enrichments were identical with both derivatives, whereas the 13C enrichments needed a correction factor to fit together. Due to KIE variation, this correction factor was not constant and had to be calculated for each batch of analyses, to obtain satisfactory results. Mean quantities of exogenous glucose exhibit marked difference (20.9 +/- 1.3g (5Ac) vs. 26.7 +/- 2.5g (Aldo)) when calculated with stoichiometric correction, but fit perfectly when calculated after application of the correction factor (22.1 +/- 1.3g (5Ac) vs. 22.9 +/- 1.9g (Aldo)). Finally, the pentaacetylaldononitrile derivative, used here in GC/C/IRMS for the first time, enables measurement of 2H and 13C enrichments in plasma glucose with a single sample preparation. PMID:19904737

Sauvinet, Valérie; Gabert, Laure; Qin, Du; Louche-Pélissier, Corinne; Laville, Martine; Désage, Michel

2009-12-01

244

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM CHARCOAL BADGES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY (RTI/ACS-AP-209-112)  

EPA Science Inventory

This protocol provides guidelines for determining volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOCs) in air samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This method is for the analysis of VOCs in air by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). Charcoal badge samplers are ex...

245

Identification of Bound Nitro Musk-Protein Adduct in Fish Liver By Gas Chromatography-Mass Sectrometry: Biotransformation, Dose-Response and Toxicokinetics of Nitro Musk Metabolites Protein Adducts in Trout Liver as Biomarker of Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Ubiquitous occurrences of synthetic nitro musks are evident in the literature. The In vivo analysis of musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) - protein adducts in trout liver have been performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM-MS). Bio...

246

A METHOD FOR AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF 10 ML WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING ACIDIC, BASIC, AND NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILE COMPOUNDS LISTED IN USEPA METHOD 8270 BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Data is presented showing the progress made towards the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the single run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of acid, base and neutral compounds...

247

Global analysis of multiple gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) data sets: A method for resolution of co-eluting components with comparison to MCR-ALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global analysis has been applied to resolve components in multiple gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) data sets. Global analysis methodology is based upon a parametrized model of the observed data, including random (and possibly also systematic) errors. Each elution profile is described as a function of a small number of parameters. We successfully based the description of elution profiles on an

Ivo H. M. van Stokkum; Katharine M. Mullen; Velitchka V. Mihaleva

2009-01-01

248

Characterization of novel single-variety oxygenated sesquiterpenoid hop oil fractions via headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.  

PubMed

The volatile composition of novel varietal oxygenated sesquiterpenoid hop oil fractions ("spicy essences") was characterized by headspace solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes represent the major chemical compound class, accounting for at least 65% of the total volatile fraction. In addition to oxygenated sesquiterpenes, spicy hop essences consist of several ketones, sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, and a relatively high number of unidentified compounds. On the basis of their relative composition, spicy hop essences can be fully differentiated according to their varietal origin. Multidimensional gas chromatography in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry on spicy hop essence cv. Spalter Select further demonstrated the enormous complexity of this particular hop oil fraction. The aromagram obtained via gas chromatography-olfactometry comprised nine odor-active regions described in terms of "citrus", "green", "haylike", "earthy", "woody", and "spicy". 2-Undecanone, 2-tridecanone, ?-cadinene, ?-calacorene, calarene, humuladienone, caryolan-1-ol, caryophyllene oxide enantiomers, and humulene epoxide II are tentatively identified in the odor-active zones. PMID:24152289

Van Opstaele, Filip; Praet, Tatiana; Aerts, Guido; De Cooman, Luc

2013-11-01

249

Detection of human butyrylcholinesterase-nerve gas adducts by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometric analysis after in gel chymotryptic digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the exposure to nerve gas, a method for detecting human butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)-nerve gas adduct was developed using LC–electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Purified human serum BuChE was incubated with sarin, soman or VX, and the adduct was purified by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and digested in gel by treatment with chymotrypsin. The resulting peptide mixture was subjected

Kouichiro Tsuge; Yasuo Seto

2006-01-01

250

Quantiative determination of sulfonated aliphatic and aromatic surfactants in sewage sludge by ion-pair/supercritical fluid extraction and derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Secondary alkanesulfonate (SAS) and linear alkylbenzene-sulfonate (LAS) surfactants were quantitatively (> 90%) extracted from sewage sludges as their tetrabutylammonium ion pairs using 400 atm of supercritical CO[sub 2] for 5 min of static extraction followed by 10 min of dynamic extraction at 80[degrees]C. Ion pairs of SAS and LAS quantitatively formed butyl esters in the injection port of the gas chromatograph and were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry without class fractionation of the sewage sludge extracts. Concentrations of SAS and LAS in sludges from five different sewage treatment plants ranged from 0.27 to 0.80 g/kg of dry sewage sludge and from 3.83 to 7.51 g/kg, respectively. Good reproducibility was achieved with RSDs of typically 5% for replicate extractions and analyses. Homologue and isomer distributions of SAS in sewage sludge indicated an enrichment of the more hydrophobic components in sewage sludge during sewage treatment. 25 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Field, J.A.; Field, T.M.; Giger, W. (Swiss Federal Inst. for Water Resources and Water Pollution Control, Duebendorf (Switzerland)); Miller, D.J.; Hawthorne, S.B. (Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks (United States))

1992-12-15

251

Assessment of a new method for the analysis of decomposition gases of polymers by a combining thermogravimetric solid-phase extraction and thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

For analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products of polymers, the common techniques are thermogravimetry, combined with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). These methods offer a simple approach to the decomposition mechanism, especially for small decomposition molecules. Complex spectra of gaseous mixtures are very often hard to identify because of overlapping signals. In this paper a new method is described to adsorb the decomposition products during controlled conditions in TGA on solid-phase extraction (SPE) material: twisters. Subsequently the twisters were analysed with thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS), which allows the decomposition products to be separated and identified using an MS library. The thermoplastics polyamide 66 (PA 66) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) were used as example polymers. The influence of the sample mass and of the purge gas flow during the decomposition process was investigated in TGA. The advantages and limitations of the method were presented in comparison to the common analysis techniques, TGA-FTIR and TGA-MS. PMID:24929909

Duemichen, E; Braun, U; Senz, R; Fabian, G; Sturm, H

2014-08-01

252

Resolution of volatile fuel compound profiles from Ascocoryne sarcoides: a comparison by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry and solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Volatile hydrocarbon production by Ascocoryne sacroides was studied over its growth cycle. Gas-phase compounds were measured continuously with a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and at distinct time points with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using head space solid phase microextraction (SPME). The PTR-MS ion signal permitted temporal resolution of the volatile production while the SPME results revealed distinct compound identities. The quantitative PTR-MS results showed the volatile production was dominated by ethanol and acetaldehyde, while the concentration of the remainder of volatiles consistently reached 2,000 ppbv. The measurement of alcohols from the fungal culture by the two techniques correlated well. Notable compounds of fuel interest included nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl- and benzaldehyde. Abiotic comparison of the two techniques demonstrated SPME fiber bias toward higher molecular weight compounds, making quantitative efforts with SPME impractical. Together, PTR-MS and SPME GC-MS were shown as valuable tools for characterizing volatile fuel compound production from microbiological sources. PMID:22480438

Mallette, Natasha D; Knighton, W Berk; Strobel, Gary A; Carlson, Ross P; Peyton, Brent M

2012-01-01

253

Determination of BROMATE AT PARTS-PER-TRILLION LEVELS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH NEGATIVE CHEMICAL IONIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The ozonation of bromide-containing source waters produces bromate as a class 2B carcinogenic disinfection by-product. The present work describes the determination of bromate by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCIMS) following a bromate react...

254

Determination of phenolic compounds in wines by novel matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction method was developed to extract simultaneously 23 phenolic compounds from wine samples prior to determination by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode. Different parameters of the MSPD technique such as dispersant solid-phase, eluting solvent, and sample ionic strength and pH were optimized. The optimized MSPD procedure requires

Lucio Minuti; Roberto Pellegrino

2008-01-01

255

Screening for sarin in air and water by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of screening air and water samples for the chemical-warfare agent Sarin is developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). The SPME field kit sampler is ideal for collecting air and water samples in the field and transporting samples safely to the laboratory. The sampler also allows the sample to be introduced into the GC-MS system without

J. F. Schneider; A. S. Boparai; L. L. Reed

2001-01-01

256

Determination of volatile aroma compounds of Ganoderma lucidum by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS).  

PubMed

This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010-2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, phenol, L-Alanine, d-Alanine, 3Methyl, 2-Butanamine, 2-Propanamine were determined. 1-Octen-3-ol (Alcohol) and 3-methyl butanal (Aldehyde) were identified as major aroma compounds. PMID:24146461

Ta?k?n, Hat?ra; Kafkas, Ebru; Çak?ro?lu, Özgün; Büyükalaca, Saadet

2013-01-01

257

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsin grass and milk from urban and rural farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAH levels were studied in grass and milk sampled at two farms, one located in a non- contaminated, rural area, and another located in a urban area close to PAH sources such as highways, high-traffic roads, fuel-powered trains and a steel plant. PAH concentration were measured by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using internal deuteriated standards. In grasses,

Nathalie Grova; Claire Laurent; Cyril Feidt; Guido Rychen; François Laurent; Eric Lichtfouse

2000-01-01

258

Enhancement of mass spectral data handling using an IBM personal computer. [For gas chromatography-mass spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for interfacing an IBM Personal Computer (PC) to a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 9825 desktop computer system is described. The HP 9825 computer provides control and data acquisition for an HP 5970A Mass Selective Detector (MSD) coupled to an HP 5880A gas chromatograph (GC). The GC\\/MSD is used in catalyst deactivation studies for identification and characterization of organic compounds in

1987-01-01

259

Determination of boiling point of petrochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis of structural activity relationship.  

PubMed

Accurate understanding of analyte boiling points (BP) is of critical importance in gas chromatographic (GC) separation and crude oil refinery operation in petrochemical industries. This study reported the first combined use of GC separation and partial-least-square (PLS1) multivariate regression analysis of petrochemical structural activity relationship (SAR) for accurate BP determination of two commercially available (D3710 and MA VHP) calibration gas mix samples. The results of the BP determination using PLS1 multivariate regression were further compared with the results of traditional simulated distillation method of BP determination. The developed PLS1 regression was able to correctly predict analytes BP in D3710 and MA VHP calibration gas mix samples, with a root-mean-square-%-relative-error (RMS%RE) of 6.4%, and 10.8% respectively. In contrast, the overall RMS%RE of 32.9% and 40.4%, respectively obtained for BP determination in D3710 and MA VHP using a traditional simulated distillation method were approximately four times larger than the corresponding RMS%RE of BP prediction using MRA, demonstrating the better predictive ability of MRA. The reported method is rapid, robust, and promising, and can be potentially used routinely for fast analysis, pattern recognition, and analyte BP determination in petrochemical industries. PMID:24881546

Fakayode, Sayo O; Mitchell, Breanna S; Pollard, David A

2014-08-01

260

Development and validation of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry procedure for confirmation of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fish fillet tissue  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chloramine-T is a disinfectant being developed as a treatment for bacterial gill disease in cultured fish. As part of the drug approval process, a method is required for the confirmation of chloramine-T residues in edible fish tissue. The marker residue that will be used to determine the depletion of chloramine-T residues from the edible tissue of treated fish is para-toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA), a metabolite of chloramine-T. The development and validation of a procedure for the confirmation of p-TSA is described. Homogenized fish tissue is dried by mixing with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and the mixture is extracted with methylene chloride. The extract is passed through a silica gel solid-phase extraction column, from which p-TSA is subsequently eluted with acetonitrile. The acetonitrile extract is evaporated, and the oily residue is dissolved in hexane. The hexane solution is shaken with fresh acetonitrile. The acetonitrile solution is evaporated and the residue is redissolved in dilute potassium hydroxide solution. The aqueous solution is extracted with methylene chloride to further remove more of the fat co-extractive. The aqueous solution is reacted with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in presence of tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate. The resulting di-(pentafluorobenzyl) derivative of p-TSA is analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This method permits the confirmation of p-TSA in edible fish tissue at 20 ppb.

Idowu, O.R.; Kijak, P.J.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schmidt, L.J.

2004-01-01

261

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolite profiling of worker honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hemolymph for the study of Nosema ceranae infection.  

PubMed

Here, we are presenting a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) approach for the study of infection of the worker honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) by the newly emerged obligate intracellular parasite Nosema ceranae based on metabolite profiling of hemolymph. Because of the severity of the disease, early detection is crucial for its efficient control. Results revealed that the parasite causes a general disturbance of the physiology of the honey bee affecting the mechanisms controlling the mobilization of energy reserves in infected individuals. The imposed nutritional and energetic stress to the host was depicted mainly in the decreased levels of the majority of carbohydrates and amino acids, including metabolites such as fructose, l-proline, and the cryoprotectants sorbitol and glycerol, which are implicated in various biochemical pathways. Interestingly, the level of glucose was detected at significantly higher levels in infected honey bees. Metabolomics analyses were in agreement with those of multiplex quantitative PCR analyses, indicating that it can be used as a complementary tool for the detection and the study of the physiology of the disease. PMID:22841888

Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Copley, Tanya; Jabaji, Suha

2012-10-01

262

Development of a screening method for the analysis of organic pollutants in water using dual stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The development of a method for screening of organic compounds with a wide range of physico-chemical properties in water, based on dual stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (dual SBSE-TD-GC-MS) is described. The investigated water sample is divided into two aliquots and extracted with stir bar sorptive extraction at two different conditions: using addition of methanol or sodium chloride, respectively. Following extraction, the two stir bars are inserted into the same glass thermal desorption liner and are simultaneously desorbed and analysed by GC-MS. The method optimisation was performed using 45 environmentally harmful substances with different volatilities (boiling point from 193 to 495°C), polarity (logK(ow) from 2.17 to 8.54) and acido-basic properties. The majority of model compounds was selected from the EU list of priority substances in the field of water policy and from the US EPA method 625, respectively. Optimisation was performed for extraction parameters (sample volume, extraction time, stirring rate, addition of modifiers) as well as for the thermal desorption conditions (desorption flow, desorption time, cryofocusing temperature). Performance characteristics (recovery, repeatability, carryover, linearity, limits of detection and quantification) were determined for the optimised method. An example of analysis of a contaminated groundwater sample is presented. PMID:22099662

Tölgyessy, Peter; Vrana, Branislav; Krascsenits, Zoltán

2011-12-15

263

Pyrolysis kinetic and product analysis of different microalgal biomass by distributed activation energy model and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

To assess the energy potential of different microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana and Monoraphidium were selected for studying the pyrolytic behavior at different heating rates with the analytical method of thermogravimetric analysis (TG), distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Results presented that Monoraphidium 3s35 showed superiority for pyrolysis at low heating rate. Calculated by DAEM, during the conversion rate range from 0.1 to 0.7, the activation energies of C. sorokiniana 21 were much lower than that of Monoraphidium 3s35. Both C. sorokiniana 21 and Monoraphidium 3s35 can produce certain amount (up to 20.50%) of alkane compounds, with 9-Octadecyne (C18H34) as the primary compound. Short-chain alkanes (C7-C13) with unsaturated carbon can be released in the pyrolysis at 500°C for both microalgal biomass. It was also observed that the pyrolysis of C. sorokiniana 21 released more alcohol compounds, while Monoraphidium 3s35 produced more saccharides. PMID:24835746

Yang, Xuewei; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Juan; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay Jiayang; Sun, Yuan

2014-07-01

264

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for studying N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate copolymers and their dissolution behaviour.  

PubMed

Knowledge on the solubility behaviour and dissolution rate of speciality and commodity polymers is very important for the use of such materials in high-tech applications. We have developed methods for the quantification and characterization of dissolved copolymers of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP) and vinyl acetate (VA) during dissolution in water. The methods are based on pyrolysis (Py) performed in a programmed-temperature vaporization injector with subsequent identification and quantification of the components in the pyrolysate using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By injecting large volumes and applying cryo-focussing at the top of the column, low detection limits could be achieved. The monomer ratio was found to have the greatest effect on the dissolution rate of the PVP-co-VA copolymers. The material with the highest amount of VA (50%) dissolves significantly slower than the other grades. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Py-GC-MS were used to measure molecular weights and average chemical compositions, respectively. Combined off-line SEC//Py-GC-MS was used to determine the copolymer composition (VP/VA ratio), as a function of the molecular weight for the pure polymers. In the dissolution experiments, a constant VP/VA ratio across the dissolution curve was observed for all copolymers analysed. This suggests a random distribution of the two monomers over the molecules. PMID:22023866

Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Ghaffar, Abdul; Feilden, Andrew; Treacher, Kevin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Schoenmakers, Peter

2011-11-14

265

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of pogostone in canine plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

In this study, a simple and selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of pogostone in canine plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to separate pogostone from canine plasma, and the mean extraction recovery rates of pogostone and the internal standard (isoalantolactone) were 80.61 and 75.89%, respectively. Plastic centrifuge tubes were inadequate for the plasma sample treatment procedure because of the adsorption effect of pogostone on the inner surface. The chromatographic separation was performed on a capillary column of Agilent HP-5ms, and the spectrometer was operated in an electron-impact ionization with an electron multiplier voltage mode. The standard curve was linear over the concentration range of 1.02-406 ng/mL (r > 0.99). The intra- and interday accuracies for pogostone at four concentrations were 97.77-99.92% and 98.51-100.22%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were <15%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after the oral administration of pogostone to beagle dogs. PMID:24714140

Zhang, Ruoqi; Peng, Cheng; Li, Yunxia; Xiong, Liang; Gong, Xiaohong

2014-11-01

266

The determination of cyclophosphamide and its metabolites in blood plasma as stable trifluoroacetyl derivatives by electron capture chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method is described for the determination of the antitumour drug cyclophosphamide and six stable metabolites in plasma of cancer patients, namely dechloroethyl-cyclophosphamide, 4-keto-cyclophosphamide, carboxy-phosphamide, alcophosphamide, nor-nitrogen mustard and the N-chloroethyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-one, as methyl and/or trifluoroacetyl derivatives by single ion monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, mostly in the electron capture chemical ionization mode. The isolation of most metabolites was performed by solid-phase C-18 extraction in weakly acidic medium. The phosphoramide mustard isolated under these conditions decomposes readily to the nor-nitrogen mustard during derivatization. The original nor-nitrogen mustard and the chloroethyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-one were isolated by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate in alkaline medium. Recoveries of 75-99% were measured using spiked blank plasma samples. Quantitation of metabolites in patient plasma samples was performed using two sets of calibration curves for the concentration ranges of 1-100 ng and 0.1-10 micrograms of metabolite per millilitre of original plasma. PMID:8148406

Momerency, G; Van Cauwenberghe, K; Slee, P H; Van Oosterom, A T; De Bruijn, E A

1994-03-01

267

A non-invasive biomonitoring method for assessing levels of urinary pyrethroid metabolites in diapered children by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantitative measurement of urinary metabolites of pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides, trans-chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid (CDCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), extracted from disposable diapers. This study was approved by the university ethics committees, and informed consent was obtained from all the parents for their children and from adult volunteers. After extraction of PYR metabolites in the absorber of diapers with 5?ml acetone, the metabolites in the eluents were extracted with tert-butyl methyl ether, derivatized with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 0.55??g/l for CDCA and 0.09??g/l for 3-PBA in 2?ml urine extracted from diapers. Within-series and between-day precisions were <14% (CV%) over the concentration range of metabolites from 0.4 to 20.4??g/l urine. When concentrations of each metabolite were measured with the developed method after pouring 2?ml urine, which was obtained from adults both in a general population and pest control operators, on diapers, good correlations were shown between the measured results and the concentrations measured directly for the respective urine with the conventional method (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.889 for CDCA and 0.989 for 3-PBA; n=27-28). The developed method would be applicable to epidemiological studies. PMID:23756699

Saito, Shun; Ueyama, Jun; Kondo, Takaaki; Saito, Isao; Shibata, Eiji; Gotoh, Masahiro; Nomura, Hiroshi; Wakusawa, Shinya; Nakai, Kunihiko; Kamijima, Michihiro

2014-01-01

268

Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS) Based Metabolite Profiling Reveals Mannitol as a Major Storage Carbohydrate in the Coccolithophorid Alga Emiliania huxleyi.  

