Science.gov

Sample records for gas cleanup system

  1. CONOCO DOLOMITE HOT GAS CLEANUP SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report analyzes a proposal that EPA sponsor a large-scale pilot plant to develop the Conoco (formerly Consol) Dolomite Hot Gas Clean-up system. The report includes a history of the prior development program, the technology involved comparisons with competitive technologies i...

  2. Assessment of fuel-gas-cleanup systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, F.L.; Blecher, W.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the performance, economics and emission characteristics of low-, medium-, and high-temperature fuel gas cleanup processes for use in coal gasification combined-cycle power plants based on high-temperature gas turbines. Processes considered were the Allied Chemical low-temperature Selexol process, METC medium-temperature iron oxide process and Conoco high-temperature half-calcined dolomite process. Process evaluations were carried out for twenty-four combinations of gasifiers and cleanup processes. Based upon the process evaluations, five combinations of gasifiers and cleanup process were selected for integration with an advanced, 2600 F gas turbine into an overall power system. Heat and mass balances and process schematics for these plants were prepared and the cost of electricity estimated. The results of the study indicate that medium- or high-temperature cleanup systems in combined-cycle power plants could meet or exceed EPA New Source Performance Standards. Performance and cost of the systems studied can be improved by high- and intermediate-temperature cleanup systems or by integration of developmental hot gas heat exchangers with suitable commercially available low-temperature cleanup systems. Unresolved problems in the use of medium- and high-temperature cleanup are efficient regeneration of iron oxide, particulate removal at high temperature and the fate of fuel bound nitrogen and trace metals that may appear in the hot fuel gas.

  3. Enhancement of mercury control in flue-gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, Hann S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes research at Argonne National Laboratory which is focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury and integrate its control into existing flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems. Both laboratory and field tests have shown that very little elemental mercury is captured in a wet scrubber system due to the low solubility of that species. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, Argonne has studied improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into a more soluble species that can be easily absorbed. Current research is investigating the roles of several halogen species either alone or in combination with typical flue-gas components such as sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide in the oxidation of mercury to form compounds that are easily scrubbed from the flue gas.

  4. Gas stream cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Gas cleanup for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, R.M.

    1984-08-01

    Visual aids are presented describing various classes of primary gas cleanup. These are: (1) amine systems (MDEA Process); (2) alkali salt systems; (3) physical absorption systems (Selexol Process, Stretford Process); (4) mixed solvent systems; and (5) Claus Sulfur Recovery System. Flowsheets are also presented for the MDEA, Selexol and Stretford processes.

  6. Proceedings of the eight annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.P.; Longanbach, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    Research programs presented at the Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting are presented. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: To review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. To foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities. To facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 320 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 3-day meeting. Forty-three papers and 31 poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. This volume covers sessions three and four on systems for the production of synthesis gas and systems for the production of coproducts. Individual topics within each session are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Proceedings of the eight annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.P.; Longanbach, J.R.

    1988-05-01

    Forty-three papers and 31 poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs at the contractors review meeting. This volume covers sessions one and two on systems for the production of power and systems for the production of industrial fuel gas. Individual projects of those sessions are processed separately for the data bases.

  8. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report summarizes the state of the art in performance modeling of advanced high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) gas cleanup devices. Volume I contains the culmination of the research effort carried over the past 12 months and is a summary of research achievements. Volume II is the user's manual for the computer programs developed under the present research project. In this volume, Section 2 presents background information on pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion concepts, a description of the role of the advanced gas cleanup systems, and a list of advanced gas cleanup systems that are currently in development under DOE sponsorship. Section 3 describes the methodology for the software architecture that forms the basis of the well-disciplined and structured computer programs developed under the present project. Section 4 reviews the fundamental theories that are important in analyzing the cleanup performance of HTHP gas filters. Section 5 discusses the effect of alkali agents in HTHP gas cleanup. Section 6 evaluates the advanced HTHP gas cleanup models based on their mathematical integrity, availability of supporting data, and the likelihood of commercialization. As a result of the evaluation procedure detailed in Section 6, five performance models were chosen to be incorporated into the overall system simulation code, ASPEN. These five models (the electrocyclone, ceramic bag filter, moving granular bed filter, electrostatic granular bed filter, and electrostatic precipitator) are described in Section 7. The method of cost projection for these five models is discussed in Section 8. The supporting data and validation of the computer codes are presented in Section 9, and finally the conclusions and recommendations for the HTHP gas cleanup system model development are given in Section 10. 72 references, 19 figures, 25 tables.

  9. HOT GAS CLEANUP PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify and classify 22 hot gas cleanup (HGC) processes for desulfurizing reducing gases at above 430 C according to absorbent type into groups employing solid, molten salt, and molten metal absorbents. It describes each process in terms of...

  10. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  11. Proceedings of the tenth annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.P.; Beeson, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Tenth Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting was held August 28--30, 1990 at the Lakeview Resort and Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy. The purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. To foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities. To facilitate interactive dialogue which would identify novel concepts that would make coal-based gasification and hot gas cleanup systems more attractive economically and environmentally. Two hundred thirty representatives of government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the three-day meeting. Thirty papers and thirty-three poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Scientists, engineers, and administrators discussed many of the issues facing those engaged in the research and development activities that constitute these programs. This document records Volume 1 of the proceedings of that meeting, and summarizes the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  12. Proceedings of the tenth annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, V.P.; Beeson, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    The Tenth Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting was held August 28--30, 1990 at the Lakview Resort and Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy. The purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy. To foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities. To facilitate interactive dialogue which would identify novel concepts that would make coal-based gasification and hot gas cleanup systems more attractive economically and environmentally. Two hundred thirty representatives of government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the three-day meeting. Thirty papers and thirty-three poster displays were resented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Scientists, engineers, and administrators discussed many of the issues facing those engaged in the research and development activities that constitute these programs. This document records the Volume 2 of the proceedings of that meeting, and summarizes the gasification and gas stream of cleanup programs. Individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  13. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  15. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  16. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the research is to provide databases and design criteria to assist in the selection of optimum alloys for construction of components needed to contain process streams in advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems. Typical components include: steam line piping and superheater tubing for low emission boilers (600 to 700{degrees}C), heat exchanger tubing for advanced steam cycles and topping cycle systems (650 to 800{degrees}C), foil materials for recuperators, on advanced turbine systems (700 to 750{degrees}C), and tubesheets for barrier filters, liners for piping, cyclones, and blowback system tubing for hot-gas cleanup systems (850 to 1000{degrees}C). The materials being examined fall into several classes, depending on which of the advanced heat recovery concepts is of concern. These classes include martensitic steels for service to 650{degrees}C, lean stainless steels and modified 25Cr-30Ni steels for service to 700{degrees}C, modified 25Cr-20Ni steels for service to 900{degrees}C, and high Ni-Cr-Fe or Ni-Cr-Co-Fe alloys for service to 1000{degrees}C.

  17. Sorption Mechanisms for Mercury Capture in Warm Post-Gasification Gas Clean-Up Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jost Wendt; Sung Jun Lee; Paul Blowers

    2008-09-30

    The research was directed towards a sorbent injection/particle removal process where a sorbent may be injected upstream of the warm gas cleanup system to scavenge Hg and other trace metals, and removed (with the metals) within the warm gas cleanup process. The specific objectives of this project were to understand and quantify, through fundamentally based models, mechanisms of interaction between mercury vapor compounds and novel paper waste derived (kaolinite + calcium based) sorbents (currently marketed under the trade name MinPlus). The portion of the research described first is the experimental portion, in which sorbent effectiveness to scavenge metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at high temperatures (>600 C) is determined as a function of temperature, sorbent loading, gas composition, and other important parameters. Levels of Hg{sup 0} investigated were in an industrially relevant range ({approx} 25 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) although contaminants were contained in synthetic gases and not in actual flue gases. A later section of this report contains the results of the complementary computational results.

  18. Proceedings of the seventh annual coal-fueled heat engines and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, H.A.; Rekos, N.F.; Kothari, V.P.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-03-01

    The seventh Annual Coal-Fueled Heat Engines and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting was held March 26--28, 1990, at the Lakeview Resort and Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this annual meeting is to provide an opportunity for scientists and engineers working in heat engines and gas stream cleanup technologies to present their research results, exchange ideas, and discuss their future plans. About 300 attendees from industry, academia, and Government participated in this 3-day meeting. Almost 60 papers and poster presentations were given on the following topics: proof of concept, systems assessment; advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems; gas stream cleanup, two sessions; panel discussion: turbine emissions; panel discussion: diesel emissions; panel discussion: low cost fuels; and poster presentations. Individual projects were processed separately for the data bases.

  19. Emissions from biomass combustion in a fluidized bed combustor and gas cleanup system

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, B.; Lighty, J.S.; Inkley, D.; Eddings, E.; Overacker, D.; Davis, K.; Lee, C.; Sarofim, A.

    1999-07-01

    The University of Utah Department of Chemical and Fuels Engineering and Reaction Engineering International have designed and tested a fluidized bed for resource recovery in a Mars or lunar space station for feed streams consisting of inedible plant biomass and solid human waste. In conjunction with the combustor, the system has an extensive flue gas clean-up system to meet Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). This paper discusses the selection of a rich low-temperature combustion mode that minimizes the ash fusion problems with the high potassium feed and which generates sufficient unburned carbon monoxide to enable the reduction of NO. The components of the gas clean-up stream include: particle removal; HCl removal; NO{sub x} reduction; hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide destruction; sulfur capture; and a final gas polishing unit. Major developmental efforts were required to develop systems for trouble-free waste feeding and NO{sub x} reduction. The combustor is operated at temperatures below 700 C since the ash component of the hydroponically grown inedible biomass has a very low melting point. Low temperature operation results in high levels of CO and unburned hydrocarbons, which can be used as reducing agents for NO{sub x} in the downstream catalytic unit. This is more desirable than using ammonia, which is hazardous, and an expendable reagent that must be stored in sufficient quantity for the duration of a mission. The paper will discuss the results of an innovative catalyst system to reduce NO{sub x}, hydrocarbons, and CO. One important feature of this totally regenerative system is the potential reuse of potassium and sulfur captured in the ash for the hydroponic plant solution.

  20. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W.

    1996-08-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, modified alloy 800, and two sulfidation resistant alloys: HR160 and HR120. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700{degrees}C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925{degrees}C with good weldability and ductility.

  1. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W.

    1995-08-01

    Alloys for design and construction of structural components needed to contain process streams and provide internal structures in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems were examined. Emphasis was placed on high-strength, corrosion-resistant alloys for service at temperatures above 1000 {degrees}F (540{degrees}C). Data were collected that related to fabrication, joining, corrosion protection, and failure criteria. Alloys systems include modified type 310 and 20Cr-25Ni-Nb steels and sulfidation-resistance alloys HR120 and HR160. Types of testing include creep, stress-rupture, creep crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for high temperature service, a modified type 310 stainless steel was developed with a target strength of twice that for standard type 310 stainless steel.

  2. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1997-12-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, and modified alloy 800. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700 C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925 C with good weldability and ductility.

  3. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  4. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  5. Development of mercury control enhancements for flue-gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1995-08-01

    Combustion sources, including those using coal for fuel, contribute a significant fraction of total anthropogenic mercury emissions. Unfortunately, recent field studies have shown that current flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems are relatively ineffective in controlling elemental mercury, which is a major component of the mercury emissions for many systems. Research at Argonne National Laboratory has been focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury in existing FGC systems. For dry processes, these studies have included evaluation of the factors that control mercury capture by commercial activated carbons (both with and without chemical pretreatment), testing of novel proprietary sorbents under development by several firms, and investigation of sorbents based upon chemical pretreatment of low-cost mineral substrates. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, the studies have looked at the effects of improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into more soluble species that can be easily absorbed.

  6. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, H.J.; Judkins, R.R.

    1995-06-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of carboniferous materials in a gasifier consists predominantly of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and, for air-blown units, N{sub 2} in various proportions at temperatures ranging from about 400 to 1000{degree}C. Depending on the source of the fuel, smaller concentrations of H{sub 2}S, COS, and NH{sub 3} can also be present. The gas phase is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials used in the gasifier can occur. Therefore, there are numerous concerns about materials performance in coal gasification systems, particularly at the present time when demonstration-scale projects are in or nearing the construction and operation phases. This study focused on the subset of materials degradation phenomena resulting from carbon formation and carburization processes, which are related to potential operating problems in certain gasification components and subsystems. More specifically, it examined the current state of knowledge regarding carbon deposition and a carbon-related degradation phemonenon known as metal dusting as they affect the long-term operation of the gas clean-up equipment downstream of the gasifier and addressed possible means to mitigate the degradation processes. These effects would be primarily associated with the filtering and cooling of coal-derived fuel gases from the gasifier exit temperature to as low as 400{degree}C. However, some of the consideratins are sufficiently general to cover conditions relevant to other parts of gasification systems.

  7. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  8. Pilot gasification and hot gas cleanup operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.; Galloway, E.; Thomson, T.A.; Rutten, J.; Lui, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has an integrated gasification hot gas cleanup facility to develop gasification, hot particulate and desulfurization process performance data for IGCC systems. The objective of our program is to develop fluidized-bed process performance data for hot gas desulfurization and to further test promising sorbents from lab-scale screening studies at highpressure (300 psia), and temperatures (1,200{degrees}F) using coal-derived fuel gases from a fluid-bed gasifier. The 10-inch inside diameter (ID), nominal 80 lb/hr, air blown gasifier is capable of providing about 300 lb/hr of low BTU gas at 1,000{degrees}F and 425 psig to downstream cleanup devices. The system includes several particle removal stages, which provide the capability to tailor the particle loading to the cleanup section. The gas pressure is reduced to approximately 300 psia and filtered by a candle filter vessel containing up to four filter cartridges. For batch-mode desulfurization test operations, the filtered coal gas is fed to a 6-inch ID, fluid-bed reactor that is preloaded with desulfurization sorbent. Over 400 hours of gasifier operation was logged in 1993 including 384 hours of integration with the cleanup rig. System baseline studies without desulfurization sorbent and repeatability checks with zinc ferrite sorbent were conducted before testing with the then most advanced zinc titanate sorbents, ZT-002 and ZR-005. In addition to the desulfurization testing, candle filters were tested for the duration of the 384 hours of integrated operation. One filter was taken out of service after 254 hours of filtering while another was left in service. At the conclusion of testing this year it is expected that 3 candles, one each with 254, 530, and 784 hours of filtering will be available for analysis for effects of the exposure to the coal gas environment.

  9. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  10. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2.3: Sulfur Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is Subtask 2.3 of Task 2, Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates, of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 2.3 builds upon the sulfur removal information first presented in Subtask 2.1, Gas Cleanup Technologies for Biomass Gasification by adding additional information on the commercial applications, manufacturers, environmental footprint, and technical specifications for sulfur removal technologies. The data was obtained from Nexant's experience, input from GTI and other vendors, past and current facility data, and existing literature.

  11. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    Under Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Flow Industries, Inc., has developed computer models to simulate the physical performance of five hot-gas cleanup devices for pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), combined-cycle power plants. Separate cost models have also been developed to estimate the cost of each device. The work leading to the development of these models is described in Volume I of this report. This volume contains the user's manuals for both the physical and cost models. The manuals for the physical models are given first followed by those for the cost models. Each manual is a complete and separate document. The model names and devices and their respective subroutine names are: (1) Moving Granular Bed Filter by Combustion Power Company, USRCGB, QFCOST; (2) Ceramic Bag Filter by Acurex, USRACB, QDCOST; (3) Electrostatic Granular Bed Filter by General Electric, USRGGB, QACOST; (4) Electrostatic Precipitator by Research Cottrell, USRCEP, QECOST; and (5) Electrocyclone by General Electric, USRGCY, QBCOST.

  12. Design, construction, and operation of a life-cycle test system for the evaluation of flue gas cleanup processes

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Yeh, James T.; Hoffman, J.S.; Longton, E.J.; Vore, P.A.; Resnik, K.P.; Gromicko, F.N.

    1995-12-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has designed, constructed, and operated a Life-Cycle Test Systems (LCTS) that will be used primarily for the investigation of dry, regenerable sorbent flue gas cleanup processes. Sorbent continuously cycles from an absorber reactor where the pollutants are removed from the flue gas, to a regenerator reactor where the activity of the spent sorbent is restored and a usable by-product stream of gas is produced. The LCTS will initially be used to evaluate the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process by determining the effects of various process parameters on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removals. The purpose of this paper is to document the design rationale and details, the reactor/component/instrument installation, and the initial performance of the system. Although the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process will be investigated initially, the design of the LCTS evolved to make the system a multipurpose, versatile research facility. Thus, the unit can be used to investigate various other processes for pollution abatement of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates, air toxics, and/or other pollutants.

  13. Hot/Warm Gas Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Bissett, Larry A.

    2001-11-06

    Using regenerable sorbents and transport or fluid-bed contacting, the Gas Process Development Unit (GPDU) at NETL-Morgantown will be used to demonstrate the process feasibility of removing sulfur from coal gasification or other fuel gas streams at temperatures above dew point of the gas. This technology, also known as hot or warm gas desulfurization, is expected to remove sulfur to concentrations lower than conventional systems at comparable cost. The project was constructed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system program and is an ''enabling technology'' in the Vision 21 program. The GPDU was designed to be the smallest scale research and development facility capable of providing viable scale-up design data for new integrated transport or fluid-bed desulfurization processes. With the capability to test at process conditions representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, major compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling, the unit is expected to generate important information on process control, configuration, and sorbent suitability. In this way, the GPDU fills a strategic role between past/current small-scale testing and large-scale demonstrations. A primary objective of the project is to gain insight into which reactor combination (i.e., both transport, both fluid bed, or mixed) is more suitable for desulfurization technology and why. Assuming process feasibility is demonstrated, this guides future development or commercial ventures by answering the question of what to build, and provides performance and scale-up data (e.g., required transport reactor densities). Another important objective, which naturally derives from the process development activities, is demonstration of sorbent suitability and readiness for commercial deployment (e.g., sorbent attrition and cycle life). In this sense, the GPDU can serve as a final testing ground to reduce the risks of

  14. High-temperature gas stream cleanup test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ontko, J.; Chiang, T.

    1995-12-01

    The high-temperature gas stream cleanup facility at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center will provide a versatile platform for testing novel hot gas cleanup filtration concepts. The facility will be available for joint ventures with CRADA partners.

  15. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup demonstration program status

    SciTech Connect

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, Westinghouse Electric has been conducting research and development of a hot gas cleaning system compatible with a pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier and the operation of a gas turbine. The hot gas cleanup system must be capable of filtering out the flyash particulates at gasifier operating conditions, dealing with the feedstock`s inherent tars and oils, and removing excessive levels of alkali. The Westinghouse led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research began work in April 1993 on this 30 month program. Status of the program is: hot gas cleanup (HGCU) requirements and system evaluation have been completed; the hot gas cleanup filter system has been designed, fabricated and installed in the 10 ton-per-day process development unit (PDU) at IGT in Chicago, IL; a tar cracker has been designed, fabricated and installed in the PDU; the testing plan has been developed; PDU modifications have been completed along with complete facility shakedown; and testing of the cleanup system is in process. This paper discusses the status of each of the major program elements described above.