PubMed Central

Algae are divergent organisms having a wide variety of evolutional histories. Although most of them share photosynthetic activity, their pathways of primary carbon metabolism are rather diverse among species. Here we developed a method for gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) based metabolite profiling for the coccolithophorid alga Emiliania huxleyi, which is one of the most abundant microalgae in the ocean, in order to gain an overview of the pathway of primary metabolism within this alga. Following method optimization, twenty-six metabolites could be detected by this method. Whilst most proteogenic amino acids were detected, no peaks corresponding to malate and fumarate were found. The metabolite profile of E. huxleyi was, however, characterized by a prominent accumulation of mannitol reaching in excess of 14 nmol 106 cells?1. Similarly, the accumulation of the 13C label during short term H13CO3? feeding revealed a massive redistribution of label into mannitol as well as rapid but saturating label accumulation into glucose and several amino acids including aspartate, glycine and serine. These results provide support to previous work suggesting that this species adopts C3 photosynthesis and that mannitol functions as a carbon store in E. huxleyi. PMID:24957896

Obata, Toshihiro; Schoenefeld, Steffi; Krahnert, Ina; Bergmann, Susan; Scheffel, Andre; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2013-01-01

269

Simultaneous detection and quantification of select nitromusks, antimicrobial agent, and antihistamine in fish of grocery stores by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Continually detected biologically persistent nitromusks; galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and musk ketone (MK), antimicrobial triclosan (TCS), and antihistamine diphenhydramine (DPH) were examined for the first time in edible fillets originating from eight fish species grown in salt- and fresh-water. The sampled fish collected from local grocery stores were homogenized, extracted, pre-concentrated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM). The presence of the target compounds in fish extracts was confirmed based on similar mass spectral features and retention behavior with standards. Internal standard based calibration plots were used for quantification. The HHCB, AHTN, TCS and DPH were consistently observed with concentration of 0.163-0.892, 0.068-0.904, 0.189-1.182, and 0.942-7.472 ng g(-1), respectively. These values are at least 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than those obtained in environmental fish specimens. The MK was not detected in any fish. PMID:24377446

Foltz, James; Abdul Mottaleb, M; Meziani, Mohammed J; Rafiq Islam, M

2014-07-01

270

Rapid and effective sample clean-up based on magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, amine-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MNPs/MWCNTs) composites were synthesised by a simple method and applied as an adsorbent for rapid clean-up of acetonitrile extracts of tea samples prior to analysing eight pesticide residues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several parameters affecting the sampling and treatment efficiency were investigated, including extraction solvent, sonication time, weight ratio of MWCNTs to MNPs in the composites, amount of adsorbent, clean-up time and washing solution. Under the optimised conditions, the recoveries obtained for each pesticide ranged from 72.5% to 109.1% with relative standard deviations lower than 12.6%. Limit of quantification ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg kg?¹. The established method was successfully applied to the analysis of pesticide residues in real tea samples. The results indicated that the use of MNPs/MWCNTs composites allowed the simple and expeditious clean-up of complex tea samples for subsequent determination of pesticide residues. PMID:24128556

Deng, Xiaojuan; Guo, Qianjin; Chen, Xiaoping; Xue, Tao; Wang, Hui; Yao, Pei

2014-02-15

271

Simultaneous quantification of Aroclor mixtures in soil samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with solid phase microextraction using partial least-squares regression.  

PubMed

Multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) method was applied to the quantification of two complex polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) commercial mixtures, Aroclor 1254 and 1260, in a soil matrix. PCBs in soil samples were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Decachlorinated biphenyl (deca-CB) was used as internal standard. After the baseline correction was applied, four data representations including extracted ion chromatograms (EIC) for Aroclor 1254, EIC for Aroclor 1260, EIC for both Aroclors and two-way data sets were constructed for PLS-1 and PLS-2 calibrations and evaluated with respect to quantitative prediction accuracy. The PLS model was optimized with respect to the number of latent variables using cross validation of the calibration data set. The validation of the method was performed with certified soil samples and real field soil samples and the predicted concentrations for both Aroclors using EIC data sets agreed with the certified values. The linear range of the method was from 10?gkg(-1) to 1000?gkg(-1) for both Aroclor 1254 and 1260 in soil matrices and the detection limit was 4?gkg(-1) for Aroclor 1254 and 6?gkg(-1) for Aroclor 1260. This holistic approach for the determination of mixtures of complex samples has broad application to environmental forensics and modeling. PMID:25216382

Zhang, Mengliang; Harrington, Peter de B

2015-01-01

272

Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Whole Water by Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 69 compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on aquatic organisms in wastewater. This method also is useful for evaluating the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water quality of urban streams. The method focuses on the determination of compounds that are indicators of wastewater or have endocrine-disrupting potential. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Wastewater compounds in whole-water samples were extracted using continuous liquid-liquid extractors and methylene chloride solvent, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-water samples fortified at 0.5 microgram per liter averaged 72 percent ? 8 percent relative standard deviation. The concentration of 21 compounds is always reported as estimated because method recovery was less than 60 percent, variability was greater than 25 percent relative standard deviation, or standard reference compounds were prepared from technical mixtures. Initial method detection limits averaged 0.18 microgram per liter. Samples were preserved by adding 60 grams of sodium chloride and stored at 4 degrees Celsius. The laboratory established a sample holding-time limit prior to sample extraction of 14 days from the date of collection.

Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; Schroeder, Michael P.

2006-01-01

273

Composition research of n-alkanes in the samples of hydrothermal deposits of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimum conditions were selected for the chromatographic separation of model mixtures of C12-C40 n-alkanes. For one of the samples of hydrothermal deposits, the extraction conditions of the hydrocarbons were studied and a sample preparation procedure was selected. A procedure is proposed to determine the n-alkanes in samples of hydrothermal deposits by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The detection limit for the n-alkanes amounted to 3 × 10-9 to 10-8% depending on the components. On the basis of the procedure proposed, the composition of the n-alkanes was studied in the samples of hydrothermal deposits collected at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (the Broken Spur, Lost City, and Rainbow fields). The analysis performed showed that the samples treated contained C14-C35 n-alkanes. The concentrations of the n-alkanes considered were rather low and varied from 0.002 to 0.038 ?g/g. Hypotheses concerning the genesis of the n-alkanes identified were formed.

Shulga, N. A.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Revelskii, I. A.

2010-08-01

274

Compensation for matrix effects in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of 186 pesticides in tea matrices using analyte protectants.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical method was developed for simultaneously determining 186 pesticides in tea matrices using analyte protectants to counteract the matrix-induced effect. The matrix effects were evaluated for green, oolong and black tea, representing unfermented, partially fermented and completely fermented teas respectively and depending on the type of tea, 72%, 94% and 94% of the pesticides presented strong response enhancement effect. Several analyte protectants as well as certain combinations of these protectants were evaluated to check their compensation effects. A mixture of triglycerol and d-ribonic acid-?-lactone (both at 2mg/mL in the injected samples) was found to be the most effective in improving the chromatographic behavior of the 186 pesticides. More than 96% of the 186 pesticides achieved recoveries within the range of 70-120% when using the selected mixture of analyte protectants. The simple addition of analyte protectants offers a more convenient solution to overcome matrix effects, results in less active sites compared to matrix-matched standardization and can be an effective approach to compensate for matrix effects in the GC-MS analysis of pesticide residues. PMID:23102633

Li, Yan; Chen, Xi; Fan, Chunlin; Pang, Guofang

2012-11-30

275

A rapid assay for the simultaneous determination of nicotine, cocaine and metabolites in meconium using disposable pipette extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

Drug abuse by pregnant women is considered a serious public health problem worldwide. Meconium is the first excretion in newborns and has been used as an alternative matrix to evaluate in utero drug exposure. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is widely employed to prepare and clean up samples in the field of forensic analysis. Most SPE products require large volumes of solvent, which culminates in longer sample processing times and increased cost per sample. Disposable pipette extraction (DPX) tips have been used as an alternative to traditional SPE cartridges. They combine efficient and rapid extraction with reduced solvent consumption. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method to determine nicotine, cotinine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene and methyl ester anhydroecgonine in meconium using DPX and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Validation results indicated that extraction efficiency ranged 50-98%, accuracy 92-106%, intra-assay precision 4-12% and inter-assay precision 6-12%. Linear calibration curves resulted in R(2) values >0.99, limits of detection ranged from 2.5 to 15 ng/g and the limit of quantitation from 10 to 20 ng/g. The DPX-GC-MS method was shown to selectively analyze trace concentrations of drugs in meconium samples. Finally, the developed and validated method was applied to 50 meconium samples. PMID:24272386

Mozaner Bordin, Dayanne C; Alves, Marcela N R; Cabrices, Oscar G; de Campos, Eduardo G; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa

2014-01-01

276

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of drugs of abuse in human placenta at 12th week of gestation.  

PubMed

We describe the development and validation of a method for the quantification of drugs of abuse, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), in human placenta. Concentration ranges covered were 5-500 ng/g for amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, morphine, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, nicotine, and cotinine. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were less than 15.7% for lower quality control samples and less than 14.9% for medium and high quality control samples. Recovery range was 36.2-83.7%. Placenta samples were kept at -80 degrees C until analysis; analytes were stable after three freeze-thaw cycles (samples stored at -20 degrees C). This accurate and precise assay has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the analysis of specimens collected from women who voluntarily terminated their pregnancy at 12th week of gestation. The method has proven to be robust and accurate for the quantification of the principal recreational drugs of abuse in this period of the prenatal life. This is the first report that highlights the presence of drugs of abuse during the first trimester of gestation. PMID:20056364

Joya, Xavier; Pujadas, Mitona; Falcón, María; Civit, Ester; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pichini, Simona; Luna, Aurelio; de la Torre, Rafael

2010-03-20

277

Human blood and environmental media screening method for pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds using liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

Screening assessment methods have been developed for semi- and non-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for human blood and solid environmental media. The specific methodology is developed for measuring the presence of "native" compounds, specifically, a variety of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The method is demonstrated on anonymous Red Cross blood samples as well as two potential environmental sources, tracked in soil and dog hair. This work is based on previously developed methods for semi-volatile hydrocarbon exposure from fuels usage and similarly employs liquid solvent extraction, evaporative volume reduction. and subsequent specialized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). Standard curves, estimates of recovery efficiency, and specific GC-MS SIM quantification methods were developed for common pesticides including diazinon. aldrin, chlorpyrifos, malathion, dieldrin, DDT, permethrin, cyhalothrin, and cypermethrin, and for seven selected PCBs. Trace levels of certain PCBs and pesticides such as permethrin, dieldrin, malathion, lindane, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos were tentatively identified in anonymous blood samples as well as in two potential environmental sources. tracked in soil and dog hair. The method provides a simple screening procedure for various media and a variety of common organic pollutants without extensive sample preparation. It is meant to complement and augment data from more specific or complex methodology, to provide initial broad spectrum guidance for designing targeted experiments, and to provide confirmatory evidence for the usual metabolic biomarker measurements made to assess human exposure. PMID:11936688

Liu, Siming; Pleil, Joachim D

2002-03-25

278

Simultaneous analysis of fourteen tertiary amine stimulants in human urine for doping control purposes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous screening and confirmation of the presence of fourteen tertiary amine stimulants in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) approaches were utilized for the pre-treatment of the urine samples. The study indicated that the capillary temperature played a significant role in the signal abundances of the protonated molecules of cropropamide and crotethamide under positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions. In addition, comparison studies of two different pre-treatment approaches as well as the two ionization modes were conducted. The LODs of the developed method for all the analytes were lower than the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) as set forth in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) technical document for laboratories. The human urine sample obtained after oral administration of prolintane.HCl was successfully analyzed by the developed method, which demonstrated the applicability and reliability of the method for routine doping control analysis. PMID:19951756

Lu, Jianghai; Wang, San; Dong, Ying; Wang, Xiaobing; Yang, Shuming; Zhang, Jianli; Deng, Jing; Qin, Yang; Xu, Youxuan; Wu, Moutian; Ouyang, Gangfeng

2010-01-01

279

Characterization and chemical composition of fatty acids content of watermelon and muskmelon cultivars in Saudi Arabia using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Background: The growth in the production of biodiesel, which is principally fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), has been phenomenal in the last ten years because of the general desire to cut down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and also as a result of the increasing cost of fossil fuels. Objective: Establish whether there is any relationship between two different species (watermelon and muskmelon) within the same family (Cucurbitaceae) on fatty acid compositions and enumerate the different fatty acids in the two species. Materials and Methods: Extraction of fatty acids from the two species and preparation the extract to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis to determine the fatty acids compositions qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The analyzed plants (watermelon and muskmelon) contain five saturated fatty acids; tetrdecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid with different concentrations, while muskmelon contains an extra saturated fatty acid named eicosanoic acid. The watermelon plant contains five unsaturated fatty acids while muskmelon contains three only, the two plants share in two unsaturated fatty acids named 9-hexadecenoic acid and 9-octadecenoic acid, the muskmelon plant contains higher amounts of these two acids (2.04% and 10.12%, respectively) over watermelon plant (0.88% and 0.25%, respectively). Conclusion: The chemical analysis of watermelon and muskmelon revealed that they are similar in saturated fatty acids but differ in unsaturated fatty acids which may be a criterion of differentiation between the two plants. PMID:23661995

Albishri, Hassan M.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Moussa, Tarek A. A.

2013-01-01

280

High concentration capacity sample preparation techniques to improve the informative potential of two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: application to sensomics.  

PubMed

This study reports and critically discusses the results of a systematic investigation on the effectiveness of different and complementary sampling approaches, based on either sorption and adsorption, treated as a further dimension of a two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical platform for sensomics. The focus is on the potentials of a group of high concentration capacity (HCC) sample preparation (Solid Phase Microextraction, SPME, Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction, SBSE and Headspace Sorptive Extraction, HSSE) and Dynamic Headspace (D-HS) techniques investigated to provide information useful for fingerprinting and profiling studies of food aroma. Volatiles and semi-volatiles contributing to define whole and nonfat dry milk aroma have been successfully characterized thanks to the combination of effective and selective sampling by HCC and D-HS techniques, high separation and detection power of GC×GC-MS and suitable data elaboration (i.e., Comprehensive Template Matching Fingerprinting - CTMF). Out of the sample preparation techniques investigated, HSSE and SBSE have shown to be really effective for sensomics studies because of their high concentration factors, providing highly representative profiles as well as analyte recovery suitable for GC-Olfactometry even with high odor threshold (OT) markers or potent odorants in sub-trace amounts. PMID:24144305

Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Nicolotti, Luca; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo

2013-11-29

281

Microextraction by packed sorbent for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in environmental water samples by in situ derivatization-programmed temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present work describes the development and validation of a method for the determination of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: clofibric acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and ketoprofen) in water samples. The fully automated method includes in situ aqueous derivatization followed by analyte enrichment by microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) coupled directly to programmed temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PTV-GC-MS). The MEPS variables, such as sample volume, elution solvent, elution volume, fill and injection speed and washing steps were optimized. It was possible to use the MEPS polymer (silica-C18) 250 times. Ibuprofen-d3 was used as internal standard. The reproducibility of the method, calculated as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was below 10% for all compounds. Detection limits in ultrapure water were between 3.0 and 110 ngL(-1) for ibuprofen and ketoprofen, respectively. External calibration was used in the determination of NSAIDs in several types of water samples, including tap, river, sea and influent and effluent wastewater. The results obtained revealed the presence of ibuprofen and naproxen in the influent wastewater sample and of naproxen in the effluent wastewater sample. PMID:22129572

Noche, Gloria Grueiro; Laespada, María Esther Fernández; Pavón, José Luis Pérez; Cordero, Bernardo Moreno; Lorenzo, Soledad Muniategui

2011-12-30

282

Sensitive and robotic determination of bromate in sea water and drinking deep-sea water by headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A robotic method has been established for the determination of bromate in sea water and drinking deep-sea water. Bromate in water was converted into volatile derivative, which was measured with headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS). Derivatization reagent and the HS-SPME parameters (selection of fibre, extraction/derivatization temperature, heating time and; the morality of HCl) were optimized and selected. Under the established conditions, the detection and the quantification limits were 0.016 ?g L(-1) and 0.051 ?g L(-1), respectively, and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 7% at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 ?g L(-1). The calibration curve showed good linearity with r(2)=0.9998. The common ions Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), HPO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), K(+), Na(+), NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Mn(4+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) did not interfere even when present in 1000-fold excess over the active species. The method was successfully applied to the determination of bromate in sea water and drinking deep-sea water. PMID:22840702

Lim, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ho-Sang

2012-09-01

283

Phytochemical analyses of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa seed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Z. jujuba) seeds have attracted much attention within the field of medicine due to their significant effects against disturbances of the central nervous system. Secondary metabolites composition is key to the influence of the pharmaceutical and commercial qualities of this plant. In this work, the phytochemical profile of Z. jujuba seeds was analysed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The UPLC-MS/MS information identified the main secondary metabolites in Z. jujuba seeds, including flavonoid C-glycosides, triterpene acids and unsaturated fatty acids. The leading chemical identified by UPLC-MS/MS was betulinic acid, and oleic acid was the leading volatile from the GC-MS results. All the samples tested showed similar phytochemical profiles, but levels of the chemical compounds varied. Principal component analysis revealed the principal secondary metabolites that could define the differences in quality. It was confirmed that the combination of UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS was an effective technique to demonstrate the pharmaceutical quality of Z. jujuba seeds. PMID:24071816

Yang, Bao; Yang, Hongshun; Chen, Feng; Hua, Yanglin; Jiang, Yueming

2013-11-21

284

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in five species of fish from three sites in the Arabian Gulf.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrmetroic (GC-MS) method was developed to measure six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 54 fish samples. Five fish species highly consumed by the local population (shrimps, Emperors, Rabbitfish, Doublebar Bream and Greasy Grouper) were selected from three different sites on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia where agricultural, municipal and petroleum industry activities take place. Variations in PAH levels among the three sites were not significant. Total concentrations of PAHs benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene ranged from non-detectable to 44.9 microg kg(-1). In this study, concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and total PAHs greater than the acceptable tolerance limit (1 microg kg(-1)) were found in 68.5, 40.7, 51.9 and 83.3% of the fish samples, respectively. PAH contents in fish vary considerably with species; Doublebar bream contain the highest while shrimps contain the lowest. This pilot study clearly shows that the consumption of fish could be a source of exposure of the local population to PAHs. Since there is a consensus on the substantial contribution of PAHs to cancer in humans, it would be interesting to conduct further research in order to determine the magnitude of the problem along other coastal regions of Saudi Arabia. PMID:12400558

Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Doush, Inaam

2002-06-01

285

Free and total malondialdehyde assessment in biological matrices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: what is needed for an accurate detection.  

PubMed

A method to determine free and total (free and bound) malondialdehyde (MDA) in fresh human plasma, or in rat liver microsomes, using selected ion monitoring (SIM) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the electron impact mode was set up. The dideuterated internal standard, 3-hydroxy[1, 3-2H2]-2-propenal (dMDA), was added to the biological samples before their analytical manipulation. To detect free MDA the samples were reacted under mild conditions (25 degreesC, pH 4.0, 30 min) with phenylhydrazine (PH), affording 1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole and its 3, 5-dideuterated isotopomer. For the evaluation of total MDA level the plasma or microsomes were subjected, before the derivatization step, to hydrolysis in the presence of 1 M NaOH under preestablished conditions. This method offers several advantages such specificity, precision (within-day CV 2.0%, between-day CV 2.1%), linearity (0. 01-15 microM) and high sensitivity (5 pmol injected). The recovery of known added MDA amounts from plasma and microsomes, hydrolyzed or not, accounted for 98 +/- 0.6%. The free MDA levels found in the plasma and microsomes were 0.14 +/- 0.03 microM and 0.048 +/- 0.006 nmol/mg protein, respectively. The total MDA levels were 1.3 +/- 0. 07 microM in plasma and 0.36 +/- 0.04 nmol/mg protein in the microsomes. PMID:9888979

Cighetti, G; Debiasi, S; Paroni, R; Allevi, P

1999-01-15

286

Simultaneous determination of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine by automated solid-phase extraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous automated solid-phase extraction and quantification of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in human urine. Good linearity was observed over the concentration ranges studied (R(2) > 0.99). The limit of quantification was 10?ng/mL for both analytes. The limits of detection were 0.06?ng/mL for cotinine (COT) and 0.02?ng/mL for trans-3-hydroxycotinine (OH-COT). Accuracy for COT ranged from 0.98 to 5.28% and the precision ranged from 1.24 to 8.78%. Accuracy for OH-COT ranged from -2.66 to 3.72% and the precision ranged from 3.15 to 7.07%. Mean recoveries for cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine ranged from 77.7 to 89.1%, and from 75.4 to 90.2%, respectively. This analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in urine will be used to monitor tobacco smoking in pregnant women and will permit the usefulness of trans-3-hydroxycotinine as a specific biomarker of tobacco exposure to be determined. PMID:24616054

Chiadmi, Fouad; Schlatter, Joël

2014-04-01

287

Optimization of a sample preparation method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in tobacco by single and multi-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A selective and sensitive multiresidue analysis method, comprising 4 7pesticides, was developed and validated in tobacco matrix. The optimized sample preparation procedure in combination with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in selected-ion-monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) mode offered limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in the range of 3-5 and 7.5-15ng/g, respectively, with recoveries between 70 and 119% at 50-100ng/g fortifications. In comparison to the modified QuEChERS (Quick-Easy-Cheap-Effective-Rugged-Safe method: 2g tobacco+10ml water+10ml acetonitrile, 30min vortexing, followed by dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup), the method performed better in minimizing matrix co-extractives e.g. nicotine and megastigmatrienone. Ambiguity in analysis due to co-elution of target analytes (e.g. transfluthrin-heptachlor) and with matrix co-extractives (e.g. ?-HCH-neophytadiene, 2,4-DDE-linolenic acid) could be resolved by selective multi-dimensional (MD)GC heart-cuts. The method holds promise in routine analysis owing to noticeable efficiency of 27 samples/person/day. PMID:24746872

Khan, Zareen S; Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar; Girame, Rushali; Utture, Sagar C; Gadgil, Manasi; Banerjee, Kaushik; Reddy, D Damodar; Johnson, Nalli

2014-05-23

288

Analysis of phthalate acid esters in environmental water by magnetic graphene solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, magnetic graphene composites were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal reaction. The as-prepared composites were successfully applied as an effective adsorbent for the preconcentration of seven phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in environmental water samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The magnetic graphene composites had a unique structure in which magnetite particles were deposited on graphene sheets. This unique structure not only provided strong magnetic responsiveness for the separation but also prevented the self-aggregation of graphene. The magnetic graphene composites had several advantages, such as large surface area, fast separation ability, and high peak intensity for aromatic analytes; these properties are attributed to the distinct structure of magnetic graphene composites, which comprises p-conjugated networks with a highly exposed surface. Various parameters, including eluting solvent and volume, absorbent amount, extraction time and elution time, were optimized. Validation experiments showed that the optimized method presented good linearity (r>0.997), satisfactory precision (RSD<8.5%), and high recovery (88-110%). The limits of detection were from 0.010?g/L to 0.056?g/L, and the limits of quantification were from 0.035?g/L to 0.19?g/L. The proposed method had these advantages of simplicity, good sensitivity, and high efficiency. Finally, the proposed was successfully applied to the analysis of PAEs in real water samples. PMID:24418236