  16. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Potius, D.; Snyder, T.

    1997-07-01

    The characteristics of entrained particles generated by advanced coal conversion technologies and the harsh flue gas environments from which these particles must be removed challenge current ceramic barrier filtration systems. Measurements have shown that the size distribution, morphology, and chemical composition of particles generated by pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification processes differ significantly from the corresponding characteristics of conventional pulverized-coal ash particles. The entrained particulate matter from these advanced conversion technologies often comprise fine size distributions, irregular particle morphologies, high specific surface areas, and significant proportions of added sorbent material. These characteristics can create high ash cohesivity and high pressure losses through the filter cakes. In addition, the distributions of chemical constituents among the collected particles provide local, highly concentrated chemical species that promote reactions between adjacent particles that ultimately cause strong, nodular deposits to form in the filter vessel. These deposits can lead directly to bridging and filter element failure. This project is designed to address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic filter elements. The activities conducted under Task 1, Assessment of Ash Characteristics, are discussed in this paper. Activities conducted under Task 2, Testing and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters, are discussed in a separate paper included in the proceedings of the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference. The specific objectives of Task I include the generation of a data base of the key characteristics of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and the identification of relationships between HGCU ash properties and the operation and

  17. General Electric hot gas cleanup and regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Gal, E.; Furman, A.H.; Ayala, R.

    1993-06-01

    GE Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) and its major subcontractors GE Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) and GE Power Generation (GEPG) have completed significant further pilot plant scale test operation of an integrated fixed bed gasification, hot gas cleanup and gas turbine simulation facility located at GE-CRD in Schenectady, NY. Progress during the past year has included first desulfurization and regeneration testing with zinc titanate, significant regeneration hardware and process modifications, continued test exposure of a full scale gas turbine fuel control valve, first long term integrated operation of the MS6000 based gas turbine simulator and off-line operation of a subscale, staged combustor system designed to minimize NO{sub x} production from fuel bound nitrogen. Long Duration Tests 3, 3AR1, 3AR2 and 3A were conducted with zinc titanate sorbent and demonstrated the continued ability of the absorber to reduce inlet H{sub 2}S levels of 3500 ppmv to less than 30 ppmv provided properly regenerated sorbent was returned to the absorber. Tests 3AR1 and 3AR2 were limited duration, off line regeneration tests, utilizing residual sulfided material from Test 3, to evaluate continuing regeneration hardware, instrumentation and process modification. Test 3A was a fully integrated 100 hour test incorporating final regenerator modifications and resulted in first fully controlled regeneration. Anthracite coal was utilized for Test 3A as a means of partial elimination of halogens in the fuel gas prior to inclusion of a specific halogen removal process step envisioned for Long Duration Test 4. Further test operation will revert to use of Illinois bituminous coal with up to 3.4 percent sulfur and 0.1 to 0.28 percent chloride content in order to fully evaluate high sulfur regeneration operation as well as halogen removal.

  18. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  19. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-05

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  20. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-30

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  1. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-05

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97{reg_sign}. Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  2. Reactive carbon from life support wastes for incinerator flue gas cleanup-System Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark J.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Xu, X.H.; Shi, Yao; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2002-05-14

    This paper presents the results from a joint research initiative between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab. The objective of the research is to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and chemically reduce the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} contained in incinerator flue gas. Inedible biomass waste from food production is the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Results to date show adsorption of both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in activated carbon made from biomass. Conversion of adsorbed NO{sub x} to nitrogen has also been observed.

  3. Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

    1983-08-26

    A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

  4. Design and test of an exhaust gas clean-up system for power plants using high sulphur content fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.N.

    1980-10-10

    This experimental program, initially designated to study an exhaust gas cleanup and water recovery system for a Cheng Cycle Dual-Fluid (CCDF) turbine power plant using sulfur rich fuels, has shown the potential of a general Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system applicable to utility and industrial boilers as well. The process was studied both theoretically and experimentaly. Experiments were performed using a bench scale (25k equivalent) apparatus and a pilot scale (1Mw equivalent) apparatus. Data obtained indicated the IPT process potentially can out-perform the conventional FGD process with significant cost savings.

  5. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  6. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  7. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the thirteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task I research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of additional ash samples from Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) facilities to the HGCU data base. Task I plans for the next quarter include characterization of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Further work on the HGCU data base is also planned. Task 2 work during the past quarter included creep testing of a Coors P- I OOA- I specimen machined from Candle FC- 007 after 1166 hours in-service at the Karhula Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility. Samples are currently in preparation for microstructural evaluations of Coors P-IOOA-I.Sixteen cordierite rings manufactured by Specific Surfaces were received for testing. Three of the specimens were exposed to the PFBC environment at the PSDF. These specimens are currently being machined for testing.

  8. Gas stream cleanup papers from DOE/METC sponsored contractors review meetings in 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bedick, R.C.; Kothari, V.P.

    1988-10-01

    This document contains gas stream cleanup papers that were presented at two contractors review meetings sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy in 1988. The two meetings were (1) the Eighth Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting held May 10-12, 1988, and (2) the Annual Coal Fuel Heat Engines and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting held June 14-16, 1988. The purpose of the meetings was to present recent technical information on selected projects in the gasification, heat engines, and gas stream cleanup programs. The meetings provided a forum for the exchange and dissemination of gasification, heat engine, and gas stream cleanup research results generated under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy. The gas stream cleanup program was discussed in combination with the gasification and heat engines programs to emphasize the importance of approaching research on gas stream cleanup concepts from a system perspective. Gas stream cleanup is an integral part of all coal conversion technologies. Individual papers are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  10. Pilot scale experience on IGCC hot gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Salo, K.; Ghazanfari, R.; Feher, G.

    1995-11-01

    In September 1993 Enviropower Inc. entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Department of Energy in order to develop and demonstrate the major components of an IGCC process such as hot gas cleanup systems. The objectives of the project are to develop and demonstrate: (1) hydrogen sulfide removal using regenerable metal oxide sorbent in pressurized fluidized bed reactors, (2) recovery of elemental sulfur from the tail-gas of the sorbent regenerator, and (3) hot gas particulate removal using ceramic candle filters.

  11. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

  12. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-08-31

    This is the fifteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data bank of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on May 18 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) and a particulate sample collected in the Westinghouse filter at Sierra Pacific Power Company's Piñon Pine Power Project. Analysis of this Piñon Pine sample is ongoing: however, this report contains the results of analyses completed to date. Significant accomplishments were achieved on the HGCU data bank during this reporting quarter. The data bank was prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems 98 Conference scheduled for July, 1998. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of testing two Dupont PRD-66C candle filters, one McDermott ceramic composite candle filter, one Blasch 4-270 candle filter, and one Specific Surface cordierite candle filter. Tensile and thermal expansion testing is complete and the rest of the testing is in progress. Also, some 20-inch long Dupont

  13. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dorchak, T.P.; Pontiu, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    The nature of the collected ash has been identified as an issue creating barriers to the commercialization of advanced particle control technologies. Since most of the emphasis and extended operation of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) facilities have been with ceramic candle filters, problems with ash characteristics can be understood in terms of their effects on these control devices. This project is designed to identify the ways ash characteristics affect advanced particle control technologies, to construct and maintain a data base of HGCU ashes and their measured characteristics, and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these facilities. The key characteristics of the collected ash are the morphology of the overall ash aggregate (porosity, geometry of the pores, specific surface area, etc.), and the cohesivity of the aggregate. Our data base currently comprises 242 ash samples from 12 combustion and gasification (HGCU) sources.

  14. Hot gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells. A zinc oxide reactor model, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1980-09-16

    Utilization of coal gasifiers to power MCFC requires a cleanup system to remove sulfur and particulates. Of the two near term options available for desulfurization of gasifier effluent, namely low temperature cleanup utilizing absorber/stripper technology, and hot gas cleanup utilizing metal oxides, there is a clear advantage to using hot gas cleanup. Since the MCFC will operate at 1200/sup 0/F, and the gasifier effluent could be between 1200 to 1900/sup 0/F, a hot gas cleanup system will require little or no change in process gas temperature, thereby contributing to a high overall system efficiency. A hot gas cleanup system will consist of FeO for bulk H/sub 2/S removal and ZnO for reduction of H/sub 2/S to sub ppM levels. Hot gas cleanup systems at present are not available commercially, and therefore it is the objective of this project to model the components of the system in order to help bring this technology closer to commercialization, by providing simulated operating characteristics to aid in system design, and system simulations of gasifier/MCFC systems. The modeling of the ZnO reactor is presented.

  15. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, R.E.; Griswold, G.H.; Fankhanel, M.O.; Kastner, C.E.; Pontium, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    Efficiencies in advanced power generation systems such as integrated gasification combined cycle, pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification fuel cells can be maximized by feeding hot fuel gas or flue gas to the power block. However, advanced gas turbines have strict particulate requirements to minimize wear on the blades due to the close tolerances used to maximize the efficiency of the turbomachinery. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells also have strict particulate requirements to prevent blinding of the electrodes. Therefore, one of the main barriers to developing these advanced power generation systems is the removal of particulates in a hot gas stream. Although the development of several high temperature/pressure PCD systems has been ongoing for the past several years, long term operation under realistic conditions for advanced power generation has been limited. The demonstration of reliable operation is critical to the commercialization of PCD technology for advanced power generation. The conceptual design of the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Project was expanded to include additional modules to better address the scope of the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE/METC. The expanded test facility, referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility, will provide a flexible test location in which the development of advanced power system components, the evaluation of advanced turbine and fuel cell configurations, and the integration and control issues of these systems. The facility is intended to provide direct support for upcoming DOE demonstrations of power generation technologies utilizing hot stream cleanup and will provide a resource for rigorous testing and performance assessment of hot stream cleanup devices now being developed with the support of DOE/METC.

  16. METC integrated bench scale gasification and hot gas cleanup studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.; Kanosky, J.P.; Rutten, J.

    1992-11-01

    The cleanup test section consists of a closely coupled modular gas cleanup rig (MGCR) which was acquired from The Institute of Gas Technology. The MGCR receives coal-derived gas at 425 psig and 1,000{degrees}F from the METC Fluid-Bed Gasifier. The gas pressure is reduced to approximately 300 psia, reheated to 1,200{degrees}F, and filtered by a candle filter vessel containing up to four filter cartridges. For batch-mode test operations, the filtered coal gas is fed into a 6-inch ID, fluid-bed reactor that is preloaded with desulfurization sorbent. Batch-mode sulfidation tests demonstrated that the prospects for developing an effective fluid-bed hot-gas desulfurization system are promising, since H{sub 2}S removal of greater than 99 percent was consistently shown with sorbent utilization up to 25 percent. Conversely, the regeneration conducted in the batch mode MGCR was not useful because the regeneration occurs too quickly, and thus process concerns cannot be suitably evaluated in the batch fluid-bed mode reactor. Pursuant to batch mode tests, the gas cleanup system is being modified to incorporate a reactor in parallel with the batch reactor so that solids can be fed into and withdrawn from the reactor without impacting batch mode operation in the meantime. The new reactor setup which allows for through-flow of solid sorbent during operation is also being designed to operate using smaller (70--150 micron) particles in addition to the larger (200--300 micron) particles used in prior tests.

  17. METC integrated bench scale gasification and hot gas cleanup studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.; Kanosky, J.P. ); Rutten, J. )

    1992-01-01

    The cleanup test section consists of a closely coupled modular gas cleanup rig (MGCR) which was acquired from The Institute of Gas Technology. The MGCR receives coal-derived gas at 425 psig and 1,000[degrees]F from the METC Fluid-Bed Gasifier. The gas pressure is reduced to approximately 300 psia, reheated to 1,200[degrees]F, and filtered by a candle filter vessel containing up to four filter cartridges. For batch-mode test operations, the filtered coal gas is fed into a 6-inch ID, fluid-bed reactor that is preloaded with desulfurization sorbent. Batch-mode sulfidation tests demonstrated that the prospects for developing an effective fluid-bed hot-gas desulfurization system are promising, since H[sub 2]S removal of greater than 99 percent was consistently shown with sorbent utilization up to 25 percent. Conversely, the regeneration conducted in the batch mode MGCR was not useful because the regeneration occurs too quickly, and thus process concerns cannot be suitably evaluated in the batch fluid-bed mode reactor. Pursuant to batch mode tests, the gas cleanup system is being modified to incorporate a reactor in parallel with the batch reactor so that solids can be fed into and withdrawn from the reactor without impacting batch mode operation in the meantime. The new reactor setup which allows for through-flow of solid sorbent during operation is also being designed to operate using smaller (70--150 micron) particles in addition to the larger (200--300 micron) particles used in prior tests.

  18. Activated carbon passes tests for acid-gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J.

    1996-06-24

    Use of activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid-gas feed to Claus sulfur-recovery units has been successfully pilot tested in Saudi Arabia. Pilot plant results are discussed here along with issues involved in scale-up to commercial size. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}+s from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated by use of low-pressure steam. A post-regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. The paper discusses feed contaminants, vapor-phase cleanup, testing design, test parameters and results, bed drying after regeneration, regeneration conditions, basic flow, system control, and full-scale installation.

  19. [PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Four hundred and fifty four clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filters were purchased for installation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) plant in Brilliant, Ohio. A surveillance effort has been identified which will monitor candle filter performance and life during hot gas cleaning in AEP's pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. A description of the candle surveillance program, strategy for candle filter location selection, as well as candle filter post-test characterization is provided in this memo. The period of effort for candle filter surveillance monitoring is planned through March 1994.

  20. Natural gas cleanup by means of membranes.

    PubMed

    Ohlrogge, Klaus; Brinkmann, Torsten

    2003-03-01

    This paper deals with the use of membranes for hydrocarbon dewpointing and dehydration of natural gas. Based on experience gained from membrane applications in separating organic vapors from off-gas and process streams, as well as the dehydration of compressed air, membranes have been developed and tested for use in high pressure applications. Membranes and membrane modules have been modified to withstand the high operating pressure. Calculation programs were developed to understand the separation performance and to provide the necessary information for optimizing membrane design. A real challenge was the introduction of the vacuum mode dehydration operation in order to achieve the highest possible dewpoint reduction with minimum methane loss. PMID:12783826

  1. Biomass Gas Cleanup Using a Therminator

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, David C; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Rabhubir

    2012-03-06

    The objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate a novel fluidized-bed process module called a Therminator to simultaneously destroy and/or remove tar, NH3 and H2S from raw syngas produced by a fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. The raw syngas contains as much as 10 g/m3 of tar, 4,000 ppmv of NH3 and 100 ppmv of H2S. The goal of the Therminator module would be to use promising regenerable catalysts developed for removing tar, ammonia, and H2S down to low levels (around 10 ppm). Tars are cracked to a non-condensable gas and coke that would deposit on the acid catalyst. We will deposit coke, much like a fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) in a petroleum refinery. The deposited coke fouls the catalyst, much like FCC, but the coke would be burned off in the regenerator and the regenerated catalyst would be returned to the cracker. The rapid circulation between the cracker and regenerator would ensure the availability of the required amount of regenerated catalyst to accomplish our goal. Also, by removing sulfur down to less than 10 ppmv, NH3 decomposition would also be possible in the cracker at 600-700°C. In the cracker, tar decomposes and lays down coke on the acid sites of the catalyst, NH3 is decomposed using a small amount of metal (e.g., nickel or iron) catalyst incorporated into the catalyst matrix, and H2S is removed by a small amount of a metal oxide (e.g. zinc oxide or zinc titanate) by the H2S-metal oxide reaction to form metal sulfide. After a tolerable decline in activity for these reactions, the catalyst particles (and additives) are transported to the regenerator where they are exposed to air to remove the coke and to regenerate the metal sulfide back to metal oxide. Sulfate formation is avoided by running the regeneration with slightly sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen. Following regeneration, the catalyst is transported back to the cracker and the cycling continues. Analogous to an FCC reactor system, rapid cycling will allow the use of very

  2. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, J.B. III

    1995-06-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts of a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and NOXSO Corporation under the terms of Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The project would demonstrate the NOXSO flue gas treatment technology, which is designed to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from existing coal-fired electric generating units. Its objective is to introduce advanced, efficient, reliable, and environmentally improved coal utilization technologies to the U.S. energy marketplace, in order to reduce or eliminate economic and environmental barriers to the continued use of coal as an energy source. This EA represents the third level of DOE`s NEPA strategy: the preparation and public distribution of NEPA documents for each project selected for financial assistance under the PON. It contains a site-specific environmental impact analysis of the proposed federal action, and will result in either a Finding of No Significant Impact, or a determination that significant impacts may occur, in which case an Environmental Impact Statement must be prepared. The sources of information for this EA include the technical proposal for the project submitted by NOXSO in response to the CCT Round III PON; discussions with NOXSO and their consultants; discussions with federal, state and local agencies; the April 1995 NOXSO Environmental Information Volume provided to DOE for the project; and visits to the proposed project sites.

  3. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Seventh Quarter of the First Budget Period, April 1 through June 30, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion will include the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. Combustion Gas Turbine; Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment; and Externally Fired Gas Turbine/Water Augmented Gas Turbine. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  4. CRADA opportunities with METC`s gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, E.N.; Rockey, J.M.; Tucker, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    Opportunities exist for Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to support commercialization of IGCC power systems. METC operates an integrated gasifier and hot gas cleanup facility for the development of gasification and hot gas cleanup technologies. The objective of our program is to gather performance data on gasifier operation, particulate removal, desulfurization and regeneration technologies. Additionally, slip streams are provided for developing various technologies such as; alkali monitoring, particulate measuring, chloride removal, and contaminate recovery processes. METC`s 10-inch diameter air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG) provides 300 lb/hr of coal gas at 1100{degrees}F and 425 psig. The particulate laden gas is transported to METC`s Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR). The gas pressure is reduced to 285 psig before being fed into a candle filter vessel. The candle filter vessel houses four candle filters and multiple test coupons. The particulate free gas is then desulfurized in a sorbent reactor. Starting in 1996 the MGCR system will be able to regenerate the sorbent in the same vessel.

  5. The effect of water spray upon incineration flue gas clean-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haigang; Li, Bin; Liu, Shi; Pan, Zhonggang; Yan, Guizhang

    2000-06-01

    The existence of liquid water was found very important in incineration flue gas clean-up systems for enhancing the absorption of acid components contained. In a newly developed incineration flue gas clean-up tower, which works in a semi-dry mode, the water is injected in the form of spray to maximum its contact surface with the gas. The criteria for the design of the water nozzles would be high water concentration but no liquid impinging on the solid wall and complete evaporation inside the tower. In order to optimize the atomizer design, the effects of the spray type (hollow or solid cone), their initial droplet size distribution and water flow rate on the performance of the acid gas absorption were investigated. The liquid behaviour was studied with a fluid dynamic simulation code, and the overall performance was checked experimentally. This paper presents the use of a commercial CFD code, FLUENT, and some modifications made during such investigation. The modification includes the viscosity of the flue gas defined as a function of the temperature, and the initial mass fraction of different droplet size group described with an exponential distribution formula of Rosin-Rammler. The investigation results (the optimal spray parameters) were used to guide the water nozzle design. The general performance of the flue gas clean-up system measured during the plant operation complied with the design criteria.