Ye, Qing; Liu, Linhai; Chen, Zhongbao; Hong, Liming

2014-02-14

289

One-step extraction and derivatization liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of chlorophenols by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sample pretreatment method for the determination of 18 chlorophenols (CPs) in aqueous samples by derivatization liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Derivatization reagent was spiked into the extraction solvent to combine derivatization and extraction into one step. High sensitivity of 18 CPs derivatives could be achieved after optimization of several parameters such as extraction solvent, percentage of derivatization reagent, extraction time, pH, and ionic strength. The results from the optimal method showed that calibration ranging from 0.5 to 500microgL(-1) could be achieved with the RSDs between 1.75% and 9.39%, and the limits of detection (LOD) are ranging from 0.01 to 0.12microgL(-1) for the CPs. Moreover, the proposed LPME method was compared with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with on-fiber derivatization technique. The results suggested that using both methods are quite agreeable. Furthermore, the recoveries of LPME evaluated by spiked environmental samples ranged from 87.9% (3,5-DCP) to 114.7% (2,3,5,6-TeCP), and environmental water samples collected from the Pearl River were analyzed with the optimized LPME method, the concentrations of 18 CPs ranged from 0.0237microgL(-1) (3,5-DCP) to 0.3623microgL(-1) (2,3,6-TCP). PMID:19640544

Wang, Xiaowei; Luo, Lijuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng; Lin, Li; Tam, Nora F Y; Lan, Chongyu; Luan, Tiangang

2009-08-28

290

Preparation of Fe3O4@C@PANI magnetic microspheres for the extraction and analysis of phenolic compounds in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work, core-shell structure Fe(3)O(4)@C@polyaniline magnetic microspheres were synthesized using simple hydrothermal reactions. The carbon-coated magnetic microspheres (Fe(3)O(4)@C) were first synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction, and then aniline was polymerized on the magnetic core via another hydrothermal reaction. Then, the obtained Fe(3)O(4)@C@polyaniline magnetic microspheres were applied as magnetic adsorbents for the extraction of aromatic molecules due to ?-? interactions between polyaniline shell and aromatic compounds. In our study, five kinds of phenols including phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and bisphenol A (BPA) were selected as the model analytes to verify the extraction ability of Fe(3)O(4)@C@PANI microspheres. After derivatization, the phenols were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dominant parameters affecting enrichment efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method was evaluated, and applied to the analysis of phenols in real water samples. The results demonstrated that our proposed method based on Fe(3)O(4)@C@polyaniline magnetic microspheres had good linearity (r(2)>0.991), and limits of quantification (2.52-29.7 ng/mL), high repeatability (RSD<13.1%) and good recovery (85.3-110.6%). PMID:21492861

Meng, Jiaoran; Shi, Chenyi; Wei, Biwen; Yu, Wenjia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

2011-05-20

291

Quantitative Analysis of Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine ("Tetramine") Spiked into Beverages by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Validation by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, commonly known as tetramine, is a highly neurotoxic rodenticide (human oral LD{sub 50} = 0.1 mg/kg) used in hundreds of deliberate food poisoning events in China. Here we describe a method for quantitation of tetramine spiked into beverages, including milk, juice, tea, cola, and water and cleaned up by C8 solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Quantitation by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was based upon fragmentation of m/z 347 to m/z 268. The method was validated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in SIM mode for ions m/z 212, 240, and 360. The limit of quantitation was 0.10 {micro}g/mL by LC/MS/MS versus 0.15 {micro}g/mL for GC/MS. Fortifications of the beverages at 2.5 {micro}g/mL and 0.25 {micro}g/mL were recovered ranging from 73-128% by liquid-liquid extraction for GC/MS analysis, 13-96% by SPE and 10-101% by liquid-liquid extraction for LC/MS/MS analysis.

Owens, J; Hok, S; Alcaraz, A; Koester, C

2008-11-13

292

Forensic discrimination of photocopy and printer toners. III. Multivariate statistics applied to scanning electron microscopy and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Copy toner samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with X-ray dispersive analysis (SEM-EDX) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Principal component and cluster analysis of SEM data for 166 copy toner samples established 13 statistically different subgroups, with the presence or absence of a ferrite base being a major division. When toners were compared for which both SEM and reflection-absorption infrared spectral data were available, 41% of the samples could be assigned to specific manufacturers. Py-GC/MS on poly(styrene:acrylate)-based toners produced eight peaks relevant to toner differentiation. One third of the toners clustered in a small group that contained five statistically different subgroups. Of the 57 toners for which both Py-GC/MS and SEM data were available, 31 could be differentiated using the combined analytical results. The synergy of the complementary information provided by Py-GC/MS and SEM narrows matching possibilities for forensic investigations involving copied or laser printed documents. PMID:12879190

Egan, William J; Galipo, Randolph C; Kochanowski, Brian K; Morgan, Stephen L; Bartick, Edward G; Miller, Mark L; Ward, Dennis C; Mothershead, Robert F

2003-08-01

293

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Components of Agrimonia eupatoria from Leaves and Roots by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Multivariate Curve Resolution  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate curve resolution were applied to the differential analysis of the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria specimens from different plant parts. After extracted with water distillation method, the volatile components in Agrimonia eupatoria from leaves and roots were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in the main root of Agrimonia eupatoria was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. 68 of 87 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components were identified and quantified, accounting for about 87.03% of the total content. Then, the common peaks in leaf were extracted with orthogonal projection resolution method. Among the components determined, there were 52 components coexisting in the studied samples although the relative content of each component showed difference to some extent. The results showed a fair consistency in their GC-MS fingerprint. It was the first time to apply orthogonal projection method to compare different plant parts of Agrimonia eupatoria, and it reduced the burden of qualitative analysis as well as the subjectivity. The obtained results proved the combined approach powerful for the analysis of complex Agrimonia eupatoria samples. The developed method can be used to further study and quality control of Agrimonia eupatoria. PMID:24286016

Feng, Xiao-Liang; He, Yun-biao; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Lan-Fang; Xie, Jian-Wei

2013-01-01

294

Two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, physical property modeling and automated production of component maps to assess the weathering of pollutants.  

PubMed

Local conditions influence how pollutants will weather in subsurface environments and sediment, and many of the processes that comprise environmental weathering are dependent upon these substances' physical and chemical properties. For example, the effects of dissolution, evaporation, and organic phase partitioning can be related to the aqueous solubility (SW), vapor pressure (VP), and octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW), respectively. This study outlines a novel approach for estimating these physical properties from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC/MS) retention index-based polyparameter linear free energy relationships (LFERs). Key to robust correlation between GC measurements and physical properties is the accurate and precise generation of retention indices. Our model, which employs isovolatility curves to calculate retention indices, provides improved retention measurement accuracy for families of homologous compounds and leads to better estimates of their physical properties. Results indicate that the physical property estimates produced from this approach have the same error on a logarithmic-linear scale as previous researchers' log-log estimates, yielding a markedly improved model. The model was embedded into a new software program, allowing for automated determination of these properties from a single GC×GC analysis with minimal model training and parameter input. This process produces component maps that can be used to discern the mechanism and progression of how a particular site weathers due to dissolution, organic phase partitioning, and evaporation into the surrounding environment. PMID:25223613

Antle, Patrick M; Zeigler, Christian D; Livitz, Dimitri G; Robbat, Albert

2014-10-17

295

Complex mixture analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with time array detection using a beam deflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

A beam deflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer was developed in conjunction with an integrating transient recorder to provide time array detection, permitting high mass spectral scan file acquisition rates for complex mixture analysis by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results are presented for the analysis of a urinary organic acid mixture by GC-MS at a scan file acquisition rate of 10 scan files per second (sf/s), showing the advantages of such data collection in the deconvolution of partially resolved components. The reconstructed total ion current (RTIC) chromatogram available from data acquired at this scan file generation rate is shown to be comparable to the profile obtained from a flame ionization detector in representing the chromatography performed under identical experimental parameters. The RTIC chromatogram available from the database obtained at 10 sf/s is compared with that available from a database obtained at 1 sf/s, the latter representing that scan rate typically used with most GC-MS instruments. The advantages of the higher scan file acquisition rate in representing the chromatographic profile and in allowing mass spectral data to be obtained for components in the complex mixture that are unresolved chromatographically are discussed. PMID:1560100

Schultz, G A; Chamberlin, B A; Sweeley, C C; Watson, J T; Allison, J

1992-01-31

296

Determination of dissolved-phase pesticides in surface water from the Yakima River basin, Washington, using the Goulden large-sample extractor and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of pesticides in the dissolved phase of surface water samples from the Yakima River basin, WA, were determined using preconcentration in the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Sample volumes ranging from 10 to 120 L were processed with the GLSE, and the results from the large-sample analyses were compared to those derived from 1-L continuous liquid-liquid extractions. Few of the 40 target pesticides were detected in 1-L samples, whereas large-sample preconcentration in the GLSE provided detectable levels for many of the target pesticides. The number of pesticides detected in GLSE processed samples was usually directly proportional to sample volume, although the measured concentrations of the pesticides were generally lower at the larger sample volumes for the same water source. The GLSE can be used to provide lower detection levels relative to conventional liquid-liquid extraction in GC/MS analysis of pesticides in samples of surface water. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

Foster, G. D.; Gates, P. M.; Foreman, W. T.; McKenzie, S. W.; Rinella, F. A.

1993-01-01

297

Fiber-assisted emulsification microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of aromatic amines in aqueous samples.  

PubMed

A novel fiber-assisted emulsification microextraction (FAEME) method was developed for the determination of eight aromatic amines (AAs) in aqueous samples. In this method, the extraction solvent (100?L chlorobenzene) and the dispersive material (1.0mg kapok fiber fragments) were added successively into the aqueous sample (5.0mL), and then the mixture was emulsified by ultrasound to form the cloudy solution. Phase separation was performed by centrifugation, and the sedimented phase was transferred to micro-inserts with a microsyringe for analysis. All variables involved in the extraction process were identified and optimized. By coupling the analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), excellent detection limits (0.01-0.2?gL(-1)), good precision (RSDs, 3.33-6.56%) and linear ranges (0.10-160?gL(-1) and 1.0-160?gL(-1)) were obtained. Compared with the traditional solvent-emulsification method, the extraction recoveries of the proposed method were much higher. Satisfactory recoveries were achieved when the method was used for the analysis of AAs in spiked real water samples. PMID:25152494

Feng, Wen; Jiang, Ruifen; Chen, Bo; Ouyang, Gangfeng

2014-09-26

298

Analysis of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in decomposed skeletal tissues following acute and repeated tramadol exposure by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Decomposed bone and plasma samples of rats exposed to tramadol (TRAM) under different dosing patterns were analyzed. Wistar rats received TRAM as one acute dose (n=4, 45mg/kg, i.p.) or three doses (n=4, 15mg/kg, i.p.), 40min apart. Perimortem heart blood was collected, rats were euthanized and placed outdoors to decompose to skeleton. Recovered bone was ground and subjected to methanolic extraction. Bone extracts and plasma samples underwent solid phase extraction and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of TRAM and the primary metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (ODMT) were expressed as mass normalized response ratios (RR/m). Levels (RR/m) for TRAM and ODMT did not differ significantly between exposure types in any of the bone types examined or for the pooled bone comparisons (Mann-Whitney, p>0.05). However, ratios of analyte levels (RRTRAM/RRODMT) differed significantly between exposure patterns for tibial and skull bone as well as for pooled bone comparisons (Mann-Whitney, p<0.05). Levels of TRAM and ODMT, as well as ratios of analyte levels (RRTRAM/RRODMT), differed significantly in plasma between exposure patterns. Bone TRAM and ODMT levels were poorly correlated to corresponding plasma levels (TRAM: r=0.33-0.57; ODMT: r=-0.35-0.23). PMID:25112198

Wiebe, Treena R; Watterson, James H

2014-09-01

299

Headspace analysis of volatile metabolites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related species by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of headspace volatiles was performed on cultures of 11 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 1 strain each of Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas maltophilia. All strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a distinctive series of odd-carbon methyl ketones, particularly 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone, and 2-aminoacetophenone. The other strains failed to produce 2-aminoacetophenone. Two sulfur compounds, dimethyldisulfide and dimethyltrisulfide, were present in strains of P. aeruginosa and in variable amounts in other species. Butanol, 2-butanone, 1-undecene, and isopentanol were also detected in P. aeruginosa cultures. PMID:6775012

Labows, J N; McGinley, K J; Webster, G F; Leyden, J J

1980-01-01

300

Screening for sarin in air and water by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

SciTech Connect

A method of screening air and water samples for the chemical-warfare agent Sarin is developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). The SPME field kit sampler is ideal for collecting air and water samples in the field and transporting samples safely to the laboratory. The sampler also allows the sample to be introduced into the GC-MS system without further sample preparation. Results of the tests with Sarin using the SPME technique indicate that a sample collection time of 5 min is sufficient to detect 100 ng/L of Sarin in air. For water samples, Sarin is detected at a concentration of 12 {mu}g/mL or higher. This method is ideal for screening samples for quick response situations.

Schneider, J. F.; Boparai, A. S.; Reed, L. L.

2001-10-01

301

Hydrocarbons identified in extracts from estuarine water accommodated no. 2 fuel oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented on a computerized gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis of methylene chloride and n-heptane extracts of a No. 2 fuel oil accommodated estuarine water sample. The analytical method is briefly described, and the limitations on the identifications are categorized. Some attempt was made to determine major and trace constituents in the water accommodate. Altogether 66 hydrocarbon compounds were identified specifically, and 75 compounds were partially identified. Seven compounds could be recognized as major constituents of the water accommodated oil and ten were present only as traces. The aromatic compounds found were alkyl benzenes, naphthalene, tetralin, indane, biphenyl, fluorene, anthracene, and some of their alkyl substituted isomers in the range of carbon numbers C7 to C15. Four n-alkanes, C10 to C13, were found along with four other assorted hydrocarbons.

Lewis, B. W.; Walker, A. L.; Bieri, R. H.

1974-01-01

302

Solid-phase microextraction for the gas chromatography mass spectrometric determination of oxazole fungicides in malt beverages.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method for the sensitive, selective, and solvent-free determination of six oxazole fungicide residues (hymexazol, drazoxolon, vinclozolin, chlozolinate, oxadixyl, and famoxadone) in malt beverages. Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode, GC-MS(SIM), is used. A comparison of the optimal fiber used, a polar carbowax-divinylbenzene 70-microm fiber, and a nonpolar polydimethylsiloxane 100-microm fiber was carried out. Optimal extraction conditions were 60 degrees C and an extraction time of 30 min under continuous stirring. Desorption was carried out at 250 degrees C for 5 min. Detection limits ranged from 0.006 to 0.3 microg L(-1) at a signal to noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound. The proposed method was successfully applied to malt beverages including malt, beer, and whisky, and none of the samples contained residues higher than detection limits. PMID:18344070

Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Aguinaga, Nerea; Martínez-Castillo, Nelson; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

2008-06-01

303

[Simultaneous determination of 25 persistent organic pollutants in rice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring mode].  

PubMed

A multi-residue analytical method for the simultaneous determination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in rice samples was developed. POPs were extracted from rice with ethyl acetate/n-hexane (80:20, v/v) by sonication, and determined by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode. A fused silica capillary column DB-35MS (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 microm) was employed. Operating conditions were as follows: injector port temperature, 300 degrees C; column temperature, programming; carrier gas, helium; flow rate, 1.0 mL/min; sample size, 1 microL with splitless injection. The mass spectrometric detector (MSD) was operated in electron impact ionization mode with an ionizing energy of 70 eV. Analysis was performed with selected ion monitoring (SIM) using one target and one or two qualifier ion. POPs were confirmed by their retention times, their qualifier and target ions, and their qualifier/target abundance ratios. Recovery studies were performed at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/L spiked levels of each POPs, and the recoveries obtained ranged from 81.99% to 100.60% with relative standard deviations between 2.37% and 18.48%. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.1 to 5 ng/g for the different POPs except endrin, trans-chlordane and cis-chlordane. The results show that the method developed is sensitive and reliable. PMID:16124561

Hou, Shengjun; Chen, Dandan; Li, Xiang; Li, Gang; Yang, Qiang; Min, Shungeng; Zhong, Weike; Chu, Xiaogang; Wang, Daning

2005-05-01

304

Methods of Analysis - Determination of Pyrethroid Insecticides in Water and Sediment Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 14 pyrethroid insecticides in environmental water and sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in response to increasing concern over the effects of pyrethroids on aquatic organisms. The pyrethroids included in this method are ones that are applied to many agricultural and urban areas. Filtered water samples are extracted for pyrethroids using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with no additional cleanup steps. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a microwave-assisted extraction system, and the pyrethroids of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences by passing the extracts through stacked graphitized carbon and alumina SPE cartridges, along with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography (HPLC/GPC). Quantification of the pyrethroids from the extracted water and sediment samples is done using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Recoveries in test water samples fortified at 10 ng/L ranged from 83 to 107 percent, and recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 ug/kg ranged from 82 to 101 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 5 to 9 percent in the water samples and 3 to 9 percent in the sediment samples. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), in water ranged from 2.0 to 6.0 ng/L using GC/MS and 0.5 to 1.0 ng/L using GC/MS/MS. For sediment, the MDLs ranged from 1.0 to 2.6 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS and 0.2 to 0.5 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS/MS. The matrix-spike recoveries for each compound, when averaged for 12 environmental water samples, ranged from 84 to 96 percent, and when averaged for 27 environmental sediment samples, ranged from 88 to 100 percent.

Hladik, Michelle L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

2009-01-01

305

Lotus japonicus metabolic profiling. Development of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry resources for the study of plant-microbe interactions.  

PubMed

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in legume root nodules requires differentiation and integration of both plant and bacterial metabolism. Classical approaches of biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics have revealed many aspects of primary metabolism in legume nodules that underpin SNF. Functional genomics approaches, especially transcriptomics and proteomics, are beginning to provide a more holistic picture of the metabolic potential of nodules in model legumes like Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus. To extend these approaches, we have established protocols for nonbiased measurement and analysis of hundreds of metabolites from L. japonicus, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Following creation of mass spectral tag libraries, which represent both known and unknown metabolites, we measured and compared relative metabolite levels in nodules, roots, leaves, and flowers of symbiotic plants. Principal component analysis of the data revealed distinct metabolic phenotypes for the different organs and led to the identification of marker metabolites for each. Metabolites that were enriched in nodules included: octadecanoic acid, asparagine, glutamate, homoserine, cysteine, putrescine, mannitol, threonic acid, gluconic acid, glyceric acid-3-P, and glycerol-3-P. Hierarchical cluster analysis enabled discrimination of 10 groups of metabolites, based on distribution patterns in diverse Lotus organs. The resources and tools described here, together with ongoing efforts in the areas of genome sequencing, and transcriptome and proteome analysis of L. japonicus and Mesorhizobium loti, should lead to a better understanding of nodule metabolism that underpins SNF. PMID:15749991

Desbrosses, Guilhem G; Kopka, Joachim; Udvardi, Michael K

2005-04-01

306

Nitrogen incorporation in Titan's tholins inferred by high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influx of solar photons and heavy charged particles from Saturn's magnetosphere on Titan's atmosphere - mainly comprised of methane and nitrogen - induce an intense organic photochemistry which leads to the formation of a large amount of aerosols in suspension in the atmosphere. In order to infer the role of nitrogen in aerosol formation processes we produced laboratory analogs of Titan's aerosols. In this work, we compare the composition of different analogs by using high resolution mass spectrometry and propose an additional study using gas-chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry for a new kind of analog produced by polymerization of cryogenically trapped gaseous neutral species. The comparison of these materials emphasizes the importance of ion chemistry processes for the inclusion of nitrogen in molecules constituting Titan's tholins. A statistical approach is also used for the treatment of high resolution mass spectra of these highly complex organic materials. This method allows distinguishing molecular families that can be reconstructed by an ideal copolymer. We investigate several copolymer reconstructions, and we suggest that an HCN (or CH3CN)/C2H4 based copolymer agrees well with the polymeric structure of tholins produced with 5% of methane in nitrogen.

Gautier, Thomas; Carrasco, Nathalie; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Touboul, David; Szopa, Cyril; Buch, Arnaud; Pernot, Pascal

2014-10-01

307

Simultaneous analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants in plasma by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Brazil is considered one of the countries with the highest number of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users worldwide, mainly diethylpropion (DIE) and fenproporex (FEN). The use of ATS is mostly linked to diverted prescription stimulants and this misuse is widely associated with (ab)use by drivers. A validated method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of amphetamine (AMP), DIE and FEN in plasma samples employing direct immersion-solid-phase microextraction, and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis. Trichloroacetic acid 10% was used for plasma deproteinization. In situ derivatization with propylchloroformate was employed. The linear range of the method covered from 5.0 to 100 ng/mL. The detection limits were 1.0 (AMP), 1.5 (DIE) and 2.0 ng/mL (FEN). The accuracy assessment of the control samples was within 85.58-108.33% of the target plasma concentrations. Recoveries ranged from 46.35 to 84.46% and precision was <15% of the value of relative standard deviation. This method is appropriate for screening and confirmation in plasma forensic toxicology analyses of these basic drugs. PMID:25038769

Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Schuh, Roselena S; Ferranti, Priscila; Ortiz, Rafael S; Souza, Daniele Z; Pechansky, Flavio; Froehlich, Pedro E; Limberger, Renata P

2014-09-01

308

Method development and validation for strobilurin fungicides in baby foods by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present study describes a new solvent-free method for the sensitive determination of seven strobilurin fungicides (azoxystrobin, metominostrobin, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, picoxystrobin, dimoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin) in baby food samples. Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode, GC-MS (SIM), is used. All analyses were performed with 2g of sample mass, 14mL of sample extract volume and sample extract buffered at pH 5. Optimal extraction conditions were 60 degrees C for 40min under continuous stirring using a PDMS-DVB fiber. Desorption was carried out at 240 degrees C for 4min. The standard additions method is recommended and quantitation limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.4ngg(-1) at a signal to noise ratio of 10, depending on the compound. Recoveries obtained for spiked samples were satisfactory for all the compounds. The method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Different baby foods were analyzed by the proposed method and none of the samples contained residues above the detection limits. PMID:19062028

Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Martínez-Castillo, Nelson; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

2009-01-01

309

Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. (Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Cabral, J.A. (Inst. de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Amazonas (Brazil))

1999-07-15

310

The differentiation of fibre- and drug type Cannabis seedlings by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and chemometric tools.  