  6. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  7. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; Combustion Gas Turbine; and Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility.

  8. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; and Combustion Gas Turbine. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  9. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  10. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the first quarter, April 1 through June 30, 1995. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasificafion and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel continued at a good pace during the quarter.

  11. Architecture synthesis basis for the Hanford Cleanup system: First issue

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes a set of candidate alternatives proposed to accomplish the Hanford Cleanup system functions defined in a previous work. Development of alternatives is part of a sequence of system engineering activities which lead to definition of all the products which, when completed, accomplish the cleanup mission. The alternative set is developed to functional level four or higher depending on need.

  12. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion project. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during this quarter.

  13. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 14, June 1, 1994--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project (NDP), with cost-shared funding support from DOE, is to design, construct, and operate a commercial-scale flue gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO process. The NDP consists of the NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit, designed to remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas and produce elemental sulfur by-product, and the liquid SO{sub 2} plant and air separation unit, designed to process the elemental sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit will be constructed at ALCOA Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana, and will treat all of the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The elemental sulfur produced will be shipped to the Olin Charleston Plant in Charleston, Tennessee, for conversion into liquid SO{sub 2}.

  14. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for multi-contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center (W-STC) is developing an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept for high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards, as well as to provide economical gas turbine life. The ILEC concept can simultaneously control particulate, sulfur, alkali, and other contaminants in high-pressure fuel gases, or combustion gases, at temperatures up to about 1700{degrees}F in advanced, coal-fired, power generation systems. The objective of this program is to demonstrate, at a bench scale, the conceptual, technical feasibility of the ILEC concept for multi-contaminant control, and to provide test data applicable to the design of subsequent field tests.

  15. [Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion]. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Second Quarter of the Second Budget Period, October 1 through December 31, 1993, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scaleup of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: (1) Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; (2) hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; (3) combustion gas turbine; (4) fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  16. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

    2003-09-01

    The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high

  17. Fluidized-Bed Reactor and Hot Gas Cleanup Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rockey, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    As part of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC) Advanced Gasification and Hot Gas Cleanup Facility, a 907 kg (1 ton) coal-per-day (10-inch inside diameter) jetting fluidized-bed gasifier provides realistic fuel gas for testing and developing high-temperature, high-pressure components and processes in a reducing (gasification) and oxidizing (combustion) environment. Operated mainly as a gasifier, the 0.25-m (10-inch) diameter reactor produces up to 227 kg/hr (500 lb/hr) of coal gas at 866 K (1,100{degrees}F) and 30 atmospheres (425 psig) for downstream testing. The raw coal gas is sampled for major and trace species and sent to a filter vessel capable of operating at 894 K (1,150{degrees}F) and 20 atmospheres (290 psig) of pressure. After particulate removal, the gas can be independently controlled to up to five sampling or reaction vessels including fluid-bed desulfurization, transport desulfurization, chloride, alkali, or other contaminant removal or recovery processes. The fluid-bed desulfurizer is capable of being isolated, purged, and exposed to an oxidizing environment for sorbent regeneration or other oxidation reaction. Isokinetic hazardous air pollutant (HAPS) monitoring is provided at the upstream and downstream of particulate removal. Over the post three years, 1,200 hours of operation have been completed in support of six separate Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs). These research agreements have been in the areas of candle filters and materials testing, direct sulfur recovery from sorbent regeneration tail gases, and gasifier development.

  18. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  19. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion Project. Quarterly report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived as streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed Include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning, techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing, Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1 . Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating, Fluidized Bed Gas Source; 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; 3. Combustion Gas Turbine; 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during, this reporting period was continuing, the detailed design of the FW portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is complete and the construction of steel for the coal preparation structure is complete.

  20. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  1. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2013-10-01

    The use of copper oxide on a support had been envisioned as a gas cleanup technique to remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation. In general, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup techniques that use a sorbent can have various advantages, such as simultaneous removal of pollutants, production of a salable by-product, and low costs when compared to commercially available wet scrubbing technology. Due to the temperature of reaction, the placement of the process into an advanced power system could actually increase the thermal efficiency of the plant. The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is capable of simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and nitric oxides within the reactor system. In this regenerable sorbent technique, the use of the copper oxide sorbent was originally in a fluidized bed, but the more recent effort developed the use of the sorbent in a moving-bed reactor design. A pilot facility or life-cycle test system was constructed so that an integrated testing of the sorbent over absorption/regeneration cycles could be conducted. A parametric study of the total process was then performed where all process steps, including absorption and regeneration, were continuously operated and experimentally evaluated. The parametric effects, including absorption temperature, sorbent and gas residence times, inlet SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} concentration, and flyash loadings, on removal efficiencies and overall operational performance were determined. Although some of the research results have not been previously published because of previous collaborative restrictions, a summary of these past findings is presented in this communication. Additionally, the potential use of the process for criteria pollutant removal in oxy-firing of fossil fuel for carbon sequestration purposes is discussed.

  2. Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup system for direct coal fueled turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1993-07-01

    The United States Department of.Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of coal-fired turbine technology in the areas of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles, and Direct Coal-Fired Turbines. A major technical challenge remaining for the development of coal-fired turbine systems is high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards for sulfur oxides and particulate emissions, as well as to provide acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center, is evaluating an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept that has been configured to meet this technical challenge. This ceramic barrier filter, ILEC concept simultaneously controls sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in high-pressure fuel gases or combustion gases, and is considering cleaning temperatures up to 2100{degrees}F. This document describes Phase II of the program, the design, construction, and shakedown of a bench-scale facility to test and confirm the feasibility of this ILEC technology.

  3. Kinetics of combined SO/sub 2//NO in flue gas clean-up

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.

    1985-03-01

    The kinetics of reactions involving SO/sub 2/, NO, and ferrous chelate additives in wet flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification scrubbers are discussed. The relative importance of these reactions are assessed. The relevance of these reactions to spray dryer processes for combined SO/sub 2//NO flue gas clean-up is addressed. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  4. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K. ); Silveston, P.L. )

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. In the previous three quarters, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental setup, work plan, and test plan. The experimental system was completed for SO{sub 2} conversion at Waterloo and for NO{sub x} conversion at RTI. Shakedown experiments were completed. In the present quarter, the NO{sub x} removal performance of two additional modified carbon catalysts (MCCII and MCCIII) was studied. MCCII showed NO{sub x} removal efficiency which was similar to that observed for MCCI. However, MCCI was considerably less active for NO{sub x} removal. SO{sub 2} removal experiments with NO present in the feed gas were performed with MCCI. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was consistently about 98% over each of 10 cycles and was very similar to that observed earlier with no NO present in the feed. Finally, a preliminary economic evaluation of the process was performed and a project review meeting was held. The economic evaluation showed that the Rn-Waterloo process was competitive with SCR/IFGD and other combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, removal processes.

  5. Mercury-binding membranes for flue gas clean-up

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Franklin O. Kroh; Thane Morgan

    2001-07-31

    All Phase I objectives were met. In the Phase I program, TPL developed a material, T- 450, capable of removing elemental mercury from air. It was found to have high porosity, good mechanical strength, good affinity for aqueous ionic mercury, and good stability to hot acidic gas. The material, used as a granular solid, was tested for adsorption of mercury in two protocols, one involving static room-temperature air and one using flowing hot air. In each case, it was superior to activated carbon. The following results were obtained: 1. Sol-gel methods were found to be applicable for synthesis of silicates containing oxidized thiol (disulfide) groups. 2. Synthetic parameters were determined for silicates with a variety of physical properties and performances. 3. Measurement of physical properties indicate high porosity strength, and stability to conditions found in flue gases. 4. The Hg° adsorption of T-450 was superior to that of activated carbon; static testing indicated a 2.4-fold increase in mercury adsorption, while a flow system mimicking hot flue gas indicated a 3.6-fold increase in Hg adsorption. 5. Economic analysis indicated that T-450 is a strong candidate for scale-up and commercial development. For the cost of removing Hg from flue gas, a savings of 23.5% is estimated, relative to use of activated carbon.

  6. Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task D topical report summary analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Vidt, E.J.

    1982-06-08

    In previous tasks, ten coal gas system configurations were chosen for fuel supply to MCFC power plants. In this report, we have ranked configurations by efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effects. The ranking shows that, for MCFC power plants, air-blown, low-Btu, fluidized-bed or entrained-bed gasification systems with hot gas cleanup have cost, operability, efficiency, and environmental advantages over other systems. The cost of electricity, for example, from a hot-gas cleanup, low-Btu, fluidized-bed fuel supply system is 12 percent less than from a medium-Btu system with hot cleanup, and is about 20 percent less than a medium-Btu system with conventional wet, low-temperature cleanup. Additional development of hot cleanup systems is required. Hot halogen removal costs used in this report need to have experimental verification, as does the effectiveness of ZnO for removing H/sub 2/S/COS to below 1 ppM at 650/sup 0/C. Also, the availability of a more effective hot bulk desulfurization system, such as the zinc ferrite system now under development by DOE/METC, would have additional benefits in cost and efficiency for MCFC power plants.

  7. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will generate only marketable by-products. Our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water-soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI as well as polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. The final novelty of our approach is the arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices, as indicated by our preliminary laboratory data. This arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. Because we have separate scrubbers, we will have separate liquor loops and simplify the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

  8. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Sixth Quarter of the First Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. The major emphasis during this reporting period was expanding the test facility to address system integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced power generation systems. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include additional modules for the expansion of the test facility, which is referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSOF). A letter agreement was negotiated between Southern Company Services (SCS) and Foster Wheeler (FW) for the conceptual design of the Advanced Pressurized Fluid-Bed Combustion (APFBC)/Topping Combustor/Gas Turbine System to be added to the facility. The expanded conceptual design also included modifications to the existing conceptual design for the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility (HGCTF), facility layout and balance of plant design for the PSOF. Southern Research Institute (SRI) began investigating the sampling requirements for the expanded facility and assisted SCS in contacting Particulate Control Device (PCD) vendors for additional information. SCS also contacted the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and two molten carbonate fuel cell vendors for input on the fuel cell module for the PSDF.

  9. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  10. Task 3.10 - Gas Separation and Hot-Gas Cleanup: Topical report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.L.

    1997-12-31

    Catalytic gasification of coal to produce H{sub 2}-, CO-, and CH{sub 4}-rich mixtures of gases for consumption in molten carbonate fuel cells is currently under development; however, to optimize the fuel cell performance and extend its operating life, it is desired to separate as much of the inert components (i.e., CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) and impurities (i e., H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}) as possible from the fuel gas before it enters the fuel cell. In addition, the economics of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) can be improved by separating as much of the hydrogen as possible from the fuel, since hydrogen is a high-value product. Researchers at the Energy {ampersand} Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Bend Research, Inc., investigated pressure-driven membranes as a method for accomplishing this gas separation and hot- gas cleanup. These membranes are operated at temperatures as high as 800{degrees}C and at pressures up to 300 psig. They have very small pore sizes that separate the undesirable gases by operating in the Knudsen diffusion region of mass transport (30-50 A) or in the molecular sieving region of mass transport phenomena (less than 5A). In addition, H{sub 2} separation through a palladium metal membrane proceeds via a solution- diffusion mechanism for atomic hydrogen. This allows the membranes to exhibit extremely high selectivity for hydrogen separation.

  11. Task 6.5 - Gas Separation and Hot-Gas Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Michael L.; Ness Jr., Robert O.; Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Donald P.

    1997-06-01

    Catalytic gasification of coal to produce H{sub 2}- and CH{sub 4}-rich gases for consumption in molten carbonate fuel cells is currently under development; however, to optimize the fuel cell performance and extend its operating life, it is desired to separate as much of the inerts (i.e., CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) and impurities (i.e., H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}) as possible from the fuel gas before they enter the fuel cell. In addition, the economics of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) can be improved by separating as much of the hydrogen as possible from the fuel, since hydrogen is a high-value product. One process currently under development by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) for accomplishing this gas separation and hot-gas cleanup involves gas separation membranes. These membranes are operated at temperatures as high as 800 C and pressures up to 300 psig. Some of these membranes can have very small pores (30-50 {angstrom}), which inefficiently separate the undesired gases by operating in the Knudsen diffusion region of mass transport. Other membranes with smaller pore sizes (<5 {angstrom}) operate in the molecular sieving region of mass transport phenomena, Dissolution of atomic hydrogen into thin metallic membranes made of platinum and palladium alloys is also being developed. Technological and economic issues that must be resolved before gas separation membranes are commercially viable include improved gas separation efficiency, membrane optimization, sealing of membranes in pressure vessels, high burst strength of the ceramic material, pore thermal stability, and material chemical stability. Hydrogen separation is dependent on the temperature, pressure, pressure ratio across the membrane, and ratio of permeate flow to total flow. For gas separation under Knudsen diffusion, increasing feed pressure and pressure ratio across the membrane should increase gas permeability; decreasing the temperature and the permeate-to-total flow

  12. NANOMATERIAL SOLUTIONS FOR HOT COAL GAS CLEANUP - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a new coal gasification technique that efficiently uses the hot (900-1500°C) generated syngas to power both steam and gas turbines. Due to regulations, this syngas must be free of sulfur and purification is normally carried ...

  13. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed-bed of activated carbon catalyst. The project is being carried over 14 months (June 4, 1991 to July 31, 1992). The experimental work is divided between Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). RTI will conduct the NO{sub x} removal studies, whereas Waterloo will conduct the SO{sub 2} removal studies. The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate that the process can reduce the cost of electricity by 20% over conventional SCR/flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. In the present quarter, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental set-up, work plan and test plan. The experimental equipment is being constructed and is nearly complete with shakedown experiments scheduled to begin on or about November 1, 1991. Also, a paper was prepared and presented for the Seventh Annual Contractor's Conference. The first set of experiments will be completed in the next quarter. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Granular flow in Dorfan Impingo filter for gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiau, S.S.; Smid, J.; Tsai, H.H.; Kuo, J.T.; Chou, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    Inside a two-dimensional model of the louvered Drofan Impingo panel with transparent front and rear walls, the velocity fields of filter granules without gas cross flow were observed. The PE beads with diameter of 6 mm were used as filter granules. The filter bed was filled with beads continuously and circulated until the granular flows inside the panel reached the steady state condition. In the moving granular bed, there is a central fast flowing core of filter granules surrounded by large quasi-stagnant zones located close to the louver walls. The existence of quasi-stagnant zones may result in the dust plugging problems. The velocity fields of filter granules are plotted for three different louver geometries.

  15. Engineering a new material for hot gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Doraiswamy, L.K.; Constant, K.

    2000-03-01

    The engineering development of a promising sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas was initiated and preliminary results are presented. The sorbent is calcium-based and is designed to be regenerated and reused repeatedly. It is prepared by pelletizing powdered limestone in a rotating drum pelletizer followed by the application of a coating which becomes a strong, porous shell upon further treatment. The resulting spherical pellets combine the high reactivity of lime with the strength of an inert protective shell. Preliminary work indicates that a satisfactory shell material is comprised of a mixture of ultrafine alumina powder, somewhat coarser alumina particles, and pulverized limestone which upon heating to 1,373 K (1,100 C) becomes a coherent solid through the mechanism of particle sintering. Several batches of core-in-shell pellets were prepared and tested with encouraging results.

  16. Development of ceramic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.L.; Way, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The more difficult part of developing a membrane reactor was making a membrane with suitable permselectivity. Since both the ammonia and H[sub 2]S decomposition reactions produce H[sub 2], we want a membrane that selectively permeates hydrogen. We have taken the approach of coating a substrate that has fine pores (a microfilter or ultrafilter) with a completely dense layer and then (except for palladium coatings) malting super fine pores in the dense layer by leaching or pyrolysis. We used four different substrates (Norton 0.2 alumina monolith, Refractron alumina microfilters, Vycor glass, Alcoa ultrafilter) and five different coating materials (Poly N-methyl silazane, Aremco 617 alumina-based glaze, Polycyclohydridomethyl silazane, Aluminum phosphorus oxides, palladium). Only the palladium films on an alumina ultrafilter could be made regularly with a negligible defect population. The other approaches were plagued with cracks and poor reproducibility. We made palladium films on a tubular alumina ultrafilter (US Filter, Warrendale, PA) by electroless plating from a platinum amine complex solution in hydrazine (Rhoda, 1959). The best results were achieved with an ultrafilter pore size of 100 angstroms and with pretreatment of the surface in a stannic/stannous chloride solution. The films were about 5 microns thick and appeared defect free under electron microscopy. Because defect-free palladium films are infinitely selective to hydrogen with respect to the other components of gasifier product gas, we expect that the selectivity of our palladium films will exceed 1000 even with the inevitable defects that accompany real membranes. We have analyzed the performance and economics of membrane reactors for H[sub 2]S and NH[sub 3] decomposition using the reaction rates determined experimentally in our catalyst development work and using the permeation behavior of palladium films reported in the literature.

  17. Development of ceramic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.L.; Way, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    The more difficult part of developing a membrane reactor was making a membrane with suitable permselectivity. Since both the ammonia and H{sub 2}S decomposition reactions produce H{sub 2}, we want a membrane that selectively permeates hydrogen. We have taken the approach of coating a substrate that has fine pores (a microfilter or ultrafilter) with a completely dense layer and then (except for palladium coatings) malting super fine pores in the dense layer by leaching or pyrolysis. We used four different substrates (Norton 0.2 alumina monolith, Refractron alumina microfilters, Vycor glass, Alcoa ultrafilter) and five different coating materials (Poly N-methyl silazane, Aremco 617 alumina-based glaze, Polycyclohydridomethyl silazane, Aluminum phosphorus oxides, palladium). Only the palladium films on an alumina ultrafilter could be made regularly with a negligible defect population. The other approaches were plagued with cracks and poor reproducibility. We made palladium films on a tubular alumina ultrafilter (US Filter, Warrendale, PA) by electroless plating from a platinum amine complex solution in hydrazine (Rhoda, 1959). The best results were achieved with an ultrafilter pore size of 100 angstroms and with pretreatment of the surface in a stannic/stannous chloride solution. The films were about 5 microns thick and appeared defect free under electron microscopy. Because defect-free palladium films are infinitely selective to hydrogen with respect to the other components of gasifier product gas, we expect that the selectivity of our palladium films will exceed 1000 even with the inevitable defects that accompany real membranes. We have analyzed the performance and economics of membrane reactors for H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} decomposition using the reaction rates determined experimentally in our catalyst development work and using the permeation behavior of palladium films reported in the literature.

  18. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K. Constant

    2001-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is the engineering development of a reusable calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. A two-step pelletization method has been employed to produce relatively strong, ''core-in-shell,'' spherical pellets. Each pellet consists of a highly reactive core surrounded by a strong, inert, porous shell. A suitable core is composed largely of CaO which reacts with H{sub 2}S to form CaS. Pellet cores have been prepared by pelletizing either pulverized limestone or plaster of Paris, and shells have been made of various materials. The most suitable shell material has been formed from a mixture of alumina and limestone particles. The core-in-shell pellets require treatment at high temperature to convert the core material to CaO and to partially sinter the shell material. Pellet cores derived from plaster of Paris have proved superior to those derived from limestone because they react more rapidly with H{sub 2}S and their reactivity does not seem to decline with repeated loading and regeneration. The rate of reaction of H{sub 2}S with CaO derived from either material is directly proportional to H{sub 2}S concentration. The rate of reaction does not appear to be affected significantly by temperature in the range of 1113 K (840 C) to 1193 K (920 C) but decreases markedly at 1233 K (960 C). The rate is not affected by shell thickness within the range tested, which also provides adequate compressive strength.

  19. Evaluation of advanced separation techniques for application to flue gas cleanup processes for the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Drummond, C.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    Thirteen advanced separation techniques were reviewed in detail for application to flue gas cleanup processes. Of these, the three most promising for application to systems for simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gas are solvent extraction, electrodialysis, and inverse thermal phase separation. Gas separation membranes would also be promising if a membrane could be developed that would be selective for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/. Specific utility or industrial systems incorporating some of these processes are suggested. Preliminary estimates of annual revenue requirements for three gas-separation-membrane flue gas cleanup systems and an electrodialysis system are compared with an estimate for a limestone system with selective catalytic reduction. In addition, fourteen wet simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ flue gas cleanup processes that have progressed beyond bench scale were reviewed for possible modification to incorporate advanced separation techniques. It appeared that in processes where modifications were possible, either such modification would result in marginal improvement, or the process would no longer be recognizable.

  20. Evaluation of advanced separation techniques for application to flue gas cleanup processes for the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Drummond, C.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    Thirteen advanced separation techniques were reviewed in detail for application to flue gas cleanup processes. Of these, the three most promising for application to systems for simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gas are solvent extraction, electrodialysis, and inverse thermal phase separation. Gas separation membranes would also be promising if a membrane could be developed that would be selective for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/. Specific utility or industrial systems incorporating some of these processes are suggested. Preliminary estimates of annual revenue requirements for three gas-separation-membrane flue gas cleanup systems and an electrodialysis system are compared with an estimate for a limestone system with selective catalytic reduction. In addition, fourteen wet simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ flue gas cleanup processes that have progressed beyond bench scale were reviewed for possible modification to incorporate advanced separation techniques. It appeared that in processes where modifications were possible, either such modification would result in marginal improvement, or the process would no longer be recognizable. 147 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  2. Production of activated char from Illinois coal for flue gas cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Activated chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue gas cleanup applications. High-activity chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial activated carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the active sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-activity, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue gas. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 activation was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue gas; mercury levels were below detectable limits.

  3. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  4. Development of a Tritium Cleanup System for a Large Helical Device Using Nonvolatile Getter Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Takao; Sakuma, Yoichi; Kabutomori, Toshiki; Shibuya, Mamoru

    2000-01-15

    A tritium cleanup system has been conceptually developed for the large helical device (LHD) at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The system is a processing device employed to remove tritium from exhaust gas. In the exhaust gas discharged from the LHD in normal operation, the major part of tritium constituents should be in a form of hydrogen molecules because the fuel used in plasma experiments with the LHD is hydrogen molecules. From this viewpoint, we have designed a tritium cleanup system, which is characterized by tritium being removed and stored in a form of hydrogen molecules with less impurities, like oxygen and carbon, and its decomposition and the separation processes are introduced to convert various tritiated compounds into a form of hydrogen molecules of high purity. Besides these, there is another aspect in that getter materials are applied in both decomposition of tritiated compounds and storage of hydrogen molecules containing tritium.The system design is composed of three essential component parts: a hydrogen separator, a hydrogen absorbing vessel, and a decomposition process vessel. The hydrogen separator and the decomposition process vessel make a process loop repeat to remove hydrogen into a form of hydrogen molecules with less impurities. It is important that 'less impurities' means having a less bad influence on hydrogen-absorbing materials used in the storage vessel.We think that the hydrogen separator will be manufactured by employing a palladium hydrogen purifier system, which is available in the marketplace, and the hydrogen storage vessel will also be manufactured by using hydrogen-absorbing alloys like titanium. Thus, the serious problem imposed on us is how to realize the decomposition process vessel. To develop the decomposition process vessel, we thought nonvolatile getter materials were promising and carried out performance tests of methane decomposition by the nonvolatile getter materials, where methane was used because it is

  5. Fuel cleanup system for the tritium systems test assembly: design and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, E.C.; Bartlit, J.R.; Sherman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A major subsystem of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly is the Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) whose functons are to: (1) remove impurities in the form of argon and tritiated methane, water, and ammonia from the reactor exhaust stream and (2) recover tritium for reuse from the tritiated impurities. To do this, a hybrid cleanup system has been designed which utilizes and will test concurrently two differing technologies - one based on disposable, hot metal (U and Ti) getter beds and a second based on regenerable cryogenic asdorption beds followed by catalytic oxidation of impurities to DTO and stackable gases and freezout of the resultant DTO to recover essentially all tritium for reuse.

  6. Engineering analyses for evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task C

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, J.R.; Vidt, E.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report satisfies the Task C requirement for DOE contract DE-AC21-81MC16220 to provide engineering analyses of power systems utilizing coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The process information and data necessary for this study were extracted from sources in the public domain, including reports from DOE, EPRI, and EPA; work sponsored in whole or in part by Federal agencies; and from trade journals, MCFC developers, and manufacturers. The computer model used by Westinghouse, designated AHEAD, is proprietary and so is not provided in this report. The engineering analyses provide relative power system efficiency data for ten gasifier/gas cleanup fuel supply systems, including air- and oxygen-blown gasification, hot and cold desulfurization, and a range of MCFC operating pressure from 345 kPaa (50 psia) to 2069 kPaa (300 psia).

  7. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Comparisons were made between laboratory analyses of these PSDF ashes and field data obtained from facility operation. In addition, selected laboratory techniques were reviewed to assess their reproducibility and the influence of non-ideal effects and differences between laboratory and filter conditions on the quantities measured. Further work on the HGCU data base is planned for the next quarter. Two Dupont PRD-66 candle filters, one McDermott candle filter, one Blasch candle filter, and one Specific Surfaces candle filter were received at SRI for testing. A test plan and cutting plan for these candles was developed. Acquisition of two of the Dupont PRD-66 candle filters will allow candle-to-candle variability to be examined.

  8. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Frederic; CIZEL, Jean-Pierre

    2013-07-01

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  9. Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup system for multi-contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1993-09-01

    An existing, natural gas-fired, bench-scale, high-pressure, high-temperature test facility, previously operated by W-STC for the development of ceramic barrier filters at simulated PFBC conditions using reinjected PFBC fly ashes, was modified to study ILEC performance under simulated PFBC conditions using simultaneously natural gas and coal firing. The system was also upgraded to operate at temperatures up to about 1800{degree}F. The objective of the bench-scale simulation is to produce a gas having pressure, temperature, gas composition (SO{sub 2}, alkali content, and particulate content), and fly ash particulate characteristics similar to actual coal-fired PFBC, or other coal combustors. Temperatures ranging from 1300{degree}F to about 1750{degree}F will be considered. The test facility will be operated to produce a gas volumetric flow of about 80 acfm, at 100 psig pressure, and will fire coal being from 5 to 40 % of the total energy input, the remainder being natural gas.

  10. Method of and apparatus for preheating pressurized fluidized bed combustor and clean-up subsystem of a gas turbine power plant

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Rossa W.; Zoll, August H.

    1982-01-01

    In a gas turbine power plant having a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, gas turbine-air compressor subsystem and a gas clean-up subsystem interconnected for fluid flow therethrough, a pipe communicating the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine-air compressor subsystem with the interior of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor and the gas clean-up subsystem to provide for flow of compressed air, heated by the heat of compression, therethrough. The pressurized fluidized bed combustor and gas clean-up subsystem are vented to atmosphere so that the heated compressed air flows therethrough and loses heat to the interior of those components before passing to the atmosphere.

  11. Fate of a few selected trace elements in pressurized fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Mojtahedi, W.; Salo, K.

    1996-12-31

    Increasingly more stringent environmental regulations have focused attention on the emissions of the so-called air toxics toxic trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se). In this paper, the results of an experimental program designed to measure the emissions of a few selected trace elements from a 15 MW{sub th} pressurized fluidized bed gasification pilot plant are reported and discussed. The pilot plant is equipped with an advanced hot gas cleanup train which includes a two fluidized-bed reactor system for high-temperature, high-pressure external sulfur removal and a filtration unit housing porous, rigid ceramic candle filters. The trace element concentrations in the fuel, bottom ash, and filter ash are determined and the results compared with EPA regulatory levels.

  12. Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

  13. 2020 Vision for Tank Waste Cleanup (One System Integration) - 12506

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The Cleanup of Hanford's 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored in 177 large underground tanks represents the Department's largest and most complex environmental remediation project. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored in the underground tanks grouped into 18 'tank farms' on Hanford's central plateau. Hanford's mission to safely remove, treat and dispose of this waste includes the construction of a first-of-its-kind Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), ongoing retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and building or upgrading the waste feed delivery infrastructure that will deliver the waste to and support operations of the WTP beginning in 2019. Our discussion of the 2020 Vision for Hanford tank waste cleanup will address the significant progress made to date and ongoing activities to manage the operations of the tank farms and WTP as a single system capable of retrieving, delivering, treating and disposing Hanford's tank waste. The initiation of hot operations and subsequent full operations of the WTP are not only dependent upon the successful

  14. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to elemental sulfur and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1 generates 115 MW of electricity and 275,000 scfm of flue gas while burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. This phase was included in the project to allow completion of process studies and preliminary activities which could be conducted in parallel with NOXSO`s pilot plant project being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Toronto Power Plant.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A CALCIUM-BASED SORBENT FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K. Constant

    1999-10-01

    The development and testing of potential calcium-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup continued. One of the most promising materials combines powdered limestone and a calcium aluminate cement by two step pelletization followed by steam curing. Reasonably strong pellets are produced with good adsorption characteristics by incorporating 20 wt.% cement in the core and 40 wt.% cement in the shell. The resulting 4.76 mm diameter pellets are capable of withstanding a crushing force approaching 11.5 N/mm before breaking and are also capable of removing H{sub 2}S from dilute, hot gas streams. The pellets are also regenerable and reusable. Another promising material combines calcium carbonate powder and finely ground calcined alumina in tablet form. The small tablets are prepared by mixing the materials with water to form a thick paste which is then molded and dried. The tablets are hardened by calcining at either 1000 to 1100 C. The resulting tablets are strong and capable of removing H{sub 2}S from a dilute, hot gas stream.

  16. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Yang, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science Technology Center (W-STC) is developing an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept for high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards, as well as to economical gas turbine life. The ILEC concept simultaneously controls sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in high-pressure fuel gases or combustion gases at temperatures up to 1850[degrees]F for advanced power generation systems (PFBC, APFBC, IGCC, DCF7). The objective of this program is to demonstrate, at a bench scale, the conceptual, technical feasibility of the REC concept. The ELEC development program has a 3 phase structure: Phase 1 - laboratory-scale testing; phase 2 - bench-scale equipment; design and fabrication; and phase 3 - bench-scale testing. Phase 1 laboratory testing has been completed. In Phase 1, entrained sulfur and alkali sorbent kinetics were measured and evaluated, and commercial-scale performance was projected. Related cold flow model testing has shown that gas-particle contacting within the ceramic barrier filter vessel will provide a good reactor environment. The Phase 1 test results and the commercial evaluation conducted in the Phase 1 program support the bench-scale facility testing to be performed in Phase 3. Phase 2 is nearing completion with the design and assembly of a modified, bench-scale test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the ILEC features. This feasibility testing will be conducted in Phase 3.

  17. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for direct coal-fueled turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Yang, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center (W-STC) is developing an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept for high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards, as well as to economical gas turbine life. The ILEC concept simultaneously controls sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in high-pressure fuel gases or combustion gases at temperatures up to 1850{degrees}F for advanced power generation systems (PFBC, APFBC, IGCC, DCF7). The objective of this program is to demonstrate, at a bench scale, the conceptual, technical feasibility of the REC concept. The ELEC development program has a 3 phase structure: Phase 1 - laboratory-scale testing; phase 2 - bench-scale equipment; design and fabrication; and phase 3 - bench-scale testing. Phase 1 laboratory testing has been completed. In Phase 1, entrained sulfur and alkali sorbent kinetics were measured and evaluated, and commercial-scale performance was projected. Related cold flow model testing has shown that gas-particle contacting within the ceramic barrier filter vessel will provide a good reactor environment. The Phase 1 test results and the commercial evaluation conducted in the Phase 1 program support the bench-scale facility testing to be performed in Phase 3. Phase 2 is nearing completion with the design and assembly of a modified, bench-scale test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the ILEC features. This feasibility testing will be conducted in Phase 3.

  18. Developments in flue gas cleanup research at the Federal Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.S.; O`Dowd, W.J.; Warzinski, R.P.; Yeh, J.T.; Scierka, S.J.; Granite, E.J.

    1997-12-31

    A major research effort in the cleanup of flue gas, which is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, is being conducted by the in-house research program at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Novel technologies being developed can abate sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), hazardous air pollutants (also referred to as air toxics), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas. Laws within the US mandate the control of some of these pollutants and the initial characterization of others, while potential new regulations impact the status of others. Techniques that can control one or more of the targeted pollutants in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner are of prime interest. Past efforts have included low-temperature dry scrubbing SO{sub 2} removal techniques that typically use a calcium or sodium-based disposable sorbent either in a spray drying mode or in a duct injection mode of operation; novel techniques for enhancing sorbent utilization in conventional wet or dry scrubbing processes; and control of emissions produced from small-scale combustors (residential or commercial-size) that burn coal or coal/sorbent briquettes. Recent research at FETC has focused on investigations of air toxics produced by burning various coals, with a particular emphasis on the speciation of mercury and the control of the various mercury species; dry, regenerable sorbent processes that use a metal oxide sorbent to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR)-type NO{sub x} control; and the utilization and sequestering of CO{sub 2} removed from flue gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. The research projects range from laboratory-scale work to testing with the combustion products of coal at a scale equivalent to about 0.75 megawatt of electric power generation. An overview and status of the in-house flue gas cleanup projects at FETC are reported.

  19. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, June 1--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product (elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, or liquid SO{sub 2}) and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought.

  20. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. Progress report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-12-31

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  1. Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vidt, E.J.; Jablonski, G.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1981-12-01

    This interim report satisfies the Task B requirement to define process configurations for systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The configurations studied include entrained, fluidized-bed, gravitating-bed, and molten salt gasifiers, both air and oxygen blown. Desulfurization systems utilizing wet scrubbing processes, such as Selexol and Rectisol II, and dry sorbents, such as iron oxide and dolomite, were chosen for evaluation. Cleanup systems not chosen by DOE's MCFC contractors, General Electric and United Technologies, Inc., for their MCFC power plant work by virtue of the resource requirements of those systems for commercial development were chosen for detailed study in Tasks C and D of this contract. Such systems include Westinghouse fluidized-bed gasification, air and oxygen blown, Rockwell molten carbonate air-blown gasification, METC iron oxide desulfurization, and dolomitic desulfurization. In addition, for comparison, gasification systems such as the Texaco entrained and the British Gas/Lurgi slagging units, along with wet scrubbing by Rectisol II, have also been chosen for detailed study.

  2. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. Preliminary engineering activities involved evaluating various design options for the major process vessels with the principal focus being on the sorbent heater vessel, which is operated at the highest temperature. Additionally, the impact of the NOXSO system on power plant particulate emissions and opacity was estimated. It is predicted that particulate emissions will decrease slightly while opacity will increase slightly. Neither change will be significant enough to have an impact on emissions compliance. Advertised performance of the proposed adsorber separator is being verified by laboratory testing. Process studies activities included POC equipment inspection and materials evaluations.

  3. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues: Quarterly report, July 1-September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1996-12-09

    This is the eighth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic barrier filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, additional analyses were performed on ashes from the Ahlstrom 10 MWt Pressurized Fluidized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility located at Karhula, Finland. Work continued on the HGCU data base being constructed in Microsoft Access. A variety of information has been entered into the data base, including numerical values, short or long text entries, and photographs. Detailed design of a bench top device for high temperature measurement of ash permeability has also begun. In addition to these activities, a paper was prepared and a poster was presented summarizing recent work performed under this contract at the 1996 DOE/METC Contractor`s Conference. A presentation was also given corresponding to the manuscript entitled Particle Characteristics and High-Temperature Filtration that was prepared for publication in the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference held this September in Pittsburgh, PA. Arrangements have been made to be present at the DOE/METC Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR) at the conclusion of the next run of the DOE/METC air blown Fluid Bed Gasifier (FBG). This visit will include on-site sampling to collect and characterize the filter cakes collected during FGB operation. Task 2 efforts during the past quarter focused on

  4. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. The plant general arrangement has been revised to incorporate principles used in the design of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) plants. A NOXSO plant availability analysis was prepared using operating experience from the recently completed pilot plant as a basis. The impact of water desorption in the sorbent heater and water adsorption in the sorbent cooler has been quantified and incorporated into the NOXSO process simulator. NOXSO process economics has been updated based on the present design. Capital cost for a 500 MW plant designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 85% of the NO{sub x} is estimated at $247/kW.

  5. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. Preliminary engineering studies provided information to decide on the basic plant arrangement. A scaled up POC design was selected as the general arrangement of choice based on a cost versus technical risk assessment. The first step in developing an adsorber computer simulation was completed. Several processes for producing liquid SO{sub 2} from the regenerator offgas were developed and evaluated. It was concluded that the Claus and burn process which involves making elemental sulfur as an intermediate product was the best choice. The NOXSO process computer simulation was updated to include semi-plug solids flow through the fluidized beds of the sorbent heater and cooler. Heat loss calculations were also added.

  6. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission. First issue, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This addendum provides the technical detail of a systems engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The functional analysis consists of Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams an definitions, which will be understood by systems engineers, but which may be difficult for others to comprehend. For a more complete explanation of this work, refer to the parent document. The analysis covers the total Hanford cleanup mission including the decomposition levels at which the various Hanford programs or integrated activities are encountered.