PubMed

Cannabis cultivation in order to produce drugs is forbidden in Switzerland. Thus, law enforcement authorities regularly ask forensic laboratories to determinate cannabis plant's chemotype from seized material in order to ascertain that the plantation is legal or not. As required by the EU official analysis protocol the THC rate of cannabis is measured from the flowers at maturity. When laboratories are confronted to seedlings, they have to lead the plant to maturity, meaning a time consuming and costly procedure. This study investigated the discrimination of fibre type from drug type Cannabis seedlings by analysing the compounds found in their leaves and using chemometrics tools. 11 legal varieties allowed by the Swiss Federal Office for Agriculture and 13 illegal ones were greenhouse grown and analysed using a gas chromatograph interfaced with a mass spectrometer. Compounds that show high discrimination capabilities in the seedlings have been identified and a support vector machines (SVMs) analysis was used to classify the cannabis samples. The overall set of samples shows a classification rate above 99% with false positive rates less than 2%. This model allows then discrimination between fibre and drug type Cannabis at an early stage of growth. Therefore it is not necessary to wait plants' maturity to quantify their amount of THC in order to determine their chemotype. This procedure could be used for the control of legal (fibre type) and illegal (drug type) Cannabis production. PMID:20456880

Broséus, Julian; Anglada, Frédéric; Esseiva, Pierre

2010-07-15

311

A NEW METHOD OF PEAK DETECTION FOR ANALYSIS OF COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY DATA*  

PubMed Central

We develop a novel peak detection algorithm for the analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) data using normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) and mixture probability models. The algorithm first performs baseline correction and denoising simultaneously using the NEB model, which also defines peak regions. Peaks are then picked using a mixture of probability distribution to deal with the co-eluting peaks. Peak merging is further carried out based on the mass spectral similarities among the peaks within the same peak group. The algorithm is evaluated using experimental data to study the effect of different cut-offs of the conditional Bayes factors and the effect of different mixture models including Poisson, truncated Gaussian, Gaussian, Gamma, and exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) distributions, and the optimal version is introduced using a trial-and-error approach. We then compare the new algorithm with two existing algorithms in terms of compound identification. Data analysis shows that the developed algorithm can detect the peaks with lower false discovery rates than the existing algorithms, and a less complicated peak picking model is a promising alternative to the more complicated and widely used EMG mixture models.

Kim, Seongho; Ouyang, Ming; Jeong, Jaesik; Shen, Changyu; Zhang, Xiang

2014-01-01

312

Gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry determination of phthalic acid in human urine as a biomarker of folpet exposure.  

PubMed

Agricultural workers are exposed to folpet, but biomonitoring data are limited. Phthalimide (PI), phthalamic acid (PAA), and phthalic acid (PA) are the ring metabolites of this fungicide according to animal studies, but they have not yet been measured in human urine as metabolites of folpet, only PA as a metabolite of phthalates. The objective of this study was thus to develop a reliable gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to quantify the sum of PI, PAA, and PA ring-metabolites of folpet in human urine. Briefly, the method consisted of adding p-methylhippuric acid as an internal standard, performing an acid hydrolysis at 100 °C to convert ring-metabolites into PA, purifying samples by ethyl acetate extraction, and derivatizing with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoro acetamide prior to GC-MS analysis. The method had a detection limit of 60.2 nmol/L (10 ng/mL); it was found to be accurate (mean recovery, 97%), precise (inter- and intra-day percentage relative standard deviations <13%), and with a good linearity (R (2)?>?0.98). Validation was conducted using unexposed peoples urine spiked at concentrations ranging from 4.0 to 16.1 ?mol/L, along with urine samples of volunteers dosed with folpet, and of exposed workers. The method proved to be (1) suitable and accurate to determine the kinetic profile of PA equivalents in the urine of volunteers orally and dermally administered folpet and (2) relevant for the biomonitoring of exposure in workers. PMID:21336936

Berthet, Aurélie; Berode, Michèle; Bouchard, Michèle

2011-04-01

313

An analytical investigation of 24 oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) using liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We developed two independent approaches for separation and quantitation of 24 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) using both liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (LC-APCI/MS) and gas chromatography-electron impact/mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS). Building on previous OPAH research, we examined laboratory stability of OPAHs, improved existing method parameters, and compared quantification strategies using standard addition and an internal standard on an environmental sample. Of 24 OPAHs targeted in this research, 19 compounds are shared between methods, with 3 uniquely quantitated by GC-EI/MS and 2 by LC-APCI/MS. Using calibration standards, all GC-EI/MS OPAHs were within 15 % of the true value and had less than 15 % relative standard deviations (RSDs) for interday variability. Similarly, all LC-APCI/MS OPAHs were within 20 % of the true value and had less than 15 % RSDs for interday variability. Instrument limits of detection ranged from 0.18 to 36 ng mL(-1) on the GC-EI/MS and 2.6 to 26 ng mL(-1) on the LC-APCI/MS. Four standard reference materials were analyzed with each method, and we report some compounds not previously published in these materials, such as perinaphthenone and xanthone. Finally, an environmental passive sampling extract from Portland Harbor Superfund, OR was analyzed by each method using both internal standard and standard addition to compensate for potential matrix effects. Internal standard quantitation resulted in increased precision with similar accuracy to standard addition for most OPAHs using 2-fluoro-fluorenone-(13)C as an internal standard. Overall, this work improves upon OPAH analytical methods and provides some considerations and strategies for OPAHs as focus continues to expand on this emerging chemical class. PMID:24005604

O'Connell, Steven G; Haigh, Theodore; Wilson, Glenn; Anderson, Kim A

2013-11-01

314

[Simultaneous determination of phthalates and parabens in cosmetic products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase extraction].  

PubMed

Studies have been carried out on the simultaneous determination of 8 phthalates, i. e. di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) , di-propyl phthalate (DPP) , di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) , dibutyl phthalate (DBP) , benzyl butyl phthalate ( BBP) , di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) , di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and 4 parabens, i. e. methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB), propyl paraben (PPB), and butyl paraben (BPB) by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in electron ionisation mode (EI) with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method. The phthalates and parabens in 15 cosmetic products, including hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, cream, lotion, etc. were determined. The determination of the samples were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with methanol, cleaned up with an LC-C18 column (3 mL) and analyzed by GC/MS method. The base peak (m/z 149) of the phthalates and the base peak (m/z 121) of the parabens were selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions, m/z 121, 149, 177, 222 for DEP; m/z 149, 191, 209 for DPP; m/z 57, 149, 223 for DIBP; m/z 104, 149 for DBP; m/z 91, 132, 149, 206 for BBP; m/z 55, 149, 167 for DCHP; m/z 113, 149, 167, 279 for DEHP; m/z 149, 279 for DOP; m/z 65, 93, 121, 152 for MPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 166 for EPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 180 for PPB; and m/z 93, 121, 138, 194 for BPB were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are capable to detect phthalates and parabens at the level of 0. 1 -5. 0 microg/kg. Overall recoveries were 80% - 100% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. Only one of the 15 examined samples was free from phthalates and parabens. The rest 14 samples were found to contain at least 3 or more of these phthalates and/or parabens. The predominant phthalates detected in the studied samples were MPB, PPB, DPP, DCHP and DEHP. The residue levels were at 1. 42 -4 278 mg/kg. PMID:17580703

Shen, Haoyu; Ying, Liyan; Cao, Yunfeng; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Lu

2007-03-01

315

Simultaneous quantification of cannabinoids and metabolites in oral fluid by two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Development and validation of a method for simultaneous identification and quantification of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and metabolites 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) in oral fluid. Simultaneous analysis was problematic due to different physicochemical characteristics and concentration ranges. Neutral analytes, such as THC and CBD, are present in ng/mL, rather than pg/mL concentrations, as observed for the acidic THCCOOH biomarker in oral fluid. THCCOOH is not present in cannabis smoke, definitively differentiating cannabis use from passive smoke exposure. THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, CBD, and CBN quantification was achieved in a single oral fluid specimen collected with the Quantisal™ device. One mL oral fluid/buffer solution (0.25mL oral fluid and 0.75mL buffer) was applied to conditioned CEREX® Polycrom™ THC solid phase extraction (SPE) columns. After washing, THC, 11-OH-THC, CBD, and CBN were eluted with hexane/acetone/ethyl acetate (60:30:20, v/v/v), derivatized with N, O-bis-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography electron ionization mass spectrometry (2D-GCMS) with cold trapping. Acidic THCCOOH was separately eluted with hexane/ethyl acetate/acetic acid (75:25:2.5, v/v/v), derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride and hexafluoroisopropanol, and quantified by the more sensitive 2D-GCMS–electron capture negative chemical ionization (NCI-MS). Linearity was 0.5-50ng/mL for THC, 11-OH-THC, CBD and 1-50ng/mL for CBN. The linear dynamic range for THCCOOH was 7.5–500pg/mL. Intra-and inter-assay imprecision as percent RSD at three concentrations across the linear dynamic range were 0.3%-6.6%. Analytical recovery was within 13.8% of target. This new SPE 2D-GCMS assay achieved efficient quantification of five cannabinoids in oral fluid, including pg/mL concentrations of THCCOOH by combining differential elution, 2D-GCMS with electron ionization and negative chemical ionization. This method will be applied to quantification of cannabinoids in oral fluid specimens from individuals participating in controlled cannabis and Sativex® (50% THC and 50% CBD) administration studies, and during cannabis withdrawal. PMID:20083251

Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Lowe, Ross H.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2010-01-01

316

[Characterization of aroma active compounds in blood orange juice by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry].  

PubMed

Volatile compounds of fresh blood orange juice were analyzed by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and the aroma active compounds were identified by olfactometry. The volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber for 40 min at 40 degrees C. The analysis was carried out using an HP 6890N GC equipped with an HP-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm ) directly connected to an HP 5975 series mass selective detector and a sniffing port (ODP2, Gerstel) using helium as carrier gas. Compound identifications were made by the comparison of the mass spectra, retention times, retention indices (I(R)) and odor of the volatile components in the extracts with those of the corresponding reference standards. Forty-six compounds were identified by GC-MS and I(R). The major components of the juice were limonene (86.36%), linalool (3.69%), beta-myrcene (1.79%), octanal (1.32%) and valencene (1.27%). GC-MS-olfactometry analysis was performed to determine 34 compounds with aroma activity, of which 23 compounds were identified. The major contributors to orange juice aroma activity are ethyl butanoate, octanal, gamma-terpinene, 4-acetyl-1-methyleyclohexene, decanal, (-)-carvone, geranyl acetate, valencene. These compounds of strong aroma intensity represent 7.22% of the total volatile compounds. Other four unknown compounds (I(R), <800; I(R) = 1020, 1143, 1169, separately) are also the major contributors to the overall aroma. PMID:18959252

Qiao, Yu; Xie, Bijun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Pan, Siyi

2008-07-01

317

Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.  

PubMed

A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD?0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD?0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). PMID:24548435

Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

2014-03-14

318

Measurement of non-enteric emission fluxes of volatile fatty acids from a California dairy by solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dairies are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in California's San Joaquin Valley; a region that experiences high ozone levels during summer. Short-chain carboxylic acids, or volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are believed to make up a large fraction of VOC emissions from these facilities, although there are few studies to substantiate this. In this work, a method using a flux chamber coupled to solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fibers followed by analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was developed to quantify emissions of six VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid) from non-enteric sources. The technique was then used to quantify VFA fluxes from a small dairy located on the campus of California State University Fresno. Both animal feed and animal waste are found to be major sources of VFAs, with acetic acid contributing 70-90% of emissions from the sources tested. Measured total acid fluxes during spring (with an average temperature of 20 °C) were 1.84 ± 0.01, 1.06 ± 0.08, (1.3 ± 0.5) × 10 -2, (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10 -2 and (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10 -2 g m -2 h -1 from silage, total mixed rations, flushing lane, open lot and lagoon sources, respectively. VFA emissions from the sources tested total 390 ± 80 g h -1. The data indicate high fluxes of VFAs from dairy facilities, but differences in the design and operation of dairies in the San Joaquin Valley as well as seasonal variations mean that additional measurements must be made to accurately determine emissions inventories for the region.

Alanis, Phillip; Sorenson, Mark; Beene, Matt; Krauter, Charles; Shamp, Brian; Hasson, Alam S.

319

Solid phase extraction, multidimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry determination of four novel aroma powerful ethyl esters. Assessment of their occurrence and importance in wine and other alcoholic beverages.  

PubMed

A method for the quantitative determination of four powerful aromatic ethyl esters recently identified in some wines has been developed, validated and applied to the determination of these compounds in different samples of wine, whisky and brandy. Ethyl 2-, 3-, and 4-methylpentanoate and ethyl cyclohexanoate are extracted from 100ml of sample by solid phase extraction (SPE) on a 200mg LiChrolut EN bed. Major compounds are eliminated by rinsing with a water-methanol (50:50) solution containing 1% sodium bicarbonate, and analytes are eluted with 1.5ml of dichloromethane. Fifty microlitres of this extract are then injected in a multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectromety (GC-GC-MS) system. Recoveries in the SPE are quantitative. Method repeatability is satisfactory (5-12% for a 5-10ngl(-1) level, and less than 7% for 25-50ngl(-1) level), the method linearity holds along the whole range of occurrence of analytes (2-2700ngl(-1)), and the signal is independent on the matrix. Method detection limits are below 1ngl(-1) in all cases. Results suggest that these compounds are formed by the slow esterification with ethanol of the corresponding acids formed by different microorganisms. The levels of these compounds are above the corresponding thresholds in most samples of aged wines or distillates, but are particularly high in some sweet wines, whiskeys and brandies where they may constitute the most important contributors to the sweet-fruity notes reaching concentrations up to 85-350 times higher than the corresponding odor thresholds. PMID:17137585

Campo, Eva; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

2007-01-26

320

Determination of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in water, sediment, soil, biota, and biosolid using large-volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Several methods were developed to detect the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in water, sediment, soil, biota, and biosolid samples. Analytical techniques employed to optimize measurement of this compound class in various matrices included membrane-assisted solvent extraction in water, liquid-solid extraction for sediment, soil, biota, and biosolid samples. A subsequent analysis of the extract was conducted by large-volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). These methods employed no evaporative techniques to avoid potential losses and contamination of the volatile siloxanes. To compensate for the inability to improve detection limits by concentrating final sample extract volumes we used a LVI-GC-MS. Contamination during analysis was minimized by using a septumless GC configuration to avoid cVMS's associated with septum bleed. These methods performed well achieving good linearity, low limits of detection, good precision, recovery, and a wide dynamic range. In addition, stability of cVMS in water and sediment was assessed under various storage conditions. D4 and D5 in Type-I (Milli-Q) water stored at 4°C were stable within 29d; however, significant depletion of D6 (60-70%) occurred only after 3d. Whereas cVMS in sewage influent and effluent were stable at 4°C within 21d. cVMS in sediment sealed in amber glass jars at -20°C and in pentane extracts in vials at -15°C were stable during 1month under both storage conditions. PMID:23211330

Wang, De-Gao; Alaee, Mehran; Steer, Helena; Tait, Tara; Williams, Zackery; Brimble, Samantha; Svoboda, Lewina; Barresi, Enzo; Dejong, Maryl; Schachtschneider, Joanne; Kaminski, Ed; Norwood, Warren; Sverko, Ed

2013-10-01

321

Determination of alkylphenols and phthalate esters in vegetables and migration studies from their packages by means of stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method for the determination of three alkylphenols (APs), 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP), 4-n-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP), and six phthalate esters (PEs), dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), n-butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octylphthalate (DOP), in vegetables using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) in combination with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Ultrasonic radiation was used to extract the analytes from the solid food matrix, and the extract obtained was preconcentrated by SBSE. The different parameters affecting both stages were carefully optimized. The method was applied to analyze commercial vegetables, in the form of plastic packed salads and canned greens, as well as the corresponding filling liquids of the canned food. Quantification of the samples was carried out against aqueous standards using an internal standard (anthracene). The analysis of a 2 g vegetable sample provided detection limits between 12.7 and 105.8 pg g?¹ for OP and DEHP, respectively. Migration studies from the plastic packages of the vegetables samples analyzed were carried out. DEP, DBP and DEHP were found to have migrated from the bags to the simulant and the same compounds were quantified in lettuce, corn salad, arugula, parsley and chard, at concentration levels in the 8-51 ng g?¹ range. However, OP and NP were found in only two vegetable samples and one filling liquid, but neither was detected in any package. The proposed method provided recoveries of 83-118%. PMID:22533911

Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

2012-06-01

322

Ultra sound assisted one step rapid derivatization and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of amino acids in complex matrices.  

PubMed

A rapid and economical method for the simultaneous determination of 20 amino acids in complex biological and food matrices (hair, urine and soybean seed samples) has been developed using ultrasound assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (UA-DLLME). The method involves simultaneous derivatization and extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of amino acids. The parameters of UA-DLLME were optimized with the aid of design of experiments approach. The procedure involves the rapid injection of mixture of acetonitrile (disperser solvent), trichloroethylene (TCE) (extraction solvent) and ethylchloroformate (derivatization reagent) into the aqueous phase of sample extract containing pyridine. The Plackett-Burman design has indicated that, the factors such as volume of disperser and extraction solvents and pH were found to be significantly affects the extraction efficiency of the method. The optimum conditions of these factors based on central composite design were found to be 250?L of acetonitrile, 80?L of TCE and pH of 10. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be in the range of 0.36-3.68?gL(-1) and 1.26-12.01?gL(-1) respectively. This is the first application of DLLME for the analysis of amino acids in any matrices. The advantages like (i) in situ derivatization and extraction of amino acids without any prior lyophilization and cleanup of sample, (ii) low consumption of extraction solvent, (iii) fast and simple, (iv) cost-effective and (iv) good repeatability make the method amenable for the routine analysis of amino acids in clinical, toxicological, nutritional and quality control laboratories. PMID:23602642

Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Ratnasekhar, Ch

2013-05-24

323

Contribution of thermal desorption and liquid-liquid extraction for identification and profiling of impurities in methamphetamine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Impurity profiling of methamphetamine (MA) using thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was examined. Using TD/GC-MS, impurities were extracted and separated under various conditions. Optimal chromatograms were obtained when a 20 mg MA sample was extracted at 120 degrees C for 3 min using a TD instrument, followed by separation of the extracts using a non-polar capillary column coated with (5%phenyl)-methylpolysiloxane. MA samples from nine different batches were analyzed under optimized conditions. Compounds related to the structure of MA, such as benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, amphetamine, cis- and trans-1,2-dimethyl-3-phenylaziridine, dimethylamphetamine, and N-acetylephedrine, were detected in the chromatograms without any laborious extraction procedure. Compounds such as ethanol, diethyl ether, and acetic acid, which are considered reagents and solvents for MA synthesis, were also detected in some of the chromatograms. The numbers and intensities of the peaks detected were different among the samples. Impurity profiling of MA using TD was compared with that using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Better reproducibility of peak areas was obtained using LLE, whereas higher intensities and numbers of peaks were detected using TD. Solvents were extracted more effectively using TD. The nine batches of MA were classified using both extraction procedures. The nine batches were divided roughly into two groups using data from LLE. Subsequently, the groups were classified in detail using data from TD. TD can be used to provide supplemental information for LLE, and the combination of these extraction methods can be helpful for impurity profiling of MA. PMID:17055680

Kuwayama, Kenji; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko; Kamo, Naoki; Kishi, Tohru

2007-08-24

324

[Extraction of triazine herbicides from environmental water samples with magnetic graphene nanoparticles as the adsorbent followed by determination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A novel method was developed for the determination of seven triazine herbicides in environmental water samples by magnetic solid-phase extraction with graphene-based magnetic nanoparticles (G-Fe3O4 MNPs) as the adsorbent coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. The main factors influencing the extraction efficiency including the amount of G-Fe3O4, the extraction time, the pH and the ionic strength of sample solution and the desorption conditions were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the enrichment factors of the method for the analytes were in the range from 574 to 968; the linearities of the method ranged from 0.01 to 10.0 microg/L for simazine, propazine, metribuzin, simetryn and cyanazine, from 0.05 to 10.0 microg/L for atrazine and from 0.01 to 8.0 microg/L for prometryn, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.996 8 to 0.999 8. The limits of detection were in the range between 1.0 and 5.0 ng/L. Good reproducibilities were obtained with the relative standard deviations below 10.5%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the triazine herbicides in different water samples (lake, well and tap). The recoveries of the method were in the range from 79.8% to 118.3% at the spiked levels of 0.5 microg/L and 2.0 microg/L. The results indicated that the developed method can be used as a simple and efficient technique for the determination of the triazine herbicides in environmental water samples. PMID:24558842

Zhang, Guijiang; Zang, Xiaohuan; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Lu; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

2013-11-01

325

Hollow fibre-based liquid-phase microextraction technique combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in water samples.  

PubMed

A simple, easy-to-use, efficient and environmentally friendly method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of nine pirethroid pesticides in water samples by the combination of hollow fibre-based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). For the developed method, nine pirethroid pesticides (esbiothrin, prallethrin, bifenthrin, tetramethrin, phenothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) were concentrated and well separated under optimal conditions. Several factors that influence the efficiency of HF-LPME were investigated and optimized by means of experimental design. The proposed method has good linearity in the concentration range of 10-400 ?g L(-1) with correlation coefficients between 0.995 and 0.999. Overall enrichment factors for the optimized method ranged from 139 to 255 times except for cypermethrin and deltamethrin which ranged from 35 to 128. Detection and quantitation limits of the chromatographic method were in the range of 0.002-0.012 ?g L(-1) and 0.003-0.026 ?g L(-1) respectively, with RSD values between 4.2% and 18.4%. The recoveries varied in the range of 69.4%-122.7% except for cypermethrin and deltamethrin (17.5%-64.1%) with relative standard deviations between 1.0% and 24.0% for intra and inter-day experiments at different concentrations (0.1 ?g L(-1), 0.5 ?g L(-1), 1 ?g L(-1)). The HF-LPME method optimized was applied to the analysis of three spiked real water samples with good results. PMID:23141333

San Román, I; Alonso, M L; Bartolomé, L; Alonso, R M

2012-10-15

326

Complementary fragmentation pattern analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the precious lignan content of Cirsium weeds.  

PubMed

In this paper, as novelties to the field, it is confirmed at first, that the fruits of Cirsium species, regarded as injurious weeds, do contain lignans, two, different butyrolactone-type glycoside/aglycone pairs: the well known arctiin/arctigenin and the particularly rare tracheloside/trachelogenin species. These experiences were supported by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/(MS)) and by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The study reflects the powerful impact of the complementary chromatographic mass fragmentation evidences resulting in the identification and quantification, the extremely rare, with on line technique not yet identified and described, tracheloside/trachelogenin pair lignans, without authentic standard compounds. Fragmentation pattern analysis of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative of trachelogenin, based on GC-MS, via two different fragmentation pathways confirmed the detailed structure of the trachelogenin molecule. The complementary chromatographic evidences have been unambiguously confirmed, by (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis of trachelogenin, isolated by preparative chromatography. Identification and quantification of the fruit extracts of four Cirsium (C.) species (C. arvense, C. canum, C. oleraceum, and C. palustre), revealed that (i) all four species do accumulate the tracheloside/trachelogenin or the arctiin/arctigenin butyrolactone-type glycoside/aglycone pairs, (ii) the overwhelming part of lignans are present as glycosides (tracheloside 9.1-14.5 mg/g, arctiin 28.6-39.3 mg/g, expressed on dry fruit basis), (iii) their acidic and enzymatic hydrolyses to the corresponding aglycones, to trachelogenin and arctigenin are fast and quantitative and (iv) the many-sided beneficial trachelogenin and arctigenin can be prepared separately, without impurities, excellent for medicinal purposes. PMID:20813375

Boldizsár, I; Kraszni, M; Tóth, F; Noszál, B; Molnár-Perl, I

2010-10-01

327

Single-laboratory validation of a method for the determination of furan in foods by using static headspace sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed and validated in-house for the determination of furan in foods. The method of standard additions with d4-furan as the internal standard was used to quantitate furan. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation (LOQ) values ranged from 0.2 and 0.6 nglg, respectively, in apple juice to 0.9 and 2.9 ng/g, respectively, in peanut butter. Recoveries were obtained at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 times the LOQ. At 1, 2, and 3 times the LOQ, the recoveries ranged from 89.4 to 108%, and the relative standard deviations ranged from 3.3 to 17.3% for all the matrixes. For apple juice, chicken broth, and infant formula, the averaged coefficients of determination from the linear regression analyses were >0.99 with each food fortified at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 times the LOQ. The coefficients of determination were >0.99 for green beans and 0.96 for peanut butter with the foods fortified at 1, 2, and 3 times the LOQ. Within-laboratory precision was determined by comparing the amounts of furan found in 18 samples by 2 analysts on different days with different instruments. For most of the foods, the difference between the amounts found by each analyst was <18%. The method was used to conduct a survey of >300 foods. The furan levels found ranged from none detected to 174 ng/g. PMID:17042194

Nyman, Patricia J; Morehouse, Kim M; McNeal, Timothy P; Perfetti, Gracia A; Diachenko, Gregory W

2006-01-01

328

Identification of volatiles from oxidised phosphatidylcholine molecular species using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS) was used to investigate the volatile compounds from oxidised phosphatidylcholine molecular species. 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) and 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SLPC) were chosen as models. The influence of several parameters on the efficiency of volatile oxidised compounds (VOCs) microextraction, such as type of fibre, extraction duration and temperature were studied. The best results were obtained with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre used at 50 °C during 25 min. The effect of oxidation temperature on the yield of VOCs from SOPC and SLPC was investigated. Oxidative kinetics of SOPC and SLPC were investigated by measuring both the production of VOCs and the degradation of starting materials. More than 30 VOCs were detected by means of the reference mass spectra of the National Institute of Standards and Technology mass spectral library, and most of them were further confirmed by comparing their mass spectra and retention time with those obtained from authentic reference compounds under the same analytical conditions. Moreover, the origins of VOCs from oxidised PLs were studied by comparing those obtained from their corresponding triacylglycerides under the same experimental conditions. The main VOCs identified from oxidised SOPC were (E)-2-decenal, nonanal and octanal and from oxidised SLPC were (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal and (E, E)-2,4-decadienal. The proposed method was applied to a real food sample, soy lecithin. PMID:24077831

Zhou, Li; Zhao, Minjie; Khalil, Ali; Marcic, Christophe; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

2013-11-01

329

Determination of anabolic esters in oily formulations and plasma in husbandry using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass selective detection.  

PubMed

Two different analytical methods are described for the analysis of anabolic steroid esters in oily formulations for veterinary use and animal plasma samples, respectively. For the determination of anabolic steroid esters in oily formulations (at mg kg-1 levels) a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with gradient elution is described. Gradient elution is performed owing to the relatively large variations in polarity of the investigated anabolic steroid esters. For the analysis of anabolic steroid esters in plasma (at ng ml-1 levels) two different strategies are applied. After solid-phase extraction, the plasma samples are introduced into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system where the obtained fractions are then analysed by using gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD). An alternative method is direct analysis of plasma samples after solid-phase extraction by using GC-MSD without any further clean-up procedure. Prior to GC-MSD the samples are derivatized to corresponding trifluoroacyl (TFA) derivatives. The calibration graph for HPLC is rectilinear over the range 25-150 ng ml-1 plasma and the analytical recoveries for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and testosterone propionate (TP) are more than 95%. The detection limits for both analytes in GC-MS are 2.5 ng ml-1 plasma for MPA and 0.5 ng ml-1 plasma for TP with an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (calculated for the derivatized relative molecular mass). In the analysis of plasma obtained from animal experiments concentrations of 6.5 ng ml-1 are found for MPA by using GC-MSD and 5.0 ng ml-1 are found for nortestosterone laurate (NL) by using HPLC. PMID:7879863

Hooijerink, D; Schilt, R; van Bennekom, E; Brouwer, B

1994-12-01

330

Salt-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with programmed temperature vaporization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of haloacetonitriles in drinking water.  

PubMed

We report here a new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven haloacetonitriles (HANs) in drinking water by coupling salt-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SADLLME) with programmed temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PTV-GC-MS). The newly developed method involves the dispersion of the extractant in aqueous sample by addition of a few grams of salt and no dispersion liquid was required as compared to the traditional DLLME methods. The extractant (CH2Cl2, 50?L) and the salt (Na2SO4, 2.4g) were successively added to water (8mL) in a conical centrifuge tube that was shaken for 1min and centrifuged (3500rpm, 3min). The aliquot of sedimented phase (4?L) was then directly injected into the PTV-GC-MS system. The limits of detection and quantification for the HANs were 0.4-13.2ngL(-1) and 1.2-43.9ngL(-1), respectively. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2)?0.9904) over 3 orders of magnitude. The repeatability of the method was investigated by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) obtained were lower than 10.2% and 7.8% at low and high concentration levels. The relative recoveries ranged from 79.3% to 105.1%. The developed methodology was applied for the analysis of seven HANs in several drinking water samples in coastal and inland cities of China. It was demonstrated to be a simple, sensible, reproducible and environment friendly method for the determination of trace HANs in drinking water samples. PMID:24997512

Ma, Huilian; Li, Yun; Zhang, Haijun; Shah, Syed Mazhar; Chen, Jiping

2014-09-01

331

Development and optimization of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of thermochemolytic degradation products of phthiocerol dimycocerosate waxes found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE:?The phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs) are certain stable and hydrophobic waxes found in the cell membrane of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacteria that cause an infectious disease of growing concern worldwide. Previous studies report the analysis of derivatives of the hydrolysed PDIMs from biological samples, following complex extraction and offline derivatization of PDIMs biomarkers, prior to their analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). METHODS:?We developed and optimized a GC/MS method based on selected ion monitoring (SIM) to detect the derivatives produced via the thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) of the PDIMs from the cell membrane of M. tuberculosis. The extraction of PDIMs from culture is simple, and their thermochemolysis is carried out automatically online, thus avoiding the time-consuming derivatization steps of hydrolysis and esterification, usually performed offline. RESULTS:?For standard PDIMs in petroleum ether, our optimized method gave an excellent linearity (R2?=?0.99) at concentrations between 0.172 and 27.5?ng/mL, a good precision (RSD?=?11.42 %), and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100?pg/mL. For the PDIMs extracted from dilutions of M. tuberculosis culture, the method gave good linearity (R2?=?0.9685) and an estimated LOD of 400?CFU/mL (CFU?=?colony forming units) in sterile distilled water. CONCLUSIONS:?A GC/MS(SIM) method is presented for the rapid and quantitative detection of M. tuberculosis, based on the online thermochemolysis of lipidic biomarkers extracted from the bacterial culture. The method has the potential to be applied in human and veterinary clinical laboratories for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in infected biological samples. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097393

Nicoara, Simona C; Minnikin, David E; Lee, Oona C Y; O'Sullivan, Denise M; McNerney, Ruth; Pillinger, Collin T; Wright, Ian P; Morgan, Geraint H

2013-01-01

332

Determination of five booster biocides in seawater by stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been optimized for the determination of five organic booster biocides (Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid, Sea-Nine 211, Irgarol 1051 and TCMTB) in seawater samples. The parameters affecting the desorption and absorption steps were investigated using 10 mL seawater samples. The optimised conditions consisted of an addition of 0.2 g mL(-1) KCl to the sample, which was extracted with 10mm length, 0.5mm film thickness stir bars coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and stirred at 900 rpm for 90 min at room temperature (25 °C) in a vial. Desorption was carried out at 280 °C for 5 min under 50 mL min(-1) of helium flow in the splitless mode while maintaining a cryotrapping temperature of 20 °C in the programmed-temperature vaporization (PTV) injector of the GC-MS system. Finally, the PTV injector was ramped to a temperature of 280 °C and the analytes were separated in the GC and detected by MS using the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The detection limits of booster biocides were found to be in the range of 0.005-0.9 ?g L(-1). The regression coefficients were higher than 0.999 for all analytes. The average recovery was higher than 72% (R.S.D.: 7-15%). All these figures of merit were established running samples in triplicate. This simple, accurate, sensitive and selective analytical method may be used for the determination of trace amounts of booster biocides in water samples from marinas. PMID:23246091

Giráldez, I; Chaguaceda, E; Bujalance, M; Morales, E

2013-01-01

333

Automated pipeline for classifying Aroclors in soil by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using modulo compressed two-way data objects.  

PubMed

Seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) commercial mixtures, Aroclor 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260, were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) combined with solid phase microextraction (SPME). Three pattern recognition methods: a fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and a fuzzy optimal associative memory (FOAM) were used to build classification models. Modulo compression was introduced for data preprocessing to extract the characteristic features and compress the data size. Baseline correction and data normalization were also applied prior to data processing. Four GC/MS data set configurations were constructed and used to evaluate the classifiers and data pretreatments including two-way modulo compressed, two-way data, one-way total ion current and one-way total mass spectrum. The results indicate that modulo compression and baseline correction methods significantly improved the performance of the classifiers which resulted in improved classification rates for FuRES, PLS-DA, and FOAM classifiers. By using two-way modulo compressed data sets, the average classification rates with FuRES, PLS-DA, and FOAM were 100±0%, 94.6±0.7%, and 96.1±0.6% for 100 bootstrapped Latin partitions of the Aroclor standards. The classifiers were validated by application to Aroclor samples extracted from soil with no parametric changes except that the calibration set of standards and validation set of soil samples were individually mean centered. The classification rates for the GC/MS modulo 35 compressed data obtained from the Aroclor soil samples with FOAM, FuRES, and PLS-DA were 100%, 96.4%, and 78.6%, respectively. Therefore, a chemometric pipeline for SPME-GC/MS data coupled with chemometric analysis was devised as a fast authentication method for different Aroclors in soil. PMID:24209371

Zhang, Mengliang; Harrington, Peter de B

2013-12-15

334

Sensitive method for quantification of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) in end-exhaled air by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylpentasiloxane (D5) are used as ingredients for personal care products (PCPs). Because of the use of these PCPs, consumers are exposed daily to D4 and D5. A sensitive analytical method was developed for analysis of D4 and D5 in end-exhaled air by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS), to determine the internal dose for consumer exposure assessment. Fifteen consumers provided end-exhaled air samples that were collected using Bio-VOC breath samplers and subsequently transferred to automatic thermal desorption (ATD) tubes. Prior to use, the ATD tubes were conditioned for a minimum of 4 h at 350 °C. The TD unit and auto sampler were coupled to a GC-MS using electron ionization. Calibration was performed using 0-10 ng/?L solutions of D4/D5 and (13)C-labeled D4/D5 as internal standards. The ions monitored were m/z 281 for D4, 355 for D5, 285 for (13)C-labeled D4, and 360 for (13)C-labeled D5. The addition of internal standard reduced the coefficient of variation from 30.8% to 9.5% for D4 and from 37.8% to 12.5% for D5. The limit of quantification was 2.1 ng/L end-exhaled air for D4 and 1.4 ng/L end-exhaled air for D5. With this method, cyclic siloxanes (D4 and D5) can be quantified in end-exhaled air at concentrations as low as background levels observed in the general population. PMID:24833048

Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; Anzion, Rob B M; Ragas, Ad M J; Russel, Frans G M; Scheepers, Paul T J

2014-06-17

335

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of secondary metabolites in citrus fruits peels using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with advanced chemometric methods.  

PubMed

Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) and multivariate clustering methods along with other chemometric methods are proposed to improve the analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprints of secondary metabolites in citrus fruits peels. In this way, chromatographic problems such as baseline/background contribution, low S/N peaks, asymmetric peaks, retention time shifts, and co-elution (overlapped and embedded peaks) occurred during GC-MS analysis of chromatographic fingerprints are solved using the proposed strategy. In this study, first, informative GC-MS fingerprints of citrus secondary metabolites are generated and then, whole data sets are segmented to some chromatographic regions. Each chromatographic segment for eighteen samples is column-wise augmented with m/z values as common mode to preserve bilinear model assumption needed for MCR analysis. Extended multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) is used to obtain pure elution and mass spectral profiles for the components present in each chromatographic segment as well as their relative concentrations. After finding the best MCR-ALS model, the relative concentrations for resolved components are examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) clustering methods to explore similarities and dissimilarities among different citrus samples according to their secondary metabolites. In general, four clear-cut clusters are determined and the chemical markers (chemotypes) responsible to this differentiation are characterized by subsequent discriminate analysis using counter-propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) method. It is concluded that the use of proposed strategy is a more reliable and faster way for the analysis of large data sets like chromatographic fingerprints of natural products compared to conventional methods. PMID:22766429

Parastar, Hadi; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Sereshti, Hassan; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad

2012-08-17

336

Development of simultaneous gas chromatography–mass spectrometric and liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometric determination method for the new designer drugs, N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) and their main metabolites in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To prove the intake of recently controlled designer drugs, N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), a simple, sensitive and reliable method which allows us to simultaneously detect BZP, TFMPP and their major metabolite in human urine has been established by coupling gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS). GC–MS accompanied by trifluoroacetyl (TFA) derivatization and LC–MS

Hiroe Tsutsumi; Munehiro Katagi; Akihiro Miki; Noriaki Shima; Tooru Kamata; Mayumi Nishikawa; Kunio Nakajima; Hitoshi Tsuchihashi

2005-01-01

337

Determination of basic degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction with in-situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) together with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was, for the first time, investigated for the in-situ derivatisation and analysis of basic degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water samples. The degradation products studied were those of nerve and blister agents, and a psychotomimetic agent. Extractions with in-situ derivatisation were successfully performed using a mixture of solvent

Hoi Sim Nancy Lee; Mui Tiang Sng; Chanbasha Basheer; Hian Kee Lee

2008-01-01

338

Determination of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction with in-situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) together with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry was investigated for the analysis of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water samples. The degradation products studied were those of nerve and blister agents, and a psychotomimetic agent. Extractions were successfully performed coupled with in-situ derivatisation using a mixture of solvent and derivatising agent. The protection of the

Hoi Sim Nancy Lee; Mui Tiang Sng; Chanbasha Basheer; Hian Kee Lee

2007-01-01

339

Screening of degradation products, impurities and precursors of chemical warfare agents in water and wet or dry organic liquid samples by in-sorbent tube silylation followed by thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard method used by inspection teams of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for preparation of aqueous samples requires several extraction and derivatization steps. This results in tedious and time consuming on-site analysis. A simple thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD–GC–MS) method was developed to analyse for a broad range of degradation products, impurities and precursors of

Oliver Terzic

2010-01-01

340

Determination of bisphenol A in river water and body fluid samples by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization and thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method, based on stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ derivatization and thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) is described for the determination of trace amounts of bisphenol A (BPA) in river water, urine, plasma, and saliva samples. The derivatization conditions with acetic acid anhydride and the SBSE conditions such as sample volumes and extraction time are

Migaku Kawaguchi; Koichi Inoue; Mariko Yoshimura; Rie Ito; Norihiro Sakui; Noriya Okanouchi; Hiroyuki Nakazawa

2004-01-01

341

Volatile norisoprenoids as markers of botanical origin of Sardinian strawberry-tree ( Arbutus unedo L.) honey: Characterisation of aroma compounds by dynamic headspace extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to characterize and authenticate the aromatic profile of strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey, a dynamic headspace (DHS) extraction, followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis, was performed on 10 Sardinian strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey samples. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified, but only norisoprenoid compounds such as ?-isophorone, ?-isophorone and 4-oxoisophorone, were recognized as specific

Federica Bianchi; Maria Careri; Marilena Musci

2005-01-01

342

Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in sediment by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 25 alkylated PAH homolog groups in sediment samples is described. The compounds are extracted from sediment by solvent extraction, followed by partial isolation using high-performance gel permeation chromatography. The compounds are identified and uantitated using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The report presents performance data for full-scan ion monitoring. Method detection limits in laboratory reagent matrix samples range from 1.3 to 5.1 micrograms per kilogram for the 28 PAHs. The 25 groups of alkylated PAHs are homologs of five groups of isomeric parent PAHs. Because of the lack of authentic standards, these homologs are reported semiquantitatively using a response factor from a parent PAH or a specific alkylated PAH. Precision data for the alkylated PAH homologs are presented using two different standard reference manuals produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology: SRM 1941b and SRM 1944. The percent relative standard deviations for identified alkylated PAH homolog groups ranged from 1.55 to 6.98 for SRM 1941b and from 6.11 to 12.0 for SRM 1944. Homolog group concentrations reported under this method include the concentrations of individually identified compounds that are members of the group. Organochlorine (OC) pesticides--including toxaphene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organophosphate (OP) pesticides--can be isolated simultaneously using this method. In brief, sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess water and extracted overnight with dichloromethan (95 percent) and methanol (5 percent). The extract is concentrated and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoroethylene syringe filter. The PAH fraction is isolated by quantitatively injecting an aliquot of sample onto two polystyrene-divinylbenzene gel-permeation chromatographic columns connected in series. The compounds are eluted with dichloromethane, a PAH fraction is collected, and a portion of the coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, is separated and discarded. The extract is solvent exchanged, the volume is reduced, and internal standard is added. Sample analysis is completed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer and full-scan acquisition.

Olson, Mary C.; Iverson, Jana L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Schroeder, Michael P.