  7. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by- product (elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, or liquid SO{sub 2}) and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. The objective of the NOXSO Clean Coal Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} from the flue gas from the 150-MW equivalent, unit 2 boiler. The by-product to be generated by the project is liquid SO{sub 2}. Sufficient construction cost and operating data will be obtained during the project to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is in the Front End Engineering/Environmental Evaluation Phase. Engineering activities are approximately 20% complete and activities to update the project estimate based on completed engineering and equipment bids have been initiated. Process study activities include laboratory fluid-bed adsorber studies, regenerator computer model development and studies, fluid-flow modelling in fluid-bed vessels, and evaluations of SO{sub 2} production processes. The laboratory- scale, fluid-bed adsorber studies are being conducted to improve the accuracy of the removal efficiency predictions and study the impact of adding a third adsorber stage. The construction of the steel, multi-stage reactor is currently underway. The regenerator computer model was revised and is being used to study design options for improving the regenerator performance. Fluid-flow modelling has been conducted to study the effect of grid supports on the gas flow inside the fluid bed vessels.

  8. COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME I. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an integrated fluidized-bed coal gasification reactor and acid gas removal system. The gasifier operates at 100 psig at up to 2000 F, and has a coal feed capacity of 50 lb/hr. The gas cleaning system contains a cyclone, a venturi scrubber, and an absorber/fla...

  9. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This is the seventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed for this project. Our analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic barrier filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, we received and analyzed a hopper ash sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota`s Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). We also received six ash samples from the Ahlstrom 10 MWt Pressurized Fluidized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility located at Karhula, Finland. We selected one of the filter cake ashes from this batch of samples for detailed analyses. We continued our work on the HGCU data base we are constructing in Microsoft Access{reg_sign}. We have been entering a variety of information into the data base, including numerical values, short or long text entries, and photographs. Task 2 efforts during the past quarter focused on hoop tensile testing of Schumacher FT20 and Refractron candle filter elements removed from the Karhula APF after {approximately}540 hours of service.

  10. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. Progress report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1992-08-27

    Progress includes studies of the adsorption and desorption of SO{sub 2} on alumina and impregnated alumina. This report describes the adsorption and desorption characteristics of sulfur dioxide in contact with a high purity {gamma}-alumina and initial results of our efforts to prepare samples of the {gamma}-alumina decorated with magnesium acetylacetonate dehydrate [Mg(acac){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O]. The NOXSO regenerable flue gas cleanup catalyst uses a {gamma}-alumina which has been doped with sodium through an aqueous impregnation with sodium carbonate and subsequent calcination. We are investigating other metals as promoters for the adsorption Of S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} on alumina. We have characterized the aluminas with regard to impurities present and crystallinity and have set up a controlled environment infrared spectroscopic cell and thermal gravimetric apparatus. These issues have been covered in previous reports. In this report, we report our adsorption/desorption studies of S0{sub 2} on pure alumina. As part of our investigation of the modification of alumina surfaces for the selective adsorption Of S0{sub 2,} we are investigating the use of non-aqueous impregnation techniques for the preparation of well-dispersed monolayers of promoters on alumina surfaces.

  11. Emerging flue-gas cleanup technologies for combined control of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Markussen, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    Enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, as well as passage of legislation at the state level has raised the prospect of more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission regulations and has fueled research and development efforts on a number technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  12. Hot gas cleanup and gas turbine aspects of an advanced PFBC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A. ); Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E. . Science and Technology Center)

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the second-generation PFBC development program is to advance this concept to a commercial status. Three major objectives of the current Phase 2 program activities are to: Separately test key components of the second-generation PFBC power plant at sub-scale to ascertain their performance characteristics, Revise the commercial plant performance and economic predictions where necessary, Prepare for a 1.6 MWe equivalent Phase 3 integrated subsystem test of the key components. The key components of the plant, with respect to development risk, are the carbonizer, the circulating PFBC unit, the ceramic barrier filter, and the topping combustor. This paper reports on the development and testing of one key component -- the ceramic barrier filter for the carbonizer fuel gas. The objective of the Phase 2 carbonizer ceramic barrier filter testing has been to confirm filter performance and operability in the carbonizer fuel gas environment.

  13. Remedial action assessment system: Decision support for environmental cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    A large number of hazardous waste sites across the United States await treatment. Waste sites can be physically complex entities composed of multiple, possibly interacting contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The sites may be active as well with contaminants escaping through one or more potential escape paths. Treatment of these sites requires a long and costly commitment involving the coordination of activities among several waste treatment professionals. In order to reduce the cost and time required for the specification of treatment at these waste sites. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) was proposed. RAAS is an automated information management system which utilizes a combination of expert reasoning and numerical models to produce the combinations of treatment technologies, known as treatment trains, which satisfy the treatment objectives of a particular site. In addition, RAAS supports the analysis of these trains with regard to effectiveness and cost so that the viable treatment trains can be measured against each other. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system designed and constructed using object-oriented tools and techniques. RAAS is advertised as a hybrid system because it combines, in integral fashion, numerical computing (primarily quantitative models) with expert system reasoning. An object-oriented approach was selected due to many of its inherent advantages, among these the naturalness of modeling physical objects and processes.

  14. Systems engineering product description report for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First issue

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.; Bailey, K.B.; Collings, J.L.; Hubbard, A.B.; Niepke, T.M.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes the upper level physical and administrative (nonphysical) products that, when delivered, complete the Hanford Cleanup Mission. Development of product descriptions is a continuation of the Sitewide Systems Engineering work described in the Sitewide functional analysis, the architecture synthesis, and is consistent with guidance contained in the mission plan. This document provides a bridge between all three documents and the products required to complete the mission of cleaning up the Hanford Site.

  15. Nano-based systems for oil spills control and cleanup.

    PubMed

    Avila, Antonio F; Munhoz, Viviane C; de Oliveira, Aline M; Santos, Mayara C G; Lacerda, Glenda R B S; Gonçalves, Camila P

    2014-05-15

    This paper reports the development of superhydrophobic nanocomposite systems which are also oleophilic. As hydrophobicity is based on low energy surface and surface roughness, the electrospinning technique was selected as the manufacturing technique. N,N' dimethylformamide (DMF) was employed as the polystyrene (PS) solvent. The "Tea-bag" (T-B) nanocomposite system is based on exfoliated graphite surrounded by PS superhydrophobic membranes. The T-B systems were tested regarding its adsorption and absorption rates. To test these properties, it was employed three different water/oil emulsions, i.e., new and used motor oil, which have physical properties (viscosity and specific gravity) similar to heavy crude oil extracted in Brazil, and vacuum pump oil (which does not form oil/water emulsion). It was observed that oil adsorption rate is dependent on oil surface tension, while the absorption rate is mainly dependent on membrane/exfoliated graphite surface area. Experimental data show that oil absorption rates ranged between 2.5g/g and 40g/g, while the adsorption rate oscillated from 0.32g/g/min to 0.80g/g/min. Furthermore, T-B systems were tested as containment barriers and sorbent materials with good results including its recyclability. PMID:24667439

  16. Tritium test of cryogenic molecular sieve bed for He GDC gas cleanup by 60 SLM test loop

    SciTech Connect

    Enoeda, Mikio; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Okuno, Kenji

    1996-12-31

    This work presents demonstrative test results of CMSB by simulated helium glow discharge exhaust gas condition in 60 l/min of flow rate. This work focused on H{sub 2} and HT adsorption and regeneration performance of CMSB and optimum regeneration procedure, so that the operation cycle time becomes smaller. Test results showed consistency with bench-scale experiments. Obtained engineering data are applicable for the design of the CMSB process for ITER He GDC gas cleanup. As the results of this work, it was demonstrated that CMSB process could clean up 54.3 SLM of He stream with H{sub 2}(400) ppm+HT(0.5 ppm). Regeneration performance in various total pressure were obtained and evaluated by the calculation and clarified necessary information for determining the optimum regeneration procedure of CMSB which allow continuous operation in the shorter period of operation cycle (adsorption and regeneration). 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Development and Implementation of the Waste Management Information System to Support Hanford's River Corridor Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, L. M.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a Waste Information Management System (WMIS) to support the waste designation, transportation, and disposal processes used by Washington Closure Hanford, LLC to support cleanup of the Columbia River Corridor. This waste, primarily consisting of remediated burial sites and building demolition debris, is disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), which is located in the center of the Hanford Site (an approximately 1460 square kilometers site). WMIS uses a combination of bar-code scanning, hand-held computers, and strategic employment of a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag system to track each waste shipment from waste generation to disposal. (authors)

  18. Facilitated transport ceramic membranes for high-temperature gas cleanup. Final report, February 1990--April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, R.; Minford, E.; Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.; Hart, B.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of developing high temperature, high pressure, facilitated transport ceramic membranes to control gaseous contaminants in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. Meeting this objective requires that the contaminant gas H{sub 2}S be removed from an IGCC gas mixture without a substantial loss of the other gaseous components, specifically H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. As described above this requires consideration of other, nonconventional types of membranes. The solution evaluated in this program involved the use of facilitated transport membranes consisting of molten mixtures of alkali and alkaline earth carbonate salts immobilized in a microporous ceramic support. To accomplish this objective, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Golden Technologies Company Inc., and Research Triangle Institute worked together to develop and test high temperature facilitated membranes for the removal of H{sub 2}S from IGCC gas mixtures. Three basic experimental activities were pursued: (1) evaluation of the H{sub 2}S chemistry of a variety of alkali and alkaline earth carbonate salt mixtures; (2) development of microporous ceramic materials which were chemically and physically compatible with molten carbonate salt mixtures under IGCC conditions and which could function as a host to support a molten carbonate mixture and; (3) fabrication of molten carbonate/ceramic immobilized liquid membranes and evaluation of these membranes under conditions approximating those found in the intended application. Results of these activities are presented.

  19. Development of Metallic Filters for Hot Gas Cleanup in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Gleeson, B.; Terpstra, R.L.

    2002-09-19

    Alternative alloys derived from the wide array of aerospace superalloys will be developed for hot gas filtration to improve on both ceramic filters and ''first-generation'' iron aluminide metallic filter materials. New high performance metallic filters should offer the benefits of non-brittle mechanical behavior at all temperatures, including ambient temperature, and improved resistance to thermal fatigue compared to ceramic filter elements, thus improving filter reliability. A new powder processing approach also will be established that results in lightweight metallic filters with high permeability and weldability for enhanced capability for filter system manufacturing.

  20. Systems engineering product breakdown structure for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First issue

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.; Bailey, K.B.; Collings, J.L.; Hubbard, A.B.; Niepke, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    This document provides the product breakdown structure (PBS) for the upper level physical products that, when delivered, complete the Hanford Site Cleanup Mission. Development of the PBS is a continuation of the sitewide systems engineering work described in the sitewide functional analysis, the architecture synthesis, and the product description report and is generally consistent with guidance contained in the Hanford Mission Plan. The PBS presents the interrelationship of products produced by the functions that are necessary to perform the clean up mission from their initial source through interim products to final product disposition.

  1. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Final report, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Tagg, T.; Riggs, T.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this work by SRI International was to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency, hollow fiber contactors (HFCs) were proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system would be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process would generate only marketable by-products, if any (no waste streams are anticipated). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, the approach was to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency, hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The authors also introduced new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The process and progress in its development are described.

  2. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  3. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  4. Flow regions of granules in Dorfan Impingo filter for gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, J.T.; Smid, J.; Hsiau, S.S.; Tsai, S.S.; Chou, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    Inside a two-dimensional model of the louvered Dorfan Impingo panel with transparent front and rear walls the flow region of filter granules without gas cross flow were observed. The white PE beads were used as filter granules. Colored PE beads served as tracers. Filter granules were discharged and circulated to the bed. The flow rate of filter medium was controlled by the belt conveyor. The image processing system including a Frame Grabber and JVC videocamera was used to record the granular flow. Every image of motion was digitized and stored in a file. The flow patterns and the quasi-stagnant zones history in the moving granular bed were evaluated. The experiment showed fast central moving region (flowing core) of filter granules and quasi-stagnant zones close to louver walls.

  5. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschlich, D.; Bhown, A.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumik, D.

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent S0{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO(x) and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize stationary well-known problems with S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. For example, we will extract the S0{sub 2} from the aqueous scrubbing liquor into an oligomer of dimethylaniline to avoid the problem of organic liquid losses in the regeneration of the organic liquid. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and also of polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO(x) scrubbing media described in the open literature. Our past work with the phthalocyanine compounds, used as sensors for NO and N0{sub 2} in flue gases, shows that these compounds bind NO and N0{sub 2} reversibly and with no interference from 0{sub 2}, C0{sub 2}, S0{sub 2}, or other components of flue gas.

  6. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for coal fueled turbines Phase III bench-scale testing and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1995-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of coal-fired turbine technologies such as Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), coal Gasification Combined Cycles (GCC), and Direct Coal-Fired Turbines (DCFT). A major technical development challenge remaining for coal-fired turbine systems is high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental emissions standards, as well as to ensure acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center, has evaluated an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept that has been configured to meet this technical challenge. This ceramic hot gas filter (HGF), ILEC concept controls particulate emissions, while simultaneously contributing to the control of sulfur and alkali vapor contaminants in high-temperature, high-pressure, fuel gases or combustion gases. This document reports on the results of Phase III of the ILEC evaluation program, the final phase of the program. In Phase III, a bench-scale ILEC facility has been tested to (1) confirm the feasibility of the ILEC concept, and (2) to resolve some major filter cake behavior issues identified in PFBC, HGF applications.

  7. Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

    2010-09-30

    One of the key obstacles for the introduction of commercial gasification technology for the production of power with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants or the production of value added chemicals, transportation fuels, and hydrogen has been the cost of these systems. This situation is particularly challenging because the United States has ample coal resources available as raw materials and effective use of these raw materials could help us meet our energy and transportation fuel needs while significantly reducing our need to import oil. One component of the cost of these systems that faces strong challenges for continuous improvement is removing the undesirable components present in the syngas. The need to limit the increase in cost of electricity to < 35% for new coal-based power plants which include CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration addresses both the growing social concern for global climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gas and in particular CO{sub 2} and the need to control cost increases to power production necessary to meet this social objective. Similar improvements to technologies for trace contaminants are getting similar pressure to reduce environmental emissions and reduce production costs for the syngas to enable production of chemicals from coal that is cost competitive with oil and natural gas. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing sorbent technologies that enable capture of trace contaminants and CO{sub 2} at temperatures above 400 °F that achieve better capture performance, lower costs and higher thermal efficiency. This report describes the specific work of sorbent development for mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorous (P) and CO{sub 2} removal. Because the typical concentrations of Hg, As, Se, Cd, and P are less than 10 ppmv, the focus has been on single-use sorbents with sufficient capacity to ensure replacement costs are cost effective. The research in this

  8. A novel carbon-based process for flue-gas cleanup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Howe, G.B.; McMichael, W.J.; Spivey, J.J.

    1993-10-01

    A low-temperature process employing activated carbon-based catalysts and operating downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was evaluated jointly by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). The RTI-Waterloo process was projected to be capable of removing more than 95% SO{sub 2} and 75% NO{sub x }from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, the flue gas leaving the ESP is first cooled to approximately 100{degree}C. The SO{sub 2} is then catalytically oxidized to SO{sub 3} which is removed as medium-strength sulfuric acid in a series of periodically flushed trickle-bed reactors containing an activated carbon-based catalyst. The SO{sub 2}-free gas is then reheated to approximately 150{degree}C and NH{sub 3} is injected into the gas stream. It is then passed over a fixed bed of another activated carbon-based catalyst to reduce the NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The clean flue gas is then vented to the stack. The feasibility of the process has been demonstrated in laboratory-scale experiments using simulated flue gas. Catalysts have been identified that gave the required performance for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal with <25 ppM NH{sub 3} slip. Potential for producing up to 10 N sulfuric acid by periodically flushing the SO{sub 2} removal reactor and further concentration to industrial strength 93.17% sulfuric acid was also demonstrated. Using the results of the experimental work, an engineering evaluation was conducted. Cost for the RTI-Waterloo process was competitive with conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) -- flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process and other emerging combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal processes.

  9. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  10. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  11. A gas stream clean-up filter and method for forming same

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Halow, J.S.; DeVault, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    A gas cleaning filter is formed in-situ within a vessel containing a fluidizable bed of granular material of a relatively large size fraction. A filter membrane provided by a porous metal or ceramic body or such a body supported a perforated screen on one side thereof is coated in-situ with a layer of the granular material from the fluidized bed by serially passing a bed-fluidizing gas stream through the bed of granular material and the membrane. The layer of granular material provides the filtering medium for the combined membrane-granular layer filter. The filter is not blinded by the granular material and provides for the removal of virtually all of the particulates from a process gas stream. The granular material can be at least partially provided by a material capable of chemically reacting with and removing sulfur compounds from the process gas stream. Low level radioactive waste containing organic material may be incinerated in a fluidized bed in communication with the described filter for removing particulates from the gaseous combustion products.

  12. Gas stream clean-up filter and method for forming same

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Joseph S.; DeVault, James; Halow, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A gas cleaning filter is formed in-situ within a vessel containing a fluidizable bed of granular material of a relatively large size fraction. A filter membrane provided by a porous metal or ceramic body or such a body supported a perforated screen on one side thereof is coated in-situ with a layer of the granular material from the fluidized bed by serially passing a bed-fluidizing gas stream through the bed of granular material and the membrane. The layer of granular material provides the filtering medium for the combined membrane-granular layer filter. The filter is not blinded by the granular material and provides for the removal of virtually all of the particulates from a process gas stream. The granular material can be at least partially provided by a material capable of chemically reacting with and removing sulfur compounds from the process gas stream. Low level radioactive waste containing organic material may be incinerated in a fluidized bed in communication with the described filter for removing particulates from the gaseous combustion products.

  13. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals. PMID:11217724

  14. Does further clean-up reduce the matrix enhancement effect in gas chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in food?

    PubMed

    Schenck, F J; Lehotay, S J

    2000-01-28

    Sample extracts of apples, peas, green beans, oranges, raspberries, clementines, carrots, and wheat obtained using the Food and Drug Administration (acetone extraction) and Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency (acetonitrile extraction) multiresidue methods for pesticides were subjected to clean-up using different solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges in an attempt to reduce or eliminate the matrix enhancement effect. The matrix enhancement effect is related to the blocking of active sites on the injector liner by matrix components, thereby increasing signal in the presence of matrix versus standards in solvent in which the pesticides themselves interact with the active sites. Graphitized carbon black (GCB) was often used in combination with various anion-exchange SPE cartridges. The extracts were then spiked with organophosphorus insecticides. These process standards were then compared to standards in acetone of the same concentration using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection or ion trap mass spectrometric detection. Sample matrix enhancement varied from little to no effect for some pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos, malathion) to >200% in the case of certain susceptible pesticides. The GCB removed color components but showed little effect in reducing matrix enhancement by itself. The anion-exchange cartridges in combination with GCB or not, substantially reduced the matrix enhancement effect but did not eliminate it. PMID:10677079

  15. Rapid pressure swing absorption cleanup of post-shift reactor synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumik, S.