2004-01-01

343

On-line monitoring of benzene air concentrations while driving in traffic by means of isotopic dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

There is no shortage of information about the average benzene concentrations in urban air, but there is very little about microenvironmental exposure, such as in-vehicle concentrations while driving in various traffic conditions, while refuelling, or while in a parking garage. The main reason for this lack of data is that no analytical instrumentation has been available to measure on-line trace amounts of benzene in such situations. We have recently proposed a highly accurate, high-speed cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system for monitoring benzene concentrations in air. Accuracy of the analytical data is achieved by enrichment of the air sample before trapping, with a stable isotope permeation tube system. The same principles have been applied to a new instrument, specifically designed for operation on an electric vehicle (Ducato Elettra, Fiat). The zero emission vehicle and the fully transportable, battery-operated GC/MS system provide a unique possibility of monitoring benzene exposure in real everyday situations such as while driving, refuelling, or repairing a car. All power consumptions have been reduced so as to achieve a battery-operated GC/MS system. Liquid nitrogen cryofocusing has been replaced by a packed, inductively heated, graphitized charcoal microtrap. The instrument has been mounted on shock absorbers and installed in the van. The whole system has been tested in both fixed and mobile conditions. The maximum monitoring period without external power supply is 6 h. The full analytical cycle is 4 min, allowing close to real-time monitoring, and the minimum detectable level is 1 microgram/m3 for benzene. In-vehicle monitoring showed that, when recirculation was off and ventilation on, i.e., air from outside the vehicle was blown inside, concentrations varied widely in different driving conditions: moving from a parking lot into normal traffic on an urban traffic condition roadway yielded an increase in benzene concentration from 17 to 62.3 micrograms/m3 even if the actual distance was small. A larger increase was observed when a car was left with the engine running at a distance 2 m from the zero emission vehicle: We measured an increment of benzene concentrations from 15.2 to 174.4 micrograms/m3 with a car equipped with a catalytic converter, and from 19.1 to 386.3 micrograms/m3 with a car without such a converter. PMID:8738357

Davoli, E; Cappellini, L; Moggi, M; Ferrari, S; Fanelli, R

1996-01-01

344

In vitro and in vivo studies of androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione in horses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes the application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for in vitro and in vivo studies of 6-OXO in horses, with a special aim to identify the most appropriate target metabolite to be monitored for controlling the administration of 6-OXO in racehorses. In vitro studies of 6-OXO were performed using horse liver microsomes. The major biotransformation observed was reduction of one keto group at the C3 or C6 positions. Three in vitro metabolites, namely 6alpha-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (M1), 3alpha-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-6,17-dione (M2a) and 3beta-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-6,17-dione (M2b) were identified. For the in vivo studies, two thoroughbred geldings were each administered orally with 500 mg of androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione (5 capsules of 6-OXO((R))) by stomach tubing. The results revealed that 6-OXO was extensively metabolized. The three in vitro metabolites (M1, M2a and M2b) identified earlier were all detected in post-administration urine samples. In addition, seven other urinary metabolites, derived from a further reduction of either one of the remaining keto groups or one of the remaining keto groups and the olefin group, were identified. These metabolites included 6alpha,17beta-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (M3a), 6,17-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (M3b and M3c), 3beta,6beta-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-17-one (M4a), 3,6-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-17-one (M4b), 3,6-dihydroxyandrostan-17-one (M5) and 3,17-dihydroxyandrostan-6-one (M6). The longest detection time observed in urine was up to 46 h for the M6 metabolite. For blood samples, the peak 6-OXO plasma concentration was observed 1 h post administration. Plasma 6-OXO decreased rapidly and was not detectable 12 h post administration. PMID:19882746

Leung, Gary N W; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M; Wong, Colton H F; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D

2010-07-01

345

Derivatization and fragmentation pattern analysis of natural and synthetic steroids, as their trimethylsilyl (oxime) ether derivatives by gas chromatography mass spectrometry: analysis of dissolved steroids in wastewater samples.  

PubMed

This paper reports the extension of our multiresidue analysis (MA) procedure with 18 natural and synthetic steroids; permitting the identification and quantification, in total of 81 pollutants from one solution, by a single injection, as their trimethylsilyl (TMS)-oxime ether/ester derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), within 31 min. As a novelty to the field, basic researches, such as fragmentation pattern analysis and derivatization optimization studies were performed for androsterone, transdehydroandrosterone, transandrosterone, mestranol, dihydrotestosterone, ethinylestradiol, testosterone, norethisterone, estriol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, gestodene, levonorgestrel, etonogestrel, coprostanol, progesterone, cholesterol, medroxy-progesterone-acetate, stigmasterol and ?-sitosterol. Results confirmed that (i) the TMS oxime-ether derivatives of the keto steroids provide from 1.40 times (gestodene) up to 4.25 times (norethisterone) higher responses compared to their TMS-ether ones, and (ii) the distribution of syn/anti oximes is characteristic to the ketosteroid species examined. Based on our optimized mass fragmentation, solid phase extraction (SPE) and derivatization studies separations have been performed in the total ion current (TIC) mode, identification and quantification of compounds have been carried out on the basis of their selective fragment ions. Responses, obtained with derivatized standards proved to be linear (hydroxysteroids), or have been calculated from calibration curves (ketosteroids) in the range of 1.88-750ng/L levels. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) values varied between 1.88ng/L and 37.5ng/L concentrations. The most important practical messages of this work are the high androsterone (0.744-4.28?g/L), transandrosterone (0.138-4.00?g/L), coprostanol (2.11-302?g/L), cholesterol (0.308-41?g/L), stigmasterol (1.21-8.40?g/L) and ?-sitosterol (1.12-11.0?g/L) contents of influent wastewaters. ?-Estradiol (100ng/L) and estriol (54ng/L) were found in one influent sample, only. Reproducibilities, characterized with the relative standard deviation percentages (RSD%) of measurements, varied between 1.73 RSD% (?-estradiol) and 5.4 RSD% (stigmasterol), with an average of 4.82 RSD%. PMID:21367426

Andrási, N; Helenkár, A; Záray, Gy; Vasanits, A; Molnár-Perl, I

2011-04-01

346

Novel approach for the determination of volatile compounds in processed onion by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS GC-MS).  

PubMed

A novel headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS GC-MS) method was developed for analysis of volatile compounds in onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa, 'Recas'). MS was operated using full scan mode and selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode in order to quantify some specific compounds with increased sensitivity relative to full scan mode. The limits of detection and quantitation ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 ?g/g and from 0.02 to 3.83 ?g/g fresh weight, respectively, for studied compounds. The procedure allowed the identification of eighteen compounds and quantitation of nine compounds in the volatile fraction of onion, belonging mainly to di-, and trisulfides and aldehydes. These methods were applied to evaluate how high-pressure (HP) as a processing technology affects onion volatile compounds, responsible in part of the onion biological activity. Onion samples were treated at T1: 200 MPa/25°C/5 min, T2: 400 MPa/25°C/5 min and T3: 600 MPa/25°C/5 min (treatments). In addition, the difference among diced, freeze-dried and pulverized onions (groups) was studied, in order to select the process more adequate for better preserving volatile compounds. The results obtained in full scan mode showed that both main factors (group and treatment) had a significant effect (P<0.001). There were also significant differences between groups and treatments for all compounds, being the main effect of group more marked by HS GC-MS using selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. For 2-methyl 2-pentenal, dimethyl trisulfide, and methyl propyl trisulfide it has been observed an increase in freeze-dried and pulverized onion samples compared with diced samples regardless the HP treatment. However, freeze-drying and pulverization processes affected the stability of propionaldehyde, 1-propanethiol, hexanal, dipropyl disulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide, diminishing their content regardless the HP treatment. HP at 200 and 400 MPa/25°C/5 min were the least detrimental treatments to the total fraction of volatile compounds, not affecting or even increasing the levels of some volatile compounds. PMID:23200369

Colina-Coca, Clara; González-Peña, Diana; Vega, Estela; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción

2013-01-15

347

Failure to detect beta-leucine in human blood or leucine 2,3-aminomutase in rat liver using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

It has been reported (Poston, J. (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 1859-1863; (1982) 255, 10067-10072; (1984) 259, 2059-2061) that mammalian tissues contain an adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzyme, leucine 2,3-aminomutase, which catalyzes the interconversion of beta-leucine and leucine. It was also reported that beta-leucine is detectable in normal human serum (mean = 4.8 mumol/liter, n = 37) and is elevated in serum from patients with cobalamin deficiency (mean = 24.7 mumol/liter, n = 17). Serum levels of leucine were claimed to be decreased in the cobalamin deficient patients (mean = 52 mumol/liter) as compared with the normal subjects (mean = 81 mumol/liter). It was also reported that rat liver supernatant catalyzed the formation of beta-leucine, leucine, or both amino acids from iso-fatty acids, and that the generation of leucine from iso-fatty acids was stimulated by adenosylcobalamin and inhibited by unsaturated cobalamin-binding protein. We have synthesized t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives of beta-leucine and leucine and have used capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for their analysis. Using forms of beta-leucine and leucine that contain several deuterium atoms in place of several hydrogen atoms as internal standards, techniques have been developed which make it possible to detect and quantitate as little as 0.1 mumol/liter of beta-leucine or leucine in human serum and in incubations containing rat liver supernatant. beta-Leucine was not detectable, i.e. less than 0.1 mumol/liter, in any sera from 50 normal human subjects or in any sera from 50 cobalamin-deficient patients. The mean level of leucine in the 50 cobalamin-deficient sera was 219 mumol/liter, which was not decreased with respect to that in the 50 control sera (167 mumol/liter). Experiments in which beta-leucine, leucine, isostearic acid, or isocaproic acid were incubated with rat liver supernatant in the presence or absence of adenosylcobalamin or cobalamin-binding protein failed to demonstrate the formation of leucine or beta-leucine or their interconversion under any of the conditions studied. We conclude that beta-leucine is not present in human blood and that the existence of leucine 2,3-aminomutase in mammalian tissues remains to be established. PMID:3356699

Stabler, S P; Lindenbaum, J; Allen, R H

1988-04-25

348

Simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of chloropropanols in edible oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to establish a novel robust method for the simultaneous determination of total fatty acid esters of 4 chloropropanols including fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters), 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD esters), 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP esters) and 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP esters) in edible oils. In this method, sodium methylate in methanol was used as the reagent for the ester cleavage reaction of chloropropanols esters. The reaction products were extracted by a sodium sulfate solution, and then purified by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) using diatomaceous earth (Hydromatrix™) as the sorbent. Finally, the extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyrylim idazole (HFBI) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification was achieved using deuterated chloropropanols as their respective internal standards, including 3-MCPD-d5, 2-MCPD-d5, 1,3-DCP-d5 and 2,3-DCP-d5. A good linear relationship between peak area and concentrations was obtained within the range of 0.025-2.000mgL(-1) with a correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 for all the chloropropanols esters. The limits of detection (LODs) of esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP (calculated as corresponding chloropropanols) were 30, 30, 100 and 30?gkg(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of the 3-MCPD esters and the 4 chloropropanols spiked at 0.1, 0.5 and 2mgkg(-1) into blank oil matrix were typically in a range from 70.7% to 113.3%. The robust method validation data including calibration, LOD/LOQ, accuracy and repeatability and proficiency test results (Z-score: -0.5) of the official Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) indicated that the present quantitative method could be successfully applied to the determination of total chloropropanols esters in various edible oils. PMID:24070627

Liu, Qing; Han, Feng; Xie, Ke; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

2013-11-01

349

Determination of airborne trialkyl and triaryl organophosphates originating from hydraulic fluids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Development of methodology for combined aerosol and vapor sampling.  

PubMed

Methodology for personal occupational exposure assessment of airborne trialkyl and triaryl organophosphates originating from hydraulic fluids by active combined aerosol and vapor sampling at 1.5L/min is presented. Determination of the organophosphates was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Combinations of adsorbents (Anasorb 747, Anasorb CSC, Chromosorb 106, XAD-2 and silica gel) with an upstream cassette with glass fiber or PTFE filters and different desorption/extraction solvents (CS(2), CS(2)-dimethylformamide (50:1, v/v), toluene, dichloromethane, methyl-t-butyl ether and methanol) have been evaluated for optimized combined vapor and aerosol air sampling of the organophosphates tri-isobutyl, tri-n-butyl, triphenyl, tri-o-cresyl, tri-m-cresyl and tri-p-cresyl phosphates. The combination of Chromosorb 106 and 37 mm filter cassette with glass fiber filter and dichloromethane as desorption/extraction solvent was the best combination for mixed phase air sampling of the organophosphates originating from hydraulic fluids. The triaryl phosphates were recovered solely from the filter, while the trialkyl phosphates were recovered from both the filter and the adsorbent. The total sampling efficiency on the combined sampler was in the range 92-101% for the studied organophosphates based on spiking experiments followed by pulling air through the sampler. Recoveries after 28 days storage were 98-102% and 99-101% when stored at 5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. The methodology was further evaluated in an exposure chamber with generated oil aerosol atmospheres with both synthetic and mineral base oils with added organophosphates in various concentrations, yielding total sampling efficiencies in close comparison to the spiking experiments. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by exposure measurements in a mechanical workshop where system suitability tests are performed on different aircraft components in a test bench, displaying tricresyl phosphate air concentrations of 0.024 and 0.28 mg/m(3), as well as during aircraft maintenance displaying tri-n-butyl phosphate air concentrations of 0.061 and 0.072 mg/m(3). PMID:17574560

Solbu, K; Thorud, S; Hersson, M; Ovrebø, S; Ellingsen, D G; Lundanes, E; Molander, P

2007-08-17

350

Determination of a wide range of volatile organic compounds in ambient air using multisorbent adsorption/thermal desorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adsorption/thermal desorption with multisorbent air-sampling cartridges was developed for the determination of 87 method analytes including halogenated alkanes, halogenated alkenes, ethers, alcohols, nitriles, esters, ketones, aromatics, a disulfide, and a furan. The volatilities of the compounds ranged from that of dichlorofluoromethane (CFC12) to that of 1,2,3- trichlorobenzene. The eight most volatile compounds were determined using a 1.5-L air sample and a sample cartridge containing 50 mg of Carbotrap B and 280 mg of Carboxen 1000; the remaining 79 compounds were determined using a 5-L air sample and a cartridge containing 180 mg of Carbotrap B and 70 mg of Carboxen 1000. Analysis and detection were by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The minimum detectable level (MDL) concentration values ranged from 0.01 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) for chlorobenzene to 0.4 ppbv for bromomethane; most of the MDL values were in the range 0.02-0.06 ppbv. No breakthrough was detected with the prescribed sample volumes. Analyte stability on the cartridges was very good. Excellent recoveries were obtained with independent check standards. Travel spike recoveries ranged from 90 to 110% for 72 of the 87 compounds. The recoveries were less than 70% for bromomethane and chloroethene and for a few compounds such as methyl acetate that are subject to losses by hydrolysis; the lowest travel spike recovery was obtained for bromomethane (62%). Blank values for all compounds were either below detection or very low. Ambient atmospheric sampling was conducted in New Jersey from April to December, 1997. Three sites characterized by low, moderate, and high densities of urbanization/traffic were sampled. The median detected concentrations of the compounds were either similar at all three sites (as with the chlorofluorocarbon compounds) or increased with the density of urbanization/traffic (as with dichloromethane, MTBE, benzene, and toluene). For toluene, the median detected concentrations were 0.23, 0.42, and 0.70 ppbv at the three sites. Analytical precision was measured using duplicate sampling. As expected, the precision deteriorated with decreasing concentration. At concentrations greater than 0.2 ppbv, most duplicates differed by less than 20%; below the MDL values, the differences between the duplicates were larger, but they were still typically less than 40%.

Pankow, J. F.; Luo, W.; Isabelle, L. M.; Bender, D. A.; Baker, R. J.

1998-01-01

351

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of vetiver essential oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Vetiver essential oils (VEO) are important raw ingredients used in perfume industry, entering the formula of numerous modern fragrances. Vetiver oils are considered to be among the most complex essential oils, resulting most of the time in highly coeluted chromatograms whatever the analytical technique. In this context, conventional gas chromatography has failed to provide a routine tool for the accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of their constituents. Applying comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography techniques (GC×GC-FID/MS) afforded the mean to separate efficiently vetiver oil constituents in order to identify them in a more reliable way. Moreover, this is the first time that a complete true quantitation of each constituent is carried out on such complex oils by means of internal calibration. Finally, we have studied the influence of the injection mode on the determined chemical composition, and showed that several alcohols underwent dehydration under defined chromatographic conditions (splitless mode) usually recommended for quantitation purposes. PMID:23522261

Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Belhassen, Emilie; Baldovini, Nicolas; Brevard, Hugues; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

2013-05-01

352

Measurement of gas-liquid partition coefficient and headspace concentration profiles of perfume materials by solid-phase microextraction and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

PubMed

An empirical model describing the relationship between the partition coefficients (K) of perfume materials in the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber stationary phase and the Linearly Temperature Programmed Retention Index (LTPRI) is obtained. This is established using a mixture of eleven selected fragrance materials spiked in mineral oil at different concentration levels to simulate liquid laundry detergent matrices. Headspace concentrations of the materials are measured using both static headspace and SPME-gas chromatography analysis. The empirical model is tested by measuring the K values for fourteen perfume materials experimentally. Three of the calculated K values are within 2-19% of the measured K value, and the other eleven calculated K values are within 22-59%. This range of deviation is understandable because a diverse mixture was used to cover most chemical functionalities in order to make the model generally applicable. Better prediction accuracy is expected when a model is established using a specific category of compounds, such as hydrocarbons or aromatics. The use of this method to estimate distribution constants of fragrance materials in liquid matrices is demonstrated. The headspace SPME using the established relationship between the gas-liquid partition coefficient and the LTPRI is applied to measure the headspace concentration of fragrances. It is demonstrated that this approach can be used to monitor the headspace perfume profiles over consumer laundry and cleaning products. This method can provide high sample throughput, reproducibility, simplicity, and accuracy for many applications for screening major fragrance materials over consumer products. The approach demonstrated here can be used to translate headspace SPME results into true static headspace concentration profiles. This translation is critical for obtaining the gas-phase composition by correcting for the inherent differential partitioning of analytes into the fiber stationary phase. PMID:11011720

Liu; Wene

2000-09-01

353

Assessment of the chemical changes during storage of phenol-formaldehyde resins pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, inverse gas chromatography and Fourier transform infra red methods.  

PubMed

The chemical changes occurring in the phenol-formaldehyde resins (resol and novolac type) during their storage were investigated. In this paper the FT-IR, py-GCMS and inverse gas chromatography methods were applied for assessment of the changes occurring during storage of the phenolic resins. We have found that during storage some examined resins occurred partial curing. The results from all techniques applied are consistent. Py-GCMS is useful technique for screening the storage processes but IGC seems to be most sensitive one. PMID:25092596

Strzemiecka, B; Voelkel, A; Zi?ba-Palus, J; Lachowicz, T

2014-09-12

354

Direct thermal desorption in the analysis of cheese volatiles by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with simultaneous distillation-extraction and dynamic headspace.  

PubMed

Direct thermal desorption (DTD) has been used as a technique for extracting volatile components of cheese as a preliminary step to their gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. In this study, it is applied to different cheese varieties: Camembert, blue, Chaumes, and La Serena. Volatiles are also extracted using other techniques such as simultaneous distillation-extraction and dynamic headspace. Separation and identification of the cheese components are carried out by GC-mass spectrometry. Approximately 100 compounds are detected in the examined cheeses. The described results show that DTD is fast, simple, and easy to automate; requires only a small amount of sample (approximately 50 mg); and affords quantitative information about the main groups of compounds present in cheeses. PMID:11396685

Valero, E; Sanz, J; Martínez-Castro, I

2001-06-01

355

Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

Aroma active volatiles in four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Prima Dona', 'Jewel', 'Snow Chaser', and 'Kestrel') were determined using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and identified via GC-PFPD and GC-MS using retention indices of reference compounds and mass spectral data. The aromas of total, unseparated SPME extracts evaluated using GC-O were rated 8.2-9.0/10 for the four cultivars in terms of similarity to the original blueberry homogenates. In terms of GC-O aroma similarity, those aroma active volatile groups characterized as green, fruity, and floral were most intense. Of the 43 volatiles found to have aroma activity, 38 were identified and 13 had not been previously reported in blueberries. Although linalool and (E)-2-hexenal were common major aroma impact volatiles, dominant aroma-active volatiles were different for each cultivar. Principal component analysis confirmed that each cultivar possessed a unique aroma active profile as each cultivar was clustered into a separate score plot quadrant. PMID:24758568

Du, Xiaofen; Rouseff, Russell

2014-05-21

356

Cross validation of gas chromatography-flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for measuring dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine.  

PubMed

We report two analytical methods for the measurement of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine. These methods were independently developed/modified and implemented in two separate laboratories and cross validated. The aim was to develop simple, cost effective, and reliable methods that could use available resources and sample matrices in Thailand and the United States. While several methods already exist, we found that direct application of these methods required modification of sample preparation and chromatographic conditions to render accurate, reliable data. The problems encountered with existing methods were attributable to urinary matrix interferences, and differences in the pH of urine samples and reagents used during the extraction and derivatization processes. Thus, we provide information on key parameters that require attention during method modification and execution that affect the ruggedness of the methods. The methods presented here employ gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either flame photometric detection (FPD) or electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with isotopic dilution quantification. The limits of detection were reported from 0.10ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-FPD), while the limits of quantification were reported from 0.25ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-MS), for all six common DAP metabolites (i.e., dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate). Each method showed a relative recovery range of 94-119% (for GC-FPD) and 92-103% (for GC-MS), and relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 20%. Cross-validation was performed on the same set of urine samples (n=46) collected from pregnant women residing in the agricultural areas of northern Thailand. The results from split sample analysis from both laboratories agreed well for each metabolite, suggesting that each method can produce comparable data. In addition, results from analyses of specimens from the German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-EQUAS) suggested that the GC-FPD method produced accurate results that can be reasonably compared to other studies. PMID:24280209

Prapamontol, Tippawan; Sutan, Kunrunya; Laoyang, Sompong; Hongsibsong, Surat; Lee, Grace; Yano, Yukiko; Hunter, Ronald Elton; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

2014-01-01

357

[Determination of ten photoinitiators in fruit juices and tea beverages by solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method for the determination of ten photoinitiators (PIs), benzophenone, ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 1-hydroxycyclohexyl-phenylketone, 4-methylbenzophenone, 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 4-chlorobenzophenone, 2-chlorothioxanthone, 2-isopropylthio-xanthone, 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone, methyl 2-benzoylbenzoate, in 13 kinds of fruit juice and 3 kinds of tea beverage has been established, using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined with chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). At first, the major factors of SPME, extraction time and temperature, were studied through orthogonal experiment. Then the optimal operation conditions were obtained via the refinement of various factors. After the sample was extracted by SPME, it was desorbed for target analytes in sampling inlet for 3 min, and separated on an HP-5MS column, then detected by MS in selected ion monitoring mode, and quantified through calibration curve. The working curves were obtained using sample matrix in order to eliminate the matrix interference. The linear range was from 0.3 microg/L to 60 microg/L and the detection limit range was from 3 ng/L to 16 ng/L. The samples were determined five times with four different spiked levels individually and the relative standard deviations of all the samples were less than 14.5%. This determination method was applied in 16 kinds of packed beverages with different brands and different species. Benzophenone had been detected from all the samples. 4-Methylbenzophenone, 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 2-isopropylthioxanthone, 1-hydroxycyclohexyl-phenylketone and 2-chlorothioxanthone had been detected from a portion of samples. Simultaneous determination was achieved for the ten PIs. These results provide a reference to determine the PIs migrated from packing materials in beverage. This method is simple, high sensitive and non-polluting. PMID:24669718

Liu, Pengyan; Chen, Yanjie; Zhao, Chunxia; Tian, Lei

2013-12-01

358

Simultaneous determination of amitraz and its metabolite residue in food animal tissues by gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.  

PubMed

A new method has been developed for determination and confirmation of amitraz and its main metabolite, 2,4-dimethylaniline, in food animal tissues using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS). This method is based on a new extraction procedure using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). It consists of an n-hexane/methanol extraction step, a cleaning-up step by BakerBond octadecyl C(18) silica bonded cartridge, hydrolysis and derivatization to 2,4-dimethyl-7-F-butyramide for GC-ECD analysis. For confirmation using GC-MS, hydrolysis and derivatization were not needed. Parameters for extraction pressure, temperature and cycle of ASE, clean-up, derivatization and analysis procedure have been optimized. Spike recoveries from 50 to 300 microg/kg levels were found to be between 72.4 and 101.3% with relative standard deviation less than 11.5% in GC-ECD, from 5 to 20 microg/kg levels were found to be between 77.4 and 107.1% with relative standard deviation less than 11.6% in GC-MS. The LOD and LOQ are 5 and 10 microg/kg, respectively, for these two analytes using GC-ECD. For GC-MS, LOD and LOQ were 2 and 5 microg/kg, respectively. The rapid and reliable method can be used for characterization and quantification of residues of amitraz and its main metabolite, 2,4-dimethylaniline, in liver and kidney samples of swine, sheep and bovine. PMID:20554255

Yu, Huan; Tao, Yanfei; Le, Tao; Chen, Dongmei; Ishsan, Awais; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

2010-07-01

359

Meeting challenges in forensic toxicology in Japan by liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS) was introduced in the field of forensic toxicology in Japan, many challenges were considered using this technique in an attempt to overcome the problems which remained unsolved using other techniques such as gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS).We here review the analytical challenges carried out in Japan using LC\\/MS from

K Kudo; H Tsuchihashi; N Ikeda

2003-01-01

360

Analysis of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in plant emissions using portable dynamic air sampling/solid-phase microextraction (PDAS-SPME) and chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable dynamic air sampler (PDAS) using a porous polymer solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre has been validated for the determination of biogenic enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in air. These compounds were adsorbed in the field, and then thermally desorbed at 250 °C in a gas chromatograph injector port connected via a ?-cyclodextrin capillary separating column to a mass spectrometer. The optimized method has been applied for investigating the emissions of enantiomeric monoterpenes from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Lavandula lanata (Lavender) which were selected as representative of coniferous trees and aromatic plants, respectively. The enantiomers of ?-pinene, sabinene, camphene, ?-3-carene, ?-pinene, limonene, ?-phellandrene, 4-carene and camphor were successfully determined in the emissions from the three plants. While Douglas-fir showed a strong predominance toward (-)-enantiomers, Rosemary and Lavender demonstrated a large variation in enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes. The simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of dynamic sampling with porous polymer coated SPME fibres coupled to chiral capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) makes this method potentially useful for in-field investigations of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and studies of optically explicit atmospheric chemistry.

Yassaa, Noureddine; Williams, Jonathan

361

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. Leaf Extract and Host Toxicity Testing With In Vitro Cultured Lymphocytes From Human Umbilical Cord Blood  

PubMed Central

Objectives To locate a plant with suitable phytochemicals for use as antimicrobial agents to control multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria as a complementary medicine, without host toxicity as monitored through cultured lymphocytes from human umbilical cord blood. Methods The methanol crude leaf extract of the plant Woodfordia fruticosa was subjected to antimicrobial assay in vitro with nine pathogenic MDR bacteria from clinical samples. This was followed by bioassay-guided fractionation with seven non-polar to polar solvents, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the n-butanol fraction, and monitoring of the host toxicity of the leaf extract with in vitro grown lymphocytes from human umbilical cord blood. Results The leaf extract of W. fruticosa had a controlling capacity for MDR bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the n-butanol fraction were < 1.89 mg/mL extract and 9.63 mg/mL extract, respectively. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry spectrum of the n-butanol fraction confirmed the presence of 13 peaks of different compounds with retention times of 9.11 minutes, 9.72 minutes, 10.13 minutes, 10.78 minutes, 12.37 minutes, 12.93 minutes, 18.16 minutes, 21.74 minutes, 21.84 minutes, 5.96 minutes, 12.93 minutes, 24.70 minutes, and 25.76 minutes. The six leading compounds were: diethyl phthalate: IUPAC name: diethyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate; 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenol: IUPAC name: 5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylphenol; (E )-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene-1-thiol: IUPAC name: (2Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene-1-thiol; 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E ): IUPAC name: 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol; 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E); 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl) phenol: IUPAC name: 2-methoxy-4-[(1E)-prop-1-en-1-yl]phenol; hexadecanoic acid: IUPAC name: hexadecanoic acid. Conclusion The presence of antimicrobial compounds that are therapeutically potent against MDR bacteria was confirmed in W. fruticosa. The crude leaf extract showed no host toxicity with human lymphocytes; the n-butanol fraction of the extract was the most suitable bioactive fraction. The terpenes isolated were: 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl) phenol, 2,6-octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-(E)-2,6-octadienal, 3,7-dimethylcyclohexanol, and cyclohexanol, 2-methylene-5-(1-methylethenyl) which were reported to have specifically antimicrobial activity. PMID:25389517

Dubey, Debasmita; Patnaik, Rajashree; Ghosh, Goutam; Padhy, Rabindra N.

2014-01-01

362

Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

363

DETECTION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC TRACERS IN VEGETATION SMOKE SAMPLES BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R823990)  

EPA Science Inventory

High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique wit...

364

Discriminative determination of alkyl methylphosphonates and methylphosphonate in blood plasma and urine by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after tert.-butyldimethylsilylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining two nerve gas hydrolysis products, alkyl (ethyl, isopropyl and pinacolyl) methylphosphonates (RMPAs) and methylphosphonate (MPA), separately, in human plasma and urine samples was developed, using two different deproteinization procedures. In the first method, the plasma sample was deproteinized by adding a fourfold volume of acetonitrile, followed by passing the supernatant through a Bond Elut strong anion-exchange

Mieko Kataoka; Yasuo Seto

2003-01-01

365

NATURE OF UNRESOLVED COMPLEX MIXTURE IN SIZE-DISTRIBUTED EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION AS MEASURED BY THERMAL DESORPTION-GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in size resolved fine aerosol emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is examined. The aerosols are sorted by size in an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and subsequently analyzed by thermal desorbtion/gas chroma...

366

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN CONGENERS IN GREAT LAKES FISH EXTRACTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY AND IN VITRO ENZYME INDUCTION ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The high-resolution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of 25 Great Lakes fish extracts confirmed the identities of several 2,3,7,8-tetrasubstituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). The dominant congener in extracts from Lake Michig...

367

PYROLYSIS/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY OF A SERIES OF BURIED WOODS AND COALIFIED LOGS THAT INCREASE IN RANK FROM PEAT TO SUBBITUMINOUS COAL.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To better understand the coalification process, we have conducted numerous studies of the chemical structural composition of xylem tissue from gymosperm wood and related woods that has been coalified to varying degrees. The studies presented here, examine the chemical nature of buried and coalified xylem tissue at the molecular level. To achieve this, we employed pyrolysis/gas chromatography (py/gc) and pyrolysis/gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (py/gc/ms). Pyrolysis techniques have been used to examine peat, coal, coalified wood, and related substances. However, the technique has not been previously applied to a systematic and histologically-related series of coalified woods. It is particularly useful to compare the results from pyrolytic studies with the data obtained from solid-state **1**3C NMR.

Hatcher, Patrick G.; Lerch, Harry E.; Kotra, Rama K.; Verheyen, Vincent T.

1987-01-01

368

Characterisation of different types of hay by solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.  

PubMed

The volatile organic compounds of different ground hay samples from Austria, Italy and Switzerland were collected at 50 degrees C on a Supelco Carbowax Divinylbenzene headspace solid-phase microextraction fibre, separated by capillary gas chromatography on an HP5-ms column running a temperature programme and using helium as carrier gas, detected with a mass sensitive detector and studied with principal component analyses after autoscaling selected variables. The analytes, mainly mono- and sesquiterpenes, were able to cluster differences resulting from the site of production. Coumarin can be used to differentiate hay grown north and south of the main chain of the Alps. Acetic acid is appropriate for distinguishing between hay from Kastelruth and Passeier Valley, two South Tyrolean regions. The average linalool content in aftermath is higher than in hay. PMID:18401854

Valtiner, S M; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

2008-01-01

369

An analytical method for the simultaneous trace determination of acidic pharmaceuticals and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wastewater and sewage sludge by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled with mass\\u000a spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of the most frequently used acidic pharmaceutical residues, ibuprofen, diclofenac,\\u000a naproxen and ketoprofen (KFN), and phenolic endocrine disruptors, bisphenol (BPA), triclosan (TCS), nonylphenol, nonylphenol\\u000a monoethoxylate and nonylphenol diethoxylate, in wastewater and sewage sludge samples. In the first phase

Vasilios G. Samaras; Nikolaos S. Thomaidis; Athanasios S. Stasinakis; Themistokles D. Lekkas

2011-01-01

370

Chemometric study and optimization of extraction parameters in single-drop microextraction for the determination of multiclass pesticide residues in grapes and apples by gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid single-drop microextraction method coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (SDME–GC\\/MS) for the determination of 20 pesticides with different physicochemical properties in grapes and apples was optimized by the use of a multivariate strategy. Emphasis on the optimization study was given to the role of ionic strength, sugar concentration and pH of the donor sample solution

Elpiniki G. Amvrazi; Nikolaos G. Tsiropoulos

2009-01-01

371

Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for the determination of cypermethrin in air samples with confirmation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

APPENDIX B ILLUSTRATION OF IMMUNOASSAY TECHNIQUES. . APPENDIX C ILLUSTRATION OF A 2-STEP ELISA. . . . . . . . . . 54 58 APPENDIX D ILLUSTRATION OF HP5995C/96A GC/MS SYSTEM. . 60 APPENDIX E CALIBRATION SETUP FOR SAMPLING PUMP. . APPENDIX F OSHA... METHODOLOGY FOR PYRETHRUM. . . . ~ ~ ~ APPENDIX G COMPOSITE LISTING OF MATERIALS. ~ ~ . . . ~ 62 65 91 APPENDIX H 2-STEP COMPETITION ELISA FOR PERMETHRIN. . . 93 APPENDIX I GAS CHROMATOGRAM/MASS SPECTRUMS' 97 APPENDIX J FIGURES. APPENDIX K TABLES...

Ball, Madalyn Eunice

2012-06-07

372

Simultaneous determination of endocrine disrupting phenolic compounds and steroids in water by solid-phase extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid-phase extraction (SPE)–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (MS) analytical method for the simultaneous separation and determination of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from water samples is described in detail. Important and contrasting EDCs including estrone, 17?-estradiol, 17?-ethynylestradiol, 16?-hydroxyestrone, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 4-tert-octylphenol were selected as the target compounds. The SPE technique, followed by the derivatisation with bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide was

R Liu; J. L Zhou; A Wilding

2004-01-01

373

Morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mice: Metabolomic profiling of brain tissue to find “molecular switch” of drug abuse by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a widely used model to explore the mechanism of context-dependent learning. In this work, we developed a GC–MS method to investigate the metabolites in mice brain which was used to study the mechanism of context-dependent learning associated with rewarding effect of morphine. Metabolites were extracted from brain tissues and derivatized followed by analysis by gas

Jiaoran Meng; Xiaodong Zhang; Hao Wu; Jing Bu; Chenyi Shi; Chunhui Deng; Yu Mao

374

Determination of phenolic compounds in environmental water samples after solid-phase extraction with ?-cyclodextrin-bonded silica particles coupled with a novel liquid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel approach for the sample pre-treatment and determination of eight phenolic compounds in environmental water samples has been developed by hyphenating solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques based on solid organic drop combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). After pre-concentration and purification of the sample through column containing 60 mg of ?-cyclodextrin-bonded silica particles as stationary phase, under the optimum conditions, LPME technique has been performed on the eluent solution. Under the selected conditions, limit of detection (LOD) of 0.002-0.04 ?g/L (S/N=3), limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.007-0.15 ?g/L (S/N=10), pre-concentration factor of 752-3135 and linearity range of 0.01-25 ?g/L have been obtained. A reasonable repeatability (RSD?9.5%, n=5) with satisfactory coefficient of determination has been obtained between 0.9981 and 0.9997. The relative recoveries of the waste, sea, river and well water samples were higher than 79%. PMID:22102622

Faraji, Hakim; Husain, Syed W; Helalizadeh, Masoumeh

2012-01-01

375

Investigation of the relationship between the metabolic profile of tobacco leaves in different planting regions and climate factors using a pseudotargeted method based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An improved pseudotargeted method using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed to investigate the metabolic profile of tobacco leaves from three planting regions (Yunnan, Guizhou, and Henan provinces). The analytical characteristics of the method with regard to reproducibility, precision, linearity, and stability were satisfactory for metabolic profiling study. Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated that the metabolic profiles of tobacco from the Yunnan and Guizhou regions were different from that from the Henan province. The amino acid (e.g., phenylalanine, leucine, and tyrosine) and carbohydrate (e.g., fructose, trehalose, and sucrose) contents were the highest in Henan tobacco. The highest contents of organic acids (e.g., isocitrate, citrate, and fumarate) of the TCA cycle and antioxidants (e.g., quinate, chlorogenic acid, and ascorbate) were found in Guizhou tobacco. The correlation coefficients between metabolite content and climate factors (rainfall, sunshine, and temperature) demonstrated that drought facilitated the accumulation of sugars and amino acids. The content of TCA cycle intermediates could be influenced by multiple climate factors. This study demonstrates that the pseudotargeted method with GC/MS is suitable for the investigation of the metabolic profiling of tobacco leaves and the assessment of differential metabolite levels related to the growing regions. PMID:24090132

Zhao, Yanni; Zhao, Chunxia; Lu, Xin; Zhou, Huina; Li, Yanli; Zhou, Jia; Chang, Yuwei; Zhang, Junjie; Jin, Lifeng; Lin, Fucheng; Xu, Guowang

2013-11-01

376

Simultaneous identification and quantification of the sugar, sugar alcohol, and carboxylic acid contents of sour cherry, apple, and ber fruits, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Our gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method--developed for the simultaneous quantitation of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, sugar alcohols, caboxylic and amino acids, measured as their trimethylsilyl-(oxime) ether/ester derivatives, from one solution by a single injection, prepared in the presence of the fruit matrix--has been extended/utilized for special purposes. The compositions of (i) freshly harvested and stored sour cherries (Prunus cerasus), (ii) apples obtained from organic and integrated productions (Malus domestica), and (iii) green and ripe bers (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) were compared. On the basis of earlier, basic researches (derivatization, quantitation, and fragmentation studies of authentic compounds), we demonstrate the reproducible quantitation of the main and minor constituents in a wide concentration range (approximately 1 x 10(-)(3) to >/=40%, in total up to < or =98%, calculated on dry matter basis of the fruit matrices). Reproducibility of quantitations, calculated on the basis of their total ion current values, provided an average reproducibility of 3.3 (sour cherries), 6.2 (apple), and 4.3 (ber) RSD %, respectively. PMID:15675786

Füzfai, Zsófia; Katona, Zsolt F; Kovács, Etelka; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya

2004-12-15

377

Characterization of low-molecular weight iodine-terminated polyethylenes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the use of derivatization.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry, in conjunction with various derivatization approaches, have been applied to structure determination of individual oligomers and molecular-mass distributions (MMD) in low-molecular mass polyethylene having an iodine terminus. Direct GC/MS analysis has shown that the samples under investigation composed of polyethyelene-iodides (major components) and n-alkanes. Exchange reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH gave rise to methoxy-derivatives and n-alkenes. Electron ionization mass spectra have shown that the former contained terminal methoxy groups indicating the terminal position of the iodine atom in the initial oligomers. MMD parameters have been determined with the aid of MALDI mass spectrometry followed by preliminary derivatization-formation of covalently bonded charge through the reaction of iodides with triphenylphosphine, trialkylamines, pyridine or quinoline. The mass spectra revealed well-resolved peaks for cationic parts of derivatized oligomers allowing the determination of MMD. The latter values have been compared with those calculated from GC/MS data. PMID:24308197

Zaikin, Vladimir G; Borisov, Roman S; Polovkov, Nikolai Yu; Zhilyaev, Dmitry I; Vinogradov, Aleksei A; Ivanyuk, Aleksei V

2013-01-01

378

Determination of 2,4,6-tribromoaniline in the color additives D&C Red Nos. 21 and 22 (Eosin Y) using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The present work demonstrates the presence of an impurity, 2,4,6-tribromoaniline (TBA), in the color additives D&C Red Nos. 21 and 21 lake (21L) and describes the determination of TBA in certified lots of D&C Red Nos. 21, 21L and 22 (Eosin Y). A method was developed using solid-phase microextraction with [13C6]TBA as an internal standard followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Test portions from 23 lots of US-certified color additives D&C Red Nos. 21, 21L and 22 were analyzed for TBA using the new method. These lots represent domestic (four) and foreign (four) manufacturers that requested certification for the color additives during the past 2 years. Of the test portions analyzed, 12 (52.2%) contained TBA in amounts ranging from 19.9 to 638.9 ppm with an average value of approximately 278.7 ppm. The remaining 11 (47.2%) test portions contained no detectable TBA or less than 0.01 ppm, which is the limit of quantification of the present method. The wide range of TBA levels found in lots submitted for certification suggest that the contamination with TBA may be avoided or significantly decreased through appropriate changes in the color-manufacturing process. PMID:15584238

Weisz, Adrian; Andrzejewski, Denis; Rasooly, Irit R

2004-11-19

379

Overall calibration procedure via a statistically based matrix-comprehensive approach in the stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues in fruit-based soft drinks.  

PubMed

Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-thermal desorption (TD) procedure combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the statistical variance component model (VCM) is applied to the determination of semi-volatile compounds including organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in various synthetic and real fruit-based soft drink matrices. When the matrix effects are corrected using isotopically labelled or non labelled internal standard, but matrix/calibration run-induced deviations are still present in the measurements, the adoption of a variance component model (VCM) in the quantitative analysis of various matrices via an overall calibration curve is successful. The method produces an overall calibration straight line for any analyte accounting for the uncertainty due to all the sources of uncertainty, namely matrix-induced deviations, calibration runs performed at different times, measurement errors. Small increases in the detection limits and in uncertainty in the concentration values obtained in the inverse regression face favourably the decrease in times and costs for routine analyses. PMID:21238780

Lavagnini, Irma; Urbani, Alessandro; Magno, Franco

2011-02-15

380

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl esters of amino acids in the analysis of the kinetics of (/sup 15/N)H/sub 4//sup +/ assimilation in Lemna minor L  

SciTech Connect

Rapid, sensitive, and selective methods for the determination of the /sup 15/N abundance of amino acids in isotopic tracer experiments with plant tissues are described and discussed. Methodology has been directly tested in an analysis of the kinetics of (/sup 15/N)H/sub 4//sup +/ assimilation in Lemna minor L. The techniques utilize gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring of major fragments containing the N moiety of N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl esters of amino acids. The ratio of selected ion pairs at the characteristic retention time of each amino acid derivative can be used to calcuulate /sup 15/N abundance with an accuracy of +/- 1 atom % excess /sup 15/N using samples containing as little as 30 picomoles of individual amino acids. Up to 11 individual amino acid derivatives can be selectively monitored in a single chromatogram of 30 minutes. It is suggested that these techniques will be useful in situations where the small quantities of N available for analysis have hitherto hindered the use of /sup 15/N-labeled precursors.

Rhodes, D.; Myers, A.C.; Jamieson, G.

1981-11-01

381

Analysis of [(2)H7]methionine, [(2)H4]methionine, methionine, [(2)H4]homocysteine and homocysteine in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to follow the fate of administered [(2)H7]methionine.  

PubMed

Homocysteine plays a key role in several pathophysiological conditions. To assess the methionine-homocysteine kinetics by stable isotope methodology, we developed a simultaneous quantification method of [(2)H(7)]methionine, [(2)H(4)]methionine, methionine, [(2)H(4)]homocysteine and homocysteine in rat plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). [(13)C]Methionine and [(13)C]homocysteine were used as analytical internal standards to account for losses associated with the extraction, derivatization and chromatography. For labeled and non-labeled homocysteine measurements, disulfide bonds between homocysteine and other thiols or proteins were reduced by dithiothreitol. The reduced homocysteine and methionine species were purified by cation-exchange chromatography and derivatized with isobutyl chlorocarbonate in water-ethanol-pyridine. Quantification was carried out by selected ion monitoring of the molecular-related ions of N(O,S)-isobutyloxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives on the chemical ionization mode. The intra- and inter-day precision of the assay was less than 6% for all labeled and non-labeled methionine and homocysteine species. The method is sensitive enough to determine pharmacokinetics of labeled methionine and homocysteine. PMID:20044317

Shinohara, Yoshihiko; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Tomoyoshi; Tamura, Yuka; Hashimoto, Takao; Ichida, Kimiyoshi

2010-02-01

382

Investigation of volatile compounds in two raspberry cultivars by two headspace techniques: solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS).  