    1992-09-24

    This investigation is concerned with the separation of gas mixtures using a novel concept of rapid pressure swing absorption (RAPSAB) of gas in a stationary absorbent liquid through gas-liquid interfaces immobilized in the pore mouths of hydrophobic microporous membranes. The process is implemented in a module well-packed with hydrophobic microporous hollow fiber membranes. Before we proceed to RAPSAB studies with reactive absorbents, it is necessary to make an effort to compare experimental results with those predicted by the models. The only model developed so far involved a type of RAPSAB cycle (Mode 3) for which limited data were acquired earlier. A number of experiments have, therefore, been conducted in this mode to characterize the absorption part of the cycle. A new and more compact module (Module No. 5) was made using 840 fibers and a teflon casing inside the stainless steel shell to exactly define the fiber packing density. This allows an exact calculation of Happel's free surface radius. Experiments were carried out using a CO[sub 2]-N[sub 2] mixture of around 10% CO[sub 2] and balanced N[sub 2] using both modules 4 and 5 over a wide range of absorption times.

  16. Reactive Carbon from Life Support Wastes for Incinerator Flue Gas Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. W.; Pisharody, S.; Moran, M. J.; Wignarajah, K.; Shi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a joint research initiative between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab. The objective of the research is to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and chemically reduce the NO(sub x) and SO(sub 2) contained in incinerator flue gas. Inedible biomass waste from food production is the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Results to date show adsorption of both NO(sub x) and SO(sub 2) in activated carbon made from biomass. Conversion of adsorbed NO(sub x) to nitrogen has also been observed.

  17. The use of rapid turnaround heated headspace/gas chromatography to support regulatory soil cleanup standards

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, J.; Evans, C.; Francoeur, T.L.; Guerra, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper addresses the use of rapid turnaround, heated headspace/gas chromatography (GC) to support a soil remediation project in the state of New Jersey. In the past, rapid turnaround, heated head space/GC procedures have been used primarily as a screening tool to delineate areas of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination on-site. For this project, the heated headspace/GC method was the primary analytical tool used to support a large soil remediation project. This paper reviews the project goals, presents analytical protocol, presents internal quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), evaluates laboratory split data, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this rapid turnaround method.

  18. US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

  19. Hot-gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells-dechlorination and soot formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, D.; Gelb, A.; Lord, G.; Simons, G.

    1984-01-01

    Two separate aspects of hot-gas conditioning for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) were investigated: potential high temperature chloride sorbent materials were screened and tested and carbon deposition on MCFC components was studied experimentally to determine guidelines for maximizing MCFC efficiency while avoiding carbon fouling. Natural minerals containing sodium carbonate were identified as the most promising candidates for economical removal of chlorides from coal gasifier effluents at temperatures of about 800 K (980 F). The mineral Shortite was tested in a fixed bed and found to perform remarkably well with no calcination. Measurements showed that carbon deposition can occur in the equilibrium carbon free region because of the relative rates of the relevant reactions. On all surfaces tested, the Boudouard carbon formation reaction is much faster than the water-gas shift reaction which is much faster than the methanation reaction. This means that the normal practice of adding steam to prevent carbon formation will only succeed if flows are slow enough for the water shift reaction to go substantially to completion. More direct suppression of carbon formation can be achieved by CO2 addition through anode recycle to force the Boudouard reaction backward.

  20. Rapid pressure swing absorption cleanup of post-shift reactor synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumik, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Environmental Science)

    1993-01-29

    The theoretical model for the absorption part of a particular type of RAPSAB cycle (Mode 3) (see Technical Progress Report No. 7) has been developed. The numerical simulations of the model compare well with the experimental results presented in the last report (Technical Progress Report No. 7). A number of experiments were carried out also for Mode 2 type of operation by varying the time for initial pressurization of the hollow fiber module as well as the total absorption time. These were done to provide a basis for comparison with the theoretical model to be developed later. We have initiated RAPSAB studies with reactive absorbents such as 19.5 % aqueous solution of diethanolamine (DEA) for the absorption of C0[sub 2] from a C0[sub 2]-N[sub 2] mixture. Six experiments were carried out using Mode 3 type of operation and a C0[sub 2]-N[sub 2] mixture containing 9.9% CO, and balance N[sub 2]. Excellent purification was obtained. No C0[sub 2] was observed in the purified high pressure gas outlet for absorption time of up to 14 seconds; the purified high pressure gas flow rate was also considerable. Module No. 5 was used for all experiments. The details of the module are given in Technical Progress Report No. 7.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A CALCIUM-BASED SORBENT FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K. Constant

    1999-03-31

    The preparation and testing of potential sorbents for removing H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas continued. Two preparation methods received the most consideration. Both methods involve pelletizing powders in a revolving drum under moist conditions followed either by heat treatment or steam curing to harden the pellets, depending on the particle bonding mechanism. One method was used to pelletize mixtures of calcium carbonate and either alumina or a calcium aluminate cement in a single step. Another method was used to pelletize powdered limestone in an initial step followed by the application of a coating consisting of both limestone and a hydraulic cement in a second step. By employing this method, an especially promising material was produced consisting of a limestone core surrounded by a shell consisting initially of 80 wt.% limestone and 20% wt.% calcium aluminate cement. The best material exhibited both an acceptable crushing strength and adsorption capacity for H{sub 2}S.

  2. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOEpatents

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  3. Gas venting system

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  4. Hot gas cleanup using ceramic cross flow membrane filters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Keairns, D.L.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1983-12-01

    The single unresolved technical issue in the commercialization of pressurized fluid-bed combustion (PPBC) for electric power production is the hot gas cleaning problem. In this technology, high-temperature and -pressure (HTHP), dust-laden flue gases from the combustor must be cleaned enough to reduce expansion turbine blade erosion to an economically acceptable level. Additionally, the level of particulate emission must be compatible with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for environmental acceptability. The Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a wide range of research and development programs directed at the solution of this problem. These programs were divided into two classifications, one dealing with more advanced concepts where testing was to be done at relatively large scale and a second group of less advanced, novel concepts where the testing was to be carried out at a bench scale. The cross-flow ceramic membrane filter program described in this report is a member of the small-scale, novel concept group.

  5. Preferential oxidation of methanol and carbon monoxide for gas cleanup during methanol fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Birdsell, S.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Inbody, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    Methanol fuel processing generates hydrogen for low-temperature, PEM fuel cell systems now being considered for transportation and other applications. Although liquid methanol fuel is convenient for this application, existing fuel processing techniques generate contaminants that degrade fuel cell performance. Through mathematical models and laboratory experiments chemical processing is described that removes CO and other contaminants from the anode feed stream.

  6. Development of ceramic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.L.; Abraham, I.C.; Blum, Y.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Hirschon, A.; Way, J.D.; Collins, J.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop high temperature, high pressure catalytic ceramic membrane reactors and to demonstrate the feasibility of using these membrane reactors to control gaseous contaminants (hydrogen sulfide and ammonia) in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. Our strategy was to first develop catalysts and membranes suitable for the IGCC application and then combine these two components as a complete membrane reactor system. We also developed a computer model of the membrane reactor and used it, along with experimental data, to perform an economic analysis of the IGCC application. Our results have demonstrated the concept of using a membrane reactor to remove trace contaminants from an IGCC process. Experiments showed that NH{sub 3} decomposition efficiencies of 95% can be achieved. Our economic evaluation predicts ammonia decomposition costs of less than 1% of the total cost of electricity; improved membranes would give even higher conversions and lower costs.

  7. Plasma-assisted cleanup of flue gas. Technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dhali, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    In this project period, the system for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} is being studied in the presence of water vapor. Typical-mixtures being tested consist of 500--1500 parts per million SO{sub 2}, 4--6% H{sub 2}Og, 7--15% O{sub 2}, and the balance is nitrogen. We have to date seen only a reduction in SO{sub 2} in the order of 40%. This is lower than the in dry air. At present this low reduction is attributed to arcing the discharge. A computer simulation is being performed to calculate the oxygen production rate in a dielectric-barrier discharge. The discharge is considered to be streamer like and from this the oxygen atom density can be calculated. This will give us an estimate of the amount of energy required to produce an oxygen atom. Eventually when this will be combined with a chemical code, we will get a cost estimate.

  8. SOx-NOx-Rox Box Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-12-15

    The SNRB{trademark} test program demonstrated the feasibility of controlling multiple emissions from a coal-fired boiler in a single processing unit. The degree of emissions removals for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates all exceeded the project goals. A high degree of removal for HAPs was also achieved. The SNRB system offers low space requirements, control of multiple pollutants, and operating flexibility. The pneumatic SO{sub 2} sorbent and ammonia injection systems are expected to have high reliability because of their mechanical simplicity. Despite these advantages, the SNRB process may not be an economic choice for applications involving SO{sub 2} removals above about 85%. For lower levels of SO{sub 2} removal, the projected economics for SNRB appear to be more favorable than those of existing processes which involve separate units for the same degree of control for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} , and particulates. Specific findings are summarized as follows: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of 85-90% was achieved at a calcium utilization of 40-45%, representing a significant improvement in performance over other dry lime injection processes. (2) When firing 3-4% sulfur coal, compliance with the 1990 CAAA Phase I SO{sub 2} emissions limit of 2.5 lb/10{sup 6} Btu was achieved with a Ca/S molar ratio of less than 1.0. For the Phase II SO{sub 2} emissions limit of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu, compliance was achieved with a Ca/S molar ratio as low as 1.5. Phase II compliance is the more relevant emissions limit. (3) When using NaHCO{sub 3} as the sorbent, the Phase II SO{sub 2} emissions limit was achieved at a Na{sub 2}/S molar ratio of less than 2.0 (NSR < 1.0). (4) Compliance with the Phase I NO{sub x} emissions limit of 0.45 lb/10{sup 6} Btu for Group 1 boilers was achieved at an NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio of 0.85, with an ammonia slip of 5 ppm or less. (5) Particulate collection efficiency averaged 99.9%, corresponding to an average emissions rate of 0.018 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. This

  9. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. This quarter, work was centered on design, fabrication, and testing of the combustor, cleanup, fuel specifications, and hot end simulation rig. 2 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. Assessment of hot gas contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, M.D.; Klett, M.G.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work is to gather data and information to assist DOE in responding to the NRC recommendation on hot gas cleanup by performing a comprehensive assessment of hot gas cleanup systems for advanced coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) including the status of development of the components of the hot gas cleanup systems, and the probable cost and performance impacts. The scope and time frame of information gathering is generally responsive to the boundaries set by the National Research council (NRC), but includes a broad range of interests and programs which cover hot gas cleanup through the year 2010. As the status of hot gas cleanup is continually changing, additional current data and information are being obtained for this effort from this 1996 METC Contractors` Review Meeting as well as from the 1996 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, and the University of Karlsruhe Symposium. The technical approach to completing this work consists of: (1) Determination of the status of hot gas cleanup technologies-- particulate collection systems, hot gas desulfurization systems, and trace contaminant removal systems; (2) Determination of hot gas cleanup systems cost and performance sensitivities. Analysis of conceptual IGCC and PFBC plant designs with hot gas cleanup have been performed. The impact of variations in hot gas cleanup technologies on cost and performance was evaluated using parametric analysis of the baseline plant designs and performance sensitivity.

  11. Validation of one-step cleanup and separation method of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from atmospheric gas- and particle-phase samples.

    PubMed

    Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil; Gaga, Eftade O

    2013-10-15

    A one-step cleanup method is described for the determination of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in air (gas and particulate phase) samples. Analytes were extracted from ambient air samples using soxhlet extraction with a solvent mixture of dichloromethane and petroleum ether (1:4) for 24h. They were concentrated, separated and fractionated on a florisil and alumina column. The amounts of florisil (1g or 2g) with/without alumina were tested in the cleanup column. The study systematically investigated the effects of solvent types, and the amounts of florisil and alumina, on the performance of the cleanup process. The first fraction was eluted with 25 mL hexane, and analyzed for PCBs. The second fraction was collected via 40 mL hexane-ethyl acetate (1:1) solvent mixture, and analyzed for OCPs and PAHs. The optimized method yielded average recoveries between 88% and 99% for PCBs; 56% and 118% for PAHs; and 51% and 128% for OCPs. Other validation parameters were also investigated, such as MDL, LOQ, linear range, sensitivity (r(2)). An oven-program optimization and adjustment of GC-MS were performed. For internal quality control, surrogate recoveries and field blanks values were calculated. External calibration curves were prepared for PAHs, and internal calibration curves were preferred for OCP and PCBs. PMID:24054572

  12. Waste gas recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Lintonbon, R.F.; Shore, D.

    1981-06-02

    A waste gas recovery system employs a compressor which takes in raw waste gas from an inlet knock-out drum and passes compressed gas through a heat exchanger to an outlet knock-out drum. The temperature at the outlet of the compressor is sensed by a device which operates valves to inject liquid coolant into the compressor inlet and to re-circulate gas back from the outlet of the outlet knock-out drum to inhibit an excessive temperature rise. A pressure-sensing device senses the pressure of the gas passing into the compressor and controls both the speed of the compressor and an adjustable throttle valve to regulate the gas flow. The throttle valve is closed automatically should there be a fall in the pressure of the gas at the inlet below a safe level. In this event, further pressure-sensing devices act additionally to close the recirculating gas valve and a further valve in the main inlet flow path to reliably isolate the compressor.

  13. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Bo, L.; Patel, C.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate several novel copper-based binary oxides for their suitability as regenerable sorbents for hot gas cleanup application in the temperature range of 650{degrees} to 850{degrees}C. To achieve this objective, several novel copper-based binary oxide sorbents will be prepared. Experimental tests will be conducted at ambient pressure to determine the stability, sulfidation capacity, regenerability, and sulfidation kinetics of the novel sorbents. Tests will also be conducted at high pressure for the determination of the sulfidation reactivity, regenerability, and durability of the sorbents. The attrition characteristics of the sorbents will also be determined.

  14. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - groundwater circulation well environmental cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    When a contaminant is treated in place on the original site it is termed in situ remediation. Bioremediation refers to cleanup effected by living organisms such as bacteria and fungi. Certain species of bacteria are able to consume pollutants as a food source, thus detoxifying these compounds. In situ bioremediation is being considered as a viable and practical solution for reducing petroleum contamination levels in groundwater.

  15. Multiresidue analysis of 58 pesticides in bean products by disposable pipet extraction (DPX) cleanup and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziang; Li, Yanjie; Liu, Xiaochen; Li, Xuesheng; Zhou, Li; Pan, Canping

    2012-05-16

    A method based on disposable pipet extraction (DPX) sample cleanup and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection by selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) was established for 58 targeted pesticide residues in soybean, mung bean, adzuki bean and black bean. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and concentrated (nitrogen gas flow) prior to being aspirated into DPX tubes. Cleanup procedure was achieved in a simple DPX-Qg tube. Matrix-matched calibrations were analyzed, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) of this method ranged from 0.01 mg kg(-1) to 0.1 mg kg(-1) for all target compounds. Coefficients of determination of the linear ranges were between 0.9919 and 0.9998. Recoveries of fortified level 0.02 mg kg(-1) on soybean, mung bean, adzuki bean and black bean were 70.2-109.6%, 69.1-119.0%, 69.1-119.8%, and 69.0-120.8%, respectively, for all studied pesticides. Moreover, pesticide risk assessment for all the detected residues in 178 market samples at Beijing market area was conducted. A maximum 0.958% of ADI (acceptable daily intake) for NESDI (national estimated daily intake) and 55.1% of ARfD (acute reference dose) for NESTI (national estimated short-term intake) indicated low diet risk of these products. PMID:22394480

  16. Gas cleaning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Newby, Richard Allen

    2006-06-06

    A gas cleaning system for removing at least a portion of contaminants, such as halides, sulfur, particulates, mercury, and others, from a synthesis gas (syngas). The gas cleaning system may include one or more filter vessels coupled in series for removing halides, particulates, and sulfur from the syngas. The gas cleaning system may be operated by receiving gas at a first temperature and pressure and dropping the temperature of the syngas as the gas flows through the system. The gas cleaning system may be used for an application requiring clean syngas, such as, but not limited to, fuel cell power generation, IGCC power generation, and chemical synthesis.

  17. [PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup Test Program]. Third Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Four hundred and fifty four clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filters were purchased for installation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) plant in Brilliant, Ohio. A surveillance effort has been identified which will monitor candle filter performance and life during hot gas cleaning in AEP`s pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. A description of the candle surveillance program, strategy for candle filter location selection, as well as candle filter post-test characterization is provided in this memo. The period of effort for candle filter surveillance monitoring is planned through March 1994.

  18. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Silveston, P.L.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. In the previous three quarters, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental setup, work plan, and test plan. The experimental system was completed for SO{sub 2} conversion at Waterloo and for NO{sub x} conversion at RTI. Shakedown experiments were completed. In the present quarter, the NO{sub x} removal performance of two additional modified carbon catalysts (MCCII and MCCIII) was studied. MCCII showed NO{sub x} removal efficiency which was similar to that observed for MCCI. However, MCCI was considerably less active for NO{sub x} removal. SO{sub 2} removal experiments with NO present in the feed gas were performed with MCCI. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was consistently about 98% over each of 10 cycles and was very similar to that observed earlier with no NO present in the feed. Finally, a preliminary economic evaluation of the process was performed and a project review meeting was held. The economic evaluation showed that the Rn-Waterloo process was competitive with SCR/IFGD and other combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, removal processes.

  19. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for direct coal fueled turbines (moving bed, fluid bed contactor/ceramic filter)

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1992-10-20

    The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of direct coal-fired turbine power plants as part of their Heat Engines program. A major technical challenge remaining for the development of the direct coal-fired turbine is high-temperature combustion gas cleaning to meet environmental standards for sulfur oxides and particulate emissions, as well as to provide acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science Technology Center, is evaluating two Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concepts that have been configured to meat this technical challenge: a baseline ceramic barrier filter ILEC concept, and a fluidized bed ILEC concept. These ILEC concepts simultaneously control sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in the high-pressure combustion gases at turbine inlet temperatures up to 2300[degree]F. This document reports the status of a program in the nineteenth quarter to develop this ILEC technology for direct coal-fired turbine power plants.

  20. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for direct coal fueled turbines (Moving bed, fluid bed contactor/ceramic filter)

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1992-01-20

    The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of direct coal-fired turbine power plants as part of their Heat Engines program. A major technical challenge remaining for the development of the direct coal-fired turbine is high-temperature combustion gas cleaning to meet environmental standards for sulfur oxides and particulate emissions, as well as to provide acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science Technology Center, is evaluating two Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concepts that have been configured to meet this technical challenge: a baseline ceramic barrier filter ILEC concept, and a fluidized bed ILEC concept. These ILEC concepts simultaneously control sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in the high-pressure combustion gases at turbine inlet temperatures up to 2300{degrees}F. This document reports the status of a program in the seventeenth quarter to develop this ILEC technology for direct coal-fired turbine power plants.