PubMed

The volatile compounds emitted by two raspberry varieties ( Rubus idaeus , cv. Polka and Tulameen) were analyzed, in both the case of fresh fruits and juices, by two headspace methods that are rapid, solvent-free, and with reduced or no sample pretreatment: solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Multivariate analysis of the SPME/GC-MS results allows for an unambiguous sample discrimination for both mashed fruits and juices. PTR-MS instrumental fingerprint provides, in a faster way, similar qualitative information on the overall flavor profile. The two cultivars show both qualitative and quantitative differences. SPME/GC-MS analysis shows that alcohols and aldehydes are more abundant in the headspace of Tulameen as, e.g., hexanal and hexanol that induce herbaceous odor notes. This observation has been confirmed by sensory analysis. PTR-MS was also used to monitor rapid processes that modify the original aromatic profile, such as lipo-oxigenase activity induced by tissue damages occurring during industrial transformation, accidental mechanical damages, or as a consequence of chewing. PMID:19348421

Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Carlin, Silvia; Endrizzi, Isabella; Gasperi, Flavia

2009-05-27

383

Sensory screening for large-format natural corks by "dry soak" testing and its correlation to headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) releasable trichloroanisole (TCA) analysis.  

PubMed

Large-format natural corks were individually screened for trichloroanisole (TCA) taint and other non-characteristic cork odors by smelling the high relative humidity headspace of the jarred closure during expert panel sensory sessions. The method was coined "dry soak sensory screening". Out of a population of 2296 corks, 138 specimens [6% of the total population (TP)] were retained because of unusual odors, ranging from mild to severe. All retained corks were analyzed for releasable TCA (RTCA) by the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. Results indicated that 30 corks (1.3% TP) had concentrations between 1.0 and 5.0 ppt. Most of these corks had non-typical TCA odors described as ashtray, musty, moldy, dirty, and wet cardboard. A total of 13 retained corks (0.57% TP) had RTCA values higher than 5.0 ppt, mostly displaying the typical TCA odor. Dry soak screening has been determined to be a clean, fast, and most importantly, a nondestructive method ideal for screening large-format natural corks with off odors. PMID:19722710

Macku, Carlos; Gonzalez, Lesa; Schleussner, Christiane; Mesquita, Ana Cristina; Herwatt, James W; Kirch, Leonard C; Schwartz, Rob J

2009-09-01

384

Differentiating organically and conventionally grown oregano using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (headspace-GC-FID), and flow injection mass spectrum (FIMS) fingerprints combined with multivariate data analysis.  

PubMed

Ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS), and headspace gas chromatography (headspace-GC) combined with multivariate data analysis techniques were examined and compared in differentiating organically grown oregano from that grown conventionally. It is the first time that headspace-GC fingerprinting technology is reported in differentiating organically and conventionally grown spice samples. The results also indicated that UPLC-MS, FIMS, and headspace-GC-FID fingerprints with OPLS-DA were able to effectively distinguish oreganos under different growing conditions, whereas with PCA, only FIMS fingerprint could differentiate the organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. UPLC fingerprinting provided detailed information about the chemical composition of oregano with a longer analysis time, whereas FIMS finished a sample analysis within 1 min. On the other hand, headspace GC-FID fingerprinting required no sample pretreatment, suggesting its potential as a high-throughput method in distinguishing organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. In addition, chemical components in oregano were identified by their molecular weight using QTOF-MS and headspace-GC-MS. PMID:25050447

Gao, Boyan; Qin, Fang; Ding, Tingting; Chen, Yineng; Lu, Weiying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

2014-08-13

385

Identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the wood-rotting fungi Serpula lacrymans and Coniophora puteana, and from Pinus sylvestris timber.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by two wood-rotting basidiomycete fungi, Serpula lacrymans (dry rot fungus) and Coniophora puteana (cellar fungus), and the timber of Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine), were identified. Several volatile collection techniques were employed including dichloromethane solvent extraction, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and thermal desorption of VOCs entrained on Tenax GR. In addition, a new method of solid sample injection (SSI) is described which utilises a low injector temperature and an all-glass deactivated injector liner designed to minimise both the formation of pyrolysis products and analyte degradation. All the volatile compounds collected were analysed using electron impact capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on HP-5, HP-Innowax and beta-cyclodextrin columns. SSI and Tenax thermal desorption were found to be the most effective extraction methods. A total of 19 VOCs were observed from S. lacrymans grown on glass slides and pine, 15 from C. puteana grown on glass slides and 12 from P. sylvestris timber. S. lacrymans was found to emit, in low abundance, six unique VOCs, of which 2-methylbutanal was the greatest. The major volatile compound emitted by S. lacrymans was 1-octen-3-ol, which was also found in lower abundance from C. puteana. Six VOCs, including diethylene glycol and 4-methyl methylbenzoate, were found to be unique to C. puteana, all in medium abundance: From P. sylvestris, the major volatiles identified were S-alpha-pinene and 3-carene. PMID:15446714

Ewen, Richard J; Jones, Peter R H; Ratcliffe, Norman M; Spencer-Phillips, Peter T N

2004-07-01

386

Silicone rod extraction followed by liquid desorption-large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporiser-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of priority organic pollutants in environmental water samples.  

PubMed

In this study a priority organic pollutants usually found in environmental water samples were considered to accomplish two extraction and analysis approaches. Among those compounds organochlorine compounds, pesticides, phthalates, phenols and residues of pharmaceutical and personal care products were included. The extraction and analysis steps were based on silicone rod extraction (SR) followed by liquid desorption in combination with large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporiser (LVI-PTV) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Variables affecting the analytical response as a function of the programmable temperature vaporiser (PTV) parameters were firstly optimised following an experimental design approach. The SR extraction and desorption conditions were assessed afterwards, including matrix modification, time extraction, and stripping solvent composition. Subsequently, the possibility of performing membrane enclosed sorptive coating extraction (MESCO) as a modified extraction approach was also evaluated. The optimised method showed low method detection limits (3-35 ng L(-1)), acceptable accuracy (78-114%) and precision values (<13%) for most of the studied analytes regardless of the aqueous matrix. Finally, the developed approach was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in aqueous environmental matrices including estuarine and wastewater samples. PMID:24209370

Delgado, Alejandra; Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Olivares, Maitane; Vallejo, Asier; Etxebarria, Nestor

2013-12-15

387

Influence of harvest maturity and fruit logistics on pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) volatiles assessed by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS).  

PubMed

Profiling of volatiles from pineapple fruits was performed at four ripening stages using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). In total, 142 volatiles were detected, of which 132 were identified. Multivariate data analysis was carried out to assess the effect of post-harvest storage on volatiles composition of green-ripe sea-freighted pineapple in comparison to air-freighted fruits harvested at full maturity. The latter fruits were characterised by volatiles described as potent odorants in pineapples, such as ?-octalactone, ?-lactones, 1-(E,Z)-3,5-undecatriene and 1,3,5,8-undecatetraene, as well as various methyl esters. In contrast, post-harvest storage of green-ripe sea-freighted fruits resulted in an increased formation of ethyl esters, acetates, acetoxy esters and alcohols, thus allowing the authentication of sea- and air-freighted pineapples, respectively. Particularly, compounds presumably derived from methyl-branched amino acid catabolism were identified in the fruits at later post-harvest stages. In addition, physicochemical traits were determined to characterise the fruit maturity stages. PMID:24360466

Steingass, Christof B; Grauwet, Tara; Carle, Reinhold

2014-05-01

388

Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: a fast approach to the identification and determination of 2-alkyl-3- methoxypyrazine pheromones in ladybugs.  

PubMed

Static headspace sampling technique coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of volatile 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines in three different species of ladybugs of the Coccinellidae family. The species investigated were Coccinella septempunctata, Harmonia axyridis and Hippodemia convergens. 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) was identified in all three species with detectable levels of 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazines (IBMP) in only Hippodemia convergens and Harmonia axyridis species. Relative amounts of 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines based on body mass showed that Hippodemia convergens had the highest levels of all three methoxypyrazines and Coccinella septempunctata the least. PMID:15665967

Cudjoe, Erasmus; Wiederkehr, Tara B; Brindle, Ian D

2005-02-01

389

Characterization of aroma compounds in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and olfactometry (GC-O).  

PubMed

The aroma-active compounds in Chinese bayberry were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry techniques. The volatile compounds were extracted using Liquid-liquid extraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), respectively. On the basis of odor intensity, the most important aroma compounds in Chinese bayberry samples were caryophyllene, menthol, 4-terpineol, linalool oxide, linalool, benzyl alcohol, ?-methylbenzyl alcohol, ?-phenylethanol, 3-methylbutanoic acid and acetic acid, and so on. Moreover, HS-SPME technique was employed to investigate the aroma compounds among immature and mature waxberry fruits. The results showed that terpenes (for example, ?-caryophyllene) was predominant and its concentration represented over 89.9% of the overall compounds, and alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, acids, and others were typically present in lesser amounts. Finally, principal component analysis revealed that there was also significant difference between immature and mature waxberry fruits. PMID:23009608

Kang, Wenhuai; Li, Yan; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Wenguang; Tao, Yongsheng

2012-10-01

390

Identification of Major Histocompatibility Complex-Regulated Body Odorants by Statistical Analysis of a Comparative Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Gas chromatography (GC), combined with mass spectrometry (MS) detection, is a powerful analytical technique that can be used to separate, quantify, and identify volatile compounds in complex mixtures. This paper examines the application of GC-MS in a comparative experiment to identify volatiles that differ in concentration between two groups. A complex mixture might comprise several hundred or even thousands of volatile compounds. Because their number and location in a chromatogram generally are unknown, and because components overlap in populous chromatograms, the statistical problems offer significant challenges beyond traditional two-group screening procedures. We describe a statistical procedure to compare two-dimensional GC-MS profiles between groups, which entails (1) signal processing: baseline correction and peak detection in single ion chromatograms; (2) aligning chromatograms in time; (3) normalizing differences in overall signal intensities; and (4) detecting chromatographic regions that differ between groups. Compared to existing approaches, the proposed method is robust to errors made at earlier stages of analysis, such as missed peaks or slightly misaligned chromatograms. To illustrate the method, we identify differences in GC-MS chromatograms of ether-extracted urine collected from two nearly identical inbred groups of mice, to investigate the relationship between odor and genetics of the major histocompatibility complex.

Willse, Alan R.; Belcher, Ann; Preti, George; Wahl, Jon H.; Thresher, Miranda; Yang, Peter; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary

2005-04-15

391

Validation of an extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry quantification method for cocaine, methadone, and morphine in postmortem adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue is a complex biological matrix that necessitates several pre-analytical preparation steps to separate drugs and metabolites from the lipophilic matrix. A novel, sensitive, and specific gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for the determination of cocaine (metabolites), methadone, and morphine in postmortem adipose tissue was developed, optimized, and validated. The method involves the aqueous acid extraction of analytes, alkalinization of the extract, solid-phase extraction with chloroform, and derivatization with BSTFA before GC-MS analysis. Deuterated compounds were used as internal standards for determination and quantification of analytes. Limits of detection were 0.005 microg/g for cocaine and cocaethylene, 0.02 microg/g for benzoylecgonine, 0.01 microg/g for ecgoninemethylester, 0.005 microg/g for methadone, and 0.01 microg/g for morphine. Linearity ranged from 0.1 to 1.000 microg/g for all analytes. Intra- and interday accuracy ranged from 70.6 to 105%, and intra- and interday precisions were less than 8.2% and 8.6%, respectively, for all analytes. The method showed a good recovery. PMID:20663287

Colucci, A P; Aventaggiato, L; Centrone, M; Gagliano-Candela, R

2010-01-01

392

Chiral separation of new cathinone- and amphetamine-related designer drugs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using trifluoroacetyl-l-prolyl chloride as chiral derivatization reagent.  

PubMed

Since cathinone derivatives gained high popularity on the recreational drugs market within the past 5 years the development of analytical methods for the achiral and chiral determination of this substance class is of great interest. Not at least because it is obvious that the pharmacological potency differs between both enantiomers. Cathinones are structurally closely related to amphetamines, which have similar stimulating effects and are somehow better investigated. The goal of this research was to perform indirect enantioseparation of novel psychoactive cathinone and amphetamine derivatives. Trifluoroacetyl-l-prolyl chloride was served as chiral derivatization agent (CDA). Chromatographic separation was performed using a commercially available HP5-MS capillary column with a length of 30 m. Helium was used as carrier gas with a constant flow of 1.0 ml/min. Under optimum conditions 14 amphetamine derivatives were successfully resolved into their enantiomers and detected with the single quadrupol detector. Racemic methcathinone derivatives analyzed with the same method showed different peak areas for each of the produced diastereomeric isomers, even if they are structurally closely related to the amphetamines. Derivatization experiments with the single isomers of methcathinone led to both diastereomers whereas the S(-) enantiomer seemed to racemize more likely. Based on comparative experiments with R-(-)-?-methoxy-?-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetyl chloride (MTPA) as CDA, racemization due to the keto-enol-tautomerism of the cathinone derivatives seemed to be responsible for this phenomenon. Nevertheless, 18 cathinone derivatives were successfully enantioseparated and an approach of quantitative evaluation is demonstrated. PMID:23058937

Mohr, Stefan; Weiß, Jennifer A; Spreitz, Josef; Schmid, Martin G

2012-12-21

393

Determination of multiresidue pesticides in green tea by using a modified QuEChERS extraction and ion-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The pesticide residues in exported and imported tea products must not exceed the maximum residue limits (MRLs) regulated by the import countries. Tea is a complex matrix that obfuscates the determination of pesticide residues. Many available methods for multiresidue pesticide analysis of tea are time-consuming and require many cleanup steps. The objective of this study was to develop a simple multiresidue method by using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and ion-trap GC/MS/MS, which can identify, confirm, and quantify pesticides in complex matrixes. A tea product was homogenized with water, and the pesticides were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid. The extract was subjected to centrifugation, initial cleanup with dispersive SPE (dSPE), solvent exchange, and final cleanup with dSPE. Diethyl-d10-parathion and triphenyl phosphate were used as the internal standard and surrogate, respectively. The final extract was injected into an ITQ 700 gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Quantitation of individual pesticides was based on matrix-matched calibration curves with a correlation coefficient of > 0.9930 for the 22 pesticides selected for the study. The recoveries of the 22 pesticides ranged from 78 to 115%, except those for diazinon (130%) and malathion (122%), with an average RSD of 8.7%. The LOD values of all of the pesticides, except for terbufos, were below the MRLs set by the European Union and Japan. PMID:20922949

Steiniger, David; Lu, Gulping; Butler, Jessie; Phillips, Eric; Fintschenko, Yolanda

2010-01-01

394

Highly selective solid-phase extraction and large volume injection for the robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of TCA and TBA in wines.  

PubMed

A reliable solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wines has been developed. In the proposed procedure 50 mL of wine are extracted in a 1 mL cartridge filled with 50 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Most wine volatiles are washed up with 12.5 mL of a water:methanol solution (70%, v/v) containing 1% of NaHCO3. Analytes are further eluted with 0.6 mL of dichloromethane. A 40 microL aliquot of this extract is directly injected into a PTV injector operated in the solvent split mode, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The solid-phase extraction, including sample volume and rinsing and elution solvents, and the large volume GC injection have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The resulting method is precise (RSD (%) < 6% at 100 ng L(-1)), sensitive (LOD were 0.2 and 0.4 ng/L for TCA and TBA, respectively), robust (the absolute recoveries of both analytes are higher than 80% and consistent wine to wine) and friendly to the GC-MS system (the extract is clean, simple and free from non-volatiles). PMID:16130792

Insa, S; Anticó, E; Ferreira, V

2005-09-30

395

Multiresidue method for the analysis of five antifouling agents in marine and coastal waters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with large-volume injection.  

PubMed

A simple multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of five pesticides, commonly used as active ingredients in antifouling paints, in seawater samples. The pesticides studied were: chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile), dichlofluanid (N-dimethyl-N-phenylsulphamide), Sea-Nine 211 (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothazolin-3-one), Irgarol 1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert.-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine) and TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole). The analytes were extracted from 200 ml water samples, using solid-phase extraction. A copolymer with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was used as sorbent yielding good recoveries (82-95%) for most compounds except dichlofluanid and Sea-Nine 211 (<60%). Large volume injection (10 microl) gas chromatography and electron impact ionization MS (selected ion monitoring mode) detection enabled these compounds to be identified and quantified at the 1.2-3.0 ng/l level. Analysis of samples performed in three marinas in Almería (Spain) revealed the presence of Irgarol 1051 in all the cases, at concentration levels between 25 and 450 ng/l. PMID:10985557

Agüera, A; Piedra, L; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R

2000-08-11

396

Multiresidue method for determination of 90 pesticides in fresh fruits and vegetables using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A multiresidue method for analysis of 90 pesticides with different physico-chemical properties in fruits and vegetables was developed. The method involves a rapid and small-scale extraction procedure with acetone using vortex mixing. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a highly cross-linked polystyrene divinylbenzene column (LiChrolut EN) was used for clean-up and pre-concentration of the pesticides from the water-diluted acetone extracts. For most fruit and vegetable samples this partial clean-up was sufficient, but some of them with more co-extracting substances need further clean-up (cereals, spinach, carrots, etc.). Diethylaminopropyl (DEA) modified silica was used for efficient removal of interferences caused by various organic acids, sugars, etc. The pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with a mass selective detector (GC-MS). The majority of pesticide recoveries for various fruits and vegetables were >80% in the concentration range from 0.01 to 0.50 mg/kg, except for the most polar pesticides (methamidophos, acephate, omethoate) which cannot be determined by this method. The limit of quantitation for most of the pesticides was 0.01 mg/kg with majority of relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) below 10%. PMID:14570330

Stajnbaher, Darinka; Zupancic-Kralj, Lucija

2003-10-10

397

Quantitative fingerprinting by headspace--two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of solid matrices: some challenging aspects of the exhaustive assessment of food volatiles.  

PubMed

The study proposes an investigation strategy that simultaneously provides detailed profiling and quantitative fingerprinting of food volatiles, through a "comprehensive" analytical platform that includes sample preparation by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME), separation by two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC-MS) and data processing using advanced fingerprinting approaches. Experiments were carried out on roasted hazelnuts and on Gianduja pastes (sugar, vegetable oil, hazelnuts, cocoa, nonfat dried milk, vanilla flavorings) and demonstrated that the information potential of each analysis can better be exploited if suitable quantitation methods are applied. Quantitation approaches through Multiple Headspace Extraction and Standard Addition were compared in terms of performance parameters (linearity, precision, accuracy, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation) under headspace linearity conditions. The results on 19 key analytes, potent odorants, and technological markers, and more than 300 fingerprint components, were used for further processing to obtain information concerning the effect of the matrix on volatile release, and to produce an informative chemical blueprint for use in sensomics and flavoromics. The importance of quantitation approaches in headspace analysis of solid matrices of complex composition, and the advantages of MHE, are also critically discussed. PMID:24070492

Nicolotti, Luca; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo

2013-10-10

398

Screening of beta-blockers in human serum by ion-pair chromatography and their identification as methyl or acetyl derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simultaneous screening method for atenolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, alprenolol and propranolol by ion-pair chromatography with a column-switching technique was developed. The serum samples were purified using either liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction methods. The pretreatment of the samples consisted of hydrolysis and protein precipitation. The drug separation was on either octadecylsilica or polymer-based alkyl column material. Binary eluent mixtures containing methanol and a buffer solution with a quaternary ammonium salt as an ion-pair former were used. Detection of the compounds in liquid chromatographic analysis was based on ultraviolet spectra. The effects of methanol, two buffers and the ion-pair former on the retention of the compounds were studied. The determination limits ranged from nanograms to micrograms in the ion-pair chromatographic method, depending on the drug studied. Identification was based on the mass spectra or, if necessary, on selected-ion monitoring spectra of either the methylated or the acetylated compounds obtained by means of gas chromatography-electron impact or negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The detection limits for the identified compounds were in the picogram range. The matrix effect was strong, and this resulted in determination limits in the nanogram range with the scan method. PMID:8095938

Sirén, H; Saarinen, M; Hainari, S; Lukkari, P; Riekkola, M L

1993-02-19

399

Impurity profiling of a chemical weapon precursor for possible forensic signatures by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and chemometrics.  

PubMed

In this report we present the feasibility of using analytical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the chemical impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound of a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC/TOF-MS data was analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlapped GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization indicated that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into five distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported the idea that the other four DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. Finally, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were found in some of the DMMP samples. PMID:20014817

Hoggard, Jamin C; Wahl, Jon H; Synovec, Robert E; Mong, Gary M; Fraga, Carlos G

2010-01-15

400

An aniline-based fiber coating for solid phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A fiber coating from polyaniline (PANI) was electrochemically prepared and employed for solid phase microextraction (SPME) of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples. The PANI film was directly electrodeposited on the platinum wire surface in sulfuric acid solution using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The applicability of this coating was assessed employing a laboratory-made SPME device and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the extraction of some PAHs from the headspace of aqueous samples. Application of wider potential range in CV led to a PANI with more stability against the temperature. The homogeneity and the porous surface structure of the film were examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study revealed that this polymer is a suitable SPME fiber coating for extracting the selected PAHs. Important parameters influencing the extraction process were optimized and an extraction time of 40 min at 40 degrees C gave maximum peak area, when the aqueous sample was added with NaCl (20%, w/v). The synthesis of the PANI can be carried out conveniently and in a reproducible manner while it is rather inexpensive and stable against most of organic solvents. The film thickness of PANI can be precisely controlled by the number of CV cycles. The resulting thickness was roughly 20 microm after 20 cycles. At the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviation (RSD) for a double distilled water spiked with selected PAHs at ppb level were 8.80-16.8% (n = 3) and detection limits for the studied compounds were between 0.1-6 pg mL(-1). The performance of PANI was, also, compared with a commercial solid coated-based SPME fiber, carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB), under similar experimental conditions. PMID:17316658

Bagheri, Habib; Babanezhad, Esmaeil; Es-haghi, Ali

2007-06-01