  1. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for direct coal fueled turbines. Twenty-eighth quarterly report, July--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of advanced, coal-fueled turbine power plants such as pressurized fluid bed combustion and coal gasification combined cycles. A major technical challenge remaining for the development of the coal-fueled turbine is high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards for sulfur oxides and particulate emissions, as well as to provide acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center, is evaluating Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concepts that have been configured to meet this technical challenge. These ILEC concepts simultaneously control sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in the high-pressure process gases. This document reports the status of a program in the twenty-seventh quarter to develop this ILEC technology.

  2. Automated Gas Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  3. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOEpatents

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  4. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Li Li

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely copper-chromium and copper-cerium, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650{degree} to 850{degree}C. Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines (inlet >750{degree}C) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The effect of pre-reduction on the performance of the sorbents as well as the rate of different reactions occurring in cyclic sulfidation/regeneration, were studied in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Sulfidation was conducted with and without H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and with and without pre-reduction in H{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The results of these tests indicate that reduction and regeneration of both sorbents occurs rapidly. Sulfidation of CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, in H{sub 2}O-free and H{sub 2}-/H{sub 2}O-free gas indicates the possible sulfidation of both copper and chromium. Small quantities of SO{sub 2}, were released during sulfidation suggesting the possible oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the sorbent. Regeneration of the CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} was complete while regeneration of the CuO-CeO{sub 2} indicated possible limited sulfate formation.

  5. In-cell clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of hydrophobic persistent and emerging organic pollutants in coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2016-01-15

    The main goal of this work was to develop, optimize and validate a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 97 contaminants, including fragrances, UV filters, repellents, endocrine disruptors, biocides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorus flame retardants, and several types of pesticides in marine sediment samples. Extraction and cleanup were integrated into the same step using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with in-cell clean-up (1g of alumina). The extraction was performed using dichloromethane at 100 °C, 1500 psi and 3 extraction cycles (5 min per cycle). Extracts were derivatized with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) to improve the signal and sensitivity of some target compounds (i.e., triclosan, 2-hydroxybenzophenone). Separation, identification and quantification of analytes were carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Under optimal conditions, the optimized protocol showed good recovery percentages (70-100%), linearity (>0.99) and limits of detection below 1 ng g(-1) for all compounds. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of sediment samples from different coastal areas from Andalusia (Spain), where occurrence and distribution of emerging contaminants in sediments is very scarce. Twenty five compounds out of 98 were detected in all samples, with the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol and the fragrance galaxolide showing the highest concentrations, up to 377.6 ng g(-1) and 237.4 ng g(-1), respectively. PMID:26747688

  6. Automated Multiplug Filtration Cleanup for Pesticide Residue Analyses in Kiwi Fruit (Actinidia chinensis) and Kiwi Juice by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; He, Yining; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Li, Yanjie; Chen, Ronghua; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2016-08-10

    To reduce labor-consuming manual operation workload in the cleanup steps, an automated multiplug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method for QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. It could control the volume and speed of pulling and pushing cycles accurately. In this study, m-PFC was based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with primary-secondary amines (PSA) and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in a packed column for analysis of pesticide residues followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. It was validated by analyzing 33 pesticides in kiwi fruit and kiwi juice matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. Salts, sorbents, m-PFC procedure, 4 mL of automated pulling and pushing volume, 6 mL/min automated pulling speed, and 8 mL/min pushing speed were optimized for each matrix. After optimization, spike recoveries were within 71-120% and <20% RSD for all analytes in kiwi fruit and kiwi juice. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.99 between concentration levels of 10 and 1000 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples. PMID:26809284

  7. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  8. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems: Greenfield assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Both the KRW fluidized-bed gasifier and the transport gasifier case studies were used for this assessment. The transport technology is a high-velocity circulating fluidized-bed reactor currently under development by The M.W. Kellogg Company. In the earlier assessment, seven design concepts or cases were identified; a process design was developed; major equipment items were identified; estimates of capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, and cost of electricity were developed; reliability was predicted; and development issues were identified for six studies. Three of the most probable cases were further evaluated for a Greenfield assessment in this report to adequately determine all costs independent of facilities at Plant Wansley.

  9. Biomass gasification with air in fluidized bed. Hot gas cleanup with selected commercial and full-size nickel-based catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, M.A.; Corella, J.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.

    2000-05-01

    Three selected commercial, full-size steam-reforming catalysts for naphthas, BASF G1-50, ICI 46-1, and Topsoee R-67, are tested at pilot-scale level for hot gas cleanup in biomass gasification in a fluidized bed. Gas composition and tar content in the flue gas are measured before and after the catalytic bed. Variations of the catalytic bed in H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O contents are reported for different operating conditions. Tar conversions and an apparent first-order kinetics constant for the overall tar removal reaction are calculated. Tar contents at the exit of the catalytic reactor as low as 10 mg/m{sub n}{sup 3} are obtained in a test of 50 h-on-stream without noticeable catalyst deactivation. Important variations in tar conversion with space time in the catalytic bed, with H{sub 2}O/C* in the flue gas, and with the equivalence ratio in the upstream gasifier are observed. These results obtained at the pilot-scale level and with the use of full-sized commercial catalysts are an important forward step in demonstrating the technical feasibility of the overall biomass gasification process.

  10. Hot gas cleanup using solid supported molten salt for integrated coal gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Topical report, October 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, S.E.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Roberts, G.L.

    1983-12-01

    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories is developing a solid supported molten salt (SSMS) hot gas cleanup process for integrated coal gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants. Exploratory and demonstration experiments have been completed to select a salt composition and evaluate its potential for simultaneous hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) removal under the conditions projected for the MCFC plants. Results to date indicate that equilibrium capacity and removal efficiencies may be adequate for one step H/sub 2/S and HCl removal. Regeneration produced a lower H/sub 2/S concentration than expected, but one from which sulfur could be recovered. Bench scale experiments will be designed to confirm laboratory results, check carbonyl sulfide removal, refine dual cycle (sulfide-chloride) regeneration techniques and obtain data for engineering/economic evaluation and scale-up. 8 references, 24 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Automated mini-column solid-phase extraction cleanup for high-throughput analysis of chemical contaminants in foods by low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study demonstrated the application of an automated high-throughput mini-cartridge solid-phase extraction (mini-SPE) cleanup for the rapid low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in QuEChERS extracts of foods. ...

  12. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report {number_sign}6, [July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Stearns, P.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency hollow fiber contractors (BFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The system will remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will make only marketable byproducts. The approach is to reduce the capital cost using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. New process chemistry is introduced to minimize well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. Past work with the phthalocyanine compounds shows that these compounds bind NO and NO{sub 2} reversibly and with no interference from O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, or other components of flue gas. The arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices. This cassette (stacked) arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. There will be separate liquor loops to deconvolute the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

  13. Plutonium mining for cleanup.

    PubMed

    Bramlitt, E T

    1988-08-01

    Cleanup is the act of making a contaminated site relatively free of Pu so it may be used without radiological safety restrictions. Contaminated ground is the focus of major cleanups. Cleanup traditionally involves determining Pu content of soil, digging up soil in which radioactivity exceeds guidelines, and relocating excised soil to a waste-disposal site. Alternative technologies have been tested at Johnston Atoll (JA), where there is as much as 100,000 m3 of Pu-contaminated soil. A mining pilot plant operated for the first 6 mo of 1986 and made 98% of soil tested "clean", from more than 40 kBq kg-1 (1000 pCi g-1) to less than about 500 Bq kg-1 (15 pCi g-1) by concentrating Pu in 2% of the soil. The pilot plant is now installed at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site for evaluating cleanup of other contaminated soils and refining cleanup effectiveness. A full-scale cleanup plant has been programmed for JA in 1988. In this paper, previous cleanups are reviewed, and the mining endeavor at JA is detailed. "True soil cleanup" is contrasted with the classical "soil relocation cleanup." The mining technology used for Pu cleanup has been in use for more than a century. Mining for cleanup, however, is unique. It is envisioned as being prominent for radiological and other cleanups in the future. PMID:3410718

  14. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for direct coal fueled turbines (moving bed, fluid bed contactor/ceramic filter)

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1992-04-20

    The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of direct coal-fired turbine power plants as part of their Heat Engines program. A major technical challenge remaining for the development of the direct coal-fired turbine is high-temperature combustion gas cleaning to meet environmental standards for sulfur oxides and particulate emissions, as well as to provide acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science Technology Center, is evaluating two Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concepts that have been configured to meet this technical challenge: a baseline ceramic barrier filter nEC concept, and a fluidized bed ILEC concept. These ILEC concepts simultaneously control sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in the high-pressure combustion gases at turbine inlet temperatures up to 2300[degrees]F. This document reports the status of a program in the eighteenth quarter to develop this ILEC technology for direct coal-fired turbine power plants.

  15. Development and piloting of an exposure database and surveillance system for DOE cleanup operations. Department of Energy.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Simpson, Mark W; Holwager, Lee Ann; Clausen, Bret M; Ruttenber, A James

    2002-01-01

    An industrial hygiene exposure database and surveillance system was developed in partnership between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded independent investigators and practicing industrial hygienists at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colo. RFETS is a former U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons plant that is now in cleanup phase. This project is presented as a case study in the development of an exposure database and surveillance system in terms that are generalizable to most other industries and work contexts. Steps include gaining organizational support; defining system purpose and scope; defining database elements and coding; planning practical and efficient analysis strategies; incorporating reporting capabilities; and anticipating communication strategies that maximize the probability that surveillance findings will feed back to preventive applications. For each of these topics, the authors describe both general considerations as well as the specific choices made for this system. An important feature of the system is a two-tier task-coding scheme comprising 33 categories of task groups. Examples of grouped analyses of exposure data captured during the system pilot period demonstrate applications to exposure control, medical surveillance, and other preventive measures. PMID:11975659

  16. [Simultaneous determination of 16 organophosphorous pesticides in vegetables, fruits and tea by gas chromatography coupled with clean-up by mesoporous alumina as solid-phase extraction adsorbent].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yeqin; Xi, Cunxian; Cao, Shurui; Wang, Guomin; Li, Xianliang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yunhuai

    2014-07-01

    A gas chromatographic method based on solid-phase extraction was developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 organophosphorous pesticides in vegetables, fruits and tea, including cabbage, lettuce, pumpkin, onion, tomato, turnip, apple, pear and tea. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, and clean-up with mesoporous alumina as solid-phase extraction adsorbent. The separation of target compounds was performed on a DB-1701 capillary column, and the quantitative analysis of the organophosphorous pesticides was carried out by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The results showed that the calibration curves of the 16 organophosphorous pesticides were linear in the range of 10-2 000 microg/L with good correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.997). The recoveries of the pesticides in different samples at three spiked levels ranged from 83.2% to 103.8% with the relative standard deviations of 2.0%-9.9%. This method has high sensitivity, high accuracy and good repeatability, and can be applied to the determination of the organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables, fruits and tea. PMID:25255574

  17. Gas-Recovery System

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, R. A.

    1971-12-14

    Nuclear explosions have been proposed as a means for recovering gas from underground gas-bearing rock formations. In present practice, the nuclear device is positioned at the end of a long pipe which is subsequently filled with grout or concrete. After the device is exploded, the grout is drilled through to provide a flow path for the released gas to the ground surface. As settled grout is brittle, often the compressive shock of the explosion fractures the grout and deforms the pipe so that it may not be removed nor reused. In addition, the pipe is sometimes pinched off completely and the gas flow is totally obstructed. (2 claims)

  18. Gas-recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, R.A.

    1971-12-14

    Nuclear explosions have been proposed as a means for recovering gas from underground gas-bearing rock formations. In present practice, the nuclear device is positioned at the end of a long pipe which is subsequently filled with grout or concrete. After the device is exploded, the grout is drilled through to provide a flow path for the released gas to the ground surface. As settled grout is brittle, often the compressive shock of the explosion fractures the grout and deforms the pipe so that it may not be removed nor reused. In addition, the pipe is sometimes pinched off completely and the gas flow is totally obstructed. (2 claims)

  19. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  20. Fission gas detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  1. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s particulate cleanup program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) power systems has made it possible to use coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems significantly reduce the pollutants associated with coal-fired plants built before the 1970s. This superior environmental performance and related high system efficiency is possible, in part, because particulate gas-stream cleanup is conducted at high-temperature and high-pressure process conditions. A main objective of the Particulate Cleanup Program at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to ensure the success of the CCT demonstration projects. METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program supports research, development, and demonstration in three areas: (1) filter-system development, (2) barrier-filter component development, and (3) ash and char characterization. The support is through contracted research, cooperative agreements, Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs), and METC`s own in-house research. This paper describes METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program.

  2. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  3. Gas Flow Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  4. Process gas solidification system

    DOEpatents

    Fort, William G. S.; Lee, Jr., William W.

    1978-01-01

    It has been the practice to (a) withdraw hot, liquid UF.sub.6 from various systems, (b) direct the UF.sub.6 into storage cylinders, and (c) transport the filled cylinders to another area where the UF.sub.6 is permitted to solidify by natural cooling. However, some hazard attends the movement of cylinders containing liquid UF.sub.6, which is dense, toxic, and corrosive. As illustrated in terms of one of its applications, the invention is directed to withdrawing hot liquid UF.sub.6 from a system including (a) a compressor for increasing the pressure and temperature of a stream of gaseous UF.sub.6 to above its triple point and (b) a condenser for liquefying the compressed gas. A network containing block valves and at least first and second portable storage cylinders is connected between the outlet of the condenser and the suction inlet of the compressor. After an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser has been admitted to the first cylinder, the cylinder is connected to the suction of the compressor to flash off UF.sub.6 from the cylinder, thus gradually solidifying UF.sub.6 therein. While the first cylinder is being cooled in this manner, an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser is transferred into the second cylinder. UF.sub.6 then is flashed from the second cylinder while another increment of liquid UF.sub.6 is being fed to the first. The operations are repeated until both cylinders are filled with solid UF.sub.6, after which they can be moved safely. As compared with the previous technique, this procedure is safer, faster, and more economical. The method also provides the additional advantage of removing volatile impurities from the UF.sub.6 while it is being cooled.

  5. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  6. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  7. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S.

    1993-03-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  8. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  9. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  10. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND PRODUCTION AT WASTE CLEANUP SITES (ISSUE PAPER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Saving energy used by hazardous waste cleanup remediation systems should interest those people working on waste cleanup sites. Presidential Executive Order 13123, "Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy Management", states that each agency shall strive to expand the us...

  11. COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME II. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OPERATION WITH DEVOLATILIZED BITUMINOUS COAL AND CHILLED METHANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of initial runs of a pilot-scale coal gasification and gas cleaning plant at North Carolina State University. In these runs, a devolatilized Western Kentucky No. 11 bituminous coal was gasified with steam and oxygen, and chilled methanol was used as the a...

  12. Multiresidue Method for Determination of 183 Pesticide Residues in Leeks by Rapid Multiplug Filtration Cleanup and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zou, Nan; Han, Yongtao; Li, Yanjie; Qin, Yuhong; Gu, Kejia; Zhang, Jingru; Pan, Canping; Li, Xuesheng

    2016-08-10

    This study reports the development of a novel multiplug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) procedure for analysis of pesticide residues in leek samples followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. The leek samples were initially purified following the dispersive solid-phase extraction with different sorbents to determine the most suitable proportioning of sorbent materials; then, the m-PFC method was carried out by applying the streamlined procedure with syringes. Average recoveries of most pesticides were in the range from 70.2 to 126.0% with the relative standard deviation < 20% with the m-PFC process. The limits of detection were 0.03-3.3 μg kg(-1). The limits of quantification were 0.1-10 μg kg(-1). The m-PFC process is convenient and time-efficient, taking just a few seconds per sample. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples. In that analysis, 35 pesticides were detected in 29 samples, with values ranging from 2.0 to 9353.1 μg kg(-1). PMID:26651870

  13. System of treating flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-12-01

    A system is described for treating or cleaning incinerator flue gas containing acid gases and radioactive and fissionable contaminants. Flue gas and a quench solution are fed into a venturi and then tangentially into the lower portion of a receptacle for restricting volumetric content of the solution. The upper portion of the receptacle contains a scrub bed to further treat or clean the flue gas.

  14. Dispersive solid-phase extraction as a simplified clean-up technique for biological sample extracts. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Ariel R; Camargo, Alejandra; Martinez, Luis D; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2011-05-01

    Dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) is proposed for the first time as a simplified, fast and low cost clean-up technique of biological sample extracts for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determination. The combination of a traditional extraction technique, such as ultrasound-assisted leaching (USAL) with DSPE was successfully applied for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytes were first extracted from 1g homogenized sample in n-hexane:dichloromethane (8:2) by applying USAL technique and further cleaned-up using DSPE with 0.20 g C(18)-silica as sorbent material. Different solvent mixtures, sorbent type and amount, and lipid digestion procedures were evaluated in terms of clean-up and extraction efficiency. Under optimum conditions, the method detection limits (MDLs) for PBDEs, calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were within the range 9-44 pg g(-1) wet weight. The calibration graphs were linear within the concentration range of 53-500,000 pg g(-1), 66-500,000 pg g(-1), 89-500,000 pg g(-1) and 151-500,000 pg g(-1) for BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-99 and BDE-153, respectively; and the coefficient of determination (r(2)) exceeded 0.9992 for all analytes. The proposed methodology was compared with a reference solid-phase extraction technique. The applicability of the methodology for the screening of PBDEs has been demonstrated by analyzing spiked and real samples of biological nature (fish, egg and chicken) with different lipid content as well as reference material (WELL-WMF-01). Recovery values ranged between 75% and 114% and the measured concentrations in certified material showed a reasonable agreement with the certified ones. BDE-47, BDE-100 and BDE-99 were quantified in three of the seven analyzed samples and the concentrations ranged between 91 and 140 pg g(-1). In addition, this work is the first description of PBDEs detected in fish of Argentinean environment. PMID

  15. An experimental study of NO{sub x} recycle in the NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Haslbeck, J.L.; Neal, L.G.

    1993-03-01

    NO{sub x} recycle represents one part of the NOXSO process. This process can remove 90% of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} simultaneously from flue gas by using a fluidized bed of sorbent. Spent sorbent is regenerated by treatment at high temperatures with a reducing gas. Adsorbed NO{sub x} is evolved on heating the sorbent to a regeneration temperature. The concentrated stream of NO{sub x} produced is returned to the boiler with the combustion air and reduced in the flame, which is called NO{sub x} recycle. The concept of NO{sub x} recycle has been experimentally evaluated at the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). NO{sub x} destruction has been demonstrated on a 500 lb/hr pulverized coal combustor and a 1.7 MMBtu/hr tunnel furnace combustor firing both natural gas and coal-water slurry. The NO{sub x} recycle experimental study discussed in this report and performed on Babcock & Wilcox (B&W)`s six MMBtu/hr Small Boiler Simulator (SBS) is a pilot-scale test. The objective is to provide further fundamental understanding and necessary information for the NOXSO full-scale demonstration at Ohio Edison`s Niles Power Plant which uses the same type of cyclone burners. The experimental testing included injection of NO, NO{sub x} and different combinations of NO/NO{sub 2} with tile primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) to the combustor. Results are consistent with earlier test data obtained on PETC`s facility and will be used for the design of the NOXSO commercial demonstration plant at Niles.

  16. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  17. Hot-gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells-dechlorination and soot formation. Final report, May 19, 1981-July 19, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, D.; Gelb, A.; Lord, G.; Simons, G.

    1984-01-01

    Two separate aspects of hot-gas conditioning for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) were investigated under this contract: potential high temperature chloride sorbent materials were sreened and tested and carbon deposition on MCFC components was studied experimentally to determine guidelines for maximizing MCFC efficiency while avoiding carbon fouling. Natural minerals containing sodium carbonate were identified as the most promising candidates for economical removal of chlorides from coal gasifier effluents at temperatures of about 800 K (980/sup 0/F). The mineral Shortite was tested in a fixed bed and found to perform remarkably well with no calcination. Using Shortite we were able to achieve the program goal of less than 1 ppmV chlorides at 800 K. Shortite is an abundant mineral with no competing commercial demand, so it should provide an economical chloride cleanup sorbent. Measurements showed that carbon deposition can occur in the equilibrium carbon freee region because of the relative rates of the relevant reactions. On all surfaces tested, the Boudouard carbon formation reaction is much faster than the water-gas shift reaction which is much faster than the methanation reaction. This means that the normal practice of adding steam to prevent carbon formation will only succeed if flows are slow enough for the water shift reaction to go substantially to completion. More direct suppression of carbon formation can be achieved by CO/sub 2/ addition through anode recycle to force the Boudouard reaction backward. Addition of steam or CO/sub 2/ must be minimized to attain the highest possible MCFC efficiency. 28 references, 31 figures, 22 tables.

  18. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  19. Absorption, electrodialysis and additional regeneration in two flue gas SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ cleanup processes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    Eleven potential adsorbents for use in the two processes were tested in a laboratory-scale bubble column. Best absorbent performance was obtained with iron EDTA in an ammonium sulfite/sulfate solution. Removals of greater than 95% were observed for SO/sub 2/, NO, and NO/sub 2/ from a simulated flue gas containing N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, NO, and NO/sub 2/. Laboratory-scale electrodialysis tests of fresh scrubbing liquor revealed that iron EDTA tended to permeate through anion-selective membranes and thus deleteriously affected process performance. Screening tests with twelve types of anion-selective membranes showed that three had EDTA permeation rates that were acceptable for process operation. Two methods of regeneration with respect to the NO/sub x/-removal component were investigated. Thermal stripping did not appear successful for producing nitrogen oxides in the off-gas from the stripper. A thermal treatment of the spent liquor at 50/sup 0/C successfully regenerated iron EDTA. The mechanism is being investigated.

  20. Unconventional shallow biogenic gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shurr, G.W.; Ridgley, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Unconventional shallow biogenic gas falls into two distinct systems that have different attributes. Early-generation systems have blanketlike geometries, and gas generation begins soon after deposition of reservoir and source rocks. Late-generation systems have ringlike geometries, and long time intervals separate deposition of reservoir and source rocks from gas generation. For both types of systems, the gas is dominantly methane and is associated with source rocks that are not thermally mature. Early-generation biogenic gas systems are typified by production from low-permeability Cretaceous rocks in the northern Great Plains of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Montana. The main area of production is on the southeastern margin of the Alberta basin and the northwestern margin of the Williston basin. The huge volume of Cretaceous rocks has a generalized regional pattern of thick, non-marine, coarse clastics to the west and thinner, finer grained marine lithologies to the east. Reservoir rocks in the lower part tend to be finer grained and have lower porosity and permeability than those in the upper part. Similarly, source beds in the units have higher values of total organic carbon. Patterns of erosion, deposition, deformation, and production in both the upper and lower units are related to the geometry of lineament-bounded basement blocks. Geochemical studies show that gas and coproduced water are in equilibrium and that the fluids are relatively old, namely, as much as 66 Ma. Other examples of early-generation systems include Cretaceous clastic reservoirs on the southwestern margin of Williston basin and chalks on the eastern margin of the Denver basin. Late-generation biogenic gas systems have as an archetype the Devonian Antrim Shale on the northern margin of the Michigan basin. Reservoir rocks are fractured, organic-rich black shales that also serve as source rocks. Although fractures are important for production, the relationships to specific geologic structures are

  1. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  2. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Biczo, I.L.

    1994-10-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated.

  3. Retrieval System for Calcined Waste for the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12104

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Randy L.; Johnston, Beau A.; Lower, Danielle E.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the conceptual approach to retrieve radioactive calcine waste, hereafter called calcine, from stainless steel storage bins contained within concrete vaults. The retrieval system will allow evacuation of the granular solids (calcine) from the storage bins through the use of stationary vacuum nozzles. The nozzles will use air jets for calcine fluidization and will be able to rotate and direct the fluidization or displacement of the calcine within the bin. Each bin will have a single retrieval system installed prior to operation to prevent worker exposure to the high radiation fields. The addition of an articulated camera arm will allow for operations monitoring and will be equipped with contingency tools to aid in calcine removal. Possible challenges (calcine bridging and rat-holing) associated with calcine retrieval and transport, including potential solutions for bin pressurization, calcine fluidization and waste confinement, are also addressed. The Calcine Disposition Project has the responsibility to retrieve, treat, and package HLW calcine. The calcine retrieval system has been designed to incorporate the functions and technical characteristics as established by the retrieval system functional analysis. By adequately implementing the highest ranking technical characteristics into the design of the retrieval system, the system will be able to satisfy the functional requirements. The retrieval system conceptual design provides the means for removing bulk calcine from the bins of the CSSF vaults. Top-down vacuum retrieval coupled with an articulating camera arm will allow for a robust, contained process capable of evacuating bulk calcine from bins and transporting it to the processing facility. The system is designed to fluidize, vacuum, transport and direct the calcine from its current location to the CSSF roof-top transport lines. An articulating camera arm, deployed through an adjacent access riser, will work in conjunction with the

  4. An automated gas expansion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Metrology Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant has constructed a new Vacuum Gauge Calibration System based on gas expansion. The system is used to calibrate vacuum pressure gauges between 1 mTorr and 1000 mTorr. The paper discusses an overview of the system including layout, software, testing and performance.

  5. An automated gas expansion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, K.

    1993-05-01

    The Metrology Laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant has constructed a new Vacuum Gauge Calibration System based on gas expansion. The system is used to calibrate vacuum pressure gauges between 1 mTorr and 1000 mTorr. The paper discusses an overview of the system including layout, software, testing and performance.

  6. Novel Cleanup Agents Designed Exclusively for Oil Field Membrane Filtration Systems Low Cost Field Demonstrations of Cleanup Agents in Controlled Experimental Environments

    SciTech Connect

    David Burnett; Harold Vance

    2007-08-31

    The goal of our project is to develop innovative processes and novel cleaning agents for water treatment facilities designed to remove fouling materials and restore micro-filter and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane performance. This project is part of Texas A&M University's comprehensive study of the treatment and reuse of oilfield brine for beneficial purposes. Before waste water can be used for any beneficial purpose, it must be processed to remove contaminants, including oily wastes such as residual petroleum hydrocarbons. An effective way of removing petroleum from brines is the use of membrane filters to separate oily waste from the brine. Texas A&M and its partners have developed highly efficient membrane treatment and RO desalination for waste water including oil field produced water. We have also developed novel and new cleaning agents for membrane filters utilizing environmentally friendly materials so that the water from the treatment process will meet U.S. EPA drinking water standards. Prototype micellar cleaning agents perform better and use less clean water than alternate systems. While not yet optimized, the new system restores essentially complete membrane flux and separation efficiency after cleaning. Significantly the amount of desalinated water that is required to clean the membranes is reduced by more than 75%.

  7. [Determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion by gas chromatography coupled with microwave clean-up].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Li, An; Li, Haiyan; Tong, Kexing; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Huimin; Zhao, Tong

    2007-05-01

    A method for the determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues is described. It covers 25 residues in scallion including dichlorvos, ethoprophos, phorate, diazinon, disulfoton, dimethoate, pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion, fenitrothion, parathion, chlorfenvinphos, ethion, EPN, dyfonate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, parathion-methyl, fenthion, quinalphos, gardona, methidathion, carbophenothion, phosmet, phosalone, and coumaphos. After the scallion samples were heated for 30 s in microwave oven, the residues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then the organic phase was salted out from the matrix. As a result, most of the interfering impurities were abolished in the heating process. In this study, these pesticides were categorized into two groups for analysis. The gas chromatographic analysis was performed on a capillary column (DB-1701, 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm) and determined with a flame photometric detector. Linear correlation coefficients of the 25 organic phosphorus pesticides were not lower than 0.991 0 and the linear ranges for most of the compounds were between 0.1 to 5.0 mg/L. The detection limits were between 0.025 and 0.200 mg/L. In recovery study, average recoveries ranged from 85.2% to 119.6% at the fortification levels of 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg and the relative standard deviations were in the range of 2.1% and 14.8%. The method is a simple, rapid and highly efficient one to determine organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion. PMID:17679438

  8. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  9. Multiresidue pesticide analysis of botanical dietary supplements using salt-out acetonitrile extraction, solid-phase extraction cleanup column, and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Douglas G; Wong, Jon W; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Kai; Lee, Nathaniel S; DiBenedetto, Alex L; Hengel, Mathew J

    2013-05-01

    Dietary supplements form an increasing part of the American diet, yet broadly applicable multiresidue pesticide methods have not been evaluated for many of these supplements. A method for the analysis of 310 pesticides, isomers, and pesticide metabolites in dried botanical dietary supplements has been developed and validated. Sample preparation involved acetonitrile:water added to the botanical along with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride for extraction, followed by cleanup with solid-phase extraction using a tandem cartridge consisting of graphitized carbon black (GCB) and primary-secondary amine sorbent (PSA). Pesticides were measured by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Accuracy and precision were evaluated through fortifications of 24 botanicals at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg. Mean pesticide recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) for all botanicals were 97%, 91%, 90%, and 90% and 15%, 10%, 8%, and 6% at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg, respectively. The method was applied to 21 incurred botanicals. Quinoxyfen was measured in hops (100-620 μg/kg). Tetraconazole (48 μg/kg), tetramethrin (15 μg/kg), methamidophos (50 μg/kg), and chlorpyrifos (93 μg/kg) were measured in licorice, mallow, tea, and tribulus, respectively. Quintozene, its metabolites and contaminants (pentachloroaniline, pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, and pentachlorothioanisole and hexachlorobenzene and tecnazene, respectively), with hexachlorocyclohexanes and DDT were identified in ginseng sources along with azoxystrobin, diazinon, and dimethomorph between 0.7 and 2800 μg/kg. Validation with these botanicals demonstrated the extent of this method's applicability for screening 310 pesticides in a wide array of botanical dietary supplements. PMID:23534560

  10. Code regenerative clean-up loop transponder for a mu-type ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A loop transponder for regenerating the code of a mu type ranging system is disclosed. It includes a phase locked loop, a code generator, and a loop detector. The function of the phase locked loop is to provide phase lock between a received component wk of the range signal and a replica rafter wk of the received component, provided by the code generator. The code generator also provides a replica of the next component rafter w(w+1). The loop detector responds to wk rafler wk and rafter w(k+1) to determine when the next component w(k+1) is received and controls the code generator to supply w(k+1) to the phase locked loop and to generate a replica rafter w(k+2) of the next component.

  11. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  12. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  13. Process gas chromatography study of a Selexol acid gas removal system. Final report Mar-Sep 82

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The report gives results of continuous compositional monitoring by process gas chromatography (GC) for three gas streams associated with the Selexol acid gas removal system at the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, PA. Data were obtained from the inlet and outlet streams of the Selexol system during tests in April and May 1982. Product gas composition data were logged for 55 hours of plant operation. The Bi-Gas pilot plant, utilizing a two-stage, entrained-bed, high-pressure slagging gasifier, produces a product gas that is low in tars and heavy oils. This gas stream required very little cleanup prior to instrumental analysis. However, some problems were encountered in the analysis of the Selexol acid gas stream due to the presence of high levels of naphthalene. The process gas chromatographs performed well and remained very stable during the tests. Material balances based on GC analyses and process flow rate data show a high degree of material accountability. The H/sub 2/S removal efficiency of the Selexol absorber was about 99% during the tests.

  14. Spinning filter separation system for oil spill clean-up operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrle, J.; Fischer, E.C.; Kenney, W.P.; Korczynski, J.F.; Gracik, T.D.

    1996-09-26

    According to current technology, effective clean up of oil spills from the surface of ocean water is performed by an oil sweeper vessel within which oil contaminated water is collected for transport to remotely located on-shore equipment within which oil separation and disposal is performed. The processing of large quantities of oil polluted ocean water is accordingly time consuming as well as costly. It is therefore an important object of the present invention to provide a less costly oil spill clean up system involving more rapid processing of large quantities of oil polluted ocean water. In accordance with the present invention, oil polluted ocean water is processed at an oil spill location by continuous separation during pressurized flow of the water through at least two separator devices within which successive reduction in oil concentration is effected with respect to a separated portion of the water by filtered flow through porous membrane walls to correspondingly increase the oil concentration within the other remaining portion of water being processed. The first portion of the processed water when sufficiently reduced in oil concentration is discharged for return to the oil spill location, while the remaining portion is collected until a sufficient level of oil concentration therein is achieved to permit disposal thereof by burning at the oil spill site.

  15. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  16. The Anaesthesia Gas Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Subhrajyoti; Bose, Payel

    2013-01-01

    The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply. PMID:24249882

  17. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dardenne, Yves M.

    2016-02-02

    Apparatus, systems, and methods for nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting include the steps of identifying an area; collecting samples; sample preparation; identification, assay, and analysis; and relating the samples to the area.

  18. Cleanup MAC and MBA code ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system had some minor code cleanup performed to its code. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  19. Development of Metal-impregnated Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Toxic Gas Contaminant Control in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisharody, Suresh A.; Fisher, John W.; Wignarajah, K.

    2002-01-01

    The success of physico-chemical waste processing and resource recovery technologies for life support application depends partly on the ability of gas clean-up systems to efficiently remove trace contaminants generated during the process with minimal use of expendables. Carbon nanotubes promise superior performance over conventional approaches to gas clean-up due to their ability to direct the selective uptake of gaseous species based on their controlled pore size, high surface area, ordered chemical structure that allows functionalization and their effectiveness also as catalyst support materials for toxic gas conversion. We present results and findings from a preliminary study on the effectiveness of metal impregnated single walled nanotubes as catalyst/catalyst support materials for toxic gas contaminate control. The study included the purification of single walled nanotubes, the catalyst impregnation of the purified nanotubes, the experimental characterization of the surface properties of purified single walled nanotubes and the characterization of physisorption and chemisorption of uptake molecules.

  20. Hot gas cleanup separating hard and brown coal fly ashes at temperatures up to 850 C with rigid ceramic barrier filters

    SciTech Connect

    Berbner, S.

    1995-12-31

    This investigation concerns the influence of high temperatures on the cleanability (cake detachment) of hot gas filter media and the time dependence of the residual pressure drop. The objective of this project is to define the conditions for operation and cleanability of the filter to assure a steady operation even under the difficult conditions of hot gas cleaning. A steady operation includes reliable cake removal and constant residual pressure drop during operation of the filter. This should lead to an improved design and construction of filters and pulse jet cleaning systems for hot gas filtration and an extended range of their applications. The application of cleanable filter media at high temperatures is important in the fields of waste gas cleaning and product recycling. It is the basis for the further development of advanced environmental technologies, e.g. in power plant technology to protect plant components (e.g. gas turbines) and for recycling of catalyst dusts or in waste incinerators and pyrolysis plants. In many industrial processes it is getting more and more important to separate expensive products, so called advanced materials, from a hot gas stream. Cake building surface filtration with hot gas barrier filters seems to be one of the most successful approaches.

  1. High performance solid-phase extraction cleanup method coupled with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Jin, Jing; Tan, Dongqin; Xu, Jiazhi; Dhanjai; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping

    2016-05-27

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup method was developed to purify the sample extracts for the analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). Monodisperse magnesium oxide (MgO) microspheres and basic alumina were used as SPE adsorbents. Important parameters of the SPE procedure were optimized, including the amount of basic alumina and the type and volume of the washing and elution solvents. The optimized SPE cleanup method exhibited excellent purification performance for the removal of organochlorinated compounds, lipid compounds, sulfur, and pigments. Additionally, it was found that the retention activities of congeners differed with the number and position of the chlorine substituents in PCNs. In this study, an analytical method based on a combination of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with SPE cleanup and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is proposed for the analysis of PCNs and dl-PCBs in complex samples (sediment, pine needle, and scallop samples). The analytical method demonstrates good linearity, acceptable recovery (63-148%) and precision (relative standard deviations less than 26%). The limits of detection (LODs) of PCN and dl-PCB congeners were in the range of 0.6-19.1pgg(-1) and 0.4-8.6pgg(-1), respectively. The PCNs and dl-PCBs levels in these samples ranged from 0.16 to 3.07ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and from undetectable to 0.07ngg(-1) dw, respectively. PMID:27130583

  2. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  3. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  4. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  5. Enabling cleanup technology transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-08-12

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites.

  6. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  7. Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is

  8. Gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  9. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1993-07-01

    Commercial and developmental alloys were evaluated in support of advanced steam cycle and combined cycle technology. Working with industrial groups, Grade 91 steel, which is a candidate for main steam line piping and superheater tubing in advanced steam cycle plants, was re-evaluated to examine metallurgical factors that influence long-time performance to 600{degree}C. Deformation models and aging effect models were developed. Testing of corrosion-resistant filler metals for tubing was extended to times approaching 30,000 h. Good strengths were observed. Modified Type 310 stainless steels were examined to 927{degree}C. It was found that these steels had up to twice the strength of standard Type 310H stainless steel. The behavior of aluminum-bearing, alloys and high chromium alloys was examined for potential applications to 870{degree}C. Thermal cycling of clad tubing was undertaken, and good performance was found.

  10. Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup system for direct coal fueled turbines (moving bed, fluid contactor/ceramic filter). Twenty-second quarterly status report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of direct coal-fired turbine power plants as part of their Heat Engines program. A major technical challenge remaining for the development of the direct coal-fired turbine is high-temperature combustion gas cleaning to meet environmental standards for sulfur oxides and particulate emissions, as well as to provide acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center, is evaluating two Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concepts that have been configured to meet this technical challenge: A baseline ceramic barrier filter ILEC concept, and a fluidized bed ILEC concept. These ILEC concepts simultaneously control sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in the high-pressure combustion gases at turbine inlet temperatures up to 2300{degrees}F. This document reports the status of a program in the nineteenth quarter to develop this ILEC technology for direct coal-fired turbine power plants